HIB and Sexual Orientation by qbp14515

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									    Harassment, Intimidation, Bullying and Sexual Orientation
                                  January 2009
               Jeff Soder, OSPI, jeff.soder@k12.wa.us, 725-6044


I. Authority for the protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,
      questioning youth

          In 2002, House Bill 1444 requires Washington schools to adopt an HIB
           policy and share with parents, students, volunteers, and school employees;
           the law prohibits written, verbal or physical acts motivated by any
           characteristic in RCW 9A.36.080(3) i.e. race color, religion, ancestry
           national origin, gender, sexual orientation, or mental, physical, or sensory
           handicap; OSPI and WSSDA must provide model policy and training
           materials (RCW 28A.300.285)
          In 2002 WSSDA and OSPI lead development of a model/sample policy
           that lists sexual orientation as a protected group; they also develop a
           model/sample procedure
          In 2002-2003, OSPI delivers trainings through OSPI, ESDs, and
           Association of Washington School Principals; 326 trainings; 339 (67%)
           districts; 919 (40%) buildings; 11,228 administrators, teachers, students,
           intervention specialists, instructional assistants, bus drivers, parents, and
           community members are trained, at a cost of. $250,000
          In 2006, ESHB 2661 is signed into law, making sexual orientation,
           including gender identity, a protected class in Washington State;
           discrimination in public accommodation (including schools) is now
           illegal; new law is under the jurisdiction of the WA State Human Rights
           Commission
          In 2007, Senate Bill 5288 adds ‘electronic’ to the state’s anti-HIB policy;
           schools must amend their policy by 8/1/08 and disseminate internet safety
           materials to parents
          In 2007, WSSDA and OSPI lead development of an electronic policy;
           after much debate, policy does not limit schools from taking action off
           campus and after school hours.
          Through Consolidate Program Review process OSPI monitors all districts
           for an HIB policy on 4 year cycle
          Safe & Drug Free Schools and Communities State Grant delivers limited
           federal dollars that can be used to support anti-bullying, best practice
           programs

II. Harassment of LGBTQ youth

          6,209 LGBT K-12 students from all 50 states complete questionnaire
          Three-fourths frequently heard homophobic remarks in school
          90% heard gay used in a negative ways
              Nine-tenths were verbally harassed because of their sexual orientation
              Almost half had been physically harassed (pushed or shoved) because of
               their sexual orientation and three in ten because of their gender expression
               (male-not being manly enough; female-not being feminine enough)
              22% reported being physically assaulted (punched, kicked, injured with a
               weapon) because of their sexual orientation
              60% did not report the incident
              One third skipped at least one class and missed at least a day of school in
               the past month because they felt unsafe (5 times greater than secondary
               students in general)
              Amount of missed school was directly correlated with degree of
               harassment experienced
              Percentage of LGBTQ students who do not plan to pursue post secondary
               education is twice that of general students
              No plans for post secondary education was directly correlated with degree
               of harassment

Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M.,and Greytak, E. A. (2008). 2007 National School Climate
Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s
schools. New York: GLSEN.
(The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network is the leading national education
organization focused on ensuring safe schools for all lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgender students.)

   III. Risk Factors for LGBTQ Youth

       Three times more likely to:
           Carry a weapons to school
           Seriously consider suicide
           Make a plan for suicide
           Miss at least one day of school in last month because they felt unsafe
           Be hurt by a boyfriend or girlfriend
           Threatened or injured with a weapon

       Twice as likely to:
          To report depression
          Have property stolen
          Smoke cigarettes
          Use methamphetamines
          Use inhalants

       More likely to:
          Cs or below
          Be victims of violence
          Smoke cigarettes
              Drink alcohol
              Binge drink
              Use marijuana
              Have weaker connections to school and teachers

Russell, S. T. et als. (2006). Harassment in school based on actual or perceived sexual
orientation: Prevalence and consequences (California Safe Schools Coalition Research
Brief No. 2). San Francisco, DA: California Safe Schools Coalition.


   IV. Emerging Best Practices

Preventing School Harassment Survey in 2003, 2004, 2005 – 2,400 students were asked
about school safety and steps schools can take to make schools safer.

              Publicize district policies prohibiting harassment based on sexual
               orientation and gender identity
              Train all staff to prevent and respond to harassment
              Support Gay-Straight Alliance club
              Treat all forms of harassment seriously
              Teachers respond to slurs and negative comments
              Share with students where to go for information about sexual orientation
               and gender identity
              Include information about sexual orientation and gender identity in the
               curriculum

Additional emerging best practices

              Visible ‘Out’ teachers and school administrators
              Visible straight allies who stand up for minority rights
              Visible partner agencies that serve sexual minorities (including counseling
               referrals)
              Review curriculum for stereotypes and bias
              Education leaders who are culturally competent regarding sexual
               minorities
              Well understood procedures and referral system for handling HIB
              Annual verbal notification (trainings and assemblies) in addition to written
               notification
              Utilize community-based trainers, support staff, parents, and students as
               trainers

Preventing School Harassment Survey (Safe Place to Learn, www.casafeschools.org)
Russell, S.T., McGuire, J.K., Laub, C., & Manke, E. (2006). LGBT student safety: Steps
schools can take. (California Safe Schools Coalition Research Brief No. 3). San
Francisco, CA: California Safe Schools Coalition;
GLSEN (Gay/Lesbian/Straight Education Network) http://www.glsen.org/cgi-
bin/iowa/all/home/index.html ;
Safe Schools Coalition http://www.safeschoolscoalition.org/ ;
PFLAG (Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays)
http://www.pflag.org/Education___Programs.programs.0.html;
National School Boards Association School Health Programs http://www.nsba.org;
Advocates for Youth
www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/frtp/inclusiveprograms.htm,
National Education Association http://www.nea.org/index.html).

								
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