Sustainable Building Design Guidebook

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					         SRE Sustainability Office




         Sustainable Building
         Design Guidebook


Siemens Real Estate
Impressum




Client         Siemens Real Estate
               Otto-Hahn-Ring 6

               81739 Munich

Contact        Rainer Kohns, Otto Reich




Consultant     Intep                             Intep
               Integrale Planung GmbH            Integrated Planning LLC
               Innere Wiener Str. 11             2225 Franklin Avenue East

               D-81667 München                   Minneapolis, MN 55404
               Germany                           USA

Authors        René Sigg, Ute Houzer, Thomas Rühle, Stephan Tanner, Joel Schurke




Date/Version   March, 2006 / 09-01




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Content
0     Introduction                                                                     0-1 F
0.1   Background                                                                       0-4
0.2   Elements of Sustainable Design                                                   0-6
0.3   Using the guidebook                                                              0-9
1     Site                                                                             1-1
1.1   Minimize Site Impacts                                                            1-2
1.2   Provide Ease of Access                                                           1-4
2     Building Envelope                                                                2-1
2.1   Create a simple Building Form                                                    2-2
2.2   Optimize Heat Protection                                                         2-4
2.3   Use an appropriate Facade                                                        2-6
3     Energy                                                                           3-1
3.1   Minimize the Energy Use                                                          3-2
3.2   Minimize Use of embodied Energy                                                  3-4
3.3   Use renewable Energy                                                             3-6
4     Room Comfort                                                                     4-1
4.1   Provide high Thermal Comfort                                                     4-2
4.2   Provide visual and acoustical Comfort                                            4-4
4.3   Provide high Indoor Air Quality                                                  4-6
5     HVAC Systems                                                                     5-1
5.1   Efficient Heating and Hot Water Systems                                          5-2
5.2   Efficient Ventilation Systems                                                    5-4
5.3   Efficient Cooling Systems                                                        5-6
6     Electrical Systems                                                               6-1
6.1   Efficient Systems for Power Generation                                           6-2
6.2   Efficient Lighting Systems                                                       6-4
7     Water                                                                            7-1
7.1   Minimize Water Use                                                               7-2
7.2   Effective Rainwater Management                                                   7-4
8     Healthy Environment-Building                                                     8-1
8.1   Use appropriate Building Materials – Shells and Structure                        8-2
8.2   Use appropriate Building Materials – Finishes                                    8-4
8.3   Use appropriate Building Materials – Landscaping                                 8-6
9     Commissioning and Operation                                                      9-1
9.1   Energy Management                                                                9-2
9.2   Waste Management and Building Cleaning                                           9-4
A     Appendices                                                                       A-1
A.1   References                                                                       A-2
A.2   Conversion factors to SI units                                                   A-4
A.3   Building Design Checklist                                                        A-5




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0          Introduction

            0.1 Background

            0.2 Elements of Sustainable Design

            0.3 Using the Guidebook




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                                                      0.1 Background
10.000 W
                                                      The Challenge we face: Sustainability
                                                      Sustainable design is an immense topic. This Sustainable Building Design Guide-
                                                      book gives an overview of its concepts and principles. According to The World
 6.000 W
                                                      Watch Institute worldwide building constructions and operations account for 40
                                                      percent of the world’s energy consumption (www.worldwatch.org). Developers,
 2.000 W                                              building owners, architects and engineers can help reduce or eliminate some of
      0W
                                                      the unintended environmental and societal problems if they can begin to shift
              Jahr 2000         Jahr 2050 ?
                                                      their approach to sustainable design. So-called sustainable design involves several
Figure 0-1:                                           changes in how a planning team thinks about design. The term sustainable design
A person needs 17.500 kilowatt-hours per
year on a global average. This corresponds
                                                      is chosen over sustainable architecture because design can be both a verb (con-
to a continuous requirement of 2.000 watts            noting a process) and a noun (connoting a result) and because design better con-
per year. In Western Europe the figure is two
and a half times higher, around 6.000 watts
                                                      veys the interdisciplinary involvement needed to meet sustainable goals (NARCB
per person per year. People in some Asian             2001).
and African countries only need fractions of
that on average. [BfE 2005]



                                                                        Business-wide focus
                                                                                                             ign
                                                                                                        ok es
                                                                                                      bo e d




                                                            strategic
                                                                                                    nd bl




                                                                                                                                         Long-term optimization of resource use;
                                                                                                 ha aina




                                                                                                               Sustainable               SRE and SIEMENS benefits
                                                                                                   st




                                                                                                              building design            in terms of image
                                                                                                 su
                                                                                             E
                                                                                            SR




                                                                                                      Resource benchmarking,                        Unified, consolidated reporting
                                                                                        k
                                                                                   ok ec




                                                                                                                                                    of all resource use in SRE
                                                                                                        Resource scorecard
                                                                                 bo ch
                                                                               nd rce
                                                                            ha sou
                                                                              re




                                                                                                                                                             € 20 million in ongoing
                                                                           E
                                                                         SR




                                                        operational                    Measures to reduce ongoing resource use                               cost reduction for
                                                                                                                                                             SIEMENS till the end 06/07




                                                      Figure 0-2:
                                                      Strategy, interdependent factors and effects of the project Natural Resources Management




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0.2 Elements of Sustainable Design
A variety of methods for Sustainable Design

In recent years, sustainability has gained increasing attention in the practice of ar-
chitecture. Yet, how can one say that a project is or is not sustainable? To measure
the sustainability of a design would require understanding the myriad impacts of a
project on the larger ecological, social and economic systems. Several methods for
guiding design processes and measuring sustainable design goals have been de-
veloped. Such models for sustainable design are beneficial, because they provide
means to evaluate and distinguish the performance of buildings with regard to
their environmental impacts.

 Method                                 Short Description
 LEED              USA                  The rating System “Leadership in Energy & Environmental De-
                                        sign” (LEED) was developed by the U.S. Green Building Council
                                        starting in 1998. The product is composed of six different rat-
                                        ing systems – each serving specific market sectors, such as
                                        new construction, commercial interiors or homes (USGBC
                                        2005).
 GBC               Canada               Green Building Challenge is a consortium of over twenty coun-
                                        tries that are developing and testing a new method of assess-
                                        ing the environmental performance of buildings (GBC 2005).
 HK-BEAM           China                The Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method
                                        (HK-BEAM) is a private sector initiative in Hong Kong to pro-
                                        mote buildings that are more sustainable, through enhanced
                                        design. (HK-BEAM 2004).
 BREEAM            United Kingdom       BRE's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) has been
                                        used to assess the environmental performance of both new
                                        and existing buildings. It is regarded as a key design tool by
                                        the UK's construction and property sectors (BREEAM 2005).
 Leitfaden         Germany              The “Leitfaden Nachhaltiges Bauen“ (sustainable building
 Nachhaltiges                           guidelines) serves primarily as a support system for architects
 Bauen                                  and engineers designing buildings in order to the Federal Re-
                                        public of Germany. Based on principles of sustainability this
                                        guideline describes objectives of sustainable design (BMVBW
                                        2003).
 SIA 112/1         Switzerland          The recommendation SIA 112/1 “Nachhaltiges Bauen im Ho-
                                        chbau” is published by the commission for sustainable design
                                        of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA). SIA
                                        112/1 contains criteria and declarations concerning economic,
                                        social and ecological aspects of sustainable buildings (SIA
                                        2005).

Table 0-1:
Several methods of guiding design processes and measuring sustainable goals




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                             Overall goals for sustainable Building Design
                             In a standard design, each team member typically focuses on a narrow area of re-
                             sponsibility and works toward goals that only encompass actions within his or her
                             discipline. While all the disciplines in conventional practice are coordinated with
                             each other and respond to the requirements of the other disciplines, there is little
                             emphasis on integrated problem-solving for larger integrated goals. For example,
                             envelope materials, lighting design and HVAC equipment must each meet certain
                             minimum requirements. But there are no requirements for total building energy
                             consumption in most countries, and seldom are these pieces designed as a whole
                             to optimize energy use.

                             An integrated, holistic approach is achieved by intelligent and creative designs that
                             respond to the following requirements:

                                   Achieve the highest quality building at the lowest lifecycle cost.
                                   Create a simple form.
                                   Design for adaptability and flexibility - current and future uses.
                                   Use resource efficient systems and components that are easy to maintain.
                                   Inspire the communities through buildings that teach sustainability.
                                   Create a healthy building to serve healthier people.
                                   Create a show-case for cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing Siemens-
                                   Technology.




                             Thinking in Life Cycles
                             For each stage of building lifecycle sustainable building design aims at reducing
                             the output of energy and resources, as well as minimizing impacts on ecosystems.

                             To reach this objective, the following factors have to be achieved in the overall de-
                             sign:

                                   Reduction of total energy demand.
                                   Prevention of transportation costs of building materials and constructions.
                                   Application of reusable or renewable building materials and products.
                                   Disposal of building elements in a manner that respects natural cycles.
                                   Extensive protection of natural areas and pursuit of surface-saving/ soil-saving
                                   building design.




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By considering sustainable goals at an early stage of the planning process, a build-
ing’s profitability (measured by investment costs, operating costs, costs affected
by environmental and health impacts, as well as nonmonetary values) can be
much improved. The designer has to be aware of investment and operating costs
when making design decisions. Operating expenses incurred during a few years of
operation can exceed investment costs depending on occupancy. Due to that, sus-
tainable building strives to design for lower operating costs e.g. by substituting ac-
tive HVAC systems for passive ones.

     costs in %



     600                                                              Hospital
                                                                      Indoor swimming pool
                                                                      Industrial building
                                                                      Office building
     500                                                              residential building



     400



     300



     200



     100



     0



                  0       10   20   30     40     50
                                                              years


Figure 0-3:
Operating costs versus building costs for various building uses




How to manage the Planning Process
Siemens Real Estate manages planning processes using two different tools, the
PM@SRE-Toolbox for Construction and the Building Configurator. PM@SRE gives an
overview of selected documents and processes allowing for methodical and struc-
tural project development. In contrast, the Building Configurator specifies building
design. It is most efficient, to implement sustainable goals from the beginning of
the planning procedure.
                                                                                                                  Figure 0-4:
                                                                                                                  PM@SRE Toolbox Construction specifies
                                                                                                                  the procedures and sequence of a project




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                                              Sustainable decisions can be made at early stages of the planning process such as
                                              program definition. In order to achieve optimal results for sustainable develop-
                                              ment questions relating to functionality, urban development, architecture, plan-
                                              ning laws and building laws must be investigated and answered during predesign
                                              phases and in advance of architectural competitions. In other words, sustainable
                                              planning processes require more emphasis on planning at the earliest stages of a
                                              building project.

                                              Sustainable design processes possess the following characteristics:
                                                  Integration of sustainable design experts into the building process.
 Figure 0-5:
 The Building Configurator specifies the          Well documented goals for the building process subsequent to the competi-
 building design                                  tion.
                                                  Application of simulation models as a means to support decision making in
                                                  the design process.
                                                  Close cooperation of the various stakeholders.



                                              influence and effort
                                                                                                influence on sustainable issues
                                                                                                traditional planning process
                                                                                                process sustainable design
                                                                                                                 execution
                                                    preliminary Study




                                                                                                                                       commissioning
                                                                        predesign




                                                                                                                                                       Operation
                                                                                    design




                                                                                                                             timeline
                                              Figure 0-6:
                                              Efforts made to achieve sustainable design in early planning phases yield the greatest return




                                              Figure 0-7:
                                              Serial processes of PM@SRE toolbox



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0.3 Using the Guidebook
The principal architect is competent in a myriad of areas: planning, aesthetics, con-
struction technology, programming, building regulation, etc. It is not easy to rec-
oncile the conflicting demands of budget, program, site and timescale, nor is it
easy to optimize the relation between context, spatial organization, functionality
of layout, soundness of construction, spatial and proportional quality, and inclu-
sive design. None of the elements can be done to perfection without compromis-
ing the others. Sustainable building design is one of many considerations. We rec-
ognize the reality of information overload and, therefore, concentrate not on an-
swering the “why”, but the “how” of sustainable building design.

This guidebook offers advice in the areas of site, building envelope, energy, room
comfort, HVAC systems, electrical systems, water, environmentally friendly build-
ing materials and commissioning. Containing various target values and recom-
mendations, the guidebook serves as a decision-guidance. Prior to beginning the
planning process consider what sustainable design goals are reasonable for the
project. The guidelines can be used likewise for new building design as well as re-
modelling.

The information is divided into nine independent parts each containing specific
subchapters. Every subchapter is organized into four sections: Issue, Strategies,
Elements and Benchmarks. The reader can review advice provided, as well as the
stated benchmarks at a given moment without being required to read the whole
section. Each subchapter indicates at which working phase the information has to
be considered. At the end of every chapter is a listing of best practices of Siemens
products and solutions.

The appendices contain a Building Design Checklist that serves as a support sys-
tem to realize and achieve the goals of sustainability in addition to a conversion
table for the units of measure. Using the Checklist serves to determine whether
sustainable design objectives are achieved due the recommendations of the guide-
line. Each objective is rated bad, average or good.




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1 Site
             1.1 Minimize Site Impacts
             1.2 Provide Ease of Access




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                                                  1.1           Minimize Site Impacts
                                                  Issue

            Preliminary Studies                   Decisions on how to use a site and determining whether if indeed it should be
            Predesign
                                                  built on at all, establishes the basis for all later decisions. The site provides the
                                                  context for the building, but the buildings in turn modifies the site. The local eco-
            Design                                system is altered, habitats changed and flows of energy, water, nutrients and pol-
            Execution                             lutants modified. Neighboring buildings are affected. Site review serves to con-
            Commissioning                         sider possible improvements to the overall site design to achieve the most effec-
                                                  tive integration within the natural environment. The goal is to minimize impacts to
            Operation
                                                  natural areas.


                                                  Strategies
                                                  Analyze sites for microclimate, land use, density, expandability, green space, wa-
                                                  ter, energy, waste and soil contamination considering the following factors:

                                                         Use passive solar strategies, including daylight.
                                                         Guarantee sufficient aeration for site and surrounding.
 W                 20 m                    E
                                                         Minimize impermeable surface areas and soil interferences (e.g. reduce park-
                                                         ing areas underground, minimize hard surfaces and maximize green space).
                                                         Use renewable energy systems (e.g. active solar systems).
 S                25 m                     N
                                                         Design subnatural green spaces.
                                                         Design the building selecting building technology and components appropri-
                                                         ate to the region.
                                                         Design high-rise parking areas instead of underground garages.

