UNICEF Institutional Mapping of Social Insurance and Protection by kdv77245

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									 UNICEF Institutional Mapping of Social Insurance and Protection
      Schemes for Children, Women, and Families (SIPS)




Client: UNICEF, Global Policy Section
        Contact: Enrique Delamonica, Programme Officer


Consultants: The New School SIPS PIA Project Team
       Tanya Chen, Alejandra Davidziuk, John Lindsay, Martin Mercado, Natalia Meszaros


Project Coordinator: The New School
       Mark Johnson, Core Faculty, Graduate Program in International Affairs




                                         May 2006
ABSTRACT

This pilot project is the first step towards the creation of a comprehensive database that can
survey national-level social protection programmes for women, children, and families
worldwide. The initial step of this project gathered existing definitions of social protection; and
constructs a novel definition. Working from those definitions an institutional map is developed
in order to categorize the existing social protection programmes for children. Also included is a
detailed bibliography surveying the existing social protection literature from developed and
developing nations.

This extensive background information is included in order to understand the many differing
policies and the current state of the theory of social protection. The bibliography also includes a
section of country-specific research. The methodology section shows the steps taken in order to
gather the information required to generate this document. Finally our country-specific research
recorded existing social protection programmes for women, children, and families in five
nations: Bangladesh, Brazil, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Kenya. Using the conceptual framework
and initial country specific research this pilot project can be expanded into a full fledged project
that will research the existing social protection schemes for children in all nations. This possible
comprehensive database can be a foundation for a UNICEF pilot policy initiative ‘International
Child and Family Support’ which would support social security programmes for children
worldwide, especially in developing nations.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 2006                                                 2
 TABLE OF CONTENTS

   I. Background                                     4
  II. Introduction                                   4
 III. Methodology                                    5
 IV. Definitions of Social Protection for Children   5
  V. Literature Review                               10
 VI. Classification Scheme                           32
VII. Countries:                                      34
       Bangladesh                                    34
       Brazil                                        42
       Indonesia                                     52
       Jamaica                                       55
       Kenya                                         57
VIII. Lessons Learned                                63
 IX. Appendix                                        64
       Terms of Reference                            65
       List of Resources Searched                    68

  X. Bibliography                                    81
       General Bibliography                          81
       Country Specific Bibliography                 87




 New School SIPS PIA Project Team            2006         3
     Institutional Mapping of Social Insurance and Protection Schemes for
                    Children, Women, and Families (SIPS)

 I. Background
Many developed and developing countries have a collection of disparate social assistance
programmes (social security, safety nets, cash transfers and social insurance, among others)
which often evolved partially as a response to mitigate the cost of structural adjustment policies.
UNICEF believes that all children have a right to, and should be assured access to some form of
social insurance. Working towards this goal, UNICEF is currently researching a possible
“International Child and Family Support” policy initiative in order to support social security
programmes for children worldwide, and to enhance its Global Campaign against AIDS. This
initiative would aim at helping a large number of low and middle-income countries initiate
programmes and policies that extend social security type benefits for children and their families.
It would harness country-led poverty reduction strategies and related budget supports within the
next two years.


II. Introduction
The creation of new country-led poverty reduction programmes can be used as the launching pad
for establishing universal social insurance programmes for children. However, the scope and
impact of poverty reduction strategies and social insurance programmes on children is unclear.
There currently exists a lack of knowledge and specific data on the state of social insurance
programmes for children worldwide. This lack of information indicates a need for better
understanding of the current state of social insurance and protection schemes for children. To
understand this, one would have to create a comprehensive institutional mapping of the global
state of social insurance and protection for children. This information would be compiled in a
database accessible globally through the internet. The existence of such a database would
facilitate sharing information on programmes and monitoring progress towards extending basic
social services and social security for the world’s vulnerable children.

The project’s purpose is to initially create a classification scheme of the diversity of social
assistance programmes that impact children in developing countries. It is important to highlight
that the classification scheme is created to enumerate the different initiatives and programs and
not to evaluate or analyze the impact of those programs. A classification scheme is a structure
for codifying and understanding the current state of children’s social security programmes. After
it is created the classification scheme is then used to research the current state of social
protection schemes for children and create a country level institutional map. As an initial step,
five specific countries have been researched. This initial mapping is the foundation for the
proposal to set up, maintain and regularly update a comprehensive global database of public
policies, rights, entitlements and institutions responsible for securing access to rights and
entitlements for children, women and their families, on the national level, worldwide. This is not
intended to be an analysis of those programmes or policies.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 2006                                             4
III. Methodology:
The work that the consultant team has done to create the Institutional Mapping can be divided in
three parts. The first phase of the work involved explorative individual research in general issues
regarding children’s social insurance and protection theory through different sources (Internet,
books, journals, papers, and other kind of paper sources) as well as group discussions to create
the classification scheme. The second phase was a more focused individual and group research
on different countries programs through mainly electronic sources. In the cases of Jamaica and
Bangladesh, the consultant who was in charged of that country research had to call the Consulate
or check the findings with an expert. Finally, the last phase of the study was to put all the result
together and write the paper.

