Examples of Behavioral Interventions

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					Examples of Behavioral
    Interventions
Wednesday, September 12, 2007
          CSS 387
          Problem 1: Shiloh National Military Park


 • Three treatments
      – Awareness of consequences
      – AC + “heritage guardian”
      – AC + HG + incentive
 • Control


Vander Stoep, G. & Gramann, J. 1987. The effect of verbal appeals and incentives on
depreciative behavior among youthful park visitors. Journal of Leisure Research, 19,
69-83
                                     Problem 1: Shiloh National Military Park
                                     Effects of Messages on Depreciative Behaviors at Shiloh
                                                          Military Park
                                  140
      Mean number of acts/group



                                  120           No message    AC message      AC +RP   AC + RP + I

                                  100
                                   80
                                   60
                                   40
                                   20
                                    0
                                           Total          Sitting      Touching        Climbing
                                                              Behavior Type


Vander Stoep, G. & Gramann, J. 1987. The effect of verbal appeals and incentives on
depreciative behavior among youthful park visitors. Journal of Leisure Research, 19, 69-83
         Problem 2: University Cafeteria Recycling

 • Signs
      – Old
      – New
 • Pre-test/post-test
      – Questionnaires
      – Examination of bins



Werner, C. M., Rhodes, M. U., & Partain, K. K. (1998). Designing effective
instructional signs with schema theory: Case studies of polystyrene recycling.
Environment & Behavior 30: 709-735.
   Problem 2: University Cafeteria Recycling
         Knowledge and attitudes about styrofoam recycling

    Know U recycles polystyrene


Know polystyrene must be scraped
                                                 Old Signs
  DK what food service items are                 New Signs
           polystyrene


       Know what polystyrene is?                                   No effect on
                                                                   general
    Should U recycle polystyrene?                                  knowledge
                                                                   or attitude
                                    0   20   40 60     80    100
                                             Percent
Problem 2: University Cafeteria Recycling
         Knowledge and attitudes about styrofoam recycling


      Know U recycles polystyrene
                                                                   1 full bin/day
 Know polystyrene must be scraped
                                                 Old Signs
Don't know what food service items               New Signs          3.5 full
         are polystyrene
                                                                    bins/day
        Know what polystyrene is?                                  Large effect
                                                                   on specific
     Should U recycle polystyrene?                                 knowledge
                                                                   & behavior
                                     0   20   40 60     80   100
                                              Percent
   Problem 3: Recycling Cans in Academic Buildings

 • Focus of study
      – Convenience vs. messages
 • Methods
      – 5 buildings – 1 treatment in each
      – Posted signs
      – Counted cans



Werner, C. M., Stoll, R., Birch, P., & White, P. H. (2002). Clinical validation and
cognitive elaboration: Signs that encourage sustained recycling. Basic & Applied
Social Psychology, 24(3), 185-203
      Problem 3: Recycling Cans in Academic
                    Buildings

"inconvenient but
    important"

    "30 seconds"


High convenience
                                                          After
     Moderate
    convenience                                           Baseline

Low convenience


                    0    20        40         60        80           100
                        Percentage of Aluminum Cans Recycled
Problem 4: Deer at Shenandoah
                  Problem 4: Deer at Shenandoah

 • Goal:
      – Compare moral and fear appeals
      – Effects on beliefs & elaboration
 • Methods
      – Table-top signs




Hockett, K. & Hall, T. E. 2007. The effect of moral and fear appeals on park visitors’
beliefs about feeding wildlife. Journal of Interpretation Research. In press.
                    Moral Appeal

               Attention All Deer - Danger!

              Never accept food from humans.


Although visitors mean well by offering you food, accepting even one
apple could seriously hurt you.

Human food may taste good, but it…
   may make you sick.
   may make you fat and slow – an easy target for predators and cars.
   may make you trust all humans – making you easy prey for
  hunters.
   may make you dependent on humans and unable to find natural
    food.

Protect your health. Resist the temptation and never accept food from
humans.
                   Fear Appeal

             Attention All Campers - Danger!

                        Never feed deer.



Although deer may appear tame and gentle, they are wild. Deer are
unpredictable creatures and could seriously injure you.

If you feed a deer, it…
     may suddenly bite you.
     may kick you with its powerful legs and sharp hooves.
     may gore you with its hard, pointed antlers.
     may expose you to diseases that could make you very sick.

Protect yourself and your family. Never try to feed or approach deer or
other wildlife in the park.
                 Effect on beliefs:
    Mean responses to items taken from the moral
                       appeal

 Agree     2
         1.5
           1
         0.5
           0
        -0.5
          -1
                                       Control       Moral      Fear
        -1.5
Disagree -2
               Lose ability to human food -   fed = hit by   fed = shot by feeding helps
                 find food       sick deer        cars          hunters        avoid
                                                                             predators
                Elaboration: Moral message


Agree     2
        1.5
          1
        0.5
          0
        -0.5
         -1
        -1.5     Control     Moral   Fear
Disagree -2
               Fed -> eat garbage    Natural food OK   One person not matter
                 Effect on beliefs:
     Mean responses to items taken from the fear
                       appeal

 Agree     2
         1.5
           1
         0.5
           0
         -0.5
           -1
        -1.5                Control     Moral   Fear

Disagree -2
                Deer give    Deer can     Deer can kick Deer can bite
                diseases       gore
                     Elaboration: Fear message


  Agree     2
          1.5
            1
          0.5
            0
          -0.5
           -1                                 Control       Moral   Fear
          -1.5
Disagree -2
                 I'm scared   Deer unlikely     Deer not       Der not Deer endanger
                               to attack       aggressive     Dangerous   children
                Unintended consequences
          100
           90                               Control    Moral   Fear
           80
           70
           60
Percent




           50
           40
           30
           20
           10
            0
                 Ignore   Watch      Approach       Follow     Photograph
                                  Camper Behavior
              Problem 5: Coral Damage by Divers

 • Approach – verbal education
 • Methods
      – Observed divers for 8 weeks – recorded number
        of contacts with coral
      – During 5 weeks, gave briefing at end of dive #3
      – During 3 weeks, no briefings



Medio, D., Ormond, R. F. G., & Pearson, M. (1996). Effect of briefings on rates of
damage to corals by scuba divers. Biological Conservation, 79, 91-95.
         Problem 5: Coral Damage by Divers

      Mean number of contacts per diver per 7 minutes
 5
4.5
 4         Dark bars = dives 1-3
3.5        Light bars = dives 4-10 (post briefing for
 3         experimental groups)
2.5
 2
1.5
 1
0.5
 0
           Ctrl-1              Ctrl-2               Ctrl-3
          Problem 5: Coral Damage by Divers

      Mean number of contacts per diver per 7 minutes
 5
4.5
 4             Dark bars = dives 1-3
3.5            Light bars = dives 4-10 (post briefing for
 3             experimental groups)
2.5
 2
1.5
 1
0.5
 0
      Expt-1    Expt-2   Expt-3   Expt-4   Expt-5   Ctrl-1   Ctrl-2   Ctrl-3