Pollution Prevention Plan for Connecticut

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communication in DEP programs should call TDD 424-3333.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This document was prepared by the Department of Environmental Protection. The primary
author was Connie Mendolia. However, many Department staff from the Bureaus of Aif
Management, Waste Management, Water Management, Outdoor Recreation, and Natural
Resources, and the Offices of Long lsland Sound Programs, Permit Assistance and
Communications and Education assisted in the preparation of this document. Special
thanks are extended to the members of the interbureau Pollution Prevention Workgroup
          er participating Staff from each bureau for their valuable contributions.
          ign by Caryn Furbush.



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POLLUTION
PREVENTION
PLAN
for
CONNECTICUT



Published October, 1996
                               STATE OF CONNECTICUT
                       DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
                                 79 ELM STREET    HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT 06106

                                              PHONE # (203) 424-3001
Sidney J . Holbrook
   Commissioner                                             September 30, 1996


       Dear Citizens of Connecticut:

               I am very pleased to provide you with the Department of Environmental Protection’s
       Pollution Prevention Plan. Pollution prevention is one of my four top initiatives for the agency.
       By incorporating pollution prevention practices into all sectors of the community, pollution can be
       avoided - stopped before it starts.

               The Pollution Prevention Plan is a plan of action that will steer the Department’s own
       pollution prevention efforts. Comprehensive and distinct strategies are set forth that promote
       pollution prevention where feasible. The overall aim of the Plan is to use education and outreach
       to create an awareness of the many pollution prevention opportunities that exist. This Plan does
       not attempt to identify specific statutory or regulatory changes, which would of course need to go
       through the normal legislative or public administrative process prior to adoption. Instead, it
       emphasizes forming partnerships and inviting voluntary participation.

               The Plan was developed by the Department in consultation with a diverse advisory
                                                                                             l
       committee. Bringing together individual interests to reach consensus for the good of a l is an
       effective way to move the Department’s program forward. I will continue to welcome
       suggestions as we cany out the strategies outlined in the Plan and proceed to make our pollution
       prevention program a success.

               This Plan represents a major step in confirming that pollution prevention will guide the
       Department’s activities in carrying out its mission to conserve, improve and protect the natural
       resources and environment of the state. I encourage every Connecticut resident, business owner
       and private and public agency to participate in the Department’s pollution prevention efforts.
       Together we can make Connecticut a cleaner place to live and work and reap the economic
       benefits that often accompany reduced waste and increased efficiency.

       Sincerely,




       Sidney J. Holbrook
       Commissioner
                                                       September 30, 1996

              Endorsement from the Pollution Prevention Advisory Committee


        Several months ago, the members of the Pollution Prevention Advisory Committee
convened to assist the Commissioner in ensuring that the Department of Environmental
Protection's pollution prevention program reflects the needs and pollution prevention potential of
Connecticut's businesses, industries, public agencies and residents. The committee, made up of
representatives from business, government and public interest organizations, has reviewed the
Department's comprehensive plan that outlines goals and strategies to guide the Department's
activities over the next five years. The Plan calls upon our citizens and businesses to find
innovative ways to eliminate waste and increase efficiency. At the same time, we recognize the
Plan to be a starting point which will likely evolve over time to reflect technological progress,
legal and regulatory changes and new scientific data on chemicals and resource management. We
concur on the Plan's substance and fully endorse it.

        Pollution prevention must be an integral and prominent part of the Department's mission
to safeguard public health and protect the environment. Pollution prevention goes beyond what
can be achieved through traditional regulatory strategies and often results in competitive
advantages such as reduced costs, increased safety, improved public image and a more effective
government. The Pollution Prevention Plan represents the Department's commitment to work
toward reducing, and where feasible eliminating, pollution at the source. The pollution prevention
program and the strategies in the Plan provide the State with a proactive approach to
environmental management with participation by all sectors of the c o " u n i t y .

        Now that the initial planning stage is completed, setting the Plan in motion rests with the
Department. We urge that adequate resources be provided to ensure that pollution prevention is
effectively promoted and incorporated into the Department's work and that appropriate assistance
be made available to businesses seeking to explore pollution prevention initiatives.

        The interest of the Advisory Committee in preventing pollution goes far beyond the
preparation of this document because members will continue their support and promotion of
pollution prevention as a statewide priority. We extend our gratitude to the Commissioner for the
opportunity to participate in the planning process. We highly commend Department staff for their
diligent efforts in the preparation of this document and their consideration of our advice as the
Plan was formulated.




chair, Polluti
Jack E- M c G r u t i o n Advisory Committee
                          Pollution PreventionAdvisory Committee

Mr. Jack McGregor, Advisory Committee Chair      Mr. John S. Johnson
Cohen and Wolf, P.C., and                        President
Aquarion Company                                 Machine Works at Essex, I n c



Mr. David Leff                                   Mr. J. Michael Joyce
Assistant Commissioner                           Director of Regulatory Affairs
Policy and Planning                              Dexter Non Wovens Division
CT Department of Environmental Protection
                                                 Mr. Bo Katreccko
Ms. Nancy Alderman, Board Member                 United Illuminating
Connecticut Fund for the Environment
                                                 Mr. Greg Kowaluyk
Mr. Brian Anderson                               United Illuminating
Environmental Lobbyist
                                                 Ms. Linda A. Kowalski
Mr. Ed Brennan                                   President
Pfiier, Inc                                      The Kowakki Group, LLC.

Ms. Leslie Carothers                             Mr. Bob Lam
Vice President, Environment, Health & Safety     President
United Technologies Corporation                  Small Manufacturers Ass= of Connecticut

Mr. David Damer                                  Ms. Rita Lomasney
United Illuminating                              Manager, ConnTAP
                                                 CX Hazardous Waste Mgmt. Services
Mr. James Dewitt
Geo Environmental, Inc.                          Ms. Betty McLaughlin
                                                 Connecticut Director
Mr. John E. Dresty, Jr.                          Regional Plan Association
Environmental Research Institute
University of Connecticut                        Ms. Lisa Santacroce
                                                 Director of Environmental Affairs
Mr. Matthew J. Falco                             CT Audubon Society
Waste Minimization Programs
Pratt & Whitney                                  Mr. Dennis Snow
                                                 CX Marine Trades Association
Mr. Bruce Glowac
-&a                                               Mr. Brian Toal, Epidemiologist
                                                  Department of Public Health
Mr. Ned Hurle
Director of Environmental Planning               Mr. Don Wilbur
Department of Transportation                     Plant Manager
                                                 Chesebrough -Ponds, USA
Mr. Mark Hyner
Whyco Chromium Company, I n c
                                      Table of Contents

                                                                            Page

       Executive Summary                                                      1

I.     Introduction to Pollution Prevention                                   3

11.    The Need for Pollution Prevention                                      4

111.   Overcoming Barriers to Pollution Prevention                            6

IV.    Aims & Structure of the Pollution Prevention Plan                       7
             A. Consumer Sector
             B. State Agencies and Institutions Sector
             C. Industrial & Commercial Business Sector

V.     Targeted Substances:
              Table of substances                                             12
              Chlorine                                                        13
              Chromium                                                        16
              Copper                                                          18
              Ethylene Glycol & Solvent Degreasers                            22
              Ground-Level Ozone                                              25
              Household Hazardous Products                                    29
              Lead                                                            31
              Mercury                                                         34
              Pesticides                                                      38
              Runoff to the Long Island Sound, Lakes, Rivers and Streams
               (Nonpoint Source Pollution)                                    41
              Zinc                                                            48

VI.    Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress                                50

VI1.   Plan Implementation                                                    53

       Appendices
             A Definitions                                                    57
             B DEP Pollution Prevention Accomplishments                       61
             C Agencies in Connecticut Involved in Pollution Prevention       68
             D Databases                                                      70
             E Commissioner’s Pollution Prevention &
                  Compliance Assurance Initiative                             72
             F P A.91-376- Providing Environmental Assistance to Business     76
                                                                                                       1

Executive Summary

        The theory behind pollution prevention is a simple one. Rather than treating and controlling
pollution after it has been generated, pollution prevention focuses on ways to avoid creating it.
Pollution prevention means eliminating or reducing the amount and toxicity of potentially harmful
substances at their source, by not generating these substances in the first place. It also means
conserving energy, water and other natural resources.

        This Pollution Prevention Plan was developed to aid the Department of Environmental
Protection in its mission to conserve, improve and protect the state’s natural resources and
environment. The central aim of the program is to increase the public’s awareness of the importance
of pollution prevention through education, outreach and the formation of partnerships. This
document provides background information on the Department’s on-going pollution prevention
projects, sets a course of action for the Department’s pollution prevention efforts over the next five
years and encourages a system of coordinated pollution prevention activities with outside agencies.

         Historically, environmental management focused on end-of-pipe treatment. Although
statistics indicate that treatment and control have resulted in a decrease in toxic emissions to the
environment, pollution prevention represents an approach to achieve even greater environmental
protection without adding regulatory oversight and without increasing costs. In fact, there are many
potential benefits for businesses, government and individuals that are associated with pollution
prevention in addition to the obvious benefit of a cleaner Connecticut. A number of Connecticut
companies have already chosen to use pollution prevention at their facilities, but for others it is still
a new approach, an approach that the Department believes should be embraced by all businesses,
governmental agencies and the general public. Section I1 of the Plan, “The Need for Pollution
Prevention,” contains examples of process and behavioral changes that can aid industry and
consumers in incorporating the pollution prevention ethic.

        Despite the appeal and benefits of prevention at the source, certain barriers exist that
                                                               1
complicate or hinder practicing pollution prevention. Section 1 1 identifies barriers, such as initial
costs associated with altering current procedures or peoples’ attitudes that resist change regardless
of the merits. Some thoughts and suggestions aimed at overcoming obstacles to pollution prevention
are offered.

        Section IVY“Airns and Structure of the Plan”, summarizes the progression of pollution
prevention into the Department’s policies and Connecticut’s commitment to this approach. It calls
for the voluntary reduction of eleven toxic substances for which there are pollution prevention
opportunities and which can be managed in a more environmentally sound manner. Each substance
is M e r described individually later in the document in the section on “Targeted Substances”. The
Aims and Structure section goes on to identify three sectors of the community that will receive
outreach -- the consumer sector, the state agencies and institutions sector, and the industrial and
commercial business sector, as well as geographic areas of focus including, 1) agricultural land, 2)
the urban community and 3) Long Island Sound, rivers, lakes and streams. The consumer sector
                                                                                                    2

outlines strategies to educate all people who work, live, vacation or travel in Connecticut about the
impact that their daily activities have on the environment. Recommendations to minimize the use
of toxic substances are presented. The state agencies and institutions sector pertains to all public
agencies in Connecticut and promotes their active participation in reducing toxic substances and
completing a pollution prevention whole facility self-assessment. In the industrial and commercial
business sector, twelve industry and business categories have been identified for technical assistance
by the Department. In order to broaden the spectrum of pollution prevention initiatives beyond
reducing the eleven targeted substances, the Department will also seek to form partnerships. Such
partnerships could include businesses or trade associations and members representing academia,
public interest organizations, community groups, government or private consultants and others.

        Section V, “Targeted Substances” describes each specific toxic substance targeted for
reduction in this Plan including (1) its potential health and environmental effects; (2) sources and
uses of the substance; (3) the Department’s pollution prevention goals relative to the substance; (4)
avenues of outreach; (5) strategies the Department will implement to achieve stated goals; and (6)
databases which may be useful in measuring the results of pollution prevention efforts. Examples
of goals and strategies include:
        Discouraging the unnecessary use of pesticides, encouraging low maintenance landscaping
        and native vegetation, and creating a demand for Integrated Pest Management (IPW. The
        Department will initiate an advertising campaign directed at homeowners and will continue
        to hold IPM workshops for certified pesticides applicators.
        Reducing the amount of copper entering Connecticut rivers. The Department will provide
        information to consumers and construction trade groups on substitutes for copper piping,
        copper building materials, and copper sulfate products and will work with water utilities to
        educate business customers on how to reduce copper use.
        Reducing Connecticut’spervasive air qualityproblem, ground-level ozone (volatile organic
        compounds, VOCs, and oxides of nitrogen, NOx,). The Department will provide technical
        assistance to help small businesses reduce emissions, expand the emissions reduction credit
        trading program and educate consumers on the value of choosing products which do not
        contain VOCs.

       Measuring pollution prevention progress continues to be a challenge for reasons presented
in Section VI. In this section, the Department has laid out a basic approach for gathering reliable
information on the effects of the pollution prevention program. The four primary components that
will be employed by the Department consist of utilizing databases, establishing benchmarks,
developing case studies, and devising new measurement tools.

       In the final section, Section VII, the Department’s system to set the Plan in motion is briefly
outlined. Implementation will involve Department staff as well as other outside agencies that
pzomote pollution prevention.
                                                                                                       3

I. Introduction to Pollution Prevention
        Reducing and preventing pollution is a major objective of the Connecticut Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP). Pollution prevention means eliminating or reducing the amount
and toxicity of potentially harmful substances at their sources, prior to generation, treatment, off-site
recycling or disposal. It emphasizes preventing or minimizing pollution, rather than controlling it
once it is generated. Pollution prevention includes only those practices which do not create new
                                                                  risks or shift risks among workers,
                                                                  consumers, or natural sources. It
                                                                  also strives to reduce the use of
                                                                  energy, water and other resources.

                                                                       In October of 1990,
                                                               Congress passed the Pollution
                                                               Prevention Act, declaring that the
                                                               national policy is to reduce or
                                                               prevent pollution at the source
                                                               whenever feasible. The act also
                                                               reinforced      EPA’s       preferred
                                                               hierarchy of managing waste, stating
                                                               that pollution that cannot be
                                                               prevented should be recycled in an
                                                               environmentally safe manner, and
                                                               pollution that cannot be prevented or
                                                               recycled should be treated in an
                                                               environmentally safe manner;
                                                               disposal or other release into the
                                                               environment should be employed
only as a last resort (HR593 1, 101 Congress, 2nd session). Connecticut law supports this hierarchy
as well (C.C.S.

        In 1991, pollution prevention legislation was passed in Connecticut. Public Act 91-376
     lishes that the state’s policy is to encourage pollution prevention. “Pollution prevention” and
“pollution prevention activities” are defined in this act (see Appendix F).

        Connecticut’s Pollution Prevention Plan describes the Department’s goals and strategies for
promoting pollution prevention and eliminating barriers that impede this effort. The Plan is meant
to be used as a tool to guide the Department’s activities over the next five years. Most of the
strategies identified in the Plan call for prevention through source reduction. However, in cases
where there is not yet a pollution prevention approach, the Department has suggested a few
strategies that utilize the hierarchy for managing waste -- recycling, treatment and disposal in an
environmentally sound manner. For example, the third consumer strategy for mercury involves the
collection and recycling of products such as batteries and fluorescent bulbs through household
                                                                                                  4

hazardous waste facilities. The fourth state agency strategy for lead involves the collection and
proper disposal of lead paint debris during bridge maintenance.


I.      The Need for Pollution Prevention
        Industrial and commercial operations as well as routine human activities generate pollution.
Permitted air emissions and wastewater
discharges, manufacturing process scrap, clean-
up and maintenance wastes, packaging, the use
and disposal of household hazardous products
and accidental spills and leaks all generate
pollution. Land clearing and construction also
contribute to pollution by creating particulate
matter in the air, water bodies and streams.

        Over the past several decades,
environmental management has focused on
pollution control through end-of-pipe treatment
and disposal. Although this pollution control
approach has significantly reduced toxic releases, contaminants continue to be discharged into the
land, air, and water every year. Accidental leaks and spills, and careless disposal of solvents and
hydrocarbons have contaminated hundreds of water supply wells, and the state continues to
experience violations of the national ambient air quality standards. In 1991, for example, two
million tons of hazardous wastes were generated in Connecticut, and state industries released over
20 million pounds of toxic chemicals to the environment. Two years later, in 1993, those figures
had dropped to slightly over one million tons of hazardous waste generated and thirteen million
pounds of on-site releases (sources include
Biennial Report System and Toxic Release
Inventory). Such statistics confirm that effective
efforts to reduce pollution are underway, but the
Department must also adopt a vigorous pollution
prevention program in addition to maintaining its
more traditional pollution control approach.

        Pollution prevention can be economically
beneficial; in many cases, prevention can reduce
disposal fees, eliminate or decrease expenses
associated with cleanups and reduce risks to
workers and the surrounding community.
Connecticut companies have also found that pollution prevention efforts have resulted in competitive
advantages such as raw material savings, decreased liability, increased worker safety, and improved
public image.
        In addition, pollution prevention efforts can result in reduced regulatory oversight. Certain
reporting requirements may be eliminated by reducing waste generated, and if the amount of toxic
materials can be kept below regulatory thresholds, reporting may even become unnecessary.

       One major Connecticut manufacturer of aerospace products initiated a comprehensive
program that requires continuous evaluation of facility operations to minimize the levels of
pollutants released to the air, water and land and to reduce the use of natural resources. The
                                                                 company described its successful
                                                                 pollution prevention initiatives
                                                                 by stating that “in addition to
                                                                 reducing waste and raw
                                                                 materials, these projects also
                                                                 realize savings of labor hours
                                                                 and improvements in product
                                                                 quality, and worker health and
                                                                 safety”.

                                                                           Other       Connecticut
                                                                   companies have also begun
                                                                   practicing pollution prevention.
                                                                   It is efforts like these and the
                                                                   examples presented below that
                                                                   have thus far encouraged the
                                                                   Department to          emphasize
                                                                   voluntary      approaches     to
                                                                   achieving pollution prevention:


0      Three local companies have recently become the focus of pollution prevention case studies
       published by the Department.

       Connecticut, working with an industry partner, is one of only four states to take part in the
       EPA’s pollution prevention in permitting pilot project (see Appendix B).

0      Several printers and vehicle repair facilities have participated in Department sponsored
       pollution prevention workshops.

0      A variety of industries have developed projects that may be eligible for the US Department
       of Energy’s National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy, Environment and
       Economics (NICE3) grant program which funds pollution prevention innovations.

      Significant pollution also results from the activities and purchasing habits of individuals.
Consumers have a major impact on environmental quality through their demand for and acceptance
of products and services available from industry. Examples of pollution prevention activities
                                                                                                    6

include using mass transit and car pooling instead of driving alone, reducing the amount of pesticides
used on lawns and in homes, substituting non-toxic cleaning products when housekeeping,
purchasing fabrics which can be laundered at home instead of dry cleaned and selecting energy
efficient appliances. Although harder to measure, these behavioral changes can save consumers
money and increase their safety as well as protecting the environment. The Department’s pollution
prevention program will encourage individuals to rethink their behaviors both at work and at home
to incorporate the pollution prevention ethic.