 S                25 m                    N       Elements
                                                  When designing a building an architect has to consider possible requirements con-
                                                  cerning urban climate conditions. Due to the building density within cityscapes
 S                25 m                      N     and urban areas, the urban climate is affected in a special way. Therefore it is an
                                                  important task to guarantee sufficient access to natural ventilation and fresh air
          Heat convection and radiation
          from facades                            supply to all spaces. Consequently an intelligent relationship between green space
                                                  plantings and buildings must be created.
                                                  Furthermore the design must ensure that every floor of the building will receive
           steps on building                      sufficient daylight.
           structure



           Building structure with
           arcade


Figure 1-1:
Influence of building structure on wind
and heat radiation and convection
[LHM 1995]



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  Site density and shading                                        Building zones without daylight




  Building zones with passive solar use                           Parking area underground




  Green areas remaining compared with hard sur-
                                                                                                                                         Overheating by:
  faces due to construction                                                                                                              - high site coverage index
                                                                                                                                         - low green spaces

Figure 1-2:
Simulations of building complex: Simulations illustrate the context of building density, shading, sunshine and                                                                                                  40
daylight availability and impacts to the ground at early design phases.
                                                                                                                                                                                                               35


                                                                                                                                                                                                               30


Benchmark                                                                                                                                                                                                      25
                                                                                                                                                                                                         0,8
                                                                                                                                                                                                   0,7
                                                                                                                                                                                             0,6
 Construction                          Any construction, inclusive of impermeable surfaces             ≤ 60 %                                                             0,4
                                                                                                                                                                                   0,5

                                                                                                                                                                 0,3
                                       and subterranean constructions                                                                                     0,2          Site coverage index
                                                                                                                                                    0,1
                                                                                                                                Plot ratio

 Green spaces                          Any permeable area providing potential for landscap-            > 30 %
                                       ing, devoid of permeable surfaces

 Infiltration surfaces                 Any permeable surface                                           > 40 %

Table 1-1:
Recommended surface ratios for the site


GJ

5.000
4.000

3.000
2.000                                                                                                                               Minimize overheating by:
1.000                                                                                                                               - low site coverage index
                                                                                                                                    - maximum greenspaces
     0                                                                                                                              - trees and shrubs
         0 m³              10.000 m³           20.000 m³             30.000 m³             40.000 m³          50.000 m³             - green roofs
                                                                                                       excavation volume
Table 1-2:                                                                                                                     Figure 1-3:
Embodied energy in GJ for excavation and terrain design                                                                        Ambient temperature depending on site cover-
                                                                                                                               age index and building density [LHM 1998]




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                                          1.2 Provide Ease of Access
                                          Issue
                                          Land use, density and urban transportation systems are closely interdependent.
           Preliminary Studies
                                          Cheap road and rail transport and specialized land-use zoning have encouraged
           Predesign                      dispersed development patterns. This pattern causes increased commuting while
           Design                         making public transportation systems uneconomical. Automobiles are the most
                                          wasteful use of energy and the greatest source of air pollution emissions today.
           Execution
                                          Sustainable design must seek to achieve measures to reduce and restrict auto-
           Commissioning                  mobile use.
           Operation
                                          Strategies
                                                 Create cyclist and pedestrians routs that are continuous, reasonably direct
                                                 and free from heavy traffic, noise or pollution.
                                                 Build on sites served by existing public transit, sidewalks and bikeways.
                                                 Consider the availability of shuttle-bus systems.
                                                 Integrate parking areas into the overall landscape.
                                                 Plan footpaths by taking advantage of landmarks, views and existing vegeta-
                                                 tion.
                                                 Ensure security on the footpaths (surface coating, illumination, intervisibi-
                                                 lity).
                                                 Provide secure and sufficient bicycle storage close to building entrances.
                                                 Provide changing and/or shower facilities in the building close to entrances.
                                                 Optimize way finding to the building entrances.
                                                 Provide access for people of all ages and abilities (e.g. facilities for disabled
                                                 persons).
                                                 Consider the introduction of car-sharing and car-pooling.
                                                 Consider option to telecommute.
                                                 Provide appropriate design for underground parking areas:
                                                 - Separate entrance from exit
                                                 - Guarantee efficient illumination
                                                 - Ensure easy way finding
Figure 1-4:
Example for footpaths                            - Design attractive entrances and exits




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Elements
To realize these strategies consider how to provide easy access to existing foot-
paths and public modes of transit, as well as aspects of regional and local trans-
portation planning. Consider also the orientation of the building to streets, site lo-
cation and the location of entryways.
                                  m
                                 0
                               60




                                                                       300 m
                                                                                                                            Figure 1-7:
                     Subway                                                  Bus                                            Example for bicycle racks near the build-
                                                                                                                            ing entrance




         Walking distance                                      Subway stop


         Corresponding area                                    Bus station



Figure 1-5:
Optimal walking distance to stations of public transport [LHM 1995]



Benchmark


 time in min

  45
                 pedestrian                                          bicycle   car
  40
                                         bus
  35

  30
                                                              10 km faster by under-
                             underground
  25                                                          ground or lightrail

  20
                                           4.500 m faster by bycicle
  15

  10

   5            450 m faster to walk


   0      1     2        3    4      5         6   7      8     9     10 11 12
                                                                      distance in km
Figure 1-6:
Travel times from door to door for different modes of transport in urban areas [UCD 1999]




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                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                             Figure 1-8:
                             Entrance design including bicycle racks (at left side) and access on ground level, Siemensforum, Wittels-
                             bacherplatz, Munich, Germany.




                             Figure 1-9:
                             Multi storey parking lot above ground level, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany


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2              Building Envelope

                2.1 Create a simple Building Form

                2.2 Optimize Heat Protection

                2.3 Use an appropriate Facade




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                                                  2.1 Create a Simple Building Form
                                                  Issue
                                                  Building plan and form emerge as a result of complex process. Functional, techni-
                 Preliminary Studies
                                                  cal and aesthetic considerations all contribute to this synthesis. Wind, solar avail-
                 Predesign                        ability and orientation, shelter and exposure, air and noise conditions, all contrib-
                 Design                           ute to inform the relationship between a building and its environment. Each af-
                                                  fects the form and the design of the envelope. Simply making the building the
                 Execution
                                                  right shape and placing it in the correct orientation can reduce energy consump-
                 Commissioning                    tion by 30 – 40% without extra cost.
                 Operation
                                                  Strategies
                                                  For northern latitudes where heating is the dominant requirement, use the follow-
                                                  ing strategies:
                                                       Optimize the ratio of surface to volume to reduce heat losses by transmission.
                                                       Maximize solar heat gains.
                                                       Design an intelligent building orientation to minimize impacts of prevailing
                                                       wind.
                                                       Provide simple multi-story design:
                                                       -    To optimize building structure systems.
          100%
                                        142%
                                                       -    To reduce impacts on site and conserve site.
                                                       -    To offer flexibility for site placement.
                                        200%
                                                       Design an efficient building structure:
                                                       -    By zoning and stacking of space uses with similar building technology
 Figure 2-1:
 Various rations of surface to volume (S/V-
                                                            requirements (HVAC, plumbing, etc.).
 ratio) [LHM 1998]                                     -    By grouping of space uses according to performance needs (e. g. day-
                                                            light, indoor air climate, etc.).
 Generally, it can be supposed that the
 smaller the S/V ratio, the lower the costs.
                                                  For southern latitudes where cooling is the dominant requirement, use the follow-
                                                  ing strategies:
                                                       Orient building to avoid unwanted heat gains in office buildings using a nor-
                                                       th-south orientation for the building.
                                                       Provide simple multi-story design:
                                                       -    To optimize building structure systems.
                                                       -    To reduce impacts on site and converse site.
                                                       -    To offer flexibility for site placement.
                                                       Design an efficient building structure:
                                                       -    By zoning and stacking of space uses with similar cooling requirements.
 Figure 2-2:
 Various footprints [Voss 2005]                        -    By grouping of space uses according to performance needs (e. g. day-
                                                            light, indoor air climate, etc.).
 The perimeter of a building can vary sig-
 nificantly despite having the same foot-
 print – as is illustrated in the chart above:
 due to complexity of the footprint shown
 at left the perimeter of the building is in-
 creased by 40%; in contrast the perimeter
 of the footprint shown at right is in-
 creased by only 10%.




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Elements
There are various ways to design courtyards so that they can effectively be inte-
grated in office buildings. Principally, atria are used for entrance zones, circulation
space and airways. Beyond, they can be integral to ventilation and climate condi-
tioning concepts.




                                                                                                                         Figure 2-4:
 Inner courtyard:            Courtyard opened on            Courtyard opened on        Courtyard opened on               Example for a courtyard, Siemens, Erlangen,
 Daylighting: undesir-       one side:                      two sides:                 three sides:                      Germany
 able at the first floor     Daylighting: desirable         Daylighting: undesir-      Daylighting: desirable
 Ventilation: undesir-       Ventilation: desirable         able at the first floor    Ventilation: desirable            Courtyards are beneficial, especially to daylight
 able                        In Summer: effective           and in the middle of the   In Summer: Thermal                inlying spaces, such as entrance zones, circula-
 In Summer: danger of        sunscreen has to be de-        building                   concerns has to be de-            tion spaces and airways.
 overheating                 signed                         Ventilation: cross ven-    signed exactly
 Specials: accessibility     Specials: noise protec-        tilation possible
                             tion                           In Summer: Thermal
                                                            concern has to be de-
                                                            signed
Figure 2-3:
Various ways to designing a courtyard [Hausladen 2005]

A building elongated in the direction of its east-west axis exposes its longer south
facing sides to maximum heat gains in the winter months, and the shorter east
and west facing sides to maximum heat gain in summer. At European latitudes the
south facade of a building receives at least three times the solar radiation in winter
as the east and west. In summer the situation is reversed. In both summer and
winter, the north side receives very little radiation. Consequently a building elon-
gated along the east-west axis is held to be the most efficient shape in all climates                                                   west - east                            north - south



for minimizing heating requirements in winter and cooling in summer, but the ex-
                                                                                                                         Figure 2-5:
tent of elongation depends on the climate.                                                                               Influence of building orientation to solar avail-
                                                                                                                         ability [Hausladen 2005]


Benchmark

 Building size                           S/V
                                                                                                                               1,8 W/ m² transmission heat loss HT
                                                                                                                         1,8
 < 500 m²                                ≤ 0,60                                                                          1,6                                not residential building with a glasarea
                                                                                                                                                            portion < 30 % and residential building
                                                                                                                         1,4
 500 – 1.000 m²                          ≤ 0,40                                                                          1,2
                                                                                                                                                            not residential builiding with a glasarea
                                                                                                                                                            portion > 30 %
                                                                                                                           1
 1.000 – 5.000 m²                        ≤ 0,30                                                                          0,8
                                                                                                                         0,6
 5.000 – 10.000 m²                       ≤ 0,25                                                                          0,4
                                                                                                                         0,2
                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                      0,2    0,3      0,4   0,5    0,6   0,7    0,8    0,9     1   > 1,05

Table 2-1:                                                                                                                                                                             shape factor [m-1]
Recommendation for the S/V-ratio in regard to the building size

                                                                                                                         Figure 2-6:
V-ratio represents the relationship between the building envelope surface (S) and                                        Maximum permissible heat losses for an office
the building volume (V). The smaller the surface of the building envelope, the                                           building depend on the building form (S/V-
                                                                                                                         ratio). Valid for climate zone middle Europe
lower the amount of embodied energy due to less material use and the lower                                               [Voss 2005]
amount of energy used while operating the building.


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          Introduction                         Site              Building Envelope              Energy                 Room Comfort

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                                                2.2 Optimize Heat Protection
             Preliminary Studies                Issue

             Predesign                          The performance of the building envelope is based on the relationship between
                                                the building and its external environment; determining factors are wind, solar
             Design
                                                availability, direction, shelter of excessive exposure, air quality, and noise condi-
             Execution                          tions. Sustainable design strives to optimize energy performance and guarantee a
             Commissioning                      high level of comfort. Summer heat gains and winter heat losses must be avoided
             Operation
                                                by an effective means of protection.


                                                Strategies
                                                For northern latitudes where winter heat protection is the dominant requirement,
                                                use the following strategies:
                                                     Design an airtight building envelope.
                                                     Maximize the insulation of the opaque envelope elements.
                                                     Minimize glass in the facade and minimize u-value of windows and glass ele-
                                                     ments.
                                                     Optimize the distribution of thermal mass within the building’s envelope in
                                                     order to modulate heat gains.
                                                     Select an appropriate envelope color.
                                                     Provide appropriate landscape plantings in order to shade during summer
                                                     and slower wind velocity during winter (deciduous trees).

                                                For southern latitudes where summer heat protection is the dominant require-
                                                ment, use the following strategies:
 Figure 2-7:                                         Design an airtight building envelope.
 In summer provide shade to the building
 facade
                                                     Reduce heat gains by installing external sunscreens.
                                                     Reduce glass in the facade.
                                                     Design landscaped roofs.

                                                Elements
                                                Trees and shrubs influence indoor temperatures and can lower summer tempera-
                                                tures by shading and evapotranspiration. In winter months trees and shrubs lower
                                                heating demands by slowing wind velocity. Trees with tall trunks and high cano-
                                                pies provide shade from the sun allowing cooler air to circulate near ground level.

                                                Furthermore, attention should be given to the albedo factor or reflectance rating
                                                of roof materials. In general it is recommended to use materials with the highest
                                                possible albedo factor to reduce infrared radiation.
 Figure 2-8:
 In winter trees without leafs allow a maxi-
 mum solar gain and slow the wind veloc-
 ity.




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The influence of various shading devices on room temperatures in summer can be
seen in the chart below: the best results are achieved through installations located
outside the building. The performance of fixed shading devices depends on the re-
lationship between the window size and the depths of the overhang. A perma-
nent, weather-independent sunscreen is composed of fixed overhangs and sys-
tems located inside. Sunscreens located outside reduce the impact of infrared ra-
diation. In contrast, interior window treatments may serve to control glare and
light levels but do not keep infrared radiation from entering the building contribut-
ing to uncomfortable indoor temperatures if installed alone.
                                                                                                                                    Figure 2-10:
                                                                                                                                    Sunscreen located outside: louvered shad-
                                                                                                                                    ing device, Siemens, Braunschweig, Ger-
                                                                                                                                    many




sunshading on the outside     sunshading on the inside             fixed sunshading on the
                                                                   outside
                                                                   d = 0,5 x window hight
                                                                   + inner sunshading




      temperature
      °C
                            sun sc reen located i nsi de
           30               s unscreen located out sid e

                            sys tem comb in at ion
                                                                                                                                    Figure 2-11:
                                                                                                                                    Sun protection by facade-planting, Sie-
           28
                                                                                                                                    mens, Erlangen, Germany



           26




           24




           22
                                           30th July                      31st July                01st August


Figure 2-09:
Room temperatures during operation at three different days with high ambient temperatures dependent on                              Figure 2-12:
the sunscreen [Hausladen 2005]                                                                                                      Sunscreen located inside: upright fins/ ribs,
                                                                                                                                    Siemens, Munich

Benchmark
                                                                                                                                     Glazed area                      < 55 %
                                                U-Value                             U-Value              ,
 Elements                                        today                           in the future
                                                [W/m²K]                            [W/m²K]                                           Daylight transmission
                                                                                                                                                                       > 0,5
 Glass                                              -                                < 0,70                                          level
 Frame                                              -                                < 1,70
 Windows                                          1,7                                < 0,90                                          g-value glass                     < 0,7
 Roof                                              0,3                               < 0,2
 Walls                                            0,45                               < 0,2                                           g-value glass/ sun-
                                                                                                                                                                      < 0,15
                                                                                                                                     screens
Table 2-2:
U-values [W/m²K] recommended today compared to U-values recommended in the future                                                   Table 2-3:
                                                                                                                                    Recommended glazed area, daylight trans-
                                                                                                                                    mission level and g-values
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                                                   2.3 Use an Appropriate Facade
           Preliminary Studies                     Issue
           Predesign                               The facade has a decisive impact on the building quality. The selection of fa-
           Design
                                                   cade materials poses a challenge when reconciling economic considerations in
                                                   combination with aesthetics and comfort.
           Execution

           Commissioning                           Strategies
           Operation                                     Space efficiency and flexibility:
                                                         -     Design room depth and room adjacencies to allow for flexible use
                                                               and furnishing.
                                                         Simple structure:
                                                         -     Provide a simple structural concept with span lengths appropriate for
                                                               the material involved.
                                                         -     Avoid vertical structural supports within room areas (results in space
                                                               loss, limits flexibility in furnishing and cleaning).
                                                         User comfort:
                                                         -     Provide high thermal comfort.
                                                         -     Guarantee simple controls for windows, shading devices and lighting
                                                               appliances.
                                                         Energy:
                                                         -     Use sunlight.
                                                         -     Verify installation of efficient thermal insulation of the building enve-
                                                               lope.
                                                         -     Observe or exceed energy standards.
                                                         Ecology:
                                                         -     Strive to minimize energy uses and emissions of toxic.
                                                         -     Design for durability and recyclability.
Figure 2-13:                                             Building services:
Example for a facade with typical punched                -     Attach heating surfaces to window areas and external walls.
window openings, Siemens
                                                         -     Design for effective interaction of sunscreens, artificial lighting and
                                                               daylight.
                                                         Security:
                                                         -     Use appropriate systems for security and fire prevention.
                                                         -     Use appropriate guardrails.
                                                         Facility Management:
                                                         -     Guarantee accessibility to cladding and glass facades for cleaning, as
                                                               well as access to shading devices for repair and maintenance work.
                                                         -     Provide window elements adjustable from inside or fixed.




Figure 2-14:
Example for a facade with a band of win-
dows, Siemens




                                            SRE Sustainable Building design Guidebook                                              V09-01
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Elements
The selection of an appropriate facade depends on site conditions and building
use, in addition to any unique requirements for creating specific indoor climate
conditions. The use of natural ventilation using operable windows should be con-
sidered keeping in mind concerns about ambient noise. The amount of glazed
area and the level of transparency play a decisive role in determining the perform-                                 1 Punched window 5 Box type window
                                                                                                                      openings
ance qualities of the facade.
In addition overheating of the facade interspaces of double wall facade systems
has must be avoided. Other factors that must be considered when selecting ap-
propriate facade materials include: possible odor and noise transmissions via the
interspaces of the facade, the space required for construction of the facade,
sources for supply air and maintenance and cleaning requirements. Finally, the
amount of the embodied energy within the materials should be considered.