       In-depth individual and group research into current literature regarding children’s social
        insurance and protection theory.
       In-depth individual and group research into current national level policies and
        programmes for five countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Indonesia, Jamaica and Kenya.
        Research current documentation on social insurance and social protection programmes by
        investigating global agencies, including but not limited to, the World Bank and the
        United Nations as well as web researching national ministries. Contact the United
        Nations Missions and local Consulates via phone or e-mail of the countries involved in
        the research.
       Weekly meetings with feedback from the Client (Enrique Delamonica, UNICEF) and the
        Project Manager (Mark Johnson, New School). Periodic team meetings in order to lay out
        strategies and assessment of progress.


IV. Definitions of Social Protection for Children

Identifying policies relating to social insurance and protection for children is a complex and
broad task. First of all, there is no single and definite universally accepted definition of social
protection, social insurance or social security for children. Secondly, child poverty is a
multidimensional and interrelated social problem that needs a holistic and comprehensive
approach. “Children are not poor by themselves since they are not economic and legally
empowered as independent actors… Young children are dependent on their parents or guardians
for all their needs.” 1 In order to study the issue of children living in poverty, it is necessary to
take into consideration many different factors relating to the family, household, and other aspects
important for measuring the effects of poverty on children.

Strong economic and social arguments support increased protection for children. With this in
mind developing these kinds of programmes for children is compelling for several reasons. First,
children lie at the heart of international commitments to social justice. Enriched human
development may reduce poverty more sustainably than any other strategy.2 Human capital

1
  Delamónica, E. et al., 2005. “Children Living in Poverty - A review of child poverty definitions, measurements,
and policies”, paper for UNICEF conference Children & Poverty: Global Context, Local Solutions The New School,
April 25-27, 2005, New York, p.7-8.
2
  J. M. Hunt, Investing in Children: Child Protection and Economic Growth


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                       2006                                                    5
improvement has become an essential component of economic development; healthier, more
educated, and happier children will be more productive citizens. Effective social protection for
children can also curtail the inter-generational transmission of poverty.

Policies that address children’s safety nets should cover a wide range of basic needs, such as
resources and services that allow them to develop mentally, physically, and emotionally. This
means educational facilities, vaccinations, healthcare, security, nutrition, clean water and a
supportive environment, all factors that contribute to a child’s development into a productive
adult.

Social protection, in general terms, is an important component of poverty reduction. It deals
with “both the absolute deprivation and vulnerabilities of the poorest, and also with the need of
the currently non-poor for security in the face of shocks and life-cycle events.”3 According to
the Child Poverty Research and Poverty Centre (CHIP)4, social protection “is recognized as an
essential part of effective poverty reduction strategies. Social protection consists of a range of
measures that aim to: 1) Protect people against shocks that could push them (deeper) into
poverty; 2) Make poor people less vulnerable to these shocks, 3) Protect people against extreme
poverty and its effects on well-being; 4) Protect well-being at vulnerable periods of the life cycle,
including early childhood.”

Currently, different organizations have their own operational definitions of social protection and
how they effect children. Below is a table of the different definitions listed by organization.
Almost all definitions address the following three dimensions:

    •   vulnerability and risk
    •   levels of deprivation deemed unacceptable
    •   policies and programmes that are both social and universal in character.

Organization                     Definition of Social Protection as:
World Bank5                      A collection of measures to improve or protect human capital,
                                 ranging from labor market interventions, publicly-mandated
                                 unemployment or old-age insurance to targeted income support.
United Nations                   Broadly understood as a set of public and private policies and
Secretariat6                     programmes undertaken by societies in response to various
                                 contingencies to offset the absence or substantial reduction of income
                                 from work; to provide assistance for families with children as well as
                                 provide people with health care and housing.