111. Overcoming Barriers to Pollution Prevention
        Implementing pollution prevention strategies is not without hurdles. While some barriers to
pollution prevention are specific to a manufacturing process, or to the habits of consumers, many
others affect all three sectors. These barriers must be identified and overcome if real progress is to
be made. Some of the significant barriers are listed below:

1.     Cost. Often there are initial costs involved in altering current procedures in order to achieve
       pollution prevention. Material and product substitutes may be more expensive, new
       methods may be more labor intensive, and new processes may require the purchase of new
       equipment. Once the pay back period on the capital improvements has been reached, the
       investment in pollution prevention often results in money savings.

2.     Substitution. Although less toxic substitutes can sometimes be used to replace a known
       pollutant, in some cases the technology which would allow such substitution may not be
       available. In other instances, the potential substitute may also be toxic.

3.      Quality. The use of alternative processes or products may compromise or be perceived to
        compromise quality.

4.      Specifications. Manufacturers may have to conform to rigid material andor process
        specifications set by the customer. The manufacturer could risk losing its contract unless the
        customer is cooperative and open to change.

5.      Attitude. Companies, workers and consumers sometimes resist change regardless of its
        merits.

6.      Lack of Voluntary Disclosure. Companies may not be willing to disclose certain
        production details for fear of compromising their competitive position.

        Overcoming these barriers will be a key element of the Department’s pollution prevention
program. Over the next two years, the Department will develop initiatives to break down these
barriers and further advance pollution prevention. The Department will emphasize education
stressing the environmental importance and economic value of preventing pollution at the source.
                                                                                                       7

 The Department will develop pollution prevention outreach materials, hold conferences and
workshops and develop brochures for consumer and trade groups, and provide appropriate technical
assistance to individual businesses and institutions. The Department will develop a brochure to be
distributed with permit applications and renewals that provides examples of successful pollution
prevention options for industry. Case studies may also be developed to demonstrate that although
there may be initial barriers associated with implementing a pollution prevention project, these can
often be minimized or negated over the long term. The Department will also continue to provide
pollution prevention information during inspections, look for opportunities during permitting, and
encourage pollution prevention in enforcement procedures.


IV. Aims and Structure of the Pollution Prevention Plan
         Pollution prevention is part of the Department's ongoing mission to protect and enhance the
environment and public health (see Appendix B for the Department's recent pollution prevention
activities). Pollution prevention was established as a public policy of the State of Connecticut by
Public Act 91-376, "An Act Providing Environmental Assistance to Business" and was identified
as an emerging issue in the 1992 - 1997 Environment 2000 Plan. In September 1992, the
Commissioner issued an official statement declaring that pollution prevention will guide the
Department's efforts to protect and enhance public health and the environment. The statement
outlined three initial steps to begin an aggressive pollution prevention program: (1) institutionalizing
multi-media pollution prevention into the Department's regulatory programs (2) eliminating barriers
to pollution prevention initiatives and (3) identifying participants for an outreach program.

         Commissioner Holbrook has reaffirmed the Department's commitment to pollution
prevention, making it one of his four major initiatives. He appointed an advisory committee
representing businesses, municipalities, state agencies and public advocacy organizations to assist
in the development of this Plan, and declared that the Department itself will become a model agency
for pollution prevention in all phases of its work. His initiative includes expanding pollution
prevention technical assistance, educational programs and financial incentives for all sectors of the
community. This Pollution Prevention Plan will ensure coordination of all the Department's
pollution prevention initiatives and facilitate agencywide institutionalizationof pollution prevention.
It will provide a vision for the next five years, and will be reviewed after two years to assess progress
and identify new initiatives. This Plan emphasizes the importance of forming partnerships and
encouraging voluntary participation by all Connecticut citizens and businesses.

       The Department recognizes that chemicals in use today vary widely in design and function
and that they occupy an important role in our daily lives. However, when mismanaged or used
unnecessarily, chemicals can also damage human health and the environment. This Plan calls for
sound reductions rather than total elimination of chemical use.
                                                                                                   8

        The Plan targets the reduction of eleven categories of toxic substances. The substances were
chosen because (1) they can pose a high risk to the environment and human health, (2) large
quantities are emitted, discharged, transported
or disposed, and (3) less toxic substitutes exist.

         For each substance, the Plan describes
(1) health and environmental impacts; (2)
sources and uses of the substance; (3) the
Department’s pollution prevention goals
relative to the substance; (4) avenues of
outreach, or groups with whom the Department
can work to promote minimization of the use of
the substance; (5) specific pollution prevention
strategies which the Department will implement
to minimize use of the substance; and (6)
potential data sources which may be useful in
measuring the results of pollution prevention
efforts.

             e strategies in this Plan are “multi-
m .edia,,”i.e.,     avoid the transfer of pollutants
or risks among the air, land, and water. The                                               --,
                                                                                          - - --
strategies for each substance are grouped into
three sectors, the consumer sector, the state agency and institutional sector, and the industrial and
commercial business sector. The Plan also focuses strategies on geographic areas, including
community based pollution prevention, nonpoint sources of pollution that impact Long Island Sound
and rivers, lakes and streams, and agricultural land use. Such groupings are necessary because
different outreach techniques may be applicable to each sector and geographic area.

       The Plan contains sections on measuring the effects of pollution prevention initiatives and
organizing the Department’s activities to implement this Pollution Prevention Plan.

       A. Consumer Sector
       Pollution prevention strategies in the consumer sector will be aimed at educating consumers
on the impact their purchases and daily activities have on the environment and at reducing the
amount of hazardous substances commonly used in and around homes. The strategies will be tailored
to address the needs and interests of specific communities and geographic areas as needed. An
example of community and geographic based outreach and technical assistance is the Hartford
Neighborhood Project.

        The Hartford Neighborhood Project is designed to identify environmental concerns and
pollution prevention opportunities within two Hartford neighborhoods and help them to craft
strategies to address those challenges. Issues addressed include the safety and reuse of abandoned
commercial and residential buildings, illegal dumping, improving local natural resources,
                                                                                                   9

minimizing the use of household hazardous products, pesticide usage, lead-based paint hazards and
precautions, energy and water conservation and pollution prevention for small businesses. If
resources are available, this model can be adapted for other communities in the future.

         B. State Agencies and Institutions Sector
         Although all of Connecticut's state agencies will be encouraged to implement pollution
prevention strategies, there are some agencies which can make significant contributions to pollution
      ntion efforts because of the nature of their operations. These agencies include the Department
         ironmental Protection (the Department), the Department of Transportation (DOT), the
           ent of Motor Vehicles (DMV), the Department of Education (DOE), the Department of
Corrections (DOC), the Department of Administrative Services (DAS), the Department of Public
        (DPH), the Department of Economic and Community Development (DECD), the Department
        lic Works (DPW), and the Comptroller's and Governor's Offices. The Department of
     ronmental Protection will also provide pollution prevention information and assistance to public
institutions, such as correctional facilities, state colleges, museums and libraries, and private
        ions, such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, colleges and water utilities.

       Pollution prevention efforts in the State Agencies and Institutions Sector will focus on
reducing ten common substances or categories of substances. In addition to strategies associated
with each substance, the Department will develop a format for completing an agency or institution
"whole facility self-assessment". The assessment will be designed to identify pollution prevention
opportunities, establish measurable goals and monitor improvements. The Department will provide
this model to other state and local agencies and encourage them to complete a pollution prevention
              xamining all facilities and sources of pollution).

        C. Industrial and Commercial Business Sector
        In the Industrial and Commercial Business Sector, the Department has identified ten
substances to be targeted for reduction through pollution prevention. Twelve industry and business
                     e focus of pollution prevention assistance. Certain industries lend themselves
                     llution prevention due to proven technology, affiliation with active trade
associations, industry size and existing best management practices. During the next five years the
Department will concentrate on reducing and preventing pollution from these industries, focusing
      ularly on small business.

         In addition to emphasizing reductions of the targeted substances, the Department will
        p partnerships with businesses to implement a broad spectrum of pollution prevention
initiatives. This strategy allows the Department, businesses and environmental organizations to
work together to suggest appropriate pollution prevention initiatives specific to a given business.
The partnership approach forges a cooperative spirit among industry, regulators and the public to
enhance environmental management through pollution prevention.

       Although the Department will work primarily with twelve business types to reduce the
generation of the targeted substances, other businesses that utilize these substances may also be
included in the Department's reduction strategies. For example, brochures describing each substance
and providing examples of successful pollution prevention options for industry will be distributed
with permit applications and renewals and annual fee invoices. In addition, questions relating to a
business’s implementation of pollution prevention will be included on permit applications and fee
invoices.

Working with Business to Vertically Integrate Pollution Prevention:
Pollution Prevention Partnerships
        Pollution prevention partnerships are voluntary
alliances between public and private organizations for the
purpose of reducing and eliminating pollution and
conserving natural resources wherever practical within a
particular business or business category.             Such
partnerships enable the participants to define pollution
prevention opportunities and make accomplishments that
go beyond reducing the substances identified by the
Department. This approach also encourages energy
efficiency, natural resource conservation and reductions in
water usage. The partnership approach is less likely to
transfer pollution &om one media to another (Le., reduce
hazardous waste needing disposal, but increase toxic
emissions) because it requires an overall assessment of
pollution prevention opportunities rather than the
uncoordinated reduction of one or more toxic substances.


       The Department will establish partnerships which
include government agencies, business and industry,
research institutions, public interest groups, and other

its own environmental and economic concerns but all
working toward a mutual goal of promoting pollution
prevention. Participation in the partnerships will be
strictly voluntary, appealing on its merits (i.e. cost
savings, reduced liability, increased worker safety,
improved public image, etc.). Incentives, such as a
recognition program, will be developed to encourage
participation.

        The Department has already begun establishing informal partnerships with some of the
identified industries, including pesticide applicators, auto repair business and print shops in order
to provide pollution prevention information and technical assistance. The Department will create
                                                               ih
formal and more inclusive pollution prevention partnerships wt three to five of the twelve selected
businesses. In cooperation with each partnering business or trade group and with other agencies
such as the UConn Environmental Research Institute (EM) and the Connecticut Hazardous Waste
                                                                                                11

Management Service’s technical assistance program, ConnTAP, the Department, will undertake the
following activities:

1.    Use “whole facility self-assessments’’ to provide a concise picture of all materials and
      resources being used and wastes and pollution being created. (At larger facilities, an
      assessment of a process rather than the entire facility may be appropriate.) This is an
      essential tool for analyzing pollution prevention opportunities at each individual facility.
      The assessment process includes an evaluation of the environmental management systems
      and techniques in place. The International Standards Organization’s environmental
      management standards?IS0 14000 series, and the quality management standards,
      IS0 9000, can provide a consistent manner with which to demonstrate environmental
      credentials and a commitment to compliance and pollution prevention. Assessment training
      will be provided by the Department or another organization that promotes pollution
      prevention and is working in conjunction with the Department . Partnering businesses may
      also invite private consultants to be part of the assessment process.

2.     Identify previous pollution prevention efforts and accomplishments of each facility.

3.     Research pollution prevention techniques used by industries with similar processes for
       potential transfer to partnership businesses.

4.     Identify significant barriers to pollution prevention and techniques to overcome those
       barriers.

5.     Create a work plan based on the assessment results, previous industry accomplishments and
       reduction opportunities which will become the guide for pollution prevention activities. The
       work plan will include techniques to track the effects of pollution prevention initiatives.

6.    Encourage the facility or trade group voluntarily to implement the proposed pollution
      prevention work plan.

7.    Evaluate pollution prevention accomplishments and share pollution prevention successes
      through outreach and mentoring with similar businesses. The Department and/or the
      partnership will coordinate activities so companies that have undertaken successful pollution
      prevention projects can become mentors to other companies. This approach is particularly
      effective because related businesses have similar problems, needs and opportunities and can
      learn quickly fiom each others’ experiences.
                                          12

V.   Targeted Substances



                           AGRICULTURAL
                           STRATEGIES




                                x




                                X

                                X
                                                                                                   13




I.      Health & Environmental Impacts:
Chlorine is a naturally occurring element. Discharge of chlorine (in liquid or solid form) to surface
water can be extremely toxic to aquatic plants and animals. Industrial discharges of chlorine to
surface water have also been associated with elevated levels of dioxin in fish which can pose
increased cancer risk to consumers of fish. Accidental releases of chlorine gas can pose a significant
respiratory hazard to people.


IL      Sources/Uses:
Chlorine is used by many water utilities to disinfect drinking water supplies. It is also used to
sanitize swimming pools and purify effluent from sewage treatment plants. Chlorine is used as a
biocide to control algae and other organisms in cooling water systems and in industrial processes
within the food, paper and metal finishing industries.


IIL    Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Reduce or eliminate the use of chlorine as a biocide in cooling water systems.

2.     Continue to reduce use of chlorine in sewage treatment plants.

3.     Reduce the use of chlorine and investigate less toxic alternatives for disinfection of
       swimming pools.

4.     Eliminate the use of chlorine in industrial processes where feasible.

5.     Optimize and reduce the use of chlorine in drinking water supplies from water treatment
       plants.

6.     Optimize and reduce the use of chlorine in disinfection practices in water supply distribution
       systems.
                                                                                                  14

IV.   STRATEGIES to Meet the Goals


CONSUMER SECTOR

1.    The Water Management Bureau will continue to explore alternatives to chlorine for pool
      disinfection (e.g., bromide or ozone). The Bureau is developing a guidance document for
      swimming pool discharges aimed at the residential pool owner. Dissemination of the
      guidance will primarily be through the Department’s Office of Communications.




INDUSTRIAL, and COMMERCIAL BUSINESS SECTOR

1.    The Water Management Bureau will identify pollution prevention opportunities when
      reviewing discharge permit applications and provide information and follow-up to
      applicants who use chlorine.

2.    The Water Management Bureau will continue to promote process changes, primarily in the
      metal plating industry, so that cyanide is eliminated, thereby further eliminating the use o f ,
      chlorine to treat the cyanide. Assistance is currently provided on a case-by-case basis, often
      during the permitting process.

3.    The Water Management Bureau will continue to promote minimization of chlorine use at
      privately operated sewage treatment plants. Current methods include alternative disinfection
      systems such as ozone or ultraviolet light for advanced treatment plants, and dechlorination
      utilizing chemical injection of sulphur oxide or mixing at secondary plants.

4.    The Water Management Bureau will continue to work with private water utility companies
      through the pollution abatement committee of the American Water Works Association on
      distribution system disinfection practices.

5.    The Water and Waste Management Bureaus in conjunction with the Hazardous Waste
      Management Service’s technical assistance program, ConnTAP, will disseminate
      information on alternative biocides to heating and air-conditioning (HVMC) trade groups
      and certified cooling tower pesticide applicators. They will promote the use of alternatives
      to chlorinated biocides such as thermal backflushing, mechanical methods of cleaning, or use
      of chemicals which are less persistent, or less toxic. Encouraging recycling and closed-loop
      cooling systems can also help reduce overall dependence on chemicals.

6.    The Water Management Bureau will continue to explore alternatives to chlorine for pool
      disinfection (e.g., bromide or ozone). The Bureau is developing a general permit for
      swimming pool discharges. Idormation and materials pertaining to the general permit will
                                                                                             15

     be transmitted through trade associations and the Department’s general permit advisory
     process.


STATE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.   The Water Management Bureau will continue to encourage minimization of chlorine use at
     municipally operated sewage treatment plants. Current methods include alternative
     disinfection systems such as ozone or ultraviolet light for advanced treatment plants, and
     dechlorination utilizing chemical in.ection of sulphur oxide or mixing at secondary plants.

2.   The Water Management Bureau will also continue to work with public water utilities through
     the pollution abatement committee of the American Water Works Association on distribution
     system disinfection practices.

3.   The Water Management Bureau will continue to explore alternatives to chlorine for pool
     disinfection @e., bromide or ozone). In addition, the Bureau will be issuing a general
     permit for swimming pool discharges.



v.   Avenues for Outreach
1.   The American Water Works Association
2.   Water companies and sewage treatment plant operators
3.   Certified pesticide applicators and certified cooling tower pesticide applicators
4.   Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVMC) trade groups
5.   Chemical vendors
6.   Municipal building officials
7.   Swimming pool contractor representatives
8.   Public interest organizations
9.   Connecticut Department of Public Health

w.   Potential Data Sources
1.   Water discharge monitoring reports, and any other reports submitted to the Department or
     available from publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) or water utilities.
I.       Health & Environmental Impacts:
Chromium is a heavy metal which is toxic to many mammals and birds. Chromium exists in two
major chemical forms: trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium. Both the hexavalent and
trivalent forms of chromium are toxic, with the hexavalent form being more highly toxic, a known
human carcinogen and strongly suspected of causing lung cancer. It may also damage human
chromosomes. High levels of exposure to hexavalent chromium can cause a range of systemic
effects including permanent damage to the kidney and to the developing fetus. Chromium is also
extremely toxic to aquatic organisms, causing adverse acute and chronic effects. In aquatic
organisms it has been shown to alter enzyme function, decrease the synthesis of proteins and genetic
materials such as RNA and DNA, reducing growth rate, suppress immune functions and interfere
with nerve impulse transmission.


IL    Sources/u;Fs:
Chromium is utilized in metal plating, in the primary metals industry as a lining material in high
temperature refiactories, as an anti-corrosion additive in water treatment, in artist pigments, and in
magnetic tapes.

In the past, chromium was also used in cooling towers, but this use has been rigorously regulated
in Connecticut, resulting in almost complete elimination of its use for this purpose. In November
1994, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations to control chromium
emissions from electroplating and anodizing tanks. EPA estimates full compliance will result in
a reduction of about 173 tons of chromium annually fkom these sources, representing a 99%
reduction from current levels.


III.   Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Minimize the use of chromium in industry.

2.     Eliminate chromium losses in production processes.

3.     Promote recycling of chromium (e.g. plating solutions).

4.     Promote pollution prevention as the preferred method of compliance with new
       regulatory requirements.
                                                                                              17

IV.   Strategies to Meet the Goals


INDUSTRIAL and COMMERCIAL SECTOR

1.    The Air, Waste and Water Management Bureaus, through their permitting and inspection
      activities, will continue to promote reducing chromium waste in electroplating operations
      through minimizing losses during the plating process (drag out losses), capturing materials
      through ion exchange, and product substitution.

2.    The Department will encourage manufacturers to reuse their spent chromium on site where
      feasible and will promote ConnTAP's Materials Exchange program which enables companies
      to obtain or provide usable by-products such as spent chromium.

3.    The Department will continue to provide technical assistance regarding product substitution
      by maintaining involvement with the metal finishers annual conference and continue to work
      with and encourage ConnTAP's involvement in this area.