Benchmark

    Facade-        Effects of acous-
                                                                                                                     2 Element-facade      6 Double Wall Facade
                                                                                                                                             incorporating
                                       Overheating                                                                                            circulation area
   Systems          tical insulation                        Required   Cleaning     Technical
                                       of the facade                                               Costs
  (see figure         with natural                           space      effort        effort
                                        interspaces
     2-15)             ventilation
       1                    low              ---              low         low          low          low
       2                    low              ---            very low    average        low          low
       3                  average            low              low       average      average     average
       4                    high            high            average     average        high      average
       5                    high            high            average       high         high        high
       6                  very high      very high           high      very high    very high      high
       7                  very high      very high           high      very high    very high      high
       8                  variable           low             high      very high    very high    very high
                                                                                                                     3 Protective layer    7 Double Wall Facade
                                                                                                                                             (continuous)
Table 2-4:
Various facade systems in comparison [Hausladen 2005]




                                                                                                                     4 Facade with an 8 Controllable Facade
                                                                                                                       enclosed protec- Double Wall
                                                                                                                        tive layer




                                                                                                                    Figure 2-15:
                                                                                                                    Various facade systems [Hausladen 2005]
                                                                                                               1
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                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                             Figure 2-16:
                             Sunscreen located outside: adjustable louvered shading devices, Siemens, Braunschweig, Germany




                             Figure 2-17:
                             Facade with a band of windows and exterior sunscreens, Siemens, Budapest, Hungary




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    3 Energy
                3.1     Minimize Energy Use

                3.2     Minimize the Use of embodied Energy

                3.3     Use renewable Energy




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                                                          3.1           Minimize Energy Use
                                                          Issue
               Preliminary Studies
                                                          Sustainable design seeks to reduce both embodied and operating energy. The
               Predesign                                  amount of energy a building consumes is an indicator of efficient design. In most
               Design                                     building design processes the optimization of the energy performance saves
                                                          money by reducing the size of equipment and by minimizing operating costs.
               Execution
                                                          Factors such as siting, orientation, window selection, material selection and the
               Commissioning                              efficiency and control of the mechanical and technical equipment all contribute to
               Operation                                  reducing the amount of energy used to heat, cool, ventilate and light a building.


                                                          Strategies
                                                                 Reduce energy use:
                                                                 -    By ooptimizing construction technique:
                                                                      •     Design a climate responsive facade.
                                                                      •     Optimize daylighting.
 300 kWh/m² final- and primary energy
                                                                      •     Use natural ventilation.
                                   Lighting
 300
                                   Cooling
                                                                      •     Provide appropriate glazing and shading devices.
 250                               Ventilation                        •     Use thermal mass.
                                   Heating                       -    By using efficient mechanical and electrical equipment:
 200
                                                                      •     Incorporate energy responsive systems, including motion and
 150                                                                        occupancy sensing systems or daylight sensing systems.
 100                                                                  •     Select energy-efficient appliances (e.g. lamps, HVAC-systems, office
                                                                            equipment, elevators).
 50
                                                                      •     Design shorter and straighter duct runs.
 0
                                                                      •     Centrally locate equipment, such as printers.
            Standard           Energy-efficient
                                                                 -    By integrating energy-efficient technical concepts.
 Figure 3-1:                                                     Use heat recovery systems.
 Energy requirements of conventional                             Use sources of renewable energy.
 office buildings compared to the energy
 requirements of highly energy-efficient                         Use task lighting.
 office buildings [Voss 2005]                                    Reduce secondary energy output by selecting energy-efficient primary energy
                                                                 sources/ factors:
 Energy efficient design reduces the
 amount of energy used by consumers                              -    Electrical power.
 (final energy), as well as reduces the                          -    Fossil fuels.
 amount of energy used in transportation                         -    Biomass energy.
 and lost in transmission (secondary
 energy). The total primary energy                               Calculate the future energy demand in predesign to quantify possible energy
 requirements of a building can be                               saving strategies.
 optimized through energy efficient
 design.




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Elements
While design of conventional office buildings results in continuous demand for                                          100 % final energy, qualtitative

either heating or cooling, sustainable design strives to shorten heating and
                                                                                                                        80
cooling requirements by integrating natural ventilation, daylighting availability to                                                                heating
                                                                                                                                                    humidifying
                                                                                                                                                                     cooling
                                                                                                                                                                     dehumydiyfing
                                                                                                                        60
all occupied areas, passive cooling, thermal mass, improved insulation and energy-                                      40

efficient office equipment.                                                                                             20
                                                                                                                                       energy consumption independent of climate

                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                 -5     0       5         10      15      20       25   30
                                                                                                                                                       avarage outside temperature [°C]

Benchmark
                                                                                                                        Figure 3-2:
                                                              S/V-ratio                Limit value [kWh/m²]             Qualitative energy output of a
    EnEV (Germany)                                             ≤ 0,2                            40                      conventional office building with
                                                                                                                        moderate insulation and active cooling
                                                                   0,4                          52                      [Voss 2005]
    MINERGIE (Switzerland)                                          -                           40
    Passiv building standard (Germany)                              -                           15

Table 3-1:
Recommended values for annual heating demand                                                                            100 % final energy, qualtitative

                                                                                                                         80
                                                                                                                                                 heating          passiv cooling
                                                                                                                         60

                                                      Limit value [kWh/m²]             Target value [kWh/m²]             40

    Office building 1: single offices and                                                                                20

    open plan offices with low demand                         30                                15                            energy consumption independent of climate
                                                                                                                          0
    on ventilation and cooling                                                                                                    -5     0      5         10      15      20       25   30
                                                                                                                                                       avarage outside temperature [°C]
    Office building 2: open plan offices
    with high demand on ventilation and                       50                                25                      Figure 3-3:
    cooling                                                                                                             Qualitative energy output of a sustainable
    Office building 3: included IT-centre                     88                                61                      design building using daylighting,
                                                                                                                        improved heat protection, passive cooling
Table 3-2:                                                                                                              and energy-efficient equipment
Recommended values for electricity demand according to SIA 380/4                                                        [Voss 2005]



                                                      Limit value [kWh/m²]             Target value [kWh/m²]
    Passive building standard                                  -                               120

Table 3-3:
Recommended values for primary energy demand




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                                       3.2               Minimize the Use of Embodied
                                                         Energy
         Preliminary Studies           Issue
         Predesign                     Construction and operation of buildings consumes 40% of the world energy
         Design                        supply. Designing building to be energy-efficient is an imperative of sustainable
                                       design and must consider both embodied and operating energy consumption.
         Execution

         Commissioning

         Operation
                                       Strategies
                                              Design a compact building form.
                                              Minimize the amount of materials required for construction to reduce total
                                              embodied energy.
                                              Optimize the amount of glazed areas as glass has an extremely high amount
                                              of embodied energy (compare the chart below).
                                              Choose windows with minimal embodied energy (e.g. windows with wooden
                                              frames instead of windows with metallic frames).
                                              Select materials requiring minimal embodied energy (incl. transportation):
                                              -    Materials from local/regional sources.
                                              -    Materials requiring less energy for their manufacture and use.
                                              Select materials made using renewable energy.
                                              Select durable, maintenance-free materials.
                                              Design weather protection for external facades.
                                              Detail building assemblies with minimal energy requirements.
                                              Design to allow use of energy-efficient electrical and mechanical systems.
                                              Select materials with high levels of recycled content.


                                       Elements
                                       Significant amounts of energy can be saved through the installation of energy-
                                       efficient systems and through optimized material selection. The amount of
                                       embodied energy consumed over the lifetime of each material – from extraction
                                       over manufacture and transportation to disposal should be considered.

                                                                                                    Embodied energy          GWP
                                         Material
                                                                                                       [MJ/m2]            [kg CO2 eq]
                                         Limestone Plates                                                   16                1,0
                                         Tiles, glazed                                                      162               5,3
                                         Parquet (timber floor board)                                       84               - 44,0
                                         Linoleum                                                           24                - 0,4
                                         Carpet, synthetic                                                  225               7,3

                                       Table 3-4:
                                       Energy use and GWP (global warming potential) of various flooring materials



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Benchmark

GJ / m²


    3,80
    3,60
    3,40                               solid structure with window surface > 65 %
 3,20
 3,00
 2,80
 2,60
 2,40                                                            solid structure
 2,20
 2,00                                                                            different method of constructions
 1,80                                                                                lightweight construction made of wood
 1,60
 1,40
           0 m²                  4.000 m²             8.000 m²               12.000 m²              16.000 m²        20.000 m²

                                                                                                                        floor space

Figure 3-4:
Embodied energy for various types of construction [SIA SNARC 2004]


Material selection, construction method, building form and the building volume
must all be considered when designing low energy use buildings. It can be
assumed that compact building designs with optimal volume and airtight
envelopes use the least energy. In addition, the performance qualities of the
glass and the amount of glass used directly affect embodied and operating
energy consumption.
                                                 Glazing               Opaque
    Glazing                                                                                 Roofs               Total
                                                 surface               fraction
                        S/V-Ratio                0,38 (41%)            0,33 (36%)           0,21 (23%)          0,92 (100%)
                        Embodied
    Frame
                        energy [MJ/m²]           3.200                 1.000                1.800
    elements
                        Embodied
                        energy/V [MJ/m²]         1.220                 330                  380                 1.930
                        S/V-Ratio                0,27(46%)             0,20 (34%)           0,12 (20%)          0,59 (100%)
    Glass               Embodied
    Curtain             energy [MJ/m²]           4.000                 1.000                1.800
    wall                Embodied
                        energy/V [MJ/m²]         1.080                 200                  220                 1.500                 The amount of embodied energy of various
                        S/V-Ratio                0,17 (16%)            0,59 (55%)           0,31 (29%)          1,07 (100%)           types of building facades varies from 1.000
    Metal Clad                                                                                                                        to 2.000 MJ/m² - depending on the S/V-ratio
                        Embodied
    (wood)                                                                                                                            and the percentage of window surface. The
                        energy [MJ/m²]           1.300                 1.000                1.800
    Window                                                                                                                            energy requirements of the opaque portion
                        Embodied
    (1)                                                                                                                               of the envelope and roof area range from
                        energy/V [MJ/m²]         220                   590                  560                 1.370
                                                                                                                                      1.000 MJ/m² and 1.800 MJ/m² (accordingly
                        S/V-Ratio                0,25 (31%)            0,34 (43%)           0,21 (26%)          0,80 (100%)           between 200 and 590 MJ/m² and between
    Metal Clad
                        Embodied                                                                                                      220 and 560 MJ/m² - depending on the
    (wood)
                        energy [MJ/m²]           1.300                 1.000                1.800                                     building volume). Window surfaces
    Window
                        Embodied                                                                                                      contribute 40% to 60% of total energy loss
    (2)
                        energy/V [MJ/m²]         330                   340                  380                 1.050                 of a building envelope.

Table 3-5:
Energy use of various glazing by percentage of window surface and S/V-ratio




V09-01                                                                   Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                                3-5
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                                      3.3           Use Renewable Energy
                                      Issue
        Preliminary Studies
                                      Conventional sources of energy have well-documented, adverse environmental,
        Predesign                     economic and social consequences including production of greenhouse gasses
        Design                        and the depletion of non-renewable resources. Sustainable design seeks to lower
        Execution
                                      total energy consumption while also striving to use renewable sources of energy.

        Commissioning

        Operation                     Strategies
                                             Use sources of waste heat:
                                             -    Heat recovery systems in ventilation and air-conditioning systems.
                                             -    Recapture waste heat, e.g. from exhaust air and wastewater.
                                             Use geothermal systems using thermal sources or groundwater in
                                             combination with heat pumps for heating and/or cooling:
                                             -    Vertical ground loop.
                                             -    Energy piling.
                                             -    Horizontal ground loop.
                                             -    Ground-air heat exchanger.
                                             Consider using wood-fired systems:
                                             -    Low emission wood-chip furnaces for local district heating.
                                             Consider using biomass:
                                             -    Biomass heating.
                                             Consider using solar systems (dependent on the availability of solar
                                             radiation):
                                             -    Hydraulic solar systems for basic hot water requirements:
                                                  •    Locate solar collectors with optimal positioning for hot water
                                                       production. South-oriented (vice versa southern hemisphere) with
                                                       an inclination between 30° and 45°.
                                             -    Photovoltaic modules and cells located on roofs and south facing
                                                  facades (vice versa southern hemisphere) for electricity production, as
                                                  well as for cooling.

                                      Elements
                                      Unlike solar systems that require solar radiation geothermal systems make use of
                                      geothermal heat to heat and/or cool buildings.

                                      Energy piping:
                                      The installation of piping used to extract geothermal energy depends on soil
                                      conditions, surrounding property, soil strength and ground water level. In contrast
                                      to conventional vertical ground loops, it is relatively economical to locate vertical
                                      ground loops within pile footings and foundations, but is limited to warmer
                                      climates, as it must be guaranteed that the foundation will not freeze.



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Vertical ground loops:
Vertical ground loops directly installed in the ground provide the opportunity for a
combined heating and cooling system. The cooling loads can be met by closed
circuit while the heating loads can be supported through the use of heat pumps.
Systems can be installed using either thermal heat or groundwater. The use of
groundwater depends on the position of the ground water level and local
regulations. Installation of systems using groundwater can be complex and
expensive.
                                                                                                           Figure 3-6:
                                                                                                           Example for the installation of horizontal
Ground-air heat exchanger:                                                                                 ground loops
Ground-air heat exchangers provide air that is tempered by the relatively constant
temperature of the ground below grade. Supply air is pre-heated in winter and
pre-cooled in summer. Systems can be designed in combination with natural
ventilation since temperatures of supply air from ground-air heat exchanger
generally fall below room temperatures.


Benchmark                                                                                                  .




                                                                                                               Energy
                                                                                                               piling




Figure 3-5:                                                                                                                              Vertical
Temperature distribution 2000 m below sea level and offer of solar radiation Germany                                                     ground
                                                                                                                                         loop

The choice of which type of renewable source to use is site specific and the local
conditions must be analyzed. The maps of southern Germany shown above
illustrate that this location is viable for designs using solar heat and geothermal
sources.



                                                                                                           Figure 3-7:
                                                                                                           Energy piling and Vertical ground loop
                                                                                                           used the temperature of the ground
                                                                                                           [Zimmermann 1999]




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      Introduction          Site                    Building Envelope                  Energy                 Room Comfort

                                                                                                            Commissioning and
      HVAC Systems   Electrical Systems                  Water               Healthy Environment-Building      Operation




                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                             Figure 3-8:
                             Photovoltaic system fixed on the cladding, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany.




