(Autoimmune Diseases, Bacteria and Spores)
Anything about Diseases
These articles are about diseases and symptom of diseases that we encountered every day. It was
written in question and answer format to ease ordinary people to understand more about it.
How are so-called autoimmune disease classified?
Organ specific and non-organ specific
Give examples of autoimmune diseases that are not organ specific, with the relevant
Systemic lupus Erythematosus
Discoid lupus Erythematosus
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Chronic active hepatitis
DNA and several other cell components
Nuclear antigens other than DNA
Give examples of autoimmune diseases that are considered to be organ specific, with the
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Thyroid antigens ( several )
Intrinsic factor in parietal cells
Components of adrenal cortical cells
By what mechanism do these antigen antibody reactions cause disease?
Hypersensitivity reactions of different types
T cell activation
BACTERIA AND SPORES
What shapes of bacteria are generally recognized and used as part of the classifications?
Cocci - Small , spherical organisms
Bacilli -Straight rod-shaped organism
Vibrios -Comma shaped organisms
Spirilla - Spiral rods that do not bend
Spirochaetes - Spiral rods that bend or flex in the middle
Actinomycetes - Complex , branching rods: also called higher or filamentous bacteria
What is the commonest stain in general use for examining bacteria microspically?
-Most common bacteria
-Not mycobacterium, which are neither Gram positive or Gram negative as the waxy
coat resists staining by the Gram method
What stains are used in a Gram stain?
Crystal violet with a safranin counter stain. Gram positive organisms are blue violet, negative
organisms are pink red.
Name one other stain in common microbiological use?
Ziehl-Neelsen stain for mycobacterium: the carbol-fuchsin stain is heated to force it into the
micro - organism. The slide is then washed wit acid or alcohol. Mycobacterium retains the stain
because of waxes in the cell wall; the stain is washed out of other organisms which become
What structures may be present as part of the anatomy of a micro organism?
Capsule: A polysaccharide layer that coats the wall of the organism and contributes to virulence
by resisting phagocytosis. Found in Streptococcus pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumoniae , Bacillus
anthracis , Haemophillus influenza and meningococci
Flagella : For locomation
Fimbria : Thinner and shorter that flagella , used for adhesion .
Spore : protect against dehydration , heat and chemicals , and permit survival if
starvation threaten : found in Bacillus and Clostridia spp.