4.    The Department will enlist the support of a research institute or other entity to determine
      whether the manufacture of magnetized tape or its disposal is contributing to chromium
      pollution in the state.

5.    The Air Management Bureau will target small metal finishers to identify opportunities to
      implement pollution prevention as the preferred means of compliance. This project,
      performed as part of the Department's Small Business Assistance Leadership Grant, will
      involve the Department and ConnTAP. It will include the development of a protocol for
      conducting on-site compliance assistance, providing on-site technical assistance to small
      metal finishers and providing case studies of pollution prevention opportunities to enhance
      compliance with air quality regulations.


K     Avenuesfor Outreach
1.    Connecticut Association of Metal Finishers
2.    ConnTAP
3.    State Implementation Plan Revisions Advisory Committee (SIPRAC)
4.    Public interest organizations


W. Potential Data Sources
1.    Toxic Release Inventory (TRT) data
2.    Ambient water quality monitoring
3.    Emissions monitoring
                                                                                                  18




I.     Health & Environmental Effects:
Copper is a naturally occurring metal found in measurable quantities in surface water all over
Connecticut. At low concentrations, it is a minor nutrient for plants and animals in water, but it
becomes toxic to aquatic life at slightly higher concentrations. Very high concentrations in drinking
water can cause temporary gastric distress. Its toxicity increases when combined with zinc (also see
discussion of zinc).

Copper is associated with numerous toxic effects in aquatic organisms. It binds to the gills of fish,
damaging them, and disrupts enzymes in the gill. Copper also suppresses immune system response
and changes blood chemistry in fish.


II.     Sources/Uses:
Copper enters the aquatic environment in a variety of ways. A recent Department study revealed that
a major source of copper entering Connecticut's rivers via sewage treatment plants is fkom corroding
plumbing pipes in homes. Pipe corrosion is accelerated by acidic drinking water. The metal is
carried into the drain along with the waste water. Sewage treatment plants (POTWs) remove some
copper, however they are not designed for metals removal and release some metals to the receiving
river. Storm water run-off which comes in contact with exterior building materials can contain high
concentrations of copper. Copper is used in and leaches from copper roofing and flashing.

Copper is found in discharges and waste streams from primary metals and plating industries and in
cooling water discharges. Another source is copper sulfate which is used by water utilities and others
to control phytoplankton growth in reservoirs and ponds and has been used by homeowners as a
sewage system additive to kill roots.

Copper is also used as a grounding agent for electrical systems. It is a constituent of many marine
paints. Automobile radiators previously were made with copper, and some automotive brake pads
continue to utilize copper.



IIL    PoIIution Prevention Goals
1.     Reduce the amount of copper entering Connecticut rivers.

2.     Minimize the use of external building materials containing copper, such as roof flashing,
       without substituting other environmentally problematic metals. Create public awareness of
       the viable altematives to copper building materials.
                                                                                               19

3.   Enforce the statutory ban on copper-based sewage system additives (CGS 22a-461).

4.   Reduce or eliminate the use of copper-based pesticides for nuisance algae control.

5.   Encourage continued trend away from the use of automotive copper radiators. Investigate
     copper use in brake pads.

6.   Investigate alternatives for use of copper piping in plumbing, electrical and cooling systems.



IK   STRATEGIES to Meet the Goals


CONSUMER SECTOR

1.   The Water Management Bureau, with assistance from the Department of Public Health and
     trade groups through the Department of Public Safety’s Codes and Standards Committee,
     will explore the costs, benefits, and risks associated with alternative piping and building
     materials.

2.   The Department will work with retail trade associations, water utilities and household
     hazardous waste collection facilities to publicize the prohibition of copper sulfate sewage
     system additives and proper disposal of problematic household products containing copper,
     and participate in public education efforts by disseminating fact sheets on copper and copper
     sulfate products.


INDUSTRIAL, and COMMERCIAL BUSINESS SECTOR

1.   The Water Management Bureau will work with construction and architectural trade groups
     and utilize conditions in the stormwater general permit program to encourage use of
     alternative building materials.

2.   The Department will encourage electrical and plumbing trade groups and research institutes
     to reconsider the use of copper piping and copper sulfate as grounding agents and investigate
     alternative grounding mechanisms.

3.   The Department will encourage the plumbing and HV/AC industries to investigate the use
     of alternative piping materials (plastic, other metals).

4.   The Department will enforce the ban on copper-based additives to sewage systems and will
     use the ban to educate the general public and distributionhales community.
                                                                                               20

5.   The Waste Management and Water Management Bureaus will investigate and promote
     alternatives to copper sulfate as a pesticide.

6.   The Department will promote the trend away from the use of copper radiators and investigate
     the use of copper in brake pads and assess reduction possibilities.


STATE AGENCIES and INSTITUTIONS:

1.   The Water Management Bureau staff will continue to work with water utilities and the
     Department of Public Health through the Pollution Abatement Committee of the American
     Water Works Association to monitor and make recommendations to alter, if necessary, the
     chemistry of the water supplied so it is less corrosive.

2.   The Water Management Bureau will require POTWs to investigate the possibility of
     enhancing copper removal at plants to remove a higher percentage of copper fkom water prior
     to discharging it.

3.   The Water Management Bureau will work with the American Water Works Association’s
     Pollution Abatement Committee and the Department of Public Health to reduce use of
     copper sulfate in reservoirs and will investigate alternatives and other avenues for nutrient
     control to reduce the need for copper sulfate use in water supplies.

4.   The Water and Waste Management Bureaus will survey the research which has been
     done on alternatives to copper sulfate use by water utilities to remedy taste and odor
     problems to determine whether other approaches are feasible.

5.   The Department will encourage state construction projects to eliminate the use of copper
     building materials except for structures which must comply with historic preservation
     restrictions.


V.   Avenuesfor Outreach
1.   The Pollution Abatement Committee of the American Water Works Association
2.   Household hazardous waste collection facilities and local organizers
3.   Retail trade associations
4.   Water utilities
5.   Builders trade associations (i.e. construction, architectural,plumbing, electrical and wv\AC),
     pesticide applicators, manufacturers and sales representatives; automotive engineering trades;
     drinking water suppliers; Department of Public Works; the Codes & Standards Committee
     of the Department of Public Safety; the Connecticut Sewage Disposal Association.
6.   Public interest organizations
                                                                                          21

n.   Potential Data Sources:
1.   Ambient surface water quality monitoring conducted by the Water Management Bureau,
     EPA STORET and USGS WATSTOR water quality monitoring databases (see Appendix
     D for database information).

2.   Storm water monitoring in compliance with general permits and individual storm water
     permits.

3.   Other monitoring procedures including discharge monitoring reporting, studies at POTWs
     on copper contributions from different sources, water quality monitoring conducted by the
     water utilities, bio-accumulation in shellfish and pesticide applicator records.
                                                                                                22




I.      Health & Environmental Impacts:
Ethylene glycol is a colorless alcohol. The principle hazard of ethylene glycol to humans, aquatic
life and animals is associated with lethal ingestion of large quantities in single doses.

Solvent degreasers, many of which are chlorinated, are highly volatile and can vaporize during use.
As gases, these compounds contribute to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. Improper
handling of solvents can contaminate surface water and ground water. According to the Department
of Public Health, certain solvents, such as tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene are thought to
be possible human carcinogens.


II.     Sources/Uses:
Ethylene glycol is a common component of antifieeze, which protects engine cooling systems from
overheating and freezing. Heavy metals and other contaminants are picked up as the antifreeze
circulates through the engine    radiator, further increasing the toxicity of used ethylene glycol
from vehicles. Used antifiee      primarily generated by vehicle maintenance garages and do-it-
yourself vehicle mechanics (autos, boats, emergency generators).

Chlorinated and petroleum-based solvents are toxic chemicals used by mechanics throughout the
state at commercial vehicle maintenance faci s to clean auto parts. They are also used by
government agencies and institutions who have transportation and maintenance equipment,
generators and marine vehicles. State agencies that are likely to come in contact with this targeted
substance include the Department of Environmental Protection (park equipment, emergency and
marine vehicles), the Department of Transportation (vehicles and ferries) the Department of
Education's vocational schools, and the Department of Administrative Services (automotive
garages).


III.   Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Eliminate disposal of ethylene glycol by encouraging extended life and recycling. When
       recycling is not an available option, encourage disposal at a household hazardous waste
       collection facility or event.

2.     Create an awareness on the part of vehicle maintenance facilities and do-it-yourself
       mechanics regarding the toxicity of ethylene glycol, best management practices and the use
       of alternative, less toxic coolants.
                                                                                              23


3.     Reduce the use of solvent degreasers for parts cleaning. Encourage aqueous cleaners and
       process changes as preferred substitutes.



IF?    STRATEGIES to Meet the Goals


CONSUMER SECTOR

1.     The Waste Management Bureau will develop and distribute fact sheets and pamphlets to
       educate consumers on the toxicity of antifreeze, alternadve coolants and best management
       practices for ethylene glycol and solvent degreasers.

2.     The Department will attempt to get “green driver” pollution prevention information related
       to automobiles included in driver education courses and the Department of Motor Vehicles
       driver training booklet.


INDUSTRIAL and COMMERCIAL BUSINESS SECTOR

1.     Continue to provide outreach and assistance to vehicle maintenance and repair facilities on
       best management practices for ethylene glycol and solvents as a follow-up to the
       Department’s Pit Stops initiative (see Appendix B for more information on Pit Stops and
       other pollution prevention activities).

2.     Develop an education and assistance program for urban vehicle repair and body shops and
                them to create feasible opportunities for following best manag


3.     The Waste Management Bureau will work             major automobile and truck dealerships to
       develop best management and pollution prevention vehicle maintenance practices, including
       antifreeze recycling and the use of less toxic products (e.g., aqueous cleaners).


Strategies for the Agricultural sector:
1.     The Department will provide idormation and outreach to the farm community that focuses
       on best management practices for ethylene glycol and solvents used in farm vehicles and
       other equipment.
                                                                                            24


STATE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.   The Department will continue to encourage fleet mechanics from facilities operated by the
     state to attend training on pollution prevention for vehicle repair facilities.

2.   The Waste Management Bureau will continue to follow the pollution prevention
     achievements of the US. Postal Service. Partnerships between the USPS and the state fleet
     may be initiated to enable the research and information gained by the USPS’ successful
     pollution prevention program to be efficiently transferred to state fleets.

3.   The Waste Management Bureau will explore the opportunities for state agency fleet
     operations to recycle antifreeze, including providing bid specifications for such services.

4.   The Waste Management Bureau will develop an agreement among state agencies regarding
     vehicle maintenance practices and the use of less toxic products (e.g. aqueous cleaners).

5.   The Waste Management Bureau will explore training opportunities for Connecticut’s future
     auto mechanics through vocational schools to ensure that recycling of ethylene glycol and
     minimizing use of solvent degreasers is practiced and taught.

6.   The Water Management Bureau will modify the storm water pollution prevention guide for
     municipalities, state, and federal vehicle service garages to include the recommendation of
     substitutions for ethylene glycol and solvent degreasers. This guidance is associated with
     a storm water general permit.


K    Avenuesfor Outreach
1.   Retail merchants who sell antifreeze and other auto parts
2.   Popular publications and magazines (e.g., Consumer Reports, Car 8~Driver, etc.)
3.   Connecticut Department of Education and vocational, technical and high schools
4.   The Department of Administrative Services and their state fleet maintenance garages, other
     state agencies that maintain vehicles or have emergency generators, and contract reviewers
     at state agencies.
5.   Public interest organizations


u.   Potential Data Sources
1.   Records from regional household hazardous waste centers and local one-day collections and
     disposal records from haulers for ethylene glycol and solvents.
2.   Coolant sales figures, if available
3.   Records from the Department of Administrative Services and other state agency purchasing
     departments that procure antifreeze and solvents for vehicle maintenance (park and
     emergency vehicles, DOT equipment, etc.)
                                                                                               25




I.       Health & Environmental Impacts:
Ground-level ozone or smog, is one of Connecticut’s most pervasive air quality problems. High
levels of ozone can cause breathing difficulty, coughing, wheezing, headaches, nausea, eye and
throat irritation and even permanent lung damage. Ozone levels at or below the current air standard
can cause asthma attacks in sensitive populations. A key component of attaining the National
            i
Ambient Ar Quality Standards (NAAQS) is the reduction of emissions of Oxides of Nitrogen (N0.J
and Volatile Organic Compounds(V0Cs) which are precursors to ozone formation. Both can react
with sunlight to form ozone, a component of smog.


IX      Sources/Uses:
There are many sources of ground-level ozone. Some of the primary sources of these pollutants are
mobile sources, such as automobiles, trucks, buses, gasoline powered lawn mowers, off-road
vehicles and motorized recreational watercraft. Farm and construction equipment also contribute
to these emissions. In 1990, motor vehicles accounted for over 29% of the VOCs and 48% of NO,
emissions from manmade sources in the state. Other significant sources include fuel burning
sources such as boilers, wood-burning stoves, industrial smokestacks, chemical plants, gasoline
stations, and paints. Many consumer products contain ingredients that emit VOCs and NOx
including hair care items, paints and stains and a variety of other household products.


IIL    Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Attain National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone.

2.     Increase the number of state and other fleet vehicles using alternative fuels.

3.     Create awareness in the public on how consumer products effect air quality and increase
       consumer demand for products with lower VOC content.

4.     Have pollution prevention be the preferred means of compliance for small sources such as
       metal finishers, dry cleaners, and auto body shops.
                                                                                                   26


I K STRATEGIES to Meet the Goals


CONSUMER SECTOR

1.    Since automobile emissions contribute significantly to air pollution, the Air Management
      Bureau will continue to support the ongoing efforts of other state agencies such as the
      Departments of Transportation (DOT) and Motor Vehicles (DMV) that have developed
      specific programs to reduce emissions fkom motor vehicles (such as Rideshare and fact sheet
      inserts accompanying license and car registration renewals). The Air Management Bureau
      will continue to promote ongoing consumer education on transit opportunities.

2.    The Department will continue to support the Department of Motor Vehicles in planning and
      implementing the enhanced inspection and maintenance requirements for motor vehicles and
      encourage the regular maintenance of vehicles to maintain emission systems.

3.    The Air Management Bureau will continue its efforts to raise public awareness of the air
      quality impacts of consumer products such as hair spray and house paints. Through a media
      campaign, the Bureau will educate the public about the problem and environmentally
      fiiendly alternatives, explaining the role consumers can play in cleaning up the environment
      by making smart product choices.

4.                                                                 to
      The Department will partner with the business c~m~nUnity support initiatives such as
      “Clean Cities” to educate consumers on the availability of clean cars and clean fuels.


INDUSTRIAL and COMMERCIAL SECTOR

1.    The Air Management Bureau will continue to expand the availability of emissions trading
      to promote regulatory flexibility and to encourage sources to implement the most effective
      means of obtaining emission reductions. The Bureau’s Emission Reduction Credit Trading
      Program (see Appendix B for program description) requires all emission reduction credit
      creators to retire 10% of all credits traded and credit users to retire 5% of the credits needed.
      The trading program provides sources of emissions with an incentive to undertake early
      emission reductions and to experiment with innovative emission reduction strategies.

2.    The Air Management Bureau in association with ConnTAP will seek to provide coordinated
      on-site pollution prevention and compliance assistance to small metal finishers through the
      Small Business Assistance Program (SBAP) $150,000 Leadership Grant and the Bureau’s
      Pilot Project for Compliance Assurance.

3.    The Air and Waste Management Bureaus projects will provide pollution prevention public
      education and outreach on best management practices and practical pollution prevention
                                                                                              27
     alternatives to reduce VOC emissions for auto repair shops and furniture strippers.

4.   The Air Management Bureau will undertake an onsite compliance assistance pilot project to
     evaluate the effectiveness of providing onsite regulatory assistance. The pilot project will
     focus on communicating regulatory requirements in plain English and identifying
     opportunities for small businesses to implement pollution prevention.

5.   The Air Management Bureau will continue to sponsor seminars and workshops to provide
     information and assistance on new regulations such as Title V, and incorporate education and
     outreach on pollution prevention wherever possible.

6.   The Air Management Bureau will continue to build on existing partnerships with the
     environmental community, public utilities, and other trade organizations and develop
     pollution prevention case studies to share with targeted industries.


STATE AGENCIES and INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.   The Air Management Bureau will continue to support the ongoing efforts of other state
     agencies such as the Departments of Transportation and Motor Vehicles that have developed
     specific programs to reduce emissions from motor vehicles.

2.   The Air Management Bureau will continue to support statewide efforts to promote energy
     efficiency as a way to achieve emission reductions. Energy is essential to the conduct of
     virtually every business, however it is also a major contributor to air pollution.

3.   The Air Management Bureau will provide technical assistance to state agencies on the Title
     V permitting program. As part of this effort, pollution prevention opportunities for state
     agencies will be explored and integrated as part of the permitting process.

4.   The Air Management Bureau will continue to provide technical assistance and support to the
     Department of Administrative Services (DAS) as part of an interagency effort to promote
     policy initiatives to improve air quality. The Air Bureau will also continue to support the
     efforts of DAS in purchasing alternatively fueled vehicles, and increasing fuel efficiency of
     new vehicles purchased.


v:   Avenuesfor Outreach
1.   Connecticut Office of Policy and Management, Department of Administrative Services,
     Department of Motor Vehicles and Department of Transportation
                                                                                             28

2.    The state’s interagency Clean Air Act Network and the State Implementation Plan Revisions
      Advisory Committee (SIPRAC)
3.    Participants in SBAP’s Leadership Grant and the Department’s Compliance Assurance Pilot
      Project
4.    Public interest organizations


VI.   Potential Data Sources
1.    Connecticut Office of Policy and Management’s evaluation of state facilities that implement
      energy programs to reduce emissions.
2.    Emission Statement Program reporting
3.    State fleet vehicles converted to natural gas
4.    Emissions Reduction Trading Credit Program statistics
                                                                                                   29




I.      Health & Environmental Impacts:
Many household products contain chemicals which can be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. The
use of hazardous products in the home can pose threats to human health and the environment. For
instance?aerosols contain propellants such as butane, propane and isobutane. These volatile organic
compounds can contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. The fumes from phosphoric and
sulfuric acids and ammonia contained in metal polishes contribute to air pollution in the home. The
improper disposal of household hazardous products can contaminate ground water or add to the
toxicity of sewage sludge.


II.      Sources/Uses:
Nearly every home contains hazardous products. They are used daily in the kitchen and bathroom
in the form of oven cleaners, ammonia, drain openers, hair and nail care products, and aerosols. They
are also found in the basement and garage in oil-based paints, thinners, solvents, fertilizers?and pool
chemicals, and throughout the home in products such as furniture polish and mothballs.