3-8                          Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                      V09-01
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4 Room Comfort
                4.1 Provide high thermal Comfort
                4.2 Provide visual and acoustical Comfort
                4.3 Provide high Indoor Air Quality




V09-01                                       SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                       4-1
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                                                                                                                                                       Commissioning and
                HVAC Systems                                          Electrical Systems              Water            Healthy Environment--Building      Operation




                                                                              4.1 Provide high thermal Comfort
                     Preliminary Studies                                      Issue

                     Predesign                                                The thermal comfort of occupants is dependent on air temperature, wall temperature,
                     Design
                                                                              air velocity and relative humidity. Each of these factors contributes significantly to
                                                                              determining the overall level of comfort attained. In addition, the activities and clothes
                     Execution                                                of the occupants must be considered. Since thermal comfort affects the productivity of
                     Commissioning                                            people a level of climate control acceptable to building users must be achieved.
                     Operation
                                                                              Strategies
                                                                              The goal is to guarantee the temperature limit of 26°C for 90 %. This must be proved for
                                                                              the different versions with simulations.
                                                                                   Simulate air flows and room temperatures to support development of the design
                                                                                   concept.
                                                                                   Provide appropriate heat protection for the building envelope:
                                                                                   -     Use glazing and facades with low U-values.
                Design                                                             -     Reduce the amount of glazed areas.
                                                                                   Use effective sunscreens (see/ compare visual comfort):
                                                                                   -     Install exterior sunscreens.
                                                                                   -     Automate sunscreens to retract wind speeds of 45 km/h.
                Simulation
                                                                                   -     Install sensors to control solar gain.
                                                                                   -     Ensure systems operates in coordination with daylighting zones.
                                                                                   Use Efficient HVAC systems:
                Decision                                                           -     Design responsive systems for effective distribution of heat.
                                                                                   -     Provide for zone control of temperatures including user control.
                                                                                   -     Consider separated heating systems that respond to varying levels of solar
                                                                                         input.
 Figure 4-1:                                                                       -     Provide perimeter heating at exterior walls for glazed areas and to
 Design procedure
                                                                                         accommodate flexibility in adjusting temperatures in critical areas.
                                                                                   Avoid suspended ceilings to facilitate use of thermal mass.
                                                                                   Install energy-efficient appliances and lighting to reduce internal heat loads.
                                                                                   Provide thermal mass to reduce temperature swings: thermal mass stabilizes the
                                                                                   modulation of indoor temperatures.
                                                                                   Avoid exceedingly dry or humid indoor air.
 room air temperature ti (°C)

 30
                                  threshold of the curve
                                  according to SIA
 28
 26                                                                           Elements
 24
 22
                                      typical curve
                                                                              To achieve high thermal comfort the requirements for sunscreens, glare shields, glazing,
 20
      10   12   14   16    18   20   22     24    26       28   30   32       HVAC systems and the thermal mass of the building must be reconciled. Simulation
                       outside temperature maximum of the day ta max (°C)
                                                                              models consider various system interconnections and interdependencies and provide
 Figure 4-2:                                                                  invaluable assistance during design allowing adjustment and optimization of each
 Interpretation curve and tolerable limits for                                system. While previously these models served as a means to inspect systems once
 indoor air temperatures depending on
 ambient temperatures, according to SIA                                       selected, sustainable design applies these simulations tools in predesign yielding
 V382/3 [Zimmermann 1999]                                                     definitive guidance and informing decisions to select the most appropriate installations.



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                    42                                                                                                                                              120
                                  Raumlufttemp. [°C]           Empfundene Temp. [°C]             Aussentemp. [°C]               Zulufttemp. [°C]
                                  Vorlauftemp. [°C]            Rücklauftemp. D [°C]              Infiltration [W/m2]            Transmission [W/m2]
                    35            Lüftung [W/m2]               Int. Lasten [W/m2]                Ext. Lasten [W/m2]             Leistung Decke                      100


                    28                                                                                                                                              80


                    21                                                                                                                                              60
               C]




                                                                                                                                                                          Leistung [W/m ]
                                                                                                                                                                          2
  Temperatur [°




                    14                                                                                                                                              40


                     7                                                                                                                                              20


                     0                                                                                                                                              0


                     -7                                                                                                                                             -20


                    -14                                                                                                                                             -40
                          27.07




                                         28.07




                                                                                                                        02.08




                                                                                                                                        03.08




                                                                                                                                                            04.08
                                                       29.07




                                                                      30.07




                                                                                       31.07




                                                                                                         01.08




Figure 4-3:
Room temperature simulation

Room temperatures are composed of average temperatures of interior surfaces and
indoor air temperatures. High temperature differences between interior surfaces and
indoor air provoke radiation asymmetries that result in cold air drafts, whereas low
surface temperatures can be compensated by slightly higher indoor air temperatures
and vice versa.
Humidity levels have little impact on thermal comfort. At a humidity level below 30% the
generation of dust is promoted and synthetic materials can be electrostatically charged.
During summer, elevated humidity levels (>70%) can result in uncomfortable sticky
indoor air quality.
Sunscreen systems play a decisive role in determining thermal comfort – as illustrated in
chapter 2.2.


Benchmark
                                                                                               During Summer                              During Winter
 Room/ indoor temperatures                                                                       24 ±1,5 ° C                                    22 ±2,0° C
 Difference between indoor air temperatures
                                                                                                    ≤ 3° C                                         ≤ 3° C
 and surface temperatures
 Air Velocity                                                                                    < 0,19 m/s                                     < 0,16 m/s
 Relative humidity                                                                                 < 70 %                                        > 30 %

Table 4-1:
Recommended values in regard to thermal comfort




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                                                                                                                                                           Commissioning and
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                                                                              4.2.            Provide Visual and Acoustical
                                                                                              Comfort
                                                                              Issue
                                                                              The availability of daylight is a significant contributing factor to determining the quality
                                                                              of a workplace. Daylight is beneficial to human health and improves productivity.
                            Preliminary Studies                               Sustainable Design strives to provide enough daylight to all occupied areas to eliminate
                            Predesign                                         the need for artificial lighting during the day. The amount of daylight available in the
                                                                              building is affected by the building’s site orientation, the amount of shading from the
                            Design
                                                                              building itself or adjacent buildings, and the external landscaping and finishes. The
                            Execution                                         amount of daylight that reaches the interior of a room lit from windows on one side is a
                            Commissioning                                     function of the distance from the window, the height of the window, and the reflectivity
                                                                              of the interior surfaces. While making it possible for daylight to reach “every corner” of a
                            Operation
                                                                              room is desirable for better health, problems such as glare and direct solar gains can
                                                                              cause discomfort. An informed approach to handling daylight and artificial light is
                                                                              required in order to provide visual comfort for every occupant.

                                                                              Strategies
                                                                                      Perform daylight simulations to guide design decisions.
                                                                                      Daylight:
                                                                                      -     Provide daylight to all occupied.
                                                                                      -     Guarantee exterior views.
                                                                                      -     Specify window designs to provide daylight to achieve required lighting levels
                                                                                            while controlling for heat gain and loss.
                                                                                      -     Consider use of an atria or light courts to bring daylight to interior areas.
                                                                                      -     Consider use of skylights in corridors.
                                                                                      -     Select an appropriate colour for internal surfaces:
 daylight coefficient [%]
                                                                                            •      Decreasing surface reflectance from the ceiling to the ground.
  18
                                   arrangement of windows
                                                                                            •      Daylight reflecting surfaces to increase penetration of daylight into
  16

  14
              a)
                   c)
                                                                                                   interior spaces furthest from windows.
  12

  10
                                                                                      Glare:
   8
                                       a)            b)         c)
                                                                                      -     Avoid glare by eliminating:
   6

   4
         b)                                                                                 •      Reflection of light from polished surfaces.
   2                                                                                        •      Intense sources of light entering directly into the field of view.
   0
                        1      2            3        4                  6
                                                            room depth [m]
                                                                                      -     Use appropriate shading devices.
                                                                                      -     Install user-friendly shading devices room by room.
 Figure 4-4:
 Window layout and daylight factor
                                                                                      -     Separate sunscreens from glare shields (normally optimal protection cannot
                                                                                            be achieved using a single system).
 The illustration above shows various                                                 Artificial light:
 daylight factors in regard to window
 placement. Windows located at the top of
                                                                                      -     Provide even lighting levels to all occupied areas.
 the wall yield the most efficient daylight                                           -     Provide appropriate artificial light: in offices use cold colour fluorescent lamps.
 factor [LHM 1998]                                                                    Acoustical comfort:
                                                                                      -     Provide a high acoustical insulation (outdoor noise, noise generated by
                                                                                            mechanical installations).
                                                                                      -     Consequently long reverberation times must be avoided (necessary for
                                                                                            speech comprehensibility).

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Elements
In addition to reducing heat gains during summer, shading devices protect the
occupants of a building against glare. In contrast to fixed systems adjustable systems can
be adapted to changing weather conditions. In this way unwanted dimming can be
avoided.

The acoustical comfort within a room is dependent on space design and arrangement,
outdoor noise penetration, acoustical insulation, noise generated by mechanical
installations, room depth and shape, qualities of the interior surfaces and the indoor                                            light shelf
fixtures. The spatial organization and dimensioning of sound absorbing and sound-
reflecting surfaces also play a decisive role.
Room acoustics characterize the mode of sound propagation within rooms. Defining the
appropriate reverberation time depends on the room volume and occupancy.
Workspaces require the ability to hear clearly. Consequently long reverberation times
must be avoided.


Benchmark

                                                                                                                      adjustable louvers for
 Recommended lighting levels:                                                                                         controlling daylight
 Archives                                                                                   200 lx
 Copy-rooms, traffic zones, entrance halls                                                  300 lx
 Workstation                                                                                500 lx
 Conference rooms                                                                           500 lx
 Color reproduction index                                                                    ≥ 80
 Daylight transmission level: glass                                                         > 0,5
 Daylight quotient                                                                          >3%
 g-value: glass                                                                           0,3 – 0,45
 g-value: glass and sunscreens                                                              < 0,1
 Recommended reflectivity levels
 Ceiling                                                                                  60 – 90 %
 Walls                                                                                    30 – 80 %
 Work spaces                                                                              20 – 60 %                            prism panels
 Floor                                                                                    10 – 50 %
                                                                                                                   Figure 4--5:
Table 4-2:                                                                                                         Light shelving and light reflecting systems can
Recommended values for visual comfort                                                                              direct daylight deep into the room ensuring a
                                                                                                                   better supply of daylight. [Hausladen 2005]


 Required reverberation times:
 Workplaces             0,5 s
 Conference          0,6 – 0,9 s
 rooms

Table 4-3:
Required reverberation times




V09-01                                                       SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                               4-5
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                                                                                                                              Commissioning and
           HVAC Systems                    Electrical Systems                Water            Healthy Environment--Building      Operation




                                                  4.3             Provide high Indoor Air Quality
               Preliminary Studies                Issue
               Predesign                          Conservation of energy often means highly insulated, and well-sealed interior
               Design                             environments. The choice of materials in energy-efficient buildings affects indoor air
                                                  quality to an even higher degree than in conventional buildings. Materials specified that
               Execution
                                                  include toxic ingredients can result in off gassing. Reduced air movement and ventilation
               Commissioning                      can magnify the adverse health effects from off gassing resulting in a wide range of
               Operation                          impurities in the indoor environment.


                                                  Strategies
                                                          Consider air quality influencing aspects such as external air, building materials,
                                                          technical equipment and user behaviour.
                                                          Provide high rates of indoor air exchange.
                                                          Avoid materials releasing toxic substances (see also section 8).
                                                          Avoid airborne particulate matter that could be inhaled.
                                                          Prevent microbiological contamination from bacteria and molds.
                                                          Integrate air quality considerations into the planning process:
                                                          -    Determine indoor air quality objectives at early stages of the planning process.
                                                          -    Integrate indoor air quality considerations into the selection process for
                                                               architectural competitions.
                                                          -    Evaluate material-, service- and building concept based on indoor air quality
                                                               criteria.
                                                          -    Optimize building concept and materials concerning indoor air quality.
                                                          -    Specify commissioning with indoor air quality criteria.
                                                          -    Evaluate compliance with criteria during construction works.
                                                          -    Consider indoor air quality criteria during final inspection.

   Mountains, sea                    0,05 dp
   Urban areas with high                          Elements
                                     0,1 dp
   ambient air quality                            There are a variety of sources that pollute indoor environments – both external and
   Urban areas with average                       internal. The following chart defines possible indoor air pollutants and their sources.
                                     0,2 dp
   ambient air quality
   Urban areas with low
                                     0,5 dp       The lack of complete toxicological knowledge in regard to various substances and
   ambient air qualities                          differing conditions of use complicate the specification of planning guidelines for indoor
 Table 4--4:
                                                  air quality. Each building element, as well as the materials used during installation,
 Survey of air quality                            finishing and maintenance must be checked thoroughly for possible harmful emissions.




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 Substances                                          Sources (Building products and constructions)
 Dusts                                               Abrasion from the floor, -based insulation materials, processing
                                                     of building materials
 Carbon monoxide                                     Damaged or insufficient ventilated heating systems
 Radon                                               Ground
 Formaldehyde (HCHO)                                 Derived timber products, acid hardening lacquers and paints
 VOCs:                                               Solvent-based products, such as paints and lacquers, flooring
 Alkenes                                             adhesives,
 Condiments
 Aldehydes (o. HCHO), Ketenes
 Ester
 Alcohols                                            Especially so-called green paints“.
 Terpene                                             Timbers
 Glycols

 Flexibiliser                                        PVC-floors, -wallpapers
 Biocides                                            Wood preservatives, in-can preservatives
 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon                     Floor pavement, floor adhesives tar-based                             Figure 4-6:
                                                                                                                           Measuring of room air quality
Table 4-5:
Examples showing compositions of various pollutants and their sources


Due to the quantity, mass and complexity of possible pollutants it is recommended that
precautionary control surveys of indoor air quality are done two or three months upon
completion. Such surveys ensure that the limit values of harmful substances are not
exceeded. Carcinogenic VOCs are not allowed. Health-based guidance values may not be
exceeded even for TVOC concentrations lower than 1000 µg/m³.
Olfactory loads are not acceptable. Since the sensation of smell is subjective, it is
recommended that 85 % of the building’s occupants are content in regard to odor –
according to EN ISO 7730.
If air conditioning or other ventilation systems are installed, ensure that average
concentrations of CO2 do not exceed 1,000 ppm and peak concentrations do not exceed
1,500 ppm.

Benchmark

  Substances                                          Recommended values
  Inorganic substances
  CO₂                                                 < 0,1 %
  CO                                                  1,5 mg/m³ (8 h- average value)
  NOx                                                 < Concentration of external air
  O₃                                                  100 – 120 µg/m³ (8 h – average value)
  Organic substances
  Formaldehyde                                        0,05 – 0.10 ppm (62 – 123 µg/m³)
  PCB (polychlorinated Biphenyls)                     0,3 µg/m³
  VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)                    0,2 – 0,3 mg/m³ for existing buildings
                                                      1,0 – 3,0 mg/m³ for new and refurbished buildings

Table 4-6:
Indoor air quality limit values for various inorganic and organic substances




V09-01                                                           SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                        4-7
      Introduction          Site                       Building Envelope                       Energy                            Room Comfort

                                                                                                                            Commissioning and
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                            Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                            Figure 4-7:
                            Daylighting within circulation spaces using skylights and glass bricks, Siemens, Hizingen, Belgien




                            Figure 4-8:
                            Daylighting within circulation spaces, Siemens, Munich, Germany


4-8                         SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                                      V09-01
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5 HVAC Systems
                5.1     Efficient Heating and Hot Water Systems

                5.2     Efficient Ventilation Systems

                5.3     Efficient Cooling Systems




V09-01                                    SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                         5-1
               Introduction                                 Site              Building Envelope             Energy                 Room Comfort

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              HVAC Systems                           Electrical Systems            Water          Healthy Environment-Building      Operation




                                                             5.1          Efficient Heating and Hot Water
                                                                          Systems
                                                             Issue
                                                             Energy required for heating and cooling buildings comprises 6,7% of total world
                    Preliminary Studies
                                                             energy consumption. Sustainably designed buildings could reduce this energy use
                    Predesign                                by an average of 2,35 % of total world energy consumption. Sustainable design
                    Design                                   emphasizes first the optimization of the building systems to protect against heat
                                                             loss before installing complex heating systems. In most regions active heating
                    Execution
                                                             systems have to be installed to guarantee comfortable room temperatures during
                    Commissioning                            heating season. Significant energy-savings can be achieved by combining
                    Operation                                conventional systems (such as condensing boilers) with innovative systems that
                                                             allow for dynamic system operation.

                                                             Strategies
                                                             Heating generation:
                                                                 Consider the use of renewable energies:
       depth [m]                                                 -     Geothermal heat (heat pumps, horizontal ground loop, vertical ground
                                                                       loops, energy piping, ground-air heat exchanger).
   0                                                             -     Groundwater (see thermal heat).
      5
                                   February                      -     Wood (wood-chip-heating).
                                   May
                                                                 -     Solar energy (solar collectors).
                                   August
  10                               November                      Combined systems for heat and power generation (see chapter 6.1):
                                   deeper basement
                                                                 -     Power plants.
  15
                                                             Heat distribution:
  20                                                             Central heating systems:
                                                                 -     For hot water heating, if you have a central system with renewable
  50
 100                                                                   energies (see above).
                                                                 -     For heating systems.
 200                                                             Local heating:
 300                                                             -     For warm water heating in office buildings.
                                                                 -     Use decentralized boilers that heat water on demand.
 400                                                             District heating:
          0     5      10     15         20
                                     temperature [°C]            -     Combined heat and power plants:
                                                                       •    Advantages: high efficient, low global emission-load, combinable
 Figure 5-1:
 Ground temperature variation
                                                                            with geothermal power.
 [StMLU 2003]                                                          •    Disadvantages: not combinable with solar collectors.
                                                             Heating surfaces: Prefer systems with low temperature zones
 The use of heat pumps to tap geothermal
 heat source is advantageous. Ground                             Radiators (panel/ sectional/ duct radiators): conventional systems.
 temperatures remain even year-round                             Convector heater: more economic due to faster preheating, but
 beginning at a depth of about 15 m.                             maintenance-intense and can adversely affect air quality.
                                                                 Panel heater (overhead/ floor/ wall heating): undesirable due to limited
                                                                 accessibility in regard to maintenance; mainly used in entrance halls.