3
  Norton, A.; Conway, T.; and Foster, M. (2001), “Social Protection Concepts and Approaches: Implications for
Policy and Practice in International Development” Overseas Development Institute Reports, London, p.7.
4
  CHIP (2004), “The Role of Cash Transfers in tackling Childhood Poverty,” in CHIP Policy Briefing 2: The Role of
Cash Transfers, London, p.1
5
  Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel and Naila Kabeer. “Gender Equality and the Extension of Social Security” ESS Paper
No. 16 International Labor Office. 2003.
6
  United Nations, (2000), “Enhancing social protection and reducing vulnerability in a globalizing world” Report of
the Secretary General to the Thirty-ninth Session E/CN. 5/2001/2, Washington DC: United Nations Economic and
Social Council


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                        2006                                                     6
Organization                    Definition of Social Protection as:
Department for                  DFID does not appear to have an official definition. An operational
International                   definition that has been proposed for DFID is: The public actions
Development (DFID)7             taken in response to levels of vulnerability, risk or deprivation which
                                are deemed socially unacceptable within a given society.
Asian Development               The set of policies and programmes designed to reduce poverty and
Bank (ADB)8                     vulnerability by promoting efficient labour markets, diminishing
                                people’s exposure to risks, and enhancing their capacity to protect
                                themselves against hazards and the interruption/loss of income.
Federal Ministry for            Support systems to help manage the risks faced in life and help
Economic Cooperation            cushion their consequences. Social security systems are not defined in
and Development /               a broad sense to cover the total scope of economic and social security
German Development              (e.g. access to social services or job creation).
Institute (BMZ/GTZ)9
International Labour            The set of public measures that a society provides for its members to
Organizational (ILO)10          protect them against economic and social distress that would be
                                caused by the absence or a substantial reduction of income from work
                                as a result of various contingencies (sickness, maternity, employment
                                injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age, and death of the
                                breadwinner); the provision of health care; and, the provision of
                                benefits for families with children.

To live a decent life, children require a system of social protection that works from a holistic
approach to their care, protection and development. This approach should have a broad
conception of social protection for children including preventive and other intervention measures
that address poverty and other issues that contribute to children’s vulnerability.11 According to
ACESS, a South African Alliance, the success of a child care and protection system depends
very much on ensuring that children’s basic needs are provided for through a well-coordinated
and implemented system. Although ACESS only operates on the national level, it may be
possible and desirable to work in an international network to assure that children’s basic needs
are covered throughout the world.

In addition, more attention should be paid to those children who suffer from special
vulnerabilities or hazards, such as those infected with HIV/AIDS, orphans and refugees. To
better address these issues, it would be necessary to endorse a comprehensive social security



7
  Conway, Tim; Arjan de Haan; Andy Norton. “Social Protection: New Directions of Donor Agencies” Overseas
Development Institute. 2000
8
  Ortiz, I. “Social Protection in Asia and the Pacific” p.41. Manila. Asian Development Bank. 2001.
9
  Norton, A.; Conway, T.; and Foster, M. (2001), “Social Protection Concepts and Approaches: Implications for
Policy and Practice in International Development”, Overseas Development Institute, London, p.7.
10
   ILO: World Labour Report: “Income security and social protection in a changing world” (Geneva, 2000) p. 29;
ILO: Principles of Social Security (Geneva, 1998) p. 8. 22
11
   ACESS, 2004. “Draft Children’s Bill Submission – Social Security Scheme for Children” cover letter by the
Alliance for Children’s Entitlement to Social Security (ACESS), July 27, 2004, South Africa.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                        2006                                                     7
system and present a separate focus on those groups of children who are vulnerable and growing
in number, and face the double prejudice of poverty and the stigma of AIDS.12

In this regard, it would be better to talk about a package of social protection interventions and
measures rather than individual policies that address individual needs. The notion of a package
is related to a comprehensive social protection system that “provides the basic means for all
people living in the country to effectively participate and advance in social and economic life,
and in turn to contribute to social and economic development.”13 No one should have to choose
between basic needs. For example, a poor parent should not be expected to choose between
feeding the family and sending her children to school. Both are basic needs that must be
provided for by a public package of comprehensive social protection.

Social protection should be thought of as including coverage for all people (according to a
universal base), children included. Social protection policies should ensure that all people have
adequate economic and social protection during unemployment, during sickness, maternity, child
rearing, widowhood, disability and old age. This could be achieved by contribution and non-
contribution schemes providing for basic needs. State social assistance should include benefits
to the following groups: the elderly, the disabled, child and families, and the impoverished.