Consumer preferences as well as state legislation have resulted in some product reformulation. For
example, battery manufacturers have been encouraged to develop an alkaline battery with zero-added
mercury, the amount of mercury in fluorescent bulbs has decreased considerably, and there has been
an increase in the number and availability of non-toxic cleaners.


IIX    Pollution Prevention Goals
 1.    Reduce the amount of hazardous products purchased by consumers.

2.      Encourage additional product reformulation to decrease the toxicity of household products.



IV.    Strategies to Meet the Goals


CONSUMER SECTOR

1.      The Waste Management Bureau will expand its current outreach efforts by developing fact
        sheets and initiate a media campaign directed at consumers to broaden awareness of product
        and disposal hazards, provide information on non-toxic alternatives and work to change
        consumption patterns by educating consumers about source reduction education.
                                                                                              30



INDUSTRIAL and COMMERCIAL BUSINESS SECTOR

1.   Through outreach materials, the Department will inform businesses about product and
     disposal hazards and the availability of non-toxic cleaning supplies and encourage their use.

2.   The Department will recommend that the Connecticut General Assembly study labeling
     requirements which identify “toxic” constituents and quantities.


STATE AGENCIES and INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.   The Department will determine the feasibility of establishing a policy or introducing
     legislation requiring state agencies to use environmentally friendly products.

2.   As part of becoming a model pollution prevention agency, the Department will use
     environmentally friendly products in offices, laboratories and parks when feasible.


l?   Avenuesfor Outreach
1.   Permanent regional household hazardous waste collection facilities
2.   Water utilities
3.   Connecticut Haznet municipal representatives
4.   Schools, libraries and local garden clubs
5.   Retail outlets that sell these household products
6.   Public interest organizations


W. Potential Data Sources
1.   Household hazardous products purchase information (by category), if the industry can
     provide data
2.   Other organizations, such as the US EPA, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), Greenpeace,
     etc. who may have gathered useful statistics (Le., number of products with descriptive
     labeling, number of products available which are non-toxic, etc.).
3.   Household hazardous waste facilities
                                                                                                  31




I.     Health & Environmental Impacts:
Lead is a toxic metal which accumulates in living organisms. Lead is a probable human
carcinogen. It may also damage human chromosomes. The primary adverse impact is on the central
nervous system (CNS) causing behavioral effects. Children become impacted mainly through
ingesting lead-containing paint chips, which can result in slow growth and learning disabilities.
There is no known safe level of lead exposure in children. Lead may adversely affect the ability to
reproduce as well as damage the developing fetus.

Lead is extremely toxic to aquatic species, birds, livestock, wildlife, invertebrates and plants. In
fish, exposure to lead damages the nervous system and interferes with the transmission of nerve
impulses. Lead is an accumulative metabolic poison, affecting behavior, the kidneys and
reproduction. It can cause a severe decrease in the numbers of certain blood cells leading to anemia.
Lead poisoning has been extensively documented in waterfowl which have consumed lead shot.

II.    Sourcesflses:
Lead can enter drinking water from lead piping, lead-lined tanks in drinking fountains, brass
plumbing fixtures and plumbing solder. Lead can contaminate streams and stormwater fiom peeling,
lead-based paint on bridges and other outdoor structures, from roofs with lead flashing and
demolition debris composed of building materials coated with leaded paint. Although lead paints
have been banned from residential use, they are still a major historical source in many structures and
dwellings especially in urban areas. Paints for other purposes may still contain lead. Many inks
used by the printing industry and solders used in the manufacture and repair of electrical
components, appliances, computers, televisions and in non-potable water systems also contain lead.
Waste lead is evident in discharges from industrial laundries.

Recreational uses of lead, such as lead shot and fishing sinkers may also contribute to contamination.


III.   Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Reduce the amount of lead in the environment.

2.     Minimize the manufacture and use of products containing lead, especially solder and inks.
                                                                                                32
IK   STRATEGIES to Meet the Goals

CONSUMER SECTOR

1.   The Water Management Bureau will investigate barriers that discourage the use of
     alternatives for lead shot. The Department will encourage voluntary use of bismuth tin, steel
     or other lead substitutes for trap and skeet shooting and in other areas where lead is not
     prohibited.


INDUSTRIAL and COMMERCIAL BUSINESS SECTOR

1.   The Department will encourage manufacturers within Connecticut to use alternatives to
     products which contain lead, particularly inks used in printing.

2.   The Water Management Bureau will continue to query industrial laundries to determine the
     industrial sources of lead (e.g., steel strapping industry) found on rags, and ultimately in a
     laundry's discharge.

3.   The Water Management Bureau will support the work of other agencies such as UCONN
     Environmental Research Institute, the U.S. EPA, and the Coalition of Northeast Governors
     that are currently involved in researching alternative solders (e.g., suspending iron particles
     in the solder, enhancing its mechanical strength).

4.   The Water Management Bureau will continue to work with water utilities to improve water
     systems which leach lead in quantities that affect the quality of POTW discharges.

5.   The Water Management Bureau will review Discharge Monitoring Reports to determine
     which industries discharge lead and which exceed their permitted levels. The Bureau will
     provide technical assistance to permittees to effect necessary reductions.


STATE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.   The Department will work with the Connecticut Conference of Municipalities to inform local
     zoning officials of the concerns of lead shot and offer guidance in siting new shooting
     ranges.

2.   The Department will consider establishing a task force or other forum to communicate with
     sportsman's clubs and ammunition manufacturers about the impacts of recreational lead on
     the environment with the intent of seeking resolutions to this issue.

3.   The Water Management Bureau will continue to work with the Department of Transportation
                                                                                              33

      DOT) to substitute unleaded paints on their structures, and will work with the Connecticut
      Conference of Municipalities to encourage municipalities to discontinue use of leaded paints
      on bridges and other structures.

4.    The Department will continue to encourage the DOT to improve collection of lead paint
      debris during bridge painting, maintenance and repair activities.



K     Avenues for Outreach
1.    Electronics, automotive, telecommunication, shot and sinker manufacturers
2.    Aircraft industries and their trade associations
3.    Printers and printing trade association
4.    Connecticut Department of Transportation, Department of Public Works, Department of
      Public Health, Department of Environmental Protection and municipal Public Works
      departments
5.    Federal legislators who may be considering legislation banning products containing lead
6.    Arnmunition manufacturers
7.    Sportsman’s Clubs
8.    Public interest organizations


VI.   Potential Data Sources
1.    Ambient water quality monitoring conducted by the Water Management Bureau, U.S. EPA
      STORET and USGS WATSTOR water quality monitoring databases
2.    Bioaccumulation monitoring
3.    POTW effluent monitoring submitted to the Water Bureau.
4.    Discharge monitoring reports
                                                                                                     34




I.      Health & Environmental Impacts:
Mercury is a heavy metal which is extremely toxic to fish, birds and mammals. Mercury is a
significant environmental contaminant because it is persistent and readily bioaccumulates in the
aquatic food chain ultimately becoming available to humans and animals who consume fish as part
of their diet. It accumulates in living tissues and magnifies throughout the food chain. As each
successive organism is consumed, greater concentrations of mercury are built up and passed on.


For many years, there has been a limit for mercury in fish tissue below which commercial marine
fish, such as tuna and swordfish, are considered safe to eat on a regular basis by the general
population. Most recently, Connecticut’s Department of Public Health issued a fish consumption
advisory for mercury levels in freshwater fish from Connecticut waterbodies.

Exposure to high levels of mercury is known to cause serious heath problems. Its primary toxicity
is to the central nervous system. Its effects include changes in behavior, and at high levels, it affects
coordination and sensation. Mercury can vaporize under normal atmospheric conditions which
enables it to pass from soil and water to air, making it a persistent and mobile threat.

II.     Sources/Uses:
Mercury is released to the environment from both human activities and natural sources. The
principal pathway for dissemination of mercury is the atmosphere. A portion of the mercury
released in air emissions will be deposited near the source with the remainder being transported
long distances, from regions “up wind” of Connecticut. Mercury in the atmosphere is deposited into
surface waters through both dry and wet deposition (precipitation).

Mercury is released to the air from natural combustion such as volcanic activity as well as from
numerous man-made sources such as coal-fired power plants and waste incinerators . Mercury may
also be released during the manufacturing, disposal and incineration of fluorescent lights,
thermometers, barometers, batteries, medical equipment, certain electrical switches and from silver
amalgam salvaging processes. Elemental mercury, used by certain cultures for religious purposes,
is also available for sale to the general public without special permitting or handling requirements.
                                                                                                35
IIL   Pollution Prevention Goals
1.    Identify and eliminate the sources of mercury in waste incinerators.

2.    Reduce or eliminate batteries containing mercury and improve recycling opportunities for
      existing mercury batteries, fluorescent bulbs and other mercury-containing products.

3.    Where feasible, eliminate the use of mercury in thermometers, barometers, and other medical
      equipment.

4.    Prevent mercury switches fiom salvage automobiles from entering the waste stream.

5.    Improve consumer awareness of mercury-containing products and encourage them to chose
      altematives where feasible.

6.    Investigate potential restrictions on the sale of elemental mercury to the general public.



IV.   Strategies to Meet the Goals




1.    The Department will review existing research on the sources of mercury in waste
      incinerators. This information will be used to educate the public on specific products
      containing mercury, potential substitute products and disposal options and create an
      awareness on the part of the consumer.

2.    Working in cooperation with interstate groups such as Northeast Waste Management
      Officials Association (NEWMOA), National Recycling Coalition (NRC), Northeast
      Recycling Council (NERC), Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management
      (NESCAUM), New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC)
      and Council of Northeast Govemors (CONEG), the Department will propose legislation
      that would require labeling of products containing mercury with disposal information.

3.    The Waste Management Bureau will support the Universal Waste Rule (an EPA rule dealing
      with the handling and disposal of certain products and wastes) and assist in the establishment
      of Household Hazardous Waste collection centers and consumer education to encourage the
      recycling of fluorescent lighting and batteries as well as other mercury-containing products.

4.    The Waste Management Bureau will work with the Department of Public Health to consider
      whether legislation to regulate the sale of elemental mercury to the general public is
      necessary.
                                                                                           36


INDUSTRIAL, and COMMERCIAL SECTOR

1.   The Department will review existing research on the sources of mercury in waste
     incinerators and assist in the regional study sponsored by NEWMOA, NESCAUM and
     NEIWPCC.

2.   The Waste Management Bureau will work with the medical community to promote
     collection and recycling of medical equipment, such as thermometers and blood pressure
     sphygmanometers, and the purchase of non-mercury alternatives.

3.   The Waste Management Bureau will work with battery manufacturers to encourage the
     development of an easily recyclable battery.

4.   The Department will publicize Best Management Practices for the proper handling of
     mercury in manufacturing, recycling and industrial processes.

5.   The Department will require the removal of mercury switches from discarded automobiles
     at auto salvage yards prior to shredding, recycling and disposal. Once removed, mercury
     switches should be separated from the waste stream and recycled where feasible.


STATE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONAL SECTOR

1.   The Department will assist in the regional study sponsored by NEWMOA, NESCAUM and
     NEIWPCC to review sources of mercury in waste incinerators.

2.   The Department will work in cooperation with UConn’s Environmental Research Institute
     (EM) investigate the geographic distribution of mercury from air sources and conduct a
            to
     detailed comparison of mercury in two lake ecosystems.

3.   The Department will research mercury reduction activities of other states, such as
     Minnesota, including source reduction, labeling, collection and product sales bans and
     restrictions to determine if similar activities should be adopted by Connecticut.

4.   The Department will encourage state agencies to have used fluorescent light bulbs recycled
     at a permitted facility.

5.   The Department will investigate recycling opportunities for cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in
     discarded computer monitors.
                                                                                      37
K    Avenuesfor Outreach
1.   Not for profit organizations such as Northeast Waste Management Officials Association
     (NEWMOA), National Recycling Coalition (NRC), Northeast Recycling Council (NERC),
     Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), New England
     Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEIWPCC) and Council of Northeast
     Governors (CONEG)
2.   Connecticut Department of Public Health
3.   The medical community
4.   Manufacturers of mercury batteries
5.   Public interest organizations

W. Potential Data Sources
1.   Bio-accumulation monitoring.
2.   Sediment monitoring
3.   Emission monitoring from waste incinerators and coal-fired power plants
                                                                                                  38




I.      Health & Environmental Impacts:
Pesticides, which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides and rodenticides, are widely used
and sometimes misused or used unnecessarily. Virtually everyone is exposed to pesticides through
food, home environment, surface and ground water, and air, but usually at low levels with no
obvious harmful affects. Despite the benefits of pesticides, they are designed to be toxic to pests
and thus can be hazardous if handled improperly. When used unnecessarily, pesticides can
increase the chemical load to the environment and potentially increase exposure to humans. Since
the chemistry of pesticides is so diverse, their toxicity varies widely from relatively benign to
extremely poisonous. The long term health effects are also varied, often with no relationship to
acute toxicity. The long term effects of modern pesticides are often ameliorated by their generally
shorter environmental persistence.

II.    Sources/Uses:
Pesticides are used for lawn care, insect and rodent control and are applied in dwellings, office
buildings and on the landscape. They are used to improve agricultural yields. The purchase and
application of “restricted use” pesticide products is controlled; they are available only to certified
applicators. “General use” pesticide products can be purchased by all buyers. The most significant
source of unnecessary pesticide application is the routine, often monthly, treatment of structures or
lawns for pests which may have been a problem in the past or are perceived to exist but are actually
no longer a threat.


III.   Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Minimize the misuse and unnecessary use of pesticides and create a demand for Integrated
       Pest Management (IPM), a comprehensive strategy of pest control.

2.     Initiate widespread consumer education regarding pesticide use and the benefits of IPM.


IK     STRATEGIES to Meet the Goals


CONSUMER SECTOR

1.      The Waste Management Bureau will initiate an advertising campaign directed at consumers
        with the assistance of the UConn Cooperative Extension Service and focus the campaign on:

        a)     Providing information on IPM techniques which can be implemented to reduce
                                                                                               39
               unnecessary use of pesticide applications.

       b)      Encouraging homeowners who hire commercial pesticide applicators to request and
               participate in the implementation of IPM in their homes and/or yards.


2.     The Waste Management Bureau will educate commercial mortgage lenders and realtors to
       discourage the common practice of applying preventive termite treatments at the time of real
       estate transactions.



INDUSTRIAL, and COMMERCIAL SECTOR

1.     The Waste Management Bureau will continue to sponsor IPM workshops for the regulated
       community and to incorporate IPM information on written and oral applicator certification
       examinations.

2.     The Waste Management Bureau will work in partnership with the Professional Pesticide
       Users of Connecticut and the Environmental Industry Council to implement model structural
       IPM programs in designated institutions and promote IPM programs for other pesticide
       application categories as opportunities arise.

3.     The Waste Management Bureau will provide outreach to lending institutions and realty
       associations to discourage the common practice of requiring preventive termite treatments
       at the time of real estate transactions.


Strategies for the Agricultural Sector:
1.     The Waste Management Bureau will work in cooperation with the Connecticut Department
       of Agriculture to organize pesticide collections to remove unwanted pesticide products from
       the agricultural community.

2.     The Waste Management Bureau will work in cooperation with other New England states to
       update agricultural applicator commodity manuals to include information on IPM practices.

3.     The Waste Management Bureau will continue to sponsor IPM workshops and incorporate
       IPM information on commercial and agricultural applicator examinations.
                                                                                                40


STATE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.    The Waste Management Bureau will continue to research available funding sources through
      grants and legislative initiatives to promote IPM outreach and research.

2.    The Waste Management Bureau will continue to research successful IPM programs and
      methodologies from the private sector and other states for possible use in Connecticut.

3.    The Waste Management Bureau in cooperation with purchasing departments will
      institutionalize the practice of IPM at the Department’s facilities and expand the practice to
      all state facilities.

4.    The Waste Management Bureau will provide outreach to housing authorities, schools,
      hospitals and other institutions on the benefits of IPM and promote its use on highway rights
      of way.

5.    The Waste Management Bureau will work in partnership with the Professional Pesticide
      Users of Connecticut and the Environmental Industry Council to implement model IPM
      programs in designated institutions.

6.    The Waste Management Bureau will promote continued support for the UCONN
      Cooperative Extension System IPM agricultural and lawn care training programs.



V.    Avenuesfor Outreach

1.    Commercial pesticide applicators through the certification process
2.    Consumers
3.    Connecticut General Assembly
4.    Commercial mortgage lenders and realtors
5.    Institutional purchasing departments
6.    Public interest organizations


VI.   Potential Data Sources
1.    Questionnaire completed as part of annual renewal of commercial business registrations
                                                                                                  41




I.     Health & Environmental Impacts:
Polluted runoff, also known as nonpoint source pollution, occurs when rain or melting snow washes
over lawns, parking lots, farm fields, and city streets, picking up and carrying various pollutants
from the ground surface into rivers, streams, and Long Island Sound. Polluted runoff can also affect
groundwater, carrying pollutants from failing or inadequate septic systems.

Polluted runoff is referred to as nonpoint source pollution because, unlike “point sources” of
pollution that originate from Well-defined “points” such as discharge pipes from industrial uses and
sewage treatment plants, nonpoint source pollution originates from many difise sources and has no
well-defined point of entry to receiving waters. Examples of substances carried by polluted runoff
include eroded sediment, phosphorous, nitrogen and other nutrients, pathogens and floatable debris.


 Eroded sediment particles are transported and deposited away from their source, polluting streams,
rivers, wetlands, and coastal waters. Erosion and sedimentation become a problem when they are
accelerated beyond natural rates, primarily due to commonplace human activities. As erosion
occurs, soil washes into waterways and wetlands increasing the suspended soil particles in the water.
Sediment particles can, in turn,result in habitat degradation when deposited upon sensitive habitats
such as wetlands and shellfish concentration areas, and can bury benthic organisms and clog fish
gills.

Nutrients are essential to the health and growth of all living organisms. However, high nitrate
exposure in infants, most commonly due to contaminated drinking water, can affect the transport of
oxygen in the blood. Anthropogenic sources of nutrients, particularly forms of nitrogen and
phosphorus, have also led to overenrichment of surface waters and contamination of groundwater.
In surface waters, from lakes and streams to Long Island Sound, excess nutrients cause aquatic plant
life to flourish, leading to accelerated eutrophication and hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen),
diminishing the habitat for aquatic animals like fish and the invertebrates upon which they feed.
Pathogens are disease-causing microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. Human exposure to
pathogens can occur either by direct contact with or ingestion of contaminated waters by bathers,
or by eating raw or partially cooked shellfish harvested from contaminated waters. Such exposure
to pathogens can cause illness, most often gastroenteritis, but also potentially more serious diseases
such as crytosporidiosis, giardiasis and hepatitis. Bathing beaches and shellfish grounds may have
to be closed temporarily or over the long-term when monitoring indicates the presence of pathogens.
                                                                                                   42

Floatable Debris is the term given to trash found floating on surface waters or washed up on the
beach. Such debris is not particularly dangerous to humans, although it is aesthetically unpleasant
and can be a nuisance and hazard to boaters. However, floatable debris can have serious impacts on
fish and wildlife if ingested or entangled in it. Ingestion can cause suffocation or starvation.
Entanglement occurs when an animal becomes trapped and immobilized in debris. The animal
cannot move to obtain food, escape from predators, or breathe properly.