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Elements                                                                                                                              Earth loop
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Heat pump




Heat pumps rank high among systems considered to be renewable energy
sources. However, these systems require the use of heat pumps to extract energy
from the air, water or ground. Heat pumps require electrical energy to operate.
The local subsurface conditions, hydrology and the available space aboveground
are all factors that must be considered when choosing the best heat source and
the most appropriate technical solution.

Wood chip heating systems require a boiler, a hopper, a wood-chip-conveyance
system and a chimney. In comparison to conventional oil or gas systems the                                               Figure 5-2:
maintenance of a wood-chip heating system is more time-consuming. The hopper                                             Typical operating scheme for heat pumps
and conveyance system required to charge the burning chamber requires more
space, as well as additional inspection and maintenance. Semi-automated central
                                                                                                                             Collector
heating boilers are also well suited to office buildings.

Hot water solar collectors are economically and ecologically sound. During
summer months hot water solar systems can meet total hot water demand.                                                                                                                    ELT
                                                                                                                                                                                          HZG


Effectiveness of such systems depends on the ability to adjust the collectors to
recommended inclinations around 45° with south orientation (vice versa southern                                                                                              Storage tank

hemisphere). Shading of the collectors by trees or neighboring buildings must be                                                                                               domestic
                                                                                                                                                                               hot water



avoided.                                                                                                                 Figure 5-3:
                                                                                                                         Example plan for heating installation with
Benchmark                                                                                                                solar collectors

                                 Advantages                           Disadvantages
 Central hot water systems       Can be integrated with               High thermal losses
                                 renewable energy systems             Complex distribution                                 System                                                       55/40°C
                                                                      High energy input for standby                        temperatures
                                                                      Potential for of legionella                          Difference pressure                                          ∆p ≤ 20 kPa
 Local hot water systems         No thermal losses                    No use of renewable energy is possible               of systems
                                 Simpler distribution                                                                      Heating power                                                < 30 W/m²

Table 5-1:                                                                                                               Table 5-3:
Advantages and disadvantages of central and local hot water systems.                                                     Recommendation for heating systems



                            Specific power                   Flow             Controllability       Radiation/
                                                                                                                           s t a n d a rd is e d c o e f f ic ie n t
                                                                                                                                                                                                               in so la t io n
                                [W/m²]                temperature[°C]                               Convection            1 ,0
                                                                                                                          0 ,9
 Floor heating                  40 - 50                     30 - 35                   low             90 / 10             0 ,8                                                                                 8 0 0 W /m ²
                                                                                                                          0 ,7                                                                                 4 0 0 W /m ²
 Overhead heat                  30 - 60                     30 - 35                good               100 / 0             0 ,6
                                                                                                                          0 ,5
                                                                                                                                                                                                               8 0 0 W /m ²

                                                                                                                          0 ,4                                                                                 4 0 0 W /m ²
 Panel radiator                   75                        35 - 55                good               70 / 30             0 ,3                                                                                 8 0 0 W /m ²
                                                                                                                          0 ,2
 Radiator                         75                        45 - 65                good               50 / 50             0 ,1
                                                                                                                                                               o p e ratin g ra n g e
                                                                                                                                                               o f co lle c to r
                                                                                                                          0 ,0       0,0 1 0,02 0,03 0,04 0 ,05 0,0 6 0,0 7 0 ,08 0 ,0 9 0,1 0
 Convector                        75                        60 - 90                good               20 / 80                    te m p e ra t u re d if fe re n c e
                                                                                                                                 e x t e r n a l a ir te m p e ra tu re /c o lle c to r te m p e ra t u re [m ²K /W ]

 Induction machine                75                        30 - 60                good               0 /100
 Air heating                      50                        30 - 40                good               0 / 100            Figure 5-4:
                                                                                                                         Efficiency of solar collectors
Table 5-2:                                                                                                               [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für
Attributes of different heating methods [Hausladen 2005]                                                                 Thermodynamik und Wärmetechnik (ITW)}


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                                                5.2             Efficient Ventilation Systems
             Preliminary Studies                Issue

             Predesign                          The use of natural ventilation via operable windows should be considered before
                                                installing mechanical ventilation systems. Mechanical ventilation systems can be
             Design
                                                particularly necessary in cases where the air quality is low due to the site
             Execution                          surroundings, or in cases of high ambient noise levels or elevated thermal losses
             Commissioning                      resulting from use of natural ventilation.
             Operation
                                                Strategies
                                                All heating systems that use heat pumps (see 5.1) can be used in combination
                                                with ventilation systems for heating and cooling air.
                                                Energy efficient ventilation systems:
                                                     Natural ventilation: depending on air pollution and noise.
                                                     -    Cross ventilation: depending on wind speeds, window position and size.
                                                     -    Stack ventilation (e. g. chimney ventilation): dependent on room height.
                                                     Additional systems: wind catchers.
                                                     Mechanical ventilation as a means to dependably introduce high rates of
                                                     outdoor air into buildings at relatively low rates of energy consumption as
                                                     opposed to use of conventional air conditioning.
                                                     Consider location of air inlet at the roof level air may be cooler and cleaner.
                                                     Consider filtering the incoming air; saver, because fans allow smaller inlets.
                                                     Be careful about the positioning of air inlet:
                                                     -    Favour shaded areas.
 Figure 5-5:                                         -    Locate at least three meters above grade.
 Exterior view of decentralized ventilation          -    Avoid locations near air exhaust vents or other contaminated areas.
 unit with heat recovery                             Space ventilation using a whole house fan: fans that move cooler outdoor air
                                                     to the inside, removing heat from rooms.

                                                Elements
                                                Within highly insulated buildings, heat losses due to ventilation can exceed heat
                                                losses from transmission through the envelope. Ensuring controlled ventilation
                                                and by including heat recovery systems, up to 70% of the heat can be recovered
                                                from discharged air dramatically improving the energy efficiency of the building.


 Figure 5-6:
                                                                                         fan            extracted air                         extracted air
 Interior view of decentralized ventilation                        exhaust air                        is cooled down           filter
                                                                                                                                              from offices
 unit with heat recovery
                                                                                                                   heat recovery



                                                                  ground-air                            external air
                                                external air      heat                   filter                                  fan         supply air
                                                                                                       is heated up                          to offices
                                                                  exchanger



                                                Figure 5-7:
                                                Plan of a ventilation system with integrated heat recovery system and preheating of air using a ground air
                                                heat exchanger. During winter the ground can be used as heat exchanger [LHM 1998].


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Spaces with high internal heat loads, such as data-centers and conference rooms,
ventilation systems may not provide sufficient air conditioning. In such cases,
consider using chilled ceilings. (See section 5.3)

                                                                                    Exhaust                   Outdoor Air
                                                                                    Air




                          Chilled Ceiling



                                                                                              Cooling valve


                                        T    Room temperatures sensor
                                             with control                                                                     temperature [°C]

   Thermostatic valve                                                                             Circulating pump            35




                         Push-button          Off                                                                             30
                          Ventilation         On                                     Valuation register

                                                                                                                              25



                                                                                                                              20
Figure 5-8:
Ventilation system with chilled ceiling
                                                                                                                              15
                                                                                                                                    28. July     29. July   30. July   31. July

When using natural ventilation consider the possibility of night cooling. This                                                      outdoor temperature ta
                                                                                                                                    natural ventilation: day 100%, night 0
strategy is effective when the air temperatures at night and in the early morning                                                   natural ventilation: day 0, night 10%
                                                                                                                                    (bottom hung window)
provide a cooling effect. Once ambient temperatures exceed indoor temperatures
unwanted heating of thermal mass begins during high rates of air exchange (see                                                Figure 5-9:
                                                                                                                              Affect of natural day and night ventilation
figure 5-7). The thermal mass of a building can stabilize swings in indoor room
                                                                                                                              [Zimmermann 1999]
temperatures: the higher the thermal mass, the more even the temperatures.


Benchmark


  System Chiller                                           Heat recovery factor                    Advice
  Plate heat exchanger                                           45-65%                       Low-maintenance
  Circulation System                                             40-70%                    Low required space                  Single offices                            40 m³/h
  Heat pipe                                                      35-70%                    Industrial appliance                Open-plan office                          60 m³/h
  Circulating heat exchanger                                     65-80%                    Aroma transference                  Conference room,                          20 m³/h
  Exhaust air heat pump                               Conditioning of system               Heat recovery from                  traffic zones
                                                                                      exhaust-air-plant is possible            Training rooms                            30 m³/h

Table 5-4:                                                                                                                    Table 5-5:
Overview of different heat recovery systems                                                                                   Minimum fresh air requirements
                                                                                                                              (100% outdoor air) per person




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           Introduction                           Site              Building Envelope             Energy                 Room Comfort

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         HVAC Systems                     Electrical Systems             Water          Healthy Environment-Building      Operation




                                                   5.3          Efficient Cooling Systems
                                                   Issue

              Preliminary Studies                  In many climate zones of the world acceptable room temperatures cannot be
                                                   maintained year-round using natural or passive systems alone. Supplemental
              Predesign
                                                   means of maintaining the required comfort levels is then required. Still, passive
              Design                               systems should be evaluated first when considering how best to meet the
              Execution                            required comfort parameters. Such passive cooling has economic benefits
              Commissioning
                                                   resulting from lower energy demands, and unusually results in high indoor
                                                   comfort without adversely affecting the air quality. In some countries, such as
              Operation                            Switzerland, mechanical cooling must be kept to a minimum in order to comply
                                                   with regulations related to energy consumption [Zimmermann 1998].


                                                   Strategies
 Room type           Low  Middle High
                    loads  loads  loads            Cooling generation:
                   Wh/m²d Wh/m²d Wh/m²d                 Consider the use of renewable energies: All heating systems that use heat
                                                        pumps (see 5.1) can also be used for cooling.
 Single office      126      178       203         Advisable cooling methods:
                                                        Passive cooling:
 Grouped                                                -    Night cooling (Natural/ mechanical ventilation).
                    171      196       228
 office
                                                        -    Radiant cooling: Work with cooling storage.
 Open-plan-                                             -    Evaporative/ desiccant cooling cooling towers.
                    173      200       227
 office                                                 Free cooling systems (also in combination with other systems).
                                                        Solar cooling in combination with absorption chillers.
 Conference
 room
                     -       225         -              Ground cooling: earth-air heat exchanger (see chapter 5.1).
                                                        Aquifer cooling.
 Auditorium          -       720         -              Avoid active cooling requiring electrical energy, such as chillers using
 Canteen             -       205         -              compression refrigeration.
                                                   Cooling distribution:
 Table 5-6:                                             Use central cooling systems, if it is possible to work with renewable energies.
 Daily total of internal loads according to
 SWKI guideline 95-3 [Zimmermann 1999]                  Work with local cooling systems, when needed for only a few rooms.
                                                        District cooling systems (see chapter 5.1 district heating systems).
                                                   Cooling operating conditions:
 capacity [W/m²]
                                                        Avoid passing below the dew point.
 25                                                     Optimize flow temperatures to avoid thermal losses.
 20                                                     Provide effective controls.
 15
                                                        Consider the required cooling capacity.
                                                        Consider the noise generated by different systems.
 10

  5                                                Elements
  0
                                                   The various cooling systems have to be integrated within an overall concept of
                                                   indoor climate. The various components have to be reconciled. For this,
                                    time of day
 Figure 5-10:                                      simulation models can be applied.
 Typical daily variation of internal loads in
 an office building (220 Wh/d),
 [Zimmermann 1999]

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         Celing                          Lighting                                   Chilled ceilings (optional)
         Conctrete ceiling               Pendant luminaires                         Surface of chilled ceilings 50% of office space
         plaster 3 cm                    qBL = 10 W/m2                              qk = 80 W/m2
         50% open slab                   lighting level = 500 Lux                   System temperatures 18/20°C
                                         swichting by bus                           Supply temperatures according to ambient temperatures
                                         daylight controlled switch-off




                                                                                                                         Daylight sensors                                           temperature in [°C]
                                                                                                                                                                                   35                         room air temperature without
                                                                                                                          Louvered shading devices                                                            air changing at night
                                                                                                                          Central control using daylight                           30
                     Mechanical ventilation                                                                               sensors during summer
                     Vs = 1,50 m3/hm2                                                                                     Weekends/ public holiday closed                          25
                     zoned control                                                                                        Central control during winter                                                            room air temperature
                                                                                                                          By night/ weekends closed                                                                with air changing at night
                                                                                                                                                                                   20
                                                   Space uses                                                            Protective layer
             I 0                                   2 persons = 6 W/m2                                                    g = 0,82
                                                                                                                                                                                   15
                                                   2 PC with TFT-screen, 1 printe
            Space controls                           = 10 W/m2                                                           Windows               Night cooling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  external air temperature
            Buttom louvre up/ down                                                                                                                                                 10
            Lighting on/ off in series                                                                                   Natural ventilation   casement
                                                                                                                                               Natural ventilation                      time of simulation 25th of July - 17th of August 1995
                                                                                                                         Glazing               at night
                                                                                                                         g < 0,40              weatherproof
                                                                                                                         UG = 1,20 W/m2K                                           Figure 5-12:
                                                                                                                         Windows, Framework                                        Simulation of a thermo active ceiling
                                                                                                                         RMG 2.1
                                                     Heating
                                                     Heating surface with high
                                                                                                                                                                                   system
                                                                                                                         Grab
                                                     radiation level at each axis
                                                                                                                         Uw < 0,25 W/m2K




Figure 5-11:
Office module including all boundary conditions



Benchmark
                             Advantage                                                   Disadvantage
 Compression                 Long experience                                             High noise
 refrigeration               Wide temperature range                                      Efficiency depends on type of compressor
                             capability
 Absorptive                  Low vibration,                                              Economic is conditioned from costs of heat
 cooling system              low noise                                                   energy
                                                                                         High recooling requirements
                                                                                         Dimensions
 Cold storage                Smaller dimensioning of                                     Dimensions /Space Requirements
 system                      refrigerator is possible
 Free Cooling                Use of outdoor air to                                       Dependent on outdoor temperatures
                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure 5-13:
                             provide cooling                                             Expected useful life
                                                                                                                                                                                   Cooling using chilled ceiling sails,
 Solar cooling               Use of solar power                                          Expensive when used in combination with                                                   Siemens, Munich, Germany
                                                                                         absorptive cooling systems
 Ground                      Use the cooling energy of                                   Relatively high flow temperature
 Cooling                     the ground                                                  Balancing ground energy
 Aquifer                     Uses the cooling energy of                                  Requires a license
 cooling                     the aquifer

Table 5-7:
Evaluation of different Cooling systems

                                             Cooling capacity                            Flow                          Controllability                      Cold supply
                                                 [W/m²]                             temperature [°C]
 Chilled ceiling                                80 - 120                                14 - 18                           very good                          Radiation                                                               COP
 Thermo-active ceiling                           35 - 45                                16 - 20                              low                             Radiation               Compression refrigeration                        4
 Downdraft cooling                              60 - 100                                 6 - 10                             good                            Convection               machine
 Induction machine                              60 - 100                                 6 - 10                             good                            Convection               Absorptive cooling machine                       1
 Air circulation system                         80 - 120                                 6 - 10                           very good                         Convection               Solar Cooling                                   0,7
 Air-conditioner                                80 - 100                                 6 - 10                             good                            Convection               Ground Cooling                                   5

Table 5-8:                                                                                                                                                                         Table 5-9:
Typical properties of cooling capitulation systems                                                                                                                                 Different COP-Values
                                                                                                                                                                                   (COP = refrigerating capacity/drive heat)

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                                            Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions

 Take control of your community’s
 energy needs for the future by
 investing in a Siemens gas turbine-
 based combined heat and power co-
 generation plant. Your community
 will benefit from stable and reliable
 supplies of electricity and heat/cool.