IL     Sources/Uses:
Stormwater runoff is the most prevalent transporter of sediment to surface waters. Land use
development activities, such as excavation, filling, and stockpiling operations are a major
contributing source of sediment transported in stormwater. These commonplace actions often
include removal of vegetative cover, reduction in wetland flood storage and increased impervious
land cover (uncompacted soil), which subsequently accelerates erosion.

Nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, are naturally abundant in the environment. In
addition, farmers and homeowners often apply fertilizers rich in nitrogen and phosphorus to increase
their farm and garden yields and expand landscaping. Other nutrient sources include sewage
treatment plant and septic system discharges, animal wastes, and atmospheric deposition.

Atmospheric sources of nutrients result from fossil fuels used in industry, homes, and cars. Fossil
fuels produce oxides of nitrogen that are ultimately deposited on land and in the water, often after
being transported for long distances. Land modifications supporting urban and suburban
development increase impervious cover and reduce natural systems, subsequently promoting the
delivery of atmospheric oxides of nitrogen deposition to surface waters. It is estimated that
atmospheric nitrogen may contribute as much as 25 to 30%of the nutrient enrichment reaching Long
Island Sound.

From a nonpoint source pollution perspective, sources of pathogens include discharges from marine
sanitation devices, inadequately treated human sewage discharged from failing or poorly maintained
septic systems and wild or domestic animal wastes, especially from waterfowl.

Most floatable debris consists of waste material and litter from products used on a daily basis and
then discarded carelessly or improperly, such as six-pack holders, ropes, cargo strapping bands,
fishing gear such as nets and fishing line, cigarette filters, plastic juice containers, paper, plastic
wrapping, and polystyrene cups. Regardless of where such reckless disposal occurs, the litter can
be transported by storm water runoff to surface waters via sheetflow, storm drains, and combined
sewer overflows.
                                                                                              43
III.   Pollution Prevention Goals:
1.     Reduce the effect of storm water runoff and minimize nonpoint sediment pollution from land
       development activities.

2.     Reduce over enrichment of surface water and ground water stemming from anthropogenic
       sources. Discourage the overuse and untimely (e.g., non-growing season) application of
       fertilizers to lawns, gardens, and crops to minimize nutrient runoff to surface water and
       infiltration to ground water.

3.     Maximize natural nutrient attenuation opportunities through promotion of wetlands
       protection, stream buffers, and open space programs in land use regulatory decisions.

4.     Decrease pathogens in Long Island Sound and other Connecticut waters, thereby increasing
       areas certified or approved for shellfish harvesting and eliminating public beach closures.

5.     Reduce the flow of floatable debris to surface waters through improved storm water
       management and education.



IK     Strategies to Meet the Goals:


CONSUMER SECTOR

Phosphorous, nitrogen and other nutrients:
1.    The Waste Management Bureau will build upon its current programs (e.g., Grass Cycling)
      to inform individuals about proper lawn fertilization practices and natural landscaping
      techniques to encourage the use of low maintenance landscaping and native vegetation. The
      Department will promote the “June Nitrate Test” and general soil testing in croplands and
      on lawns and gardens to directly measure fertilizer needs prior to application to minimize
      overuse. The Department will recommend the testing services of the Agricultural
      Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension System.

2.     The Department, in cooperation with the Cooperative Extension System, the Natural
       Resources Conservation Service, the Soil and Water Conservation Districts, and lake
       authorities will develop educational materials and provide outreach to farmers and
       homeowners aimed at better fertilizer management, including minimization of use through
       natural landscaping techniques.

3.     The Water Management Bureau will explore opportunities to encourage homeowners to
       properly maintain home septic systems to ensure m a x i ” nutrient treatment and retention,
       especially in sensitive pond, lake and coastal watersheds.
                                                                                              44

4.     The Department with the Office of Policy and Management and other groups (e.g.,
       Rideshare) will encourage the use of public transportation and other energy saving programs
       such as carpooling and vanpooling to help reduce contributions of nitrogen to the
       atmosphere.


Pathogens:
1.    The Office of Long Island Sound Programs (OLISP) and the Water Management Bureau in
      conjunction with the Department of Public Health and local health departments will improve
      education for homeowners on use and maintenance of septic systems to encourage
      homeowners to properly maintain systems to ensure maximum treatment and retention.

2.     The Department will implement pet and agricultural animal waste management programs.


Floatable Debris:
1.    The Department will support “Drains to River/Lake/Sound” storm drain stenciling projects
      to discourage illegal dumping of floatable debris and other substances. (See Appendix B for
      project description.)


INDUSTRIAL and COMMERCIAL BUSINESS SECTOR

Phosphorous, nitrogen and other nutrients:
1.    The Waste Management Bureau will build upon its current programs (e.g., IPM) to inform
      commercial applicators about proper lawn fertilization practices and natural landscaping
      techniques to encourage the use of low maintenance landscaping and native vegetation. The
      Department will promote the “June Nitrate Test” and general soil testing in croplands and
      on lawns and gardens to directly measure fertilizer needs prior to application to minimize
      overuse.


Pathogens:
1.    The Department will promote the provision of adequate on-shore sanitary facilities and boat
      pump-out facilities at marinas.
                                                                                                45

Strategies for the Agricultural Sector:
        Agricultural uses that generate nonpoint source pollution include both irrigated and non-
irrigated crops, specialty crops, pastures, feedlots, animal holding and waste management areas, and
washing and water processing areas. Water quality problems generally occur when agricultural
operations use improper management techniques or implement inappropriate land uses. Harm to
surface waters may be caused by erosion and sedimentation, poor waste management practices,
overuse of fertilizers and pesticides, alteration of wetlands and watercourses, and loss of riparian
vegetation. Pollutants may be windblown, but primary transport mechanisms are with runoff or
through infiltration into the groundwater.

1.     The Department administers funding from the Federal Clean Water Act Section 3 19 Grant
       Program and is responsible for the technical review, ranking and implementation of all
       Section 3 19 Nonpoint Source grant-supported projects. Through this program, the
       Department has supported numerous demonstration projects addressing prevention of
       nonpoint source pollution (See Appendix B). The Department will continue to encourage
       and support demonstrationprojects designed to reduce or eliminate nonpoint source pollution
       through the Section 319 Grant program.

2.     The Department will continue to work cooperatively with the Natural Resource and
       Conservation Service (NRCS), the Department of Agriculture, and others, to develop
       Agricultural Waste Management Plans for farms. Plans are developed in response to a
       complaint about or request fi-om individual farms. The Department will continue to provide
       outreach through farmers cooperatives, NRCS, and the Cooperative Extension System on
       development of such plans and best management practices to minimize the release and
       impacts of agricultural wastes.

3.     In a joint effort, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (now the NRCS) and the Department
       developed the Manual o Best Management Practices for Agriculture; Guidelines for
                                  f
       Protecting Connecticut’s Water Resources, 1993. The goal of the standards and
       specifications within the manual is to prevent, abate, or minimize pollution of surface and
       groundwater. The Department will continue to update the recommendations in the manual
       and make it available to as many farm operations as possible through direct sales and the
       NRCS. In addition, for all agricultural operations within aquifer protection areas across the
       state, this manual will be utilized by the NRCS to develop Farm Resource Management
       Plans that address pollution prevention in all facets of the agricultural operation.

4.     The Department will encourage farmers to include elements in their Farm Resource
       Management Plans addressing riparian restoration and buffers between fields or pastures and
       the streams to minimize stream impacts. The Department will support these efforts with
       funding through the Rivers Restoration Grant Program, which gives priority to f m s
       including such elements in their plans.
                                                                                                   46

STATE AGENCIES and INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

Eroded Sediment:
1.    The Department and Soil and Water Conservation Districts will continue to provide technical
      assistance to municipal officials in their review of proposed site plans to ensure that pollution
      prevention goals are incorporated into development projects.

2.     The Department will continue to encourage municipal enforcement staff to inspection
       projects and will provide technical assistance when requested to ensure that soil erosion and
       sediment controls are properly installed and maintained during construction.

3.     In conjunction with the Soil and Water Conservation Districts, the Connecticut Association
       of Inland Wetlands and Conservation Commissions, and the New England Natural Resources
       and Conservation Service, the Department will update the soil erosion and sedimentation
       control guidelines and convene a series of workshops for local and regional officials on the
       revised guidelines.

4.     The Department will consider expanding the use of the storm water general permit for small
       construction sites under 5 acres. Currently, the general permit is required for construction
       activities on sites of five acres or more.

Phosphorous, nitrogen and other nutrients:
1.                                              ih
      The Water Management Bureau will work w t municipalities and other agencies to develop
      and implement pollution prevention practices such as land management policies and septic
      system maintenance that will reduce nutrient introductions to the land and delivery to the
      water.

2.     The Water Management Bureau will continue to use state and federal partnerships such as
       the Long Island Sound Study, the Clean Lakes Program, the Coastal Nonpoint Source
       Pollution Control Program, and Section 3 19 of the Clean Water Act to control sources of
       nutrients throughout the state using pollution prevention techniques.

3.     The Water and Air Management Bureaus will develop a mechanism to consider water quality
       needs and benefits when developing regulatory goals for stationary and mobile oxides of
       nitrogen sources and implementing air programs.

Pathogens:
1.    The Department will promote Best Management Practices (BMPs) to prevent septic system
      failure, such as proper placement of new systems, routine pumping of existing septic
      systems, and proper operation of all systems (Le., reduced use of chemicals that disrupt
      septic system bacterial function and elimination of garbage disposals to reduce the collection
      of solids in settling tanks).
                                                                                              47

Floatable Debris:
1.    The Water Management Bureau and the Office of Long Island Sound Programs will provide
      outreach and technical assistance to municipal officials requiring that Best Management
      Practices (BMPs) be incorporated into site plan approvals and operation of municipal
      facilities. BMPs include wet scrubbing pavement surfaces, proper application of sand and
      salt on roads, and installation of hooded catch basins and gross particle separators.


K     Avenuesfor Outreach:
1.    Soil and Water Conservation Districts
2.    Connecticut Department of Public Health and local health departments
3.    Licensed sanitarians
4.    Municipal planning and zoning authorities
5.    Boaters, marina owners/operators through courses by the Department and Power Squadron
6.    Veterinarians
7.    Environmental organizations and schools
8.    Recipients of the Long Island Sound License Plate Fund and Connecticut Sea Grant
      Advisory program
9.    Consumers and farmers via education and publicity
10.   Commercial and agricultural fertilizer applicators
11.   Relevant federal, state and local regulatory and cooperative programs, including Connecticut
      Agricultural Experiment Stations, the Cooperative Extension Service, the Natural Resources
      Conservation Service, the Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Connecticut Sea Grant
      Program
12.   State and federal lawmakers developing reduction targets for oxides of nilxogen that address
      acid deposition and tropospheric ozone reduction


u.    Potential Data Sources
1.    United States Geological Society (USGS) ambient water quality monitoring data
2.    Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture Division shellfish monitoring data
3.    Beach clean-up statistics
                                                                                                   48




I.      Health & Environmental Impacts:
Zinc is a metallic element used to form a wide variety of alloys, solders and galvanized metals. Zinc
and zinc salts are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, affecting growth, survival and reproduction.
Zinc damages gill tissues and inhibits the fish’s ability to obtain oxygen. It affects other
physiological functions as well, including a variety of enzymes, respiratory behavior and hormone
levels. In addition to its effects on aquatic populations, zinc poisoning has been documented in
plants, animals and birds. It is likely to persist in water and can accumulate in fish and other
organisms. Zinc toxicity is increased in the presence of copper.


II.     Sources/Uses:
Zinc is found in measurable quantities in surface water all over Connecticut. However, it is routinely
found in excessive quantities in storm water and surface waters which drain heavily developed areas
and poses a very widespread pollution problem.

Although discharge of zinc from industrial processes is tightly controlled, the amount of zinc
discharged at sewage treatment plants indicates that other sources are contributing to the zinc in
Connecticut surface waters, including numerous nonpoint sources. Zinc compounds are also
frequently used as corrosion inhibiters in water supplies to protect piping.

Zinc is used to coat metal parts to prevent them from rust and corrosion, including many metal
building materials and galvanized or plated highway guard rails. Zinc sulfide and zinc oxide are
used to make white paints, dyes, inks and rubber tires. Painted outdoor areas, rubber residue on road
surfaces and ash residue from tire-burning facilities contribute to the presence of zinc in storm water
runoff.


III.   Pollution Prevention Goals
1.     Reduce the amount of zinc in storm water runoff.

2.     Reduce the use of zinc compounds in outdoor materials.

3.     Reduce the use of zinc compounds in drinking water distribution systems.
                                                                                              49

K     Strategies to Meet the Goals


STATE AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS SECTOR

1.    The Water Management Bureau will encourage the Town of Wallingford, Water Division,
      to implement a pilot program that uses alternatives to zinc compounds for treatment of water
      supply. If effective, the program may have application for other water supply systems
      throughout the state. The Department will investigate using local colleges and universities
      to perform analytical research on the feasibility and benefits of eliminating zinc compounds
      and identifying substitutes (e.g., sodium compounds) for water utility use.

2.    The Water Management Bureau will develop a forum for ongoing discussions with key staff
      from the Department, the Department of Transportation and municipalities to identify
      potential substitutes for zinc compounds in highway construction materials.


K     Avenues for Outreach
1.    Municipalities throughout the state
2.    Connecticut Department of Administrative Services
3.    Department of Transportation
4.    Public interest organizations


VI.   Potential Data Sources
1.    EPA STORET and USGS WATSTOR water quality monitoring databases
2.    Stormwater monitoring in compliance with permits
3.    Department of Transportation
                                                                                                   50

VI.     Measuring Pollution Prevention Progress
        The importance of quantifying reductions of the targeted substances in each sector, as well
as other pollution prevention efforts, is a challenge that cannot be neglected. However, no single
tool exists that can measure statewide pollution prevention progress reliably.

         Information on sources and quantities of chemical substances is collected in a variety of
federal and state computerized databases which can be accessed by the Department. Since these
databases were not established with the goal of tracking pollution prevention, their value for
measuring pollution prevention needs to be carefully assessed. (See Appendix D for databases
accessible to the Department). Unresolved questions include whether the databases measure the
appropriate variables, whether they measure the variables at the appropriate points in a process or
in time, whether they are meaningful across media, and whether measurements should be taken using
a national standardized procedure or using individual local or facility specific systems. Furthermore,
while regulatory agencies such as the Department focus primarily on decreasing emissions,
discharges and disposal of chemical substances, businesses also need information on costs,
regulatory and reporting consequences, worker liability claims, quality and quantity of production
outputs, and public relations effects in order to assess the effectiveness of pollution prevention
initiatives.

        The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is an example of a national database which has
limitations making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions with respect to pollution prevention.
The TRI is a multi-media data base which may be useful to specific facilities that are tracking their
own pollution prevention efforts and have consistent information about their production patterns,
costs and sales over a period of time. However, TRI data cannot be applied broadly across the state
to evaluate aggregated pollution prevention successes. The TRI reports do not provide throughput
data, require all filers to use a standardized production ratio or account for factors like economic or
regulatory changes. Current databases do not measure efforts by the consumer sector or public
agencies and businesses that are not required to file reports.

        The Department’s approach to measurement will be fourfold:

1.      Assess the value of existing databases for measuring pollution prevention and propose
        feasible alternatives which can provide effective data. Department staff familiar with
        these environmental databases will assess each air, land and water database to evaluate
        whether the database does or can be modified to yield useful pollution prevention
        information. Staffwill identify ways to improve data collected so that pollution prevention
        efforts can be evaluated and provide public access to reliable data. The Department will seek
        to link environmental databases across media and increase understanding of all chemical
        releases.
                                                                                                51

2.   Study emissions trends, develop survey materials and devise benchmarks to help
     measure the Department’s progress in reducing pollution in the three sectors. The
     Department will make use of appropriate databases to identify decreases in emissions,
     primarily from the industrial and commercial sector and state agencies and institutional
     sector. Individual facilities showing reduced emissions will then be contacted to further
     determine whether reductions are linked to pollution prevention activities, such as a change
     in process or raw materials, or if other factors, like downsizing, played a role. Monitoring
     emissions trends will help the Department accumulate baseline information for various types
     of substances, agencies, and businesses, establish benchmarks and record progress over time.
     Gains made from consumer sector pollution prevention awareness, activities and attitude can
     be monitored with surveys conducted by UConn’s Institute of Social Inquiry.

     In order to determine whether the Department’s strategies, plans and activities are successful,
     benchmarks will be developed and tracked at regular intervals. Benchmarking emphasizes
     measuring outcomes rather than activities. Examples of benchmarks include: the amount
     of VOCs emitted by a business type, the number of Connecticut companies participating in
     a pollution prevention program that have met their reduction goals, the percent reduction in
     the number of potential sources of pollution, the number of agencies and companies which
     have completed environmental assessments and implemented plans for reductions in
     emissions or discharges, annual consumer responses to products which are environmentally
     friendly, changes in mass transit ridership, and changes in consumer awareness of the
     meaning and importance of pollution prevention. Benchmarking will be particularly useful
     in evaluating the pollution prevention progress made in the consumer sector,


3.   Aid state agencies, institutions, trade associations and businesses to assess their
     progress and develop case studies. The Department, as well as other organizations in the
     state, will provide assistance to all sectors in identifying pollution prevention opportunities
     and tracking accomplishments over time. Since Connecticut does not mandate pollution
     prevention reporting, the Department will encourage all companies to provide quality
     pollution prevention and waste minimization information on required federal reporting
     forms. In addition, the Department will recommend that agencies, companies, trade
     associations and individuals voluntarily share their pollution prevention progress. The
     Department will accumulate information for various types of substances, agencies, and
     businesses, and develop case studies to promote pollution prevention to similar agencies and
     businesses.

4.   Collaborate with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and interstate
     organizations such as NEWMOA, CONEG and NGA (see Appendix A, Definitions) to
     refine existing databases or devise new tools which can be used effectively to measure
     pollution prevention progress. As stated previously, Department staff will evaluate
     existing databases and make recommendations to improve both the quality and type of
     infomation so that pollution prevention elements are included in the reports filed. It is
     anticipated that new measurement and assessment techniques may be needed to capture
                                                                                    52

comparative statistics for use in measuring pollution prevention on a broad basis. The
Department is involved in a variety of projects including EPA New England Goals and
Indicators Project (NEGIP) and Biennial Report System (BRS) streamlining and is tracking
EPA’s Waste Information Needs (WIN) initiative. The Department will continue to join
other groups in developing new tools and evaluate the usefulness of techniques such as
materials accounting, I S 0 14000 and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for pollution prevention
(see Appendix A).
                                                                                               53

VII. Plan Implementation
        This Plan will be implemented by means of staff training, an agency self-assessment7
coordination with outside agencies, and assignments to Department staff. The Department will
identify the resources necessary to implement this Pollution Prevention Plan and its ongoing
pollution prevention program. A brief outline of anticipated pollution prevention activity follows.

        Training. The creation of the Department's interbureau pollution prevention workgroup in
early 1994 was the initial step toward coordinating pollution prevention activities throughout the
agency. As this plan is implemented, every employee will receive training on how to incorporate
pollution prevention into their daily work activities. The Department will emphasize that pollution
prevention requires a multi-media approach and will incorporate pollution prevention into
compliance and enforcement orders as appropriate. The Department will explore the use of cross-
media inspections and whole facility permitting as techniques to implement pollution prevention and
avoid transfer of risk.

      Model Agency. In an aggressive effort to improve its own pollution prevention
accomplishments, the Department will conduct a "whole facility self-assessment" of its buildings,
                                                                    parks, recreational areas,
                                                                    and equipment.            The
                                                                    assessment will identify
                                                                    pollution          prevention
                                                                    opportunities and help to
                                                                    establish baselines with
                                                                    which to monitor pollution
                                                                    prevention achievements
                                                                     over time. Several initial
                                                                     steps have already been
                                                                    taken by the Department,
                                                                    including the development
                                                                     of a survey to evaluate
                                                                    employee transportation
                                                                    networks and an assessment
                                                                     of Department operated
                                                                    parks and fish hatcheries
                                                                     aimed at compliance and
                                                                     waste reduction. Having
                                                                     completed its own whole
                                                                     facility self-assessment, the
Department will develop a format for such assessments and assist other state agencies with them.
                                                                                                   54

        Organizational Network. A broad network of organizations and agencies that promote
pollution prevention and other environmental improvements currently exists within the state (see
box; Appendix C contains a description of each organization). The Department will promote the
exchange of ideas among these organizations and attempt to establish a formal relationship among
them to enhance this exchange, ensure coordination of their efforts within the state, avoid duplication
of services and improve access by businesses and the general public to their services.

        Department Structure Pollution prevention activities will be decentralized within the
agency such that the implementation of the strategies outlined in this plan are made part of the
routine responsibilities of staff in all bureaus. In order to ensure cross-media and cross program
communication and coordination, there will also be a central pollution prevention office. Through
this structure, the Department will undertake the following activities in support of this Plan.

                1.     Permitting and Enforcement. Incorporate pollution prevention into
                       appropriate permits and enforcement actions. Provide assistance to permit
                       applicants so that pollution prevention initiatives can be incorporated as
                       appropriate. Review consent orders and other settlements for pollution
                       prevention opportunities, including Supplemental Environmental Projects
                       (SEPs) with pollution prevention components.

               2.      Training. Coordinate multimedia pollution prevention training for the
                       Department staff,attend training and assess training needs and opportunities
                       for bureau staff.

               3.                ion. Participate in inter-program coordination of pollution
                       prevention activities. Assist in implementing strategies set forth in the
                       Department’s Pollution Prevention Plan and tracking pollution prevention
                       elements of bureau strategic plans.

               4.      Planning. Coordinate pollution prevention planning.

               5.      Public Education. Develop and initiate pollution prevention education
                       campaign for the general public with special emphasis on schools, colleges
                       and universities.

               6.      Outreach, Education and Technical Assistance. Emphasizing pollution
                       prevention for small business, identify outreach targets and facilitate the
                       development and review of multi-media outreach materials. Participate in
                       outreach efforts including special projects, conferences, workshops, fact
                       sheets, training materials, case studies (e.g., Pit Stops, Pollution Prevention
                       for Printers, general permits for specific industries, Small Business
                       Assistance Program’s Leadership grant, etc.).
                                                                               55
7.    Technical Assistance to State Agencies. Provide technical assistance to state
      agencies on implementing pollution prevention.

8.    Grants Management. Identifjr pollution prevention grant opportunities for all
      Department programs. Assist in preparation of grant applications submitted
      by the Department, assist in reviewing grants available for Connecticut
      businesses, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Industrial
      Competitiveness through Energy, Environment and Economics (NICE3),
      and assist in management of grant funds for all programs as requested.

9.    Partnerships. Participate in developing voluntary alliances among public and
      private organizations (government agencies, business and industry, public
      interest groups, etc.) for the purpose of promoting pollution prevention,
      assessing viability of new initiatives and providing a fonun to share
      successful pollution prevention efforts. Develop partnerships with a few
      large businesses or trade associations.

10.   Information Management. Review, assemble, maintain and disseminate
      within the Department updated information on pollution prevention for all
      media. Also publicize pollution prevention activities within the Department.

11.   Special Projects Management. Manage pollution prevention projects such as
      Hartford Neighborhood Project and Train the Trainers Printers Project.
             56

APPENDICES
                                                                                              57

Appendix A
Definitions and Abbreviations


American Water Works Association - An             voluntary efforts on the local level to create a
international, non-profit, scientific and         sustainable, nationwide alternative fuels
educational association dedicated to              market.
improving drinking water for people
everywhere. The membership is primarily                     -
                                                  CONEG Coalition of Northeast Governors
composed of water suppliers, municipalities,
and academics.                                    cross-media transfer - Refers to the transfer
                                                  of hazardous materials and wastes &om one
benthic organisms - Organisms living on the       environmental resource or medium to another
sea bed, river bed or lake floor.                 (i.e., air, land, water).

Best Management Practices (BMP) - A               discharge permit - A permit authorizing the
recommended practice or procedure designed        discharge of water or wastes to the waters of
to prevent, minimize, or control                  the state.
environmental impacts.
                                                  drag out - Refers to the amount of VOC’s
bioaccumulation - Uptake and retention of         that adhere to an object as it is being removed
substances by an organism &om its                 from a degreaser. (Degreasers are tanks
surrounding medium or from food.                  containing VOC’s as solvents to clean metal
                                                  Parts*>
boat pump out facility        -  Any device,
equipment, structure, or vessel that allows for   end-of-pipe - An approach to environmental
the removal of sewage &om a sewage holding        protection that emphasizes treatment and
t n of a marine sanitation device or portable
 ak                                               disposal of waste rather than prevention.
toilet and the transfer of such sewage to a
system for sewage treatment or disposal, and      eutrophication - Overenrichment of a water
includes any associated sewage storage tank,      body with nutrients resulting in excessive
portable or permanently installed pump,           growth of organisms and depletion of oxygen
fitting, hose or piping.                          concentration.

chlorinated biocides - Chemicals that contain     general permit - The Department issues both
chlorine and are toxic to living organisms.       individual and general permits to regulate
                                                  activities. Individual permits are issued
Clean     Cities-      A     locally     based    directly to an applicant, whereas general
governmenthdustry partnership coordinated         permits are issued to authorize similar minor
by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to         activities by one or more applicants.
expand the use of alternatives to gasoline and    Authorization of an activity under a general
diesel fuel. The approach is to focus on          permit is governed by that general permit.
                                                                                             58
Each specific general permit must be               material capable of withstanding high
consulted for details.                             temperatures. It is used in incinerators where
                                                   it permits hotter, more efficient combustion.
grass cycling - Recycling grass clippings back
into the lawn after mowing by simply               hypoxia - Low dissolved oxygen levels,
allowing the clippings to remain on the lawn.      below 5.0 mg/l, which may cause significant
                                                   adverse ecological effects in the bottom water
ground level ozone - Ozone is a , highly           habitats of Long Island Sound.
reactive chemical variant of oxygen. At
ground level (i.e., within a few hundred feet of   in-process recycling or closed-loop
the ground surface) it is produced by reaction     recycling- Refers to secondary materials that
of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen in the      are reclaimed and returned to the original
presence of sunlight. Ground level (or             process or processes in which they were
tropospheric) ozone is distinguished from          generated where they are reused in the
stratospheric ozone, which is the same             production process.
chemical, but which exists naturally and
protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet        integrated pest management - The use of all
rays from the sun.                                 available pest control techniques, including
                                                   judicious use of pesticides, when warranted to
hazardous waste - Any waste material,              maintain a pest population at or below an
except by-product material, source material or     acceptable level while decreasing the
special nuclear waste, as defined in CGS           unnecessary use of pesticides.
section 22a-115, which may pose a present or
potential hazard to human health or the            I S 0 14000 - An International standard for
environment when improperly disposed of,           environmental management, expected to be
treated, stored, transported, or otherwise         released in the US in mid-1996. The standard
managed, including (A) hazardous waste             will provide a consistent methodology with
identified in accordance with Section 3001 of      which to demonstrate environmental
the federal Resource Conservation and              credentials.
Recovery Act of 1976 (42 USC 6901 et seq.),
(B) hazardous waste identified by regulation       June Nitrate Test - Also called the
by the Connecticut Department of                   “presidedress nitrate test”. This is a soil
Environmental           Protection       and       testing procedure designed to measure the
(C)polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in              amount of nitrogen in the soil available for
concentrations greater than fifty parts per        utilization by a corn crop. A soil sample is
million.                                           collected from the corn field when the corn is
                                                   6-12” high, usually in June, hence the name.
Haznet - A group of private sector and
municipal representatives who meet with the                                        -
                                                   Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) A complex
Department on a regular basis to discuss           methodology that attempts to determine
proper management of and alternatives to           environmental impacts of a product and its
household hazardous waste and related issues.      packaging from production through disposal,
                                                   examining all the raw materials, energy and
high temperature refractory - A ceramic            water used in production and manufacturing,
                                                                                              59
transportation, distribution, use and reuse,      oxides of nitrogen (NO,) - Compounds that
maintenance and recycling. Impacts on users,      contain oxygen and nitrogen. They are
workers, public health and the environment        formed primarily by high-temperature
are evaluated.                                    combustion (mainly from motor vehicle
                                                  engines and utility power generation). They
materials accounting - Allows industrial          contribute to ground-level ozone by reacting
facilities to account for the flow of raw         with volatile organic compounds in the
materials throughout a process, identifying       presence of sunlight.
where raw materials are being wasted or lost
and where new materials are being created.        phytoplankton     -   Minute floating plants,
                                                  usually algae.
multi-media - Refers to all environmental
media (air, land, and water) to which a           pollution prevention - Eliminating or
hazardous    substance,    pollutant,    or       reducing the amount of potentially harmful
contaminant may be discharged or released.        substances at their source, prior to generation,
                                                  treatment, off-site recycling or disposal. It
municipal solid waste - Solid waste from          includes only those practices which do not
residential, commercial and industrial sources,   create new risks or shift risks among workers,
excluding solid waste consisting of significant   consumers, living creatures or parts of the
quantities of hazardous waste as defined in       environment. Pollution prevention strives to
CGS section 22a- 115 , landclearing debris,       reduce the use of hazardous materials, energy,
demolition debris, biomedical waste, sewage       water and other resources.
sludge and scrap metal.
                                                  recycling - The processing of solid waste to
National Ambient Air Quality Standards            reclaim material therefrom.
(NAAQS)          -   Maximum        allowable
concentrations of pollutants in ambient air.      riparian- Of, on, or relating to the bank of a
NAAQS have been established for carbon            natural course of water.
monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide,
particulate matter, ozone and lead.               Rivers Restoration Grant Program - A
                                                  grant program within the Clean Water Fund
             -
NEWMOA Northeast Waste Management                 which enables the Department of
Officials’ Association, a nonprofit,              Environmental Protection to           make
nonpartisan interstate association.               competitive awards for projects which
                                                  improve or restore rivers degraded by
      -
NGA National Governors Association                modification, development, or the effects of
                                                  pollution.
nonpoint source pollution - Unlike “point
sources” of pollution that originate from well-   run-off - That portion of precipitation that
defined “points” such as discharge pipes from     moves across the land surface to a surface
industrial uses and sewage treatment plants,      water body.
nonpoint source pollution originates from
many difise sources and has no well-defined       SEARCH program - A research program
point of entry to receiving waters.               started in Connecticut in 1986 to train high
                                                                                             60
school teachers to go out with their students      available database containing information
and collect environmental data from rivers,        about releases and off-site transfers of toxic
streams and wetlands in Connecticut. The           chemicals from manufacturing facilities. By
SUMMER SEARCH program provides high                July 1 each year, facilities must report their
school students an opportunity to conduct          estimated releases and transfers of toxic
research for the DEP on forestry, fisheries,       chemicals for the preceding calendar year.
wildlife and other water-related issues.           Facilities provide this information to EPA and
                                                   to the state in which they are located.
solid waste - Solid, liquid, semisolid or
contained gaseous material that is unwanted or     volatile organic compounds (VOCs) -
discarded.                                         Compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen
                                                   and are volatile at normal temperatures. The
source reduction - Any practice which              legal definition excludes certain VOCs that
reduces the volume or toxicity of material at      are not reactive enough to contribute to the
the point of generation before it enters the       formation of ground level ozone. The term
waste stream. Source reduction does not            VOC’s is nearly synonymous with
include recycling.                                 hydrocarbons.

STORET - An acronym for the U.S.                   waste minimization - The reduction of
Environmental Protection Agency’s STOrage          hazardous waste that is generated, treated or
and RETrieval System, a water quality              disposed. It includes source reduction and
database.                                          recycling, provided a reduction in the total
                                                   quantity or toxicity of hazardous waste
thermal backflushing - The use of hot water        entering the waste stream results.
for cleaning and maintenance of piping. It is
typically used to kill mussels and other           waste-to-energy incinerator or resources
organisms growing in the water intake              recovery facility - A facility utilizing
structures of power plants.                        processes aimed at reclaiming the material or
                                                   energy values from solid wastes.
         -
Title V A part of the 1990 Clean Air Act
Amendments which establishes a requirement         whole facility assessment - A systematic,
for states to set up operating permits for major   planned procedure designed to identi@ and
sources of air pollution.                          provide information about opportunities to
                                                   reduce the use, production, and generation of
                                  -
tropospheric ozone reduction Occurs as a           waste facilitywide.
result of programs to control emissions of
ozone “precursors” (VOCs and N0.J Auto
exhaust inspections, control on VOCs emitted
by industries, combustion modifications to
reduce NO, formation, and VOC 1iInitations in
paints and other coatings are examples of
programs to reduce tropospheric ozone.

Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) - A publicly-
                                                                                               61

Appendix B
Department of Environmental Protection Pollution Prevention Activities


Technical Assistance Program
The Department has contracted with the University of Connecticut Environmental Research Institute
(EM), the Cooperative Extension Service and the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management
Service's Technical Assistance Program (ConnTAP) to conduct site visits and training and to
produce guidance materials for the following industries:
       -landscapers/turfgrassmanagers;
       -auto refinisherdauto maintenance;
       -furniture strippers/refinishers/manufacturers;
       -analytical laboratories;
       -pressure washers;
       -copperformers;
       -metal fabricators;
       -textiles;
       -printers


Pollution Prevention Information Transfer to Businesses
Since February 1994 the Department's compliance inspectors have met with over 300 industrial
sources to introduce them to the Department's Office of Pollution Prevention and distribute
"Pollution Prevention Options for Industry" booklets. Inspectors also surveyed each business about
its pollution prevention program. Awareness of the Department's program increased as a result of
this outreach program. The data collected for FY 1994 will establish the baseline data for tracking
the pollution prevention progress of these companies.


Pollution Prevention Assessments for Businesses
The Office of Pollution Prevention has developed an assessment fact sheet and will be designing a
workshophaining program on "Doing a Pollution Prevention Assessment" for businesses, trade
schools and the public.


Pollution Prevention for Printers
The Department has received a grant to create a partnership among the Department, printers and
printing trade associations. After assessing the industry's needs, a training package focusing on
pollution prevention opportunities and implementation in the print shop was developed. A pilot
training workshop was presented in the Summer 1996.
                                                                                                62

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and pesticide rinsate recycling
Two distinct pollution prevention pesticides programs are underway. The first, IPM, involves a
grant awarded to the University of Connecticut, Cooperative Extension System to provide training
to commercial lawn care companies to discourage the use of routine applications of pesticides. The
second program is being carried out by the Department's Pesticide Management Division. The
program involves providing outreach to lawn care companies. The goals of the project are to
increase the use of pesticide rinsate and wash water recycling systems while decreasing the
possibility of the rinsate and wash water reaching off-site receptors. It encourages companies to
accurately calculate needed daily pesticide volumes in an attempt to decrease the volume of leftover
solution.


National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy, Environment and Economics Grant
Program (NICE,)
The Department continues to work with industrial partners to secure funding for pollution prevention
projects. Under the NICE3 program, four grant applications were submitted to the U.S. Department
of Energy to fund pollution prevention projects at four Connecticut companies in 1996 with grant
requests exceeding $1.3 million. One company, Whyco Chromium Company, Inc., was awarded
$400,000 for an innovative metal plating project that reduces pollution and waste treatment costs.


Small Business Assistance Leadership Grant
The Small Business Assistance Program (SBAP) received a $150,000 EPA Leadership Grant for
State Clean Air Act Small Business Assistance Programs. The grant funds support a joint initiative
between the SBAP and ConnTAP to provide multimedia compliance and pollution prevention
assistance to small metal finishers. Grant funds support multhedia technical assistance site visits
focused on three common metal-finishing operations: painting and coating, solvent degreasing, and
chromium electroplating. Some of the products of the grant are to establish administrative
protocols and a model for conducting joint compliance/pollution prevention assistance; a model for
voluntary compliance agreements; the development of plain-English fact sheets on regulatory
requirements and pollution prevention opportunities; and a seminar to transfer the results of the
project to companies with similar operations.


Pollution Prevention Awards
The Governor's Awards for Environmental and Economic Progress were awarded for the first time
in December 1994. Pollution prevention was one of the five award categories.


Pilot Urban Pollution Prevention Project (Hartford Neighborhood Project)
The Department has initiated a pilot project in two Hartford neighborhoods. Pollution prevention
education and technical assistance is being provided to community groups to identify specific
concerns raised by the neighborhood residents and businesses. Results of the pilot will be measured
and publicized.
                                                                                                  63


Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs)
The Department has issued a policy statement on the use of Supplemental Environmental Projects
(SEPs) which allows a SEP to be considered as part of a settlement in an administrative enforcement
case. Pollution prevention projects are one category that will be considered as potential SEPs. A
number of pollution prevention projects have been developed as SEPs.