 The high efficiency provided by
 Siemens gas turbine-based co-gen.
 plants will significantly reduce
 energy costs to your community,
 while their inherent simplicity will
 keep operation and maintenance
 costs at attractive levels.

 The very low emissions from Siemens
 modern gas turbine plants, coupled
 with their quiet, simple operation,
 allows you to establish a cleaner
 environment and to enhance the
 attractiveness of your city, making it
 a healthier place to live in and to
 invest in.                                 Figure 5-14:
                                            Exemplary of a modern gas turbine plants: SGT 300 Power Generation – Packaged power generator unit




                                            Figure 5-15:
                                            Facade with integrated louvers for night cooling, Siemens, Munich, Germany



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6 Electrical Systems
                6.1     Efficient Systems for Power Generation

                6.2     Efficient Lighting Systems




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                                       6.1             Efficient Systems for Power
         Preliminary Studies
                                                       Generation
         Predesign
                                       Issue
         Design
                                       The selection of an appropriate system for power generation should consider
         Execution                     electrical demand, investment and operating costs, safety environmental impacts.
         Commissioning
                                       Strategies
         Operation
                                              In addition to electricity supplied from a conventional power grid consider:
                                              -    Use of a combined heat and power plant.
                                                   •    As a supply for heat and power.
                                                   •    Economics: > 5.000 h/a application.
                                              -    Use of a fuel cell:
                                                   •    40 –70 % efficiencies for power generation.
                                                   •    Use rejected heat for heating.
                                              -    Use of a photovoltaic (PV) system:
                                                   •    Capacity and location of PV solar power generation depends on sun
                                                        inclination and number of days of available sunlight.
                                                   •    Efficiency is directly linked to geographical latitude and seasons.
                                              Determinate whether to run systems independently or grid-connected:
                                              -    Grid-independent power supplies using rechargeable batteries for power
                                                   storage:
                                                   •    Uneconomic for office buildings.
                                              -    Grid-connected power supply:
                                                   •    Require additional service installation: flow meters.
                                              Guarantee uninterruptible power supply:
                                              -    By integrating a “Battery-Back-up-Unit” (BBU).
                                              -    By integrating uninterruptible power supplies installations:
                                                   •    Batteries using a power inverter in case of power failure.
                                                   •    Grid bypasses allowing for uninterruptible transfer of the load on
                                                        the grid.

                                       Elements




                                             Typical module     Insulating glazes module        Trapezoidal sheet metal           Roof sealing strip
                                             100 kWh/m²a             60 – 80 kWh/m²a                  45 kWh/m²a                  30 – 40 kWh/m²a

                                        Figure 6-1:
                                        Example building products with solar cells and their annual effective yield [Voss 2005]




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                                                missions
                                                                         basic heat load




                             local heat


                              80-90°C                                             generator
                                            chiller      Otto or diesel engine/                power grid
                         accumulator                     fuel cell
                   peak load boiler
                                              cooling water +
                                              lube oil 80-90°C
Figure 6-2:
Layout of a local grid connected electrical system using combined heat and power [Hausladen 2005]

Combined heat and power plants typically use a diesel or Otto engine to power a
generator. Fuel cells using natural gas, light kerosene, recovered landfill gas or bio-
gas can also be used. At high temperatures, both electrical power and heat can be
generated. The rejected heat generated by the combustion process is used for
heating via an exhaust heat exchanger and a coolant heat exchanger. Generally,
combined heat and power plants used in office buildings are designed to meet 50
% of the heating capacity. The result is that 80 % of total heat production is
captured. Peak performance can be achieved in combination with conventional
heating-boilers operating with low annual running times.


Benchmark
The application of photovoltaic systems for power generation is suitable within
regions that feature high levels of insolation.
                                                                                                                     Figure 6-3:
 Type of power plant                                  Energy efficiency as a %                                       Potential mean power generation from PV;
                                                                                                                     100 kWh/m²a (blue) – 300 kWh/m²a (red)
 Nuclear power plant                                             34                                                  [www.bine.info/magazine]
 Gas turbine power plant                                         38
 Coal-burning power plant                                        42
 Gas-/ steam turbine power plant                               55 - 60
 Combined heat and power plant                                   80
 Hydroelectric power plant                                     85 - 90

Table 6-1:
Efficiency of different types of power plants [Hausladen 2005]

                                                                                                                     Figure 6-4:
                                                                                                                     Global power generation from PV
                                                                                                                     [www.bine.info/magazine]




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                                                                           6.2             Efficient Lighting Systems
                    Preliminary Studies                                    Issue
                    Predesign                                              Daylighting controls and control of artificial lighting must be optimized to achieve
                    Design
                                                                           energy-efficiency requirements. An effective layout of lighting fixtures and a user-
                                                                           friendly plan to zone lighting controls must be achieved. The type and color
                    Execution
                                                                           selection for interior wall and ceiling finishes dictates the level of reflectance
                    Commissioning                                          attained. Choosing the right reflectivity for surfaces is key to meeting required
                    Operation                                              lighting levels while ensuring occupant comfort. The types of lighting fixtures
                                                                           used also play a decisive role.


                                                                           Strategies
                                                                                 Provide even lighting to avoid rapid fatigue.
               Various                                                           Install task lighting: use free-standing lighting fixtures with user controls.
             techniques
           Diverse Technik
                 14%
                                                Office equipment
                                                Bürogeräte
                                                   19%                           Install automated lighting control systems:
                                                                                 -    Motion, Occupancy or sound sensing detectors.
    Ventilation
     systems
  Raumlufttechnik
                                                                                 -    Daylight sensors (photosensitive cells).
       22%                                             Central services
                                                      Zentrale Dienste
                                                            17%
                                                                                 -    Timing devices.
                                                                                 -    Dimmers controls.
                             Beleuchtung
                              Artificial lighting
                                                                                 -    Lumen maintenance strategies that can save 30 – 50% of energy
                                 28%
                                                                                      consumption due to electric lighting office buildings.
 Figure 6-5:                                                                     Design electrical lighting so that lights can be turned on in areas that need
 Use of electricity in office buildings                                          additional light and left off in areas that do not:
                                                                                 -    Place lighting systems parallel to window walls.
                                                                                 -    Install zoned switching mechanisms.
                                                                                 Use energy-efficient lamps:
                                                                                 -    Install long-lasting lamps.
                                                                                 -    Avoid multiple-filament fixtures with low efficiency levels.
                                                                                 -    Make use of energy-saving ballasts when installing fluorescent lamps.


                                                                           Elements




 Figure 6-6:                                                               Figure 6-7:
 Example for a floor lamp “Sitecoleuchte”                                  Simulation of artificial lighting [LHM 1998]




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Artificial lighting accounts for about 30 % of the energy used in offices.
Sustainable design emphasizes lighting systems comprised of daylighting in
combination with high performance artificial lighting. The further one moves
away from the window, the more difficult it becomes to maintain the daylighting
illumination levels required for some tasks. In some areas it may be necessary to
supplement daylight with electrical lighting and user controls.


Benchmark

                    Office room      Workplace for                                                                     Figure 6-8:
                                                           Conference                                                  Free standing lamps
 Room                (Incl. CAD-      technical                               Entrance hall      Traffic zones
                                                             room
                    workstation)       drawing
                                                                                                                       Due to better zoning freestanding lighting
 Illumination                                                                                                          fixtures are more efficient and allow better
                         500               750                 500                300                300               user control.
 level in (lux)

 UGRL
 (factor for             19                16                   19                    22              19
 glare)
 Ra
 (index for              80                80                   80                    80              80
 color
 reproduction)                                                                                                         Figure 6-9:
                                                                                                                       Direct lighting with reflectors (BAP-lamps);
Table 6-2:                                                                                                             high gloss [BfK 1992]
Optimal lighting levels in office buildings according to EN 12464-1 [OSRAM light consulting GmbH]




 Recommended lighting systems                             Appropriate lighting fixtures and lamps
                                                          Pendant luminaires (length ≥ 30 cm): upward
 Multiple coach lighting: direct/indirect shining         facing
                                                          Fluorescent tubes                                            Figure 6-10:
                                                                                                                       Direct lighting with reflectors; semi gloss
                                                          Task lighting/free-standing fixtures                         [BfK 1992]
 Workstation-oriented multiple coach lighting:
                                                          Halogen-metal-steam lamps
 indirect shining
                                                          Compact fluorescent lights

                                                          Open plan offices: fixtures in or on the ceiling
                                                          deep-wide and highly reflective
 Multiple coach lighting: direct shining                  Cellular offices/cubicle offices (dimension ≤ 5
                                                          m): fixtures in or on the ceiling with reflectors
                                                          or light-emitting Plexiglas-covers
                                                                                                                       Figure 6-11:
                                                                                                                       Pendant fixtures, direct/indirect
Table 6-3:                                                                                                             [BfK 1992]
Appropriate lamps for offices dependent on lighting systems [BfK 1992]




                                                                                                                       Figure 6-12:
                                                                                                                       Workstation-oriented indirect illumination
                                                                                                                       with free-standing fixtures for high
                                                                                                                       intensity lamps [BfK 1992]


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                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                             Figure 6-13:
                             Artificial lighting using freestanding lamps with reflecting ceiling, Siemens, Munich, Germany




                             Figure 6-14:
                             Artificial lighting using freestanding lamps, Siemens, Munich, Germany



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7 Water
                7.1     Minimize Water Use

                7.2     Effective Rainwater Management




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                                                7.1           Minimize Water Use
                                                Issue
             Preliminary Studies
                                                Conservation of water is critical to maintaining life. Nearly two billion people
             Predesign                          worldwide must deal daily with lack of water. More than one billion people lack
             Design                             access to clean ground water. People living in industrialized countries consume an
                                                average of 125 litres of fresh water per day. A significant portion of this is lost to
             Execution
                                                irrigation and cleaning processes. Architects and engineers can make significant
             Commissioning                      reductions in water use by specifying materials that minimize water use in their
             Operation                          manufacture, by selecting water efficient fixtures and appliances and by
                                                specifying vegetation that requires minimum amount of irrigation [NCARB 2001].
                                                By conserving water, investment and operating expenses can be reduced.

                                                Strategies
                                                       Incorporate water-efficient technologies:
                                                       -     Water-saving fixtures for toilets, faucets, showers, etc.
                                                       -     Motion sensors on faucets.
                                                       -     Self-closing faucets.
                                                       Facilitate measurement and control of water use by installing water meters to
 Showerheads                                           monitor water consumption (e.g. to detect leaks).
 High efficiency showers are available to
 further improve efficiency. Conventional              Select building materials that do not require excessive water use in their
 showers use 13,5 – 36 liters per minute               manufacture.
 (lpm), while water-efficient shower
 heads use 11,25 lpm or less. In addition,             Demonstrate to users that water saving appliances do not affect the level of
 there are savings associated with saving              comfort.
 of hot water.
                                                       Consider to substituting the use of groundwater with rainwater and waste
 Tap
                                                       water, e.g. use alternate sources of water to flush toilets, cool office
 Shut-off valves and handles are available             appliances or operate cooling-plants.
 that allow water to be turned off mid-                Specify drought-tolerant, native planting in landscape design to ensure
 operation      while  still  maintaining
 temperature. This is more convenient to               minimum irrigation.
 the users than turning both hot and cold
 individually off and on again in quick
 succession. For commercial uses, infrared      Elements
 sensor control devices or self-closing
 faucets will reduce wastage.                   Showers, toilets and faucets are all available in high efficiency models that use 50
                                                %, or less of the water used by standard models. Consumer surveys show most
 Toilets                                        users are satisfied with the performance of these appliances (Waterwiser). In
 The criteria for water use is the volume of
 water per flush. Purpose-designed ultra-       addition to the amount of water saved, the savings in energy resulting from the
 low-consumption toilets with innovative        avoided use of hot water should be taken into account when calculating savings
 features and improved design can reduce
 consumption to 6-7 liters per flush (lpf)
                                                from water-efficient appliances. The installation of water meters allows water
 or less, from the conventional toilets that    consumption to be measured and monitored. Water metering enables detection of
 use between 15,7 and 40,5 lpf. In              excessive water consumption and may reveal problems to be addressed. For
 commercial buildings automatic flush
 urinals should be fitted with timers or        example, water meters that show significant water use in unoccupied buildings
 sensors.                                       may serve to detect leaking supply pipes.




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Sustainable design seeks to minimize water use. Water consumption of 30 litres
per person per day is achievable. Water-efficient application and fixtures must be
used.

100%
                                                                                                                   l/min


                                                                                                                   20,0
 80%                                      substitution
                                         with rainwater                                                            17,5
                                                                                                                                      flow uncontrolled fixtures
                                                                                                                   15,0
                                                                toilets
                                                                                                                   12,5
 60%                                                            cleaning                                           10,0
                                                                                                                                     potential saving
                                                                ventilation                                        7,5

                                                                                                                   5,0
                                                                cantine                                                               flow controlled fixtures
 40%
                                                                                                                    2,5
                                                                tea kitchen/ lavabo
                                                                                                                      0    0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0   bar
 20%
                                                                                                                   Figure 7-2:
                                                                                                                   Flow controlled fixtures in comparison to a
                                                                                                                   uncontrolled fixture [TUM 2002]
  0%
           standard       low demand-        low demand
           demand           verbrauch          including                                                           The flow of water through uncontrolled
                                            rainwater use
                                                                                                                   fixtures increases as pressure increases.
                                                                                                                   Flow-controlled fixtures and fittings
Figure 7-1:                                                                                                        provide a constant flow rate independent
Water savings potential [LHM 1998]                                                                                 of water pressure. Significant savings can
                                                                                                                   be achieved. At 3,5 bar the water flow is
                                                                                                                   lowered by around 9 l/min.


Benchmark

                                           Demand in liters per day
              minimal                            average                                  maximum
                30                                  40                                       50

Table 7-1:
Daily water consumption per person in office buildings



                                                      Average water consumption in liter
                                          Water-saving technologies      Conventional technologies
 Toilet-flush [l/f]                                <6-7                            16 – 41
 Lavatory [l/min]                                     6                                12
 Shower [l/min]                                      11                             14 - 36

Table 7-2:
Water consumption of various appliances [LHM 1998]




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                                       7.2          Effective Rainwater Management
                                       Issue
                                       Rainwater use is another efficient means of reducing groundwater use. Rainwater
         Preliminary Studies
                                       catchments systems collect the rainwater for use as a substitute for fresh water.
         Predesign                     Rainwater can be used for landscaping, flushing toilets and, where appropriate, for
         Design                        cleaning. Rainwater may also be suitable for cooling equipment.
         Execution

         Commissioning                 Strategies
         Operation                     Rainwater use:
                                           Incorporate rainwater collection and storage systems:
                                           -    Integrate a rainwater cistern.
                                           -    Provide for straining debris from and/ or filtering the collected rainwater.
                                           -    Accommodate drainage for excess rainwater.
                                           Install rainwater-filtering systems (e.g. landscaped roofs) to avoid
                                           accumulation of dirt particles inside the toilet tank and the toilet bowl.
                                           Ensure separation from grey water and black water.
                                       Rainwater disposal:
                                           Provide adequate surface infiltration to avoid periodic flooding:
                                           -    By providing sufficient space for infiltration.
                                           -    By avoiding impermeable surfaces wherever possible (specify gravel
                                                lawn, turf stone, water-permeable paving stone, etc.).
                                           -    By designing subsurface infiltration ditches.
                                           -    By designing landscaped roofs.
                                           Avoid infiltration of contaminant-loaded rainwater into soil:
                                           -    By avoiding wider roofed areas covered with uncoated zinc, copper or
                                                lead in Germany per prohibition regulated.
                                           -    By providing appropriate means to remove contaminants from surface
                                                runoff.
                                       Wastewater management:
                                           Guarantee efficient wastewater disposal:
                                           -    By designing drainage systems with the objective to avoid effluent
                                                leaking into surrounding ground.
                                           -    By facilitating access to plumbing for ease of maintenance.
                                           -    By selecting plumbing materials for strength, durability, and the ability
                                                to resist to corrosive action of wastes.




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Elements
The design of sustainable buildings strives to minimize impacts on environment
and health. The use of synthetic materials is preferable for water piping, such as
PP, polypropylene, as they do not emit substances into water and require fewer
resources to manufacture.



  II

  I
                                                                                                                   Figure 7-5:
                                                                                                                   Example Siemens, Netherlands
  I                                                                                                                Landscape water features can serve as
                                                                                                                   rainwater cisterns.


Figure 7-3:
Rainwater use with building-extern cistern [LHM 1998]


Installing an exterior rainwater cistern saves building-volume, but results in longer
pipe runs and use of green space.




  III

  II

  I




Figure 7-4:
Rainwater use with building-intern cistern [LHM 1998]


Installing an interior rainwater cistern leaves green space intact. However, this
environment-friendly variant increases investment costs.


Benchmark
 Water demand for landscape
 Light ground                                              100 – 200 l/m³ (April – September)
 Weighty ground                                            80 – 150 l/m³ (April – September)
 Water demand for office building                          11 – 30 l/ person a day
 Rainwater cistern factor                                  0,6 m³/ person

Table 7-3:
Water demand and the cistern factor




V09-01                                                SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                            7-5
      Introduction          Site                     Building Envelope                    Energy                      Room Comfort

                                                                                                                    Commissioning and
      HVAC Systems   Electrical Systems                   Water                Healthy Environment-Building            Operation



                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                             Figure 7-6:
                             Landscape water features serving as rainwater cisterns, Siemens, Bremen, Germany.




                             Figure 7-7:
                             Landscape design featuring effective solutions for infiltration, Siemens, Stuttgart, Germany.

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         Introduction          Site                Building Envelope           Energy            Room Comfort

                                                                        Healthy Environment-   Commissioning and
     HVAC Systems       Electrical Systems              Water                 Building            Operation




8 Healthy Environment-
  Building
                8.1 Use appropriate Building Materials
                    – Shell and Structure
                8.2 Use appropriate Building Materials
                    – Finishes
                8.3 Use appropriate Building Materials
                    – Landscaping




V09-01                                  SRE Sustainable Building design Guidebook                                  8-1
          Introduction                        Site               Building Envelope           Energy               Room Comfort

                                                                                       Healthy Environment      Commissioning and
         HVAC Systems                  Electrical Systems             Water                  Building              Operation




                                               8.1          Use appropriate Building
                                                            Materials – Shell and Structure
             Preliminary Studies
                                               Issue
             Predesign
                                               A number of factors influence the selection of building material and components
             Design
                                               including cost, aesthetics, performance and availability. Sustainable design seeks
             Execution                         to minimize environmental and health impacts caused by building materials.
             Commissioning                     Material selection must focus on sourcing materials with the least impact to the
                                               environment and human health.
             Operation

                                               Strategies
                                               Construction Strategies:
                                                    Do not use composite materials that cannot be separated at the end of their
                                                    life cycle.
                                                    Avoid using adhesives or sealants that limit disassembly of components.
                                                    Design buildings to facilitate deconstruction and recovery of materials.
                                                    Select materials considering global and regional environmental impacts from
                                                    extraction to disposal.
                                                    Avoid using materials harmful to the environment.
                                                    Avoid the use of materials that result in waste and cause pollution (incl.
                                                    noise, vibration, dust).
                                                    Use materials and products that can be easily disassembled to ensure reuse
                                                    or recycling.
                                               Strategies for the selection of materials:
                                                    Avoid the use of tropical woods.
                                                    Avoid the use of materials that result in harmful emissions into soil, air and
                                                    water such as CFCs, heavy metals, zinc leachate.
                                                    Avoid the use of materials that release or contain toxic substances. Select
 Figure 8-1:                                        materials that are:
 Make use of hygienic and harmless
                                                    -     Hygenic and harmless including adhesives and paints.
 materials to protect both future building
 occupants and workers.                             -     Biocide-free.
                                                    -     Formaldehyde free.
                                                    -     Low in VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions.
                                                    Provide protection for workers and occupants when using materials
                                                    containing toxic compounds that cannot be avoided.
                                                    Use environmentally-friendly certified materials such as eco labels or green
                                                    seals.




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           Introduction                        Site                  Building Envelope                  Energy            Room Comfort

                                                                                                 Healthy Environment-   Commissioning and
           HVAC Systems                Electrical Systems                  Water                       Building            Operation



Elements
 Materials                      Toxic/ Noxious substances              Recommendations
 Wood/ derived timber           Chemical wood preservatives:           Avoid use of chemical wood-
 product                        VOC, biocides, preservatives           preservatives inside the building
                                                                       Avoid use of synthetic additives
                                Synthetic additives for mortar
 Concrete/ masonry                                                     Concrete additives only by
                                Concrete additives
                                                                       arrangement
                                                                       Avoid use of mineral fiber-based
                                Artificial mineral fibres              insulating material inside the
 Insulating materials           CFC-, HCFC-based insulating            building
                                materials                              Wrap mineral fiber-based
                                                                       insulation into plastic-film
                                                                       Obtain information about
                                VOC
 Sealing compounds                                                     product content from
                                Flexibiliser
                                                                       manufacturers and suppliers
                                VOC
 Plaster                                                               Use of mineral plasters
                                Preservatives
 Anticorrosive coats            VOC                                    Use low VOC paints and coatings
                                                                       Use mineral or water-based
 Exterior Paintwork             VOC
                                                                       paints and coatings

Table 8-1:
Possible sources and types of contaminants due to construction materials


                                Artificial mineral fibres              Limit insulation to stroke-
 Insulating materials           CFC-, HCFC-based insulating            endangered areas
                                materials                              Low-solvent adhesives
                                                                       Use non-halogenated piping
                                                                       materials
 Piping/ ductworks              PVC                                    PE (polyethylene) effluent
                                                                       PP (polypropylene), PE potable
                                                                       water
                                Plasticizers used in                   Use non-halogenated PP
 Electric cable
                                PVC during production                  electronic cabling

Table 8-2:
Possible sources and types of contaminants due to mechanical and electrical systems



Benchmark
Benchmarks are not provided for the adverse environmental effects from or the
toxic emissions of building materials. Materials must be carefully selected for the
specific application. As a rule, chose the materials with the lowest specific Global
Warming Point Value and products that cause the least possible contamination.

 Material                                                          GWP (Global Warming Potential)
 Corrugated Aluminum Sheet, 1 mm                                           55 kg CO2 eq
 Corrugated Steel Sheet, 0,75 mm                                           24 kg CO2 eq
 Sheet copper, 0,70 mm                                                     60 kg CO2 eq

Table 8-3:
Example for different materials as wall claddings




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          Introduction                     Site                 Building Envelope           Energy               Room Comfort

                                                                                      Healthy Environment      Commissioning and
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                                            8.2           Use appropriate Building
                                                          Materials - Finishes

                                            Issue
                                            Indoor air quality can be affected by the types of materials used for interior
             Preliminary Studies            finishes (see also chapter 4.3). A healthy workplace supports occupant health and
             Predesign                      well-being.
                                            To reduce indoor air contaminants select materials with the least negative impact
             Design
                                            on indoor air quality. Poor indoor air quality can result in mental and physical
             Execution                      health impairments. Improving indoor air quality has been shown to increase
             Commissioning                  worker productivity and lower absenteeism. Using healthy materials also protects
             Operation
                                            the health of workers during construction.


                                            Strategies
                                                   Define goals and criteria for material selection and inventory materials to be
                                                   used, the functional units and the amount of material to be used.
                                                   Avoid materials and products releasing health harming substances during
                                                   and after installation:
                                                   -    Emissions containing eye-irritants.
                                                   -    Emissions containing skin irritants.
                                                   -    Emissions containing mucous membrane/respiratory tracts irritants.
                                                   -    Cancer-causing emissions.
                                                   -    Toxic emissions.
                                                   Define goals for the material:
                                                   -    Use low-VOC emission products, materials and chemicals.
                                                   -    Check the manufacturer product lines for Green Products and use Green
 Figure 8-2:
 Use of hygienic harmless paints.                       Seal Products.




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                                                                                                    Healthy Environment-   Commissioning and
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Elements

 Materials                         Toxic/ Noxious substances              Recommendations
                                                                          Use solvent-free, low VOC
                                   VOC
                                                                          content or water-based paints:
 Coats/ paints/ lacquers           Formaldehyde
                                                                          Silicate paints, dispersions type
                                   Preservatives
                                                                          silicate paints
                                                                          Use emission-free products
                                   Plasticizer
 Textile and elastic floor                                                Alternative fastening methods:
                                   Formaldehyde
 coverings                                                                Magnetic, self-stabilizing, hook
                                   Adhesives
                                                                          and loop systems
                                                                          Avoid use of solvent-based
                                                                          products
                                                                          Avoid use of area-measured/
                                   VOC, Formaldehyde,
 Adhesives                                                                plane application
                                   Preservatives
                                                                          Use solvent-free, low-VOC
                                                                          emission or water-based
                                                                          adhesives, Appropriate oils, wax
                                                                          Use solvent-free/ low-solvent
 Floor coatings (parquet
                                   VOC, Formaldehyde                      water-based varnish
 seals)
                                                                          Appropriate oils, wax
                                                                          Use solid wood
                                                                          Low-formaldehyde products: use
 Wood/ derived timber                                                     of phenol formaldehyde resin or
                                   Formaldehyde, VOC
 products/ furniture                                                      methylene diisocyanates resin
                                                                          Water-based, VOC-free, low-
                                                                          emission glues

Table 8-4:
Possible sources and types of contaminants due to finishing materials




Benchmark
To obtain more information about specific product ingredients contact
manufacturers for product information such as the Material Safety Data Sheet
(MSDS) in the US. Choose materials and products that cause the least possible
contamination.




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                                       8.3           Use appropriate Building
         Preliminary Studies
                                                     Materials - Landscaping
         Predesign
                                       Issue
         Design
                                       Sustainably designed green spaces protect air, water and soil quality while
         Execution                     preserving biodiversity and protecting human health. Public spaces and
         Commissioning                 landscaping can affect the microclimate of buildings and their environment.
         Operation

                                       Strategies
                                              Site:
                                              -     Reduce impacts on ground from the very start of construction.
                                              -     Minimize soil disturbances, especially in regard to foundation depth.
                                              -     Integrate the floor sweep into design to avoid unnecessary ground
                                                    excavation and grading.
                                              -     Make use of the excavated earth on the site.
                                              -     Reserve and reuse topsoil.
                                              -     Separate waste materials from storing materials.
                                              -     Protect existing vegetation, especially native plants.
                                              Avoid using impermeable, “hard surface” materials:
                                              -     Design pervious surfaces such as gravel lawns, permeable paving, grass
                                                    pavers-blocks/ turf pavers to ensure infiltration.
                                              -     Consider landscaping roof areas, green roofs.
                                              Design landscape to support biodiversity:
                                              -     Provide semi-natural habitats for flora and fauna by:
                                                    •    Selecting native vegetation adapted to the site.
                                                    •    Protecting existing trees and vegetation/ plants.
                                                    •    Designing hedges to provide habitat for several (animal) species, as
                                                         well as to provide protection from noise and view.
                                                    •    Integrating new plantings with existing trees and vegetation.
                                              -     Consider planting of exterior wall surfaces and facades.
                                              -     Design spaces using plants; e.g. trees as natural composition element of
                                                    the design.
                                              -     Avoid use of de-icing salts during winter.
                                              -     Begin design of green spaces at early stages of the planning process.
                                              -     Specify low-maintenance green spaces to save on costs, as well as on
                                                    resources (water) by:
                                                    •    Using robust plant species.
                                                    •    Using xeriscaping (plants requiring only little water).




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                                                                                                 Healthy Environment-               Commissioning and
        HVAC Systems                 Electrical Systems                        Water                   Building                        Operation




Elements




Figure 8-3:                                               Figure 8-4:
Water permeable footpath design                           Infiltration swale


Water quality is maintained by reducing the amount of impervious surface area
and enhancing infiltration of water into the ground. Risks of flooding are
minimized.

Landscaped roofs, or green roofs, with a substrate layer of 10 cm can lower
ambient temperatures. Green roofs reduce runoff and improve thermal comfort.


Benchmark
                                                                                                                  Figure 8-5:
                                                                                                                  Landscaped roof
 Surface type                                        Appropriate use
 Aggregates and mulches
 Wood- and bark covering                             Low-traffic footpaths
                                                     Occasional used parking areas, low-traffic side- and
 Gravel lawn
                                                     median-strips
                                                     Footpaths and bicycle tracks, low-traffic roads,
 Unattached covering
                                                     parking areas
 Permeable paving
 Turf pavers                                         Parking areas, garage avenues
 Porous paving                                       Squares, parking areas, footpaths, bicycle tracks
 Paving with large joints                            Squares, paths, parking areas
 Semi-permeable pavement and slab covering
 Slab covering                                       Low-traffic roads, squares, parking areas
 Concrete paving                                     Paths, parking areas
 Paving
 Bituminous asphalt                                  High-traffic roads, high-traffic parking areas
 Concrete road surface                               Special parking areas and using zones

Table 8-5:
Various types of landscape surfaces and their appropriate uses [BMVBW 2004]




V09-01                                               SRE Sustainable Building design Guidebook                                                          8-7
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                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions




                             Figure 8-6:
                             Healthy workplaces by using low-emission products, Siemens, Munich, Germany




                             Figure 8-7:
                             Turf pavers in parking areas enhancing infiltration of water into the ground, Siemens, Munich, Germany



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         Introduction           Site                 Building Envelope             Energy                 Room Comfort

                                                                                                        Commissioning and
     HVAC Systems        Electrical Systems               Water          Healthy-Environment Building      Operation




9              Commissioning and
               Operation
                9.1     Energy Management

                9.2     Waste Management and Building Cleaning




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         Introduction                        Site              Building Envelope             Energy                 Room Comfort

                                                                                                                  Commissioning and
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                                              9.1          Energy Management
                                              Issue
            Preliminary Studies               Building operation costs can be reduced by continuous control of building
            Predesign                         performance and clear communication to operators and users in regard to goals of
            Design
                                              sustainability. Periodic analysis of building operations must be made.

            Execution
                                              Sustainable design considers energy flows over the whole lifecycle of a building.
            Commissioning                     The energy demands for construction of a building (including the energy required
            Operation                         for each building material) and for the building operation must be analyzed.
                                              While the design and construction of a building determine its future energy
                                              requirements, it is the buildings users that must practice energy-efficient
                                              behaviors during operation.


                                              Strategies
                                              Energy Management systems (EMS) and internal processes to manage energy
                                              demands combine together to form an energy measuring concept. Potable water
                                              is as significant a resource as energy.
                                                    Specify a measuring concept:
                                                    -    Measure and index values without creating ‘data graveyards’.
                                                    -    Divide energy demand into various zones.
                                                    -    Provide clear performance measures.
                                                    -    Design technical installations so that measuring equipment can be used
                                                         effectively and at various times.
                                                    Analyze measured values:
                                                    -    Evaluate the values received.
                                                    -    Define specific characteristics.
 Figure 9-1:                                        -    Determine annual energy demand and energy costs.
 Eenergy monitoring und controlling
 Advantage EMC
                                                    -    Compare energy characteristics from year to year.
                                                    Use results of analysis to optimize building performance:
                                                    -    Analyze demand for heat, electricity and water.
                                                    -    Review instantaneous values to optimize several processes, such as
                                                         selective cylinder operation, operating time of burners, etc.
                                                    -    Use simulation models for optimization.
                                                    Ensure coordination of various technical components.
                                                    Ensure systems durability by providing regular maintenance and cleaning of
                                                    the various technical components.
                                                    Track performance in regard to energy use targets set during the planning
                                                    process.
                                                    Provide appropriate technical instruments to measure and control energy.
                                                    Compare energy target values defined during the planning process with
                                                    actual consumption values.
                                                    Inspect and correct differences, so target values are achieved.


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                            Introduction                                               Site                                   Building Envelope                                                Energy                                      Room Comfort

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Commissioning and
                          HVAC Systems                                       Electrical Systems                                              Water                      Healthy-Environment Building                                  Operation




Elements
The measuring concept should be developed when planning mechanical and
technical equipment installations. Alternative solutions for the measuring concept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       hot water
must be pointed out during pre-design and specified during construction. Crucial                                                                                                                        photovoltaic   supplied by solar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ground water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ventilation 14%
points of concern include defining metering points for heating, cooling, electricity                                                                                                                                   lighting 28%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         heat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         exchanger

and water. Measures to improve building operation should be defined in                                                                                                                                                 miscellaneous technics 18%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       auxiliary 16%
collaboration with the building operator and users. A key strategy is preparation of                                                                                                                                   central services 27%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 heat recovery
a measuring concept that includes the following information:                                                                                                                                                     small cooling units 2%


     Functional arrangement/ distribution of mechanical and electrical equipment.
     Expected systems performance values.
     Presentation of saving potentials.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                static
     Verification of optimization measures.                                                                                                                                                                                  heating 77%

     Baseline data for remodeling and estimating heating costs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ventilation 6%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              domestic hot water
Monitoring is an effective means to optimize the energy demand and operating                                                                                                                                                  losses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9%                   8%


costs during building operation. Provisions must be made to document energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Figure 9-3:
use. Building operators and users should be continuously informed of strategies to                                                                                                                      Example for energy flow diagram
minimize the energy consumption.