Training for Permit Writers
A survey was conducted of permit writers in all major programs at the Department with questions
covering knowledge of pollution prevention and barriers to including pollution prevention in the
permiting process. A training curriculum was designed by state and regional pollution prevention
staff and Department staff involved in permiting participated in workshops held for the northeast
region.


Pollution Prevention in Permitting Pilot Project (P-4)
The Department and the U.S. EPA chose CYTEC Industries, Inc. of Wallingford to be the first
company in New England to participate in EPA’s Pollution Prevention in Permitting Pilot Project
(P-4). The Air Management Bureau is devoting considerable resources to this project because of
the expectation that the holistic approach to permitting advocated by pilots such as P-4 represents
the future direction of ar permitting programs nationally. One of the specific objectives of the P-4
                         i
project is the development of a model permit for Title V programs that formally incorporate
pollution prevention as a permit requirement.


General Permits with Pollution Prevention Components
The Department is developing general permits for a variety of businesses and sources including:
emergency diesel engines, spray booths, small boilers, small rock crushers, analytical labs, furniture
refinishing and pressure washing. Information on how to comply with a proposed general permit
as well as pollution prevention practices and opportunities will be incorporated.


Storm water Pollution Prevention
The Bureau of Water Management’s storm water program has developed storm water General
Permits for Construction Sites and Commercial and Industrial facilities. The general permits contain
requirements for controlling and minimizing pollutants picked up by storm water. The permits
require development of a pollution prevention plan for the individual site or facility. A Guidance
Documentfor Storm Water Pollution Prevention Planfor Industrial Activities has been developed,
as well as model storm water pollution prevention plans for municipal and state public works
garages, salt storage facilities, transfer stations and landfills.
                                                                                                  64

Quinnipiac River Project
An innovative project to provide technical assistance to the public and local industry to prevent
pollution in the Quinnipiac Rivershed was initiated in 1994. The Bureau of Water Management
oversees the project which targets TRI emitters for pollution prevention education.


Toxics Reduction Project
This is an interbureau effort to promote reductions in toxics by the top Toxics Release Inventory
(TRI) emitters. The Department works with the 10 highest quantity emitters to determine the
feasibility for reducing toxic releases, while concurrently meeting manufacturing needs.


Aquifer Protection Program
In order to protect public drinking water supply wells from contamination, regulations are being
drafted to restrict land use in areas that feed ground water to the supply wells. Regulated businesses
within the aquifer protection areas will be required to implement a series of pollution prevention
measures.


Coastal Nonpoint Source Pollution Pr
      Technical Assistance for Municipal Officials
      The Office of Long Island Sound Programs has developed a guide which provides municipal
      officials with technical assistance for coastal nonpoint source pollution prevention. The
      guide includes Best Management Practices and Model Land Use Regulations and Ordinances
      for municipalities. The guide focuses on four areas of nonpoint source pollution: soil
      erosion and sedimentation, storm water, on-site disposal systems and marinas.

       Storm Drain Stenciling
       Through the Long Island Sound license plate program, environmental organizations, schools
       and municipalities are encouraged to apply for funding for storm drain stenciling projects.
       Stenciling “Drains to River/Lake/Sound” on storm drains discourages illegal dumping of
       floatable debris and other substances down the storm drains. Stenciling storm drains raises
       the public’s awareness of the adverse impacts of disposing items such as used motor oil,
       antifreeze, paints, pesticides and plastics in the street or down a storm drain.


Nonpoint Source Program (NSP)
One of the functions of the Department’s Nonpoint Source program is to administer grants funded
under Section 3 19 of the Federal Clean Water Act. These grants provide funds for demonstration
projects designed to reduce nonpoint source pollution fiom a variety of sources. Below are examples
of the types of projects that are in progress or have recently been completed:

        Housatonic River Watershed NPS Cover Crop Demonstration Project:
        This project demonstrated two new cover crop techniques as erosion control measures
                                                                                           65
for highly erodible soils in Litchfield County. The project consisted of a field day and
completed summary reports, resulting in a heightened awareness on the part of all area
farmers to the problems caused by soil erosion and the role of cover crops in protecting and
improving water quality.

Connecticut Urban Watershed NPS Management Guide for Conservation Districts and
Municipalities:
This project developed a guidance document on urban NPS for municipalities and other
agencies to better protect and possibly remediate impacts to streams.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Connecticut Nurseries:
This project will provide training to growers in the use of IPM to help maintain water quality
while balancing crop quality with minimum use of nutrients and pesticides, especially those
with high or medium potential for runoff andor leaching to ground water. This on-going
project has allowed UConn to hire a nursery crops educator, develop educational materials
for producers, evaluate the program with questionnaires, write yearly reports on
accomplishments, and do presentations on the outcome.

Yantic River Agricultural Pesticide and Nutrient Management Project:
This watershed-focused project will provide education on nutrient and pesticide management
via professional andor paraprofessional staff to producers in order to maintain or improve
crop yield while achieving reductions in the use of pesticides (especially those with either
high or medium potential for leaching to ground water) and nutrients (primarily nitrogen).

Nonpoint Source Education Exhibit:
The public is generally unaware of the overall contribution to water pollution from nonpoint
sources and household sources under their control. This project will produce three portable
exhibits and accompanying materials (brochure, questionnaire, work sheet) which can be
displayed in a variety of public settings, such as museums, libraries, nature centers, schools,
fairs and other public events.

Coastal Nonpoint Source Educational Brochure:
This brochure contains information and model regulations understandable to the lay person
to assist coastal communities with their legislative mandate to protect water quality in Long
Island Sound through specific zoning techniques. The brochure informs municipalities
about the status of current research and education efforts and provides recommendations
for complying with the law.

Kent Falls Brook Bank Stabilization Demonstration Project:
The west bank of Kent Falls Brook, between two pedestrian bridges, is washing out and
eroding. A geotextile is being proposed for stream bank stabilization. The geotextile will
immediately stabilize the bank and encourage native plantings to reclaim the embankment.
Education will be provided for the public about NPS pollution, specifically erosion and
sediment problems, by posting highly visible signs describing the project and its purpose.
                                                                                                66

       Sasco Brook Watershed NPS Program:
       The purpose of this project is to demonstrate an intergovernmental approach to watershed
       management for NPS control; to reduce nitrogen inputs fiom residential sources through the
       use of cost-effective BMP’s; to reduce nitrogen and coliform inputs from equestrian sources;
       to educate the citizenry on watershed management for NPS controls and to institutionalize
       controllable NPS sources through voluntary and regulatory means.

       Scantic River Watershed NPS Management Program:
       The Hartford/Tolland County Soil and Water Conservation Districts are in their fourth year
       of a five-year nonpoint source watershed planning and implementation project. The crop
       management service in the watershed will continue, providing farmers with June Nitrate
       testing on both silage and sweet corn fields. Testing is expected to cover over 1,500 acres.
       The benthic monitoring program in conjunction with the River Watch Network will continue,
       and data analysis will be provided as needed. The districts will also encourage participation
       of local high schools in the Department’s SEARCH program. The districts will continue
       education effortswithin the watershed by speaking at local organizations, having a display
       at local libraries and town halls, and continuing the catch basin identification project as
       needed. Efforts to work with municipalities to encourage capital improvement budgets to
       address water quality concerns will be expanded. The districts propose to pilot a two-year
       erosion and sediment control inspection service. They will also work with town engineering
       and public works departments to select six demonstration sites where water quality Best
       Management Practices will be incorporated into proposed capital improvement projects. An
       educational brochure concerning BMPs for homeowner lawn care in Connecticut will be
       prepared and disseminated.

       Jordan Cove Watershed Urban National Monitoring Program Project:
       Funding will support the first two years of a proposed 6-10 year monitoring project as part
       of EPA’s National Monitoring Program. This project involves researchers from UConn and
       a variety of other public and private agencies who will work with the Town of Waterford in
       an innovative and environmentally sensitive residential land development project which is
       expected to contribute less storm water runoff than a conventional subdivision.


Public Outreach
The Department’s Office of Communications and Education encourages pollution prevention
through outreach to the public, press, and institutions. Communications include press releases and
educational and informational materials on:
       -informing the public on what they can do to create less air pollution,
       -eliminating direct discharge of sewage into water bodies by boats and marinas,
       -preventing accidental discharge of sewage by informing homeowners about failing septic
        tanks,
       -informing municipalities about the consequences of dumping road sand and salt into
        water bodies,
       -stopping illegal dumping on public lands and wildlife management areas,
                                                                                                   67
        -broadcasting information on consumer products and clean air on radio and television
        stations statewide; and
        -producing and distributing numerous handouts including brochures, posters, fact sheets,
         slideshows and displays.


Emission Reduction Credit Trading Program
In May, 1994, new regulations for existing major sources of oxides of nitrogen (NOJ came into
effect. This regulation primarily affects combustion sources such as utility and industrial boilers and
large engines used to generate electricity and mechanical power for industrial and commercial use.
The regulation defmes new compliance emission levels that affected sources must meet by May 3 1,
1995 rather than specific control technology. The approach provides considerable flexibility for
regulated sources of NO, in an attempt to minimize compliance costs. The regulation encourages
least cost compliance strategies and pollution prevention by allowing credits to be created by a
source that reduces its actual emissions below those required by regulation. The credits are
discounted to provide environmental benefits.

These credits, once approved by the Department, can be used or traded to another source.
Connecticut's program requires all emission reduction credit creators to retire 10% of all credits
traded and credit users to retire 5% of the credits needed. This aspect of the program ensures a rapid
reduction of actual emissions beyond what is required by regulation. The trading program provides
sources of emissions with an incentive to undertake early emission reductions and to experiment
with innovative emission reduction strategies. About half of the 65 sources subject to the nitrogen
oxides control standards for May of 1995 are now creating and/or using credits as a compliance
method. The creation and use of credits must be formalized in a federally enforceable trading order.
Connecticut's trading program complies with EPA's Economic Incentive Program rules which
require states to demonstrate environmental benefit as part of a trading program.
                                                                                                 68

APPENDIX C
Agencies in Connecticut Involved in Promoting Pollution Prevention

Several of the agencies in Connecticut that promote pollution prevention along with some of their
other programs are listed below. This list is not a complete inventory of pollution prevention
agencies, but rather a representative sample of those agencies with which the Department of
Environmental Protection has worked on pollution prevention. Please note that there may be other
agencies in Connecticut involved in pollution prevention as well as several qualified private
consultants throughout the state that are not listed below.


Connecticut Business Environmental Council
10 Main Street, Bristol, CT 06010
1-800-611-CBEC or 1-800-611-2232
A nonprofit organization of business volunteers who provide technical assistance in solid waste
management and recycling. The Council assists companies with waste reviews at no charge and
provides information on waste exchanges.


Connecticut Development Authority (CDA)
845 Brook Street, Rocky Hill, CT 06067
860-258-7800
An agency which oversees the distribution of the Environmental Assistance Revolving Loan Fund
and several other funds that may be available for pollution prevention activities.


Connecticut Environmental Entrepreneurial Center (CEEC)
55 Elizabeth St., Hartford, CT 06105
860-297-4474
A nonprofit corporation designed to provide a number of business and technical services to
environmental entrepreneurs in order to facilitate business start-up and diversification, and create
jobs in Connecticut. The Center’s services include a database of Connecticut companies providing
environmental products and services, referral and outreach services such as conferences and
seminars, and facilitation of technological evaluation and demonstration of environmental services,
products and innovative technologies.


The Connecticut Institute of Water Resources
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268
860-486-4523
One of fifty-four nationwide institutes authorized by the National Water Resources Act of 1984. The
Institute’s main program goal is to identify and sponsor research on pertinent and critical issues
                                                                                                 69

involving Connecticut’s water resources. One research priority is nonpoint source pollution within
which the development of pollution prevention methods to prevent the release of contaminants to
surface and ground water systems has been identified as a topic. Additional Institute goals are to
disseminate technical information to interested individuals as well as to private and public
organizations and to provide training and education.


Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service
Technical Assistance Program (ConnTAP)
50 Columbus Boulevard, Hartford CT 06106-1910
860-241-0777
A quasi-public agency focusing on hazardous waste management. ConnTAP provides fiee, non-
regulatory technical and financial assistance to Connecticut businesses and industry. The program
focuses on multimedia pollution prevention. Services include the site-visit program, an information
and referral hotline, a resource center, a materials exchange service and a quarterly newsletter.
ConnTAP also administers Matching Challenge Grants.

Cooperative Extension System
College of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
860-486-4125
An agency associated with UConn’s College of Agriculture and Natural Resources that provides
outreach and assistance to the community. One of the charges of the Cooperative Extensive System
is to work toward improving the quality of Connecticut’s water. The service has also worked with
local farmers on related issues and, with the Department of Environmental Protection, has provided
technical assistance and training to pesticide applicators on the use of Integrated Pest Management.


Environmental Research Institute (EN)
University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3210
860-486-4015
A research group associated with the University of Connecticut which focuses on the transfer of
pollution prevention technology through research, collaborative relationships with government
industry and education initiatives.


Individual Connecticut Business and Trade Associations
Several businesses and industries are represented by trade or business associations, e.g., the
Connecticut Association of Metal Finishers and the Automotive Trades Association. These
associations provide a variety of services to their members, including dissemination of materials,
conferences and workshops. The Department has provided some trade and business associations
with information on pollution prevention.
                                                                                                 70

APPENDIX D
Databases

Several of the databases available to or maintained by the Department are listed below. This list
provides a representative sample of those databases that may be usehl in measuring pollution
prevention progress. Please be aware that the list below is not a complete inventory of every
database available to the Department.

Biennial Reports (BRS)
Submitted every other year by large quantity generators (LQG), these reports record the generation
and management of hazardous wastes in Connecticut. An LQG is a facility that meets one of three
criteria. It (1) generated 2,200 lbs. or more RCRA Hazardous Waste, (2) generated or accumulated
2.2 lbs or more of RCRA acute hazardous waste, or (3) generated or accumulated 220 lbs of spill
cleanup material in any single month.

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)
These reports are submitted annually by facilities which manufacture or process more than 25,000
lbs of an EPA reportable chemical or use more than 10,000 lbs of a reportable chemical. They
provide information on the amount of chemicals released to the environment.

Manifests Database
These reports are submitted by generators and transporters of hazardous and regulated waste. They
track wastes from "cradle to grave".

Solid Waste Reporting Database
These reports are submitted by municipalities, regional authorities, and permitted facilities. They
detail the quantities of solid waste generated and how it is managed.

Geographic Information System (GIs) Database
This is a statewide, integrated, spatial database built upon selected information from U.S.G.S.
1:24,000 scale topographical map series. It contains numerous data layers and associated attribute
information ranging from Level B Aquifer Protection Areas to satellite-derived land use / land cover
data. The GIs database is designed to be used for a wide range of DEP planning applications and
other environmental decision making.

Ambient Physical Chemical Monitoring
This database provides water quality monitoring information for conventional physicaVchemica1
parameters at twenty-seven locations on nineteen waterbodies in the State. Sampling is performed
monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, depending upon the station.
                                                                                                 71

Biological Monitoring Program
This program enables the Department to evaluate water quality by assessing the ability of a
watercourse to support aquatic organisms and evaluating impacts of toxic effluents on receiving
waters.

Ambient Biological Monitoring
This database is designed to characterize water quality and monitor trends for selected streams by
examination of the benthic invertebrate community. Sampling has been conducted at forty-eight
sites on thirty-three streams.

Intensive Biological Monitoring Surveys
The focus of these surveys is on a specified basin in which multiple locations are sampled within
a limited time span.

Bioaccumulation Monitoring
This involves the analysis of shellfish and finfish tissue. Metals, phenols and PCBs in the edible
portion are analyzed. Other potential toxins such as mercury are measured in tissues if a threat of
contamination has been identified. This data is used to refine fish and shellfish consumption
advisories.

Dioxin Monitoring
Stack and ambient dioxin monitoring was conducted at resources recovery facilities from 1987 to
1991. A report was submitted to the Connecticut General Assembly in 1992 which demonstrated
that dioxin emissions at these facilities were well w t i required limits. Subsequently, the ambient
                                                     ihn
monitoring has continued at a reduced level whereas the stack testing was expanded to include the
annual testing of ten metals.

Air quality monitoring
Raw and final (validated and calibrated) data from monitoring sites for the six criteria pollutants
(carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, ozone and lead) are housed
in databases within DEP’s DG20000 computer system.
                                                                          72



APPENDIX E

Commissioner’s Pollution Prevention and Compliance Assurance Initiative
                  STAT33 OF CONNECTICUT                      Contact:
                  DEPARTMENT OF                              David Leff, Assistant Commissioner
                   N I 0T
                  E VR " m             PROTECTION            (860)424-3001

                  Sidney J. Holbrook
                  Commissioner                              Jarmary 1996




 COMMISSIOIWR'S FOUR DEPARTMENTAL INITIATIVES

      PREVENTION
 POLLUTION          ASSURANCE
            & COMPLIANCE


The Next Step In Environmental Protection
Traditional pollution control focuses on treatment and disposal of wastes. The emphasis has
been on control technology and 'end of pipe' solutions. Pollution prevention means stopping
pollution before it starts. This more common sense approach seeks ways to minimize waste
products, conserve energy and water, use fewer and less hazardous raw materials, and avoid the
transfer of pollution from one medium, the air for example, to another, such as water. The
pollution prevention program will allow the department to encourage businesses, institutions
and consumers to create less pollution. Using an expanded range of techniques, the department
will be able to curb pollution by reaching those who are not subject to traditional regulatory
requirements                        d certain small businesses.

Compliance assurance supplements traditional enforcement by cooperatively assisting businesses
to meet or exceed environmental standards by providing technical assistance and, where
         additional resources. This approach can achieve compliance without the need for
                ions. In many cases, I    eve, it will achieve better results, more quickly.

I intend to have the department develop and implement comprehensive strategies to reduce air,
water, and land pollution by decreasing the use of toxic and polluting materials, saving energy
and water, using processes and practices that produce fewer waste products, and increasing
in-process recycling. The department itself will become a model agency for pollution
prevention ip all phases of its work.

While I intend that the department maintain a vigorous enforcement program to handle the most
serious and recalcitrant polluters, it is also my intention that the Department extend a helping
hand to those members of the regulated community who have made a good faith effort to
comply. When the department is forced to take enforcement action, it will have given ample
notice of its concerns, and in the absence of unusual circumstances will provide opportunities
and assistance in achieving compliance.
Looking Ahead

                    . The DEP will exam pollution prevention options in the cons
institutional, commercial and industrial sectors. We will work with businesses, trade
                                                    u
associations, consumer groups and state agencies. O r efforts will include:

        *      Development of a pollution prevention plan;

        *      Integration of pollution prevention into the department’s planning, permitting
               compliance and enforcement programs with emphasis on multimedia approaches;

       *       Coordination of pollution prevention efforts with other organizations;

       *       Technical assistance to state agencies and small businesses;

       *       Educational programs for the public, businesses, and institutions;

       *                                 ml
               Financial assistance for s a l businesses; and

       *       Evaluating marketing strategies, incentives and other forms of assistance for
               development of new technologies or products that support pollution prevention.