The building ‘passport’ - a European building guide - describes significant building
characteristics and operating instructions in a comprehensive form. The passport
includes information required for effective and efficient facility management.
Careful documentation of design, construction and operation informs remolding
and eventual deconstruction.


Benchmark
              Logging Level 1      Logging Level        Logging Level 3       Logging Level 4        Logging Level 5   Logging Level 6               Consumer load
                                                                                                                                                     Utilization/Zone


                Emergency
               Power Suply
                  [kWh]
              Meter No. ########



                                                          UPS System
                                                        Meter No. ########
                                                                                                                                                                                                        A strategy for measuring and metering is the
                                                                                 Cooling Unit                               Cooling                                                                     foundation of an efficient and applicable
                                                                                   [kWh]                Cooling Unit        [kWh th]
Electricity




                                                                                                                        Meter No. ########
                                                                                Meter No. ########
                                                                                                                                                                                                        energy monitoring system. Detailed energy
                                                        Building Services         Ventilation
                                                              kWh]                  [kWh]
                                                         Meter-o. ########      Meter No. ########
                                                                                                                                                                         Meassurement
                                                                                                                                                                                                        data logging allows main energy uses to be
                                                                                                                                                                          XXXXXXXXXXX                   differentiated.
                 Electricity           Building           Miscellanous                                                                                                       [kWh]
                   [kWh]                [kWh]                [kWh]                                                                                                        Meter No. ########
              Meter- o. ########   Meter-No. ########   Meter No. ########

                                                                                                                                                                         User
                                                               User
                                                                                                                                                                          XXXXXXXXXXX
                                                              [kWh]
                                                        Meter No. ########


                                                                                                                                                                         Meassurement
                                   Outside Facilities                                                                                                                    energy use in building
                                        [kWh]
                                   Meter No. ########                                                                                                                     XXXXXXXXXXX
                                                                                                                                                                             [kWh]
                                                                                                                                                                          Meter No. ########




Figure 9-2:
Example for an electricity measuring and metering strategy




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         Introduction                      Site                 Building Envelope             Energy                 Room Comfort

                                                                                                                   Commissioning and
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                                            9.2           Waste Management and Building
                                                          Cleaning
         Preliminary Studies
                                            Issue
         Predesign
                                            Waste generated from homes and businesses, street litter, construction debris,
         Design
                                            industrial processes and sewage sludge create monumental environment
         Execution                          problems.
         Commissioning                      While the waste handling systems existing in many countries minimize local
         Operation
                                            impacts, the eventual disposal of waste contaminates land, air and water sources
                                            at a regional and global scale. In the Netherlands, processing sites recover an
                                            estimated 60% of the waste material. In 1993, Denmark, achieved an 80%
                                            recycling rate for construction and demolition waste through landfill and materials
                                            tax incentives (UCD 1999).

                                            Strategies
                                                   Reduce waste at its source:
                                                   -    Design buildings to minimize waste during operation.
                                                   Separate waste:
                                                   -    Define specific targets in regard to treatment and handling of wastes
                                                        during commissioning.
                                                   -    Design safe, sufficient and expandable storage for different categories of
                                                        wastes.
                                                   -    Survey waste treatment and waste separation.
                                                   Reuse or recycle:
                                                   -    Separate wastes considering various waste categories.
                                                   -    Store wastes so that future recycling is possible.
                                                   Ensure safely dispose of waste to reduce impacts on ecosystems.
                                                   Document and analyze waste accumulation periodically (at least once a year).
                                                   Use of self-cleaning materials for facades to reduce the cleaning intervals.
                                                   Establish a ecological cleaning strategy:
 Figure 9-4:                                       -    Use microfibre textiles to prevent cleaning agents.
 The need for complex cleaning systems             -    Do not overdose the cleaning agents.
 for claddings should be avoided if
 possible
                                                   -    Control the consumption of cleaning agents.
                                                   -    Adapt the cleaning to the pollution degree.

                                            Elements
                                            The former way of thinking was that construction wastes belong to the contractor.
                                            Now, the responsibility for waste extends back to the building’s design and
                                            consequently, the designer is responsible for construction waste. It only makes
                                            sense to verify where building wastes are ultimately sent for disposal.




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              Introduction                              Site                         Building Envelope                    Energy                      Room Comfort

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Eliminating waste requires specifications in design and construction, production
and distribution, and the use of manufactured products.
The first task is to reduce waste at its source. Then, when the waste cannot be
avoided storage must be provided to accommodate recycling.
Wastes for disposal must be minimized and stored separated from recyclables.

Benchmark
Waste handling procedures must be established. These should specify strategies                                                     Figure 9-6:
concerning waste reduction and separation. Clarify in which categories waste                                                       Waste management, Siemens
must be separated. Separate wastes where they are generated.                                                                       Sufficient space for various waste
                                                                                                                                   containers must be provided and
                                                                                                                                   integrated into the design.




          Office                        Kitchen                        Service           Public Areas




                                                               Main Storage Room                                  BT 25




          R                  R    AfA      R       BT 25       R                                              R     R




                             Employee              Cleaning Servic           Caretaker     Waste Disoposal



Figure 9-5:
Example: Waste Management System


  Waste Material

  Papers, cardboards                       60 – 80%

  Residual waste                                  10%

  Organic waste                                   20%

  Glass                                           1%


Table 9-1:
Estimated composition of waste in an office building– Daily fraction of waste per employee: 5 liter                                Figure 9-7:
                                                                                                                                   Microfibre Textiles for cleaning: A
                                                                                                                                   combination of hydrophil (blue) and
                                                                                                                                   hydrophob/lipophil (yellow) fibers enables
                                                                                                                                   the prevention of cleaning agents

V09-01                                                                   Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                                  9-5
      Introduction          Site                    Building Envelope                    Energy                            Room Comfort

                                                                                                                        Commissioning and
      HVAC Systems   Electrical Systems                  Water               Healthy-Environment Building                  Operation



                             Best Practice/ Siemens Products and Solutions


                                                     User with
                                                                                                                              Central
                                                     Web Browser




                                                                                                            Firewall
                                                                                                                       Advantage EMC Server
                                                                                                                           (Server Farm
                                                                                                                           - Karlsruhe -)




                                                           WWW




                                                                                                      Automatic
                              Used with                                                               measuring
                              Web Browser




                                                  Manual imput                                                                      Counting




                             Figure 9-8:
                             Siemens Advantage EMC for monitoring, controlling and optimizing of the energy consumption.




                             Figure 9-9:
                             Easy to clean interior surfaces, Siemens, Munich, Germany




9-6                          Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                                  V09-01
A Appendices
         A.1 References
         A.2 Conversion factors to SI units
         A.3 Building Design Checklist




V09-01             SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook   A-1
A.1          References
[BO 2005]                     BREEAM Office, (2005): BRE's Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM).
                              Watford (UK). www.breeam.org.

[BfE 2005]                    Novatlantis, Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BfE), (2005): Smarter Living - Generating a new
                              understanding for natural resources as the key to sustainable development – the 2000 Watt-
                              Society. Zurich. www.novatlantis.ch.

[BfE 1999]                    Weber et. al., Bundesamt für Energie (BfE) (Hrsg.) (1999): Energieverbrauch in
                              Bürogebäuden. Zurich.

[BfK 1992]                    Bundesamt für Konjunkturfragen, (1992): Strom rationell nutzen. vdf Verlag der Fachvereine
                              an den schweizerischen Hochschulen und Techniken. Zurich. ISBN 3 7281 1830 3.

[BMVBW 2003]                  Bundesministerium für Verkehr-, Bau- und Wohnungswesen (BMVBW), (2003):
                              Leitfaden Nachhaltiges Bauen. Berlin.

[DK 2002]                     Deutsches Kupferinstitut (Hrsg.), (2002): Architektur und Solarthermie.
                              Verlag Das Beispiel GmbH. Darmstadt. ISBN 3-935243-12-X.

[GBC 2005]                    Green Building Council (with 15 members of the current international framework committee
                              (GBC), (2005): Building environmental performance assessment methodology. Canada.
                              www.greenbuilding.ca.

[Hausladen 2005]              Hausladen, G. et. al., (2005): Clima Design. Verlag D.W. Callwey GmbH & Co. KG,
                              Munich. ISBN 3-7667-1612-3.

[Hegger 2005]                 Hegger et. al., Fachgebiet entwerfen unf, Energieeffizientes Bauen, TU Darmstadt, (2005):
                              Baustoff Atlas. Birkhäuser. Basel. ISBN 3-7643-7272-9.

[Hegner 2002]                 Hegner Hans-Dieter, Vogler Ingrid, BMVBW, (2002): Energieeinsparverordnung EnEV –
                              für die Praxis kommentiert. Ernst & Sohn Verlag. Berlin. ISBN 3-433-0170-1.

[HK-BEAM 2004]                The Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method (HK-BEAM), (2004):
                              Building Environmental Assessment Method, Version 4/04. c/o Business Environment Council.
                              Hong Kong. www.hkbeam.org.hk.

[HVB 2002]                    HVB Immobilien AG, (2002): Gesundes Büro. Leitfaden für die Realisierung von
                              nachhaltigen und gesunden Bürogebäuden. Munich. ISBN 3-00-009265-X.

[Köhler 2005]                 Köhler, R., (2005): Schweizer Energiefachbuch2005. Künzel-Bachmann Medien AG. St.Gallen.

[LHM 1998]                    Landeshauptstadt München (LHM), Maßnahmenträger München Riem GmbH (MRG), (1998):
                              Messestadt Riem – Ökologische Bausteine Teil 2. Munich.

[LHM 1995]                    Landeshauptstadt München (LHM), Maßnahmenträger München Riem GmbH (MRG), (1995):
                              Messestadt München Riem – Ökologische Bausteine Teil 1. Munich.



A-2                SRE Sustainable Building design Guidebook                                     V09-01
    [MOEA 2001]         Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance, (2001): Sustainable Schools Minnesota.

    [NCARB 2001]        National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB), (2001): Sustainable Design –
                        Professional Development Program. Washington DC 20006. ISBN 0-941575-35-7.
                        www.ncarb.org.

    [SBM 2001]          SolarBau:Monitor Team, (2001): Energieeffizienz und Solarenergienutzung im
                        Nichtwohnungsbau. Informationsdienst BINE. www.solarbau.de.

    [SIA 112/1 2005]    Schweizer Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verein (sia), (2005): SIA Empfehlung 112/1
                        Nachhaltiges Bauen im Hochbau. Zurich. www.sia.ch.

    [SIA SNARC 2004]    Schweizer Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verein (sia), (2004): sia D 0200 SNARC - Systematik zur
                        Beurteilung der Nachhaltigkeit von Architekturprojekten für den Bereich Umwelt. Zurich. ISBN 3-
                        908483-78-6.

    [SIA 380/4 1995]    Schweizer Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verein (sia), (1995): SIA 380/4 Elektrizität im
                        Hochbau. Zürich. www.380-4.ch.

    [StMLU 2003]        Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Landesentwicklung und Umweltfragen (StMLU) (Hrsg.)
                        (2003): Oberflächennahe Geothermie.

    [TUM 2002]          Mücke, W., et. al., Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene Technische Universität München
                        (TUM), (2002): Ratgeber für umweltfreundliches Bauen und Wohnen. D. & M. Gräbner. Alten-
                        dorf bei Bamberg.

    [UCD 1999]          University College Dublin, et. al., (1999): A Green Vitruvius – Principles and Practice of
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    [USGBC 2005]        U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), (2005): LEED-NC Green Building Rating System For
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    [Voss 2005]         Voss, K., et. al., (2005): Bürogebäude mit Zukunft. Informationsdienst BINE. Bonn.
                        ISBN 3-8249-0883-2.

    [Zimmermann 1999]   Zimmermann M., (1999): Handbuch der passiven Kühlung. Duebendorf (CH).
                        ISBN 3-905594-06-4.

    [Zimmermann 1998]   Zimmermann M., et. al., (1998): Low Energy Cooling. Case Study Buildings. Duebendorf (CH).

[




    V09-01                    SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                                                   A-3
 A.2   Conversion factors to SI units
       Category                       SI Einheiten         English - American
       Distance                          1    cm             0,3937     in
                                    2,5400    cm                   1    in
                                         1    m              3,2808     ft
                                    0,3048    m                    1    ft
       Area                              1    cm²            0,1550     sq in
                                    6,4516    cm²                  1    sq in
                                         1    m²            10,7639     sq ft
                                    0,0929    m²                   1    sq ft
       Volume                            1    cm³           0,06102     cu in
                                   16,3870    cm³                  1    cu in
                                         1    dm³            61,024     cu in
                                   0,01639    dm³                  1    cu in
                                                            0,03531     cu ft
                                         1    l             0,21998     gal (brit)
                                                            0,26428     gal (am.)
                                   28,31685   l                    1    cu ft
                                      4,546   l                    1    gal (brit)
                                      3,785   l                    1    gal (am.)
                                          1   m³             35,315     cu ft
                                0,02831685    m³                   1    cu ft
       Weight/Mass                                           2,2046     lb
                                         1    kg           35,27392     oz
                                                               0,787    quarter (brit.)
                                     0,4536   kg                   1    lb
                                0,02834952    kg                   1    oz
                                    12,701    kg                   1    quarter (brit.)
       Flow Rate                          1   m/s            196,85     ft / min
                                      0,508   m/s                  1    ft / min
                                          1   km / h         0,6214     mph
                                   1,60934    km / h               1    mph
                                                             0,5886     cu ft / min
                                         1    m³ / h           3,666    gal / min (brit.)
                                                               4,403    gal / min (am.)
                                      1,700   m³ / h               1    cu ft / min
                                      0,273   m³ / h               1    gal / min (brit.)
                                      0,227   m³ / h               1    gal / min (am.)
       Energy                             1   kJ               0,948    BTU
                                      1,055   kJ                   1    BTU
                                          1   kWh            3414,5     BTU
                                 0,2930711    Wh                   1    BTU
                                          1   MWh           34,1297     therms
                                    29,722    kWh                  1    therm
       Power                              1   W               3,412     BTU / h
                                     0,2931   W                    1    BTU / h
                                          1   kW               3,412    BTU / h
                                 0,2928104    W                    1    BTU / h
       Specific heat capacity             1   kJ / kg K      0,2388     BTU / (lb F)
                                          1   kJ /m³ K       0,0149     BTU((cu ft F)
       Heat                               1   kJ / m²        0,0881     BTU / cu ft
                                          1   W / m²         0,3170     BTU / (h sq ft)
                                          1   W / (m² K)     0,1761     BTU / (h sq ft F)


A-4    SRE Sustainable Building design Guidebook                       V09-01
A.2          Building Design Checklist
                                                       Predesign   Design status   Construction   Operation
                                                         status                       status       status
1         Site
1.1       Minimize Site Impacts
1.2       Provide Ease of Access
2         Building Envelope
2.1       Create a simple Building Form
2.2       Optimize Heat Protection
2.3       Use an appropriate Façade
3         Energy
3.1       Minimize operating Energy Consumption
3.2       Minimize Use of embodied Energy
3.3       Use renewable Energy
4         Room Comfort
4.1       Provide High Thermal Comfort
4.2       Provide Visual and Acoustical Comfort
4.3       Provide High Indoor Air Quality
5         HVAC Systems
5.1       Efficient Heating and Hot Water Systems
5.2       Efficient Ventilation Systems
5.3       Efficient Cooling Systems
6         Electrical Systems
6.1       Efficient Systems for Power Generation
6.2       Efficient Lighting Systems
7         Water
7.1       Minimize Water Use
7.2       Effective Rainwater Management
8         Healthy Environment Building
8.1       Materials – Shell and Structure
8.2       Materials - Finishes
8.3       Materials - Landscaping
9         Commissioning and Operation
9.1       Energy Management
9.2       Waste Management

    Bad              Average              Good


V09-01                                    SRE Sustainable Building Design Guidebook                           A-5