Compliance Assurance. In pursuing compliance assurance, the department will examine
         ..
OPPO           for technical assistance, educational programs on how to comply with regulations,
financial assistance to small businesses, use of third party and self-audits, coordination with IS0
14000 provisions (the International Standards Organization’s Environmental Management
Standard), greater use of supplemental environmental projects that direct violators’ money to
environmentally valuable purposes such as pollution prevention, and innovative approaches such
as emissions credit trading.

Projects Under Way
Pollution Prevention. The department has long had pollution prevention in its programs.
Currently we are:

   h       Working with an advisory committee representing businesses, municipalities, state
           agencies, and environmentalists to develop the Department’s Pollution Prevention
           Plan;

   *       Training small businesses i pollution prevention and environmental management;
                                     n

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Pollution Prevention & Compliance Assurance                                         Page 3
Commissioner’s Initiatives for the Department of Environmental Protection           January 1996


          Working with Hartford neighborhoods to create an urban pollution prevention model;

          Providing site specific technical assistance to the textile, painting, fimiture stripping,
          and auto repair industries;

          Developing a calendar with 100% post-consumer recycled paper and vegetable inks;

          Developing coastal nonpoint source pollution prevention plans and guidelines;

          Participating in a pilot project which will make pollution prevention a formal part of
          air permits while providing a company with operational flexibility;

          Providing compliance and pollution prevention assistance to small metal f ~ s h e r s ;

          Developing clean air commercials, posters, and brochures to educate consumers on
          air pollution caused by various products; and

          Assisting marina owners in placing pump-out and dump stations and educating boat
          owners to install holding tanks and use marina facilities for their sewage.

Comuliance Assurance. Ongoing efforts at compliance assurance include:

   aJ     Continuing education efforts and greater use of environmental auditing;

   k&     Use of loan funds to promote compliance by eliminating financial barriers;

   aJ     Sponsoring of seminars and conferences for Connecticut’s business community;

   aJ     Providing a toll-free “Help Line” for businesses required to submit an operating
          permit under the Clean Air Act Amendments;

   aJ     Promoting communications through the new Small Business Advisory Panel;

   aJ     Discussions on multi-media enforcement; and

   )I     Broader use of supplemental environmental projects .




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                                                                           76


APPENDIX F

Public Act 91-376, An Act Providing Environmental Assistance to Business
                   Public Act 91-376
  An Act Providing Environmental Assistance to Business       .




     Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
 Representatives in General Assembly convened:
     Section 1.       (NEW) It shall be the policy of
 the state to encourage the practice of pollution
 prevention,     thereby     reducing risks        to   the
 environment and       the    health    of workers and
 consumers.     As used in this section, pollution
prevention includes         the change of or use of
production processes, practices, raw materials
o r products      that     reduce    or   eliminate the
genecation- of by-products without creatlna new
 risks of concern or that protect C a E i i Z a l resources
thr'ough their conservation.
     Sec. 2 .   (NEW) ( a ) An environmental assistance
revolving loan fund          is created.      The state,
acting      through    the    Connecticut     development
authority, may provide loans, lines of credit or
loan       guarantees    to    businesses      from     the
environmental assistance revolving loan fund for
the purpose of pollution prevention activities, as
defined in section 3 of this act. F o r the purposes
of this section, "business" means any business
which ( 1 ) has gross         revenues    of less than
twenty-five million dollars in its fiscal year
ending prior to the application for any such
loans, lines of credit or loan quarantees or ( 2 )
has fewer than one hundred fifty employees. The
department of economic development shall charge
and collect interest on each such loan or line of
credit a t a rate to be determined in accordance
with procedures adopted pursuant to subsection ( b )
of this SPction. -Payments made by businesses on
all loans, lines of credit and loan guarantees
shall be paid to the treasurer for deposit in the
environmental assistance revolving loan fund.
     ( b ) The Connecticut       development authority
shall adopt written procedures,           in accordance
with the provisions of section 1-121 of the
general statutes, to carry out the provisions of
this section.      Such procedures shall establish
requirements f o r loans, guarantees,             interest,
repayment terms,      security requirements, default
and remedies and such other terms and conditions
as the authority shall deem appropriate.
       ( c ! Each such loan, guarante? or extension of
 credit shall be authorized by the Connecticut
 development authority or,             if   the authority s o
 determines,       by a committee of the authority
 consisting of the chairman and either one other
member of the authority or its executive director,
 as specified in             the   determination    of   the
authority.        Any administrative expenses incurred
 in car:ying out the provisions of this section, to
 the extent not paid by the authority or from
moneys appropriated to the authority,               shall be
paid from the environmental assistance revolving
loan fund.         Payments       from    the environmental
assistance revolving loan fund to businesses or to
pay such administrative expenses shall be made by
the treasurer upon certification by the chairman
of the authority that the payment is authorized
under the provisions of this section, under the
applicable rules and regulations of the authority,
and, if made to a business, under the terms and
conditions established by the authority or the
duly appointed committee thereof in authorizing
the making of the loan or the extension of credit.
      (d) On or-before the second Wednesday after
the convening of each regular session of the
general assembly,             the Connecticnt development
authority shall submit a report to the joint
standing committee of the general assembly having
cognizance of matters relatins to commerce and
exportation,         which      sets forth, for the year
ending the preceding June thirtieth, the status of
the fund, including the number and amount of loans
made and the amount of loans outstanding.
      (e)      The authority shall not approve            an
application for a loan,                line of credit or
guarantee--unless M e Connecticut hazardous waste
management service determines the applicant is
eligible        for such loan, line of credit             or
guarant?e.
      Sec. 3 .     ( N F W ) A s used in sections 1 to 3 ,
inclusive, of this act:
      ( 1 ) "Pollution prevention activities" means
changes within a plant in production processes,
product or raw materials that reduce, avoid or
eliminate the generation of hazardous by- products
per unit of product or the use of toxic or
hazardous substances per unit of product without
creatina new r i s k s of concern, but shall not be
construed to promote or require ( A ) incineration,
( E ) transfer from one medium of exposure, release
or discharge to another medium, (Cf off-site or



                          Page 2
 out-oE-$roduction prccess rec;.cliny or ( D ) zethods
 of end-of-pipe treataent of toxic O K hazardous
 substances as waste:
      ( 2 ) "Production process" means a                process,
 line method, activity or technique or combination
 or series thereof, whrch is integral to and
 necessary for the production of a product or the
 provision of a service; and
      (3)     " Ha z a r dou s    by- p r oduct
                                           I'      means     any
 nonproduct output,            waste or residue, including
 fugitive emissions, of hazardous substance from a
 production psocess.
     Sec.     4.       ( N E X ) (a) There is established
within the Connecticnt hazardous waste managextent
 service an office of               environmental      business
 assistance.      Such office shall provide technical
 assistance to business in pollution prevention
 techniques and methods with a focxs on pollution
prevention activities.              The office may provide
 technical     assis:ance          on      recycling,      waste
 treatsent and contaiaed disposal when pollution
prevention techniques are not applicaDle.                     In
providing such assistance,               the office shall give
priority to the needs of small business and shall
coordinate its activities with private and public
sector      initiatives          in pollution       prevention,
including education.
     ( b ) The Connecticut hazardous waste management
service      may      adopt       written      procedures,    in
accordance with the provisions of section 1-121 of
the general statutes, establishing eligibility
criteria applicable to loans, lines of credit or
loan guarantees by the Connecticut development
authority from            the     environmental      assistance
revolving loan fund established under sectisn 2 of
this act for purposes of pollution prevention
activities.
     Sec. 5. Subsection (df of section 22a-451 of
the general statutes is repealed and the following
is substituted in lieu thereof:
     (d) There is established a revolving fund to
be known a s the emergency spill response fund, f o r
the     purpose of providing money for (1) the
containment and removal or mitigation of the
discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage o r
filtration of oil or petroleum or chemical liquids
O K solid, liquid or gaseous products or hazardous
wastes including the state share of payments of
the costs of remedial action pursuant to the
federal Comprehensive              Environmental      Response,
Compensation,         and Liability Act of 1980 ( 4 2 USC



                             Page 3
     9601 et seq.),         as amended;       (2) provision of
     potable      drinking     watec pursuant to              section
     22a-471; (39 completion of the inventory required
     by section 22a-8a; (4) the removal of hazardous
    wastes that the commissioner                deems to be a
     potential      threat     to human        health       or    the
     environment;       ( 5 ) the    accomplishment          of the
    purposes       of sections 22a-134aa to 22a-l34hh,
     inclusive, except that the amount expended f o r the
    purpose of this subdivision shall not exceed [two
    hundred eighty] T H R E E        BUNDRED     FORTY      thousand
    dollars per year;           (6) (A) the provision of
     short-term potable drinking water pursuant to
    subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section
    22-471 and the preparation of an engineering
     report pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection
     (a) of said section           when       pollution of the
    groundwaters by pesticides has occurred o r can
     reasonably be expected to occur;                ( 8 ) the stildy
    required by Special Act 86-44* and ( C ) as funds
    allow, education of the public on the proper use
    and disposal of pesticides and the prevention of
    pesticide        contamination         in    drinking water
    supplies;       (7) loans and lines of credit made in
    accordance with the provisions of section 32-232;
     ( 8 ) the accomplishment of the purposes of sections
    22a-133b to 22a-l33g,         inclusive,        and sections
    22a-134       to 22a-l34d,        inclusive,           includinc;
    staffing, and section 22a-133k;              ( 9 ) development
    and implementation by the commissioner of                       a
    state-wide aquifer protection program pursuant to
    the      provisions of sections            19a-37,         22-6c,
    22a-354c,       22a-354e,      22a-3547        to 22a-354bb,
    inclusive, 25-32d, 25-33h, 25-33n and subsection
    (a) of 25-84,          including,     but not limited to,
    development of state regulations for land uses in
    aquifer pr.otection areas, technical assistance and
    educational programs,          ( 1 0 ) research on toxic
    substance contamination, including research by the
    Environmental Research Institute and the Institute
    Of      Water    Resources     at     The     University ef
    Connecticut and by the Connecticut Agricultural
    Expe riment S ta tion ;       (11)      the costs of the
    commissioner in performing o r approving level A
    mapping of aquifer protection areas pursuant to
    this title; and (12) inventory and evaluation of
    the farm resource management requirements of farms
    in aquifer areas by the eight county soil and
    water conservation districts. The amount expended
    under subdivisions (6) to (12), inclusive, of this
'   subsection shall be as follows: Under subdivision




                                 Page 4
 (61,     not more than the amount credited to the
 emergency spill        response    fund from the fees
 collected pursuant to sections 22a-66b to 22a-66j,
 inclusive, and section 22a-54a, fifty per cent of
 the ‘amount credited therein from             the   fees
 collected pursuant to subsection (g) of section
 22a-SO,     and one-third of the amount credited
 therein from the fees collected pursuant to ( i )
 subsection     ( f ) of section 22a-54        and    (ii)
 subsection     ( c ) of     section     22a-56;    under
 subdivision ( 7 1 ,     not more than three million
 dollars; under subdivision ( 8 1 , not more than one
million dollars per year; under subdivision ( 9 1 ,
not more than two hundred fifty thousand dollars
per year; under subdivision ( 1 0 1 , not more than
eighty      thousand     dollars   per     year; . under
 subdivision (111,        not more than three hundred
thousand dollars and under subdivision (1.21, not
more than one hundred twenty thousand dollars for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1991. Any money
 recovered pursuant to subsections ( a ) and ( c ) of
this section shall be deposited in the general
fund and credited to the fund established under
this section and          shall be used to meet any
contractual        obligations     incurred      by    the
commissioner pursuant to subsection ( b ) of this
section for such containment and removal                or
mitigation.
      Sec. 6. (NEW) There is established within the
department of environmental protection the office
of business ombudsman. Such office shall provicie
information      to    businesses     on    environmental
programs and requirements, including information
o n permits, and shall coordinate and serve as a
liaison between the          department     and programs
affecting.husinesse_s.
      Sec. 7 . (NEW) The budget of each state agency
receiving funds from the emergency spill response
fund under subdivisions 5 to 12, inclusive,             of
subsection ( d ) of section 22a-451 of the’general
statutes, as amended by section 5 of this act,
shall specify the amount of expenditures to be
paid from said emergency spill response fund.
     Sec. 8 .    (NEW) (a) For the purposes described
i n subsection (b) of this section, the state bond
commission shall have the power, from time to time
to authorize the issuance of bonds of the state in
one O S more series and in principal amounts not
exceeding in the aggregate ten million dollars.




                          Page 5
      (5) The proceeds of the sale of said bonds, to
 the extent of the amount stated in subsection ( a )
 of this section, shall be used by the Connecticut
development authority for the purpose of sections
 1 to 4 , inclusive, of this act.
      (c) All provisions of section 3-20 of the
 general statutes, or the exercise of any right or
power granted thereby which are not inconsistent
with the provisions of this section are hereby
 adopted and shall apply to all bonds authorized by
 the    state bond commission pursuant to          this
 section, and temporary notes in anticipation o f
 the money to be derived from the sale of any such
bonds so authorized may be issued in accordance
with’ said section 3 - 2 0 and from time to time
 renewed. Such bonds shall mature at such time or
times     not exceeding twenty years from their
respective dates a s may be provided in or pursuant
to the resolution or resolutions of the state bond
commission authorizing such bonds. None of said
bonds shall be authorized except upon a finding by
the state bond commission that there has been
filed with it a request for such authorization,
which is signec! by or on behalf of the secretary
of the office of policy and management and states
such terms and conditions as said commission, in
its discretion, may require. Said bonds issued
pursuant to this        section   shall    be general
obligations of the state and the full faith and
credit of the state of Connecticut are pledged for
the payment of the principal of and interes.t on
said bonds as the same become due, and accordingly
and as part of the contract of the state with the
holders of said bonds,         appropriation of all
amounts necessary- for punctual payment of such
principal’and interest is hereby made, and the
treasurer shall pay such principal and interest as
the same become due.
     Sec.      9.   Section 32-232 of the general
statutes, as amended by section 8 of public act
91-161,     is    repealed and the      following    is
substituted in lieu thereof:
     (a) A       business    environmental    clean-up
revolving     loan fund is created.        The state,
acting     through    the   Connecticut    development
authority,      may provide loans or lines of credit
to businesses from the business environmental
clean-up revolving loan fund for the purposes of
the containment and removal or mitigation of the
discharge, spillage, uncontrolled loss, seepage
or filtration of oil or petroleum o r chemical



                       Page 6
  liquids or solid, liquld or gaseous products or
  hazardous wastes.          For    the purposes of this
  section, "business" means any business which ( 1 )
  has been in business for at least one year prior
  to the date of application for its loan or line of
  credit, ( 2 ) has gross revenues, including revenues
  of affiliates, less than three million dollars in
  the most recent fiscal year before the datz of the
  application or has less than one hundred fifty
  employees,     [and] ( 3 ) has been doing business and
 has maintained its principal office and place o f
 business in the state for a period o f at least one
 year prior to the date of its application for
 assistance       under      this     section     AND   (4)
 DEMONSTRATES, TO THE SATISFACTION OF TXE AUTI~ORITY
 AND IN ITS S O L E DISCRETION,       THAT IT IS UNABLZ TO
 OETAIN FINANCING FROM CONVENTIONAL SOURCES ON
 REASONABLE TERMS OR IN REASONABLE AMOUNTS. The
 Connecticut development authority shall charge and
 collect interest on each such loan o r llne of
 credit at a rate to be determined in accordance
 with regulations adopted pursuant to subsection
 (b) of this section. The total amount of such
 loans or lines of credit provided to any single
 business in any period of twelve consecutive
 months shall not exceed two hundred thousand
 dollars. Payments made by businesses on all loans
 and lines o f credit paid to the treasurer for
 deposit in the business environmental clean-up
 revolving loan fund shall be credited to such
 fund.
      ( b ) THE AUTHORITY SHALL TAKE ANY REASONABLE
ACTIONIT     DEEMS APPSOPL~IATETO Z~ODE~ZATE     LOSSES ON
LOANS AND LINES OF CZEDIT MADE UNDER THIS SECTION,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DEVELOPMENT AND
IMPLEZENTATION        -OF    WRITTEN     PROCEDURES,    IN
ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 1-121, AND A STRATEGY TO
PIANAGE THE ASSETS OF THE FUND AND ANY LOSSZS
INCURRED.
      [ (b)I    (c) The        Connecticut     development
authority      -11       establish     loan    procedures,
interest, repayment terms, security requirements,
default and remedy provisions and such other terms
and conditions as the             authority    shall deem
appropriate.
      ((c)l ( d l Each such loan 01: extension of
credit s h a l l b e authorized by the Connecticut
development authority or, if the authority so
determines,       by a committee of the authority
consisting of the chairman and either one other
member of the authority or its executive director,



                         Page 7
  as      specified      in the determination      of   the
  authority. Any administrative expenses incurred
  in carrying out the provisions of this section, to
  the extent not paid by the authority shall be paid
  from the business environmental clean-up revolving
  loan      fund.        Payments    from   the    business
 environmental clean-up revolving loan fund to
 businesses o r to pay such administrative expenses
 shall be made by the treasurer upon certification
 by the executive director of the authority that
 the payment is authorized under the provisions of
 this section, under the applicable rules and
 regulations of the authority, and, if made to a
 business,         under    the   terms   and    conditions
 established by the authority o r the duly appointed
 committee thereof in authorizing the making of the
 l o a n or the extension of credit.
        [(d)] (e) On or before the second Wednesday
 after the convening of each regular session of the
 general assembly, the executive director of the
 authority shall submit a report to the joint
 standing committee of the general assembly having
 cognizance of matters relating to the environment
 and to the joint standing committee of the general
 assembly having cognizance of appropriations and
 the budgets of state agencies and of commerce ar,d
 exportation,          which sets forth,      for the year
 ending the preceding June thirtieth, the status of
 the f u n d , including the number and amount of loans
 made and the amount of loans outstanding AND
 DESCRIBES THE PROCEDURES AND STRATEGIES DEVELOPfD
 UNDEB SUBSECTION ( b ) OF THIS SECTION.
        Sec. - - l o . This act shall take effect July 1,
 1991.




               Provided Courtesy of
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
             IPn'nted on Kecychd Tnper.