Looking closely at children’s social insurance and protection schemes for children, several
central themes/questions stand out:

Universality – A safety net should apply universally to all children. Where it does not, it should
be noted and reasons specified. Universality can mean a safety net benefit is available to all
children. However, universality can also mean that the benefits are available only to those who
fall below a certain threshold. “The provision of social protection should be based on the needs
of the vulnerable population rather than being status-based, so that all persons in social need are
catered for.”14

Threshold – One needs to ask, where is the threshold that a child has to cross triggering the
insurance or protection scheme? Is any programme that impacts children’s outcomes positively
a safety net? Children’s safety nets are generally considered to be programmes that catch
children after their vulnerability increases. Will a social protection policy include programmes
that address children once they fall below a certain indicator or will it include programmes that
try to stop children from falling below that threshold in advance? In reality it will probably be a
combination of both, especially if social protection is examined in the holistic manner mentioned
earlier. When determining who is included, one must ask: is it only children? Most children are
reliant on their families for support. Consequently, would it be a family programme? But if it is,
what of those children whose outcomes are not reflected in their family income or who do not
have that connection to the family? In addition the threshold will have to be context specific.


12
   CHIPI, 2001. “Special focus on Social Security for children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS” Child Health
Policy Institute (CHPI), Cape Town.
13
   Taylor Committee, 2002. “Committee of Inquiry into a comprehensive system of social security for South Africa”
Department Social Development of Republic of South Africa, March, p. 10.
14
   UNICEF, “Legal Aspects of Social Protection for Children in Bosnia and Herzegovina”


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                        2006                                                    8
Programmes – Almost any programme that has a social benefit will affect children. The question
is which programmes qualify as social protection or insurance for children. One way to look at it
is to say that any programme that aims to improve children’s outcomes qualifies. However,
there are two main issues. First, what about programmes where one component benefits
children, but the majority of the programme does not? Second, if the programme is primarily
focused on some other aspect other than social insurance, such as school or health care, is it a
safety net? In reality, these decisions have to be made on a programme/policy by
programme/policy basis. There may not be a neat and clean framework that can be created that
will answer these questions.

Focusing on Children – Benefits to children are usually distributed indirectly through some other
institution affiliated with children. Often it is the family, or the school, or the health services.
Sometimes it is broken down even more, to just the mothers. The benefit has to go to someone
or some institution that will help children, hence virtually no programme will directly go to
children. This creates a difficult question of how to appropriately identify programmes that
focus on children, since they have to go through some other institution to reach them. It is
important to keep this in mind when looking at safety net policies for children.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 2006                                              9
          V. Literature Review
                                                                              Data
                                                                            applies to   Includes
                                                               Effective-   Regional       Case
Author               Title                       Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Gertler, Paul        Do Conditional Cash         Essential                                          This paper evaluates the Mexican PROGRESA programme.
                     Transfers Improve Child                                                        PROGRESA is designed to address extreme poverty and break its
                     Health?                                                                        inter-generational transmission to children. The paper investigates
                                                                                                    the programmes impact on child health outcomes including
                                                                                                 morbidity, height and anemia. The author found that PROGRESA
                                                                                                    helped children; there was a significant improvement in the
                                                                                                    participating child’s health. However, the author couldn’t determine
                                                                                                    if it was the cash transfers, or the programme conditionalities that
                                                                                                    were responsible for the improvement.
Harvey, Paul         Cash Transfers – Mere       Essential                                          A short paper that covers the advantages and disadvantages of cash
Slater, Rachel       ‘Gadaffi’ Syndrome or                                                          transfer programmes for development. It is an excellent summary of
                     Serious Potent for Rural                                                       ideas and basic themes surrounding the debate on cash transfer
                     Rehabilitation and                                                             programmes. The paper does not specifically address children. It
                     Development?                                                                  also focuses on the connection between development and cash
                                                                                                    transfer programmes.
Micklewright, John   Social Exclusion and        Not useful                                         The author examines the definition of social exclusion, but does not
                     Children: A European View                                                      define it himself. The paper looks at the way different UK and EU
                     for a US Debate                                                                organizations define social exclusion. The paper then looks at social
                                                                                                    exclusion solutions in UK and EU policies. It goes on to ask if social
                                                                                                    exclusion is a better measure of vulnerability than poverty.
                                                                                                    Concludes by discussing whether there is room to use the term
                                                                                                    ‘social exclusion’ in the US context.
Rawlings , Laura     Evaluating the Impact of    Essential                                          Describes first and second generation Conditional Cash Transfers
Rubio, Gloria M.     Conditional Cash Transfer                                                      (CCTs) implemented in Mexico, Brazil, Jamaica, and Colombia.
                     Programs: Lessons from                                                         Tracks progress, implementation challenges and the population
                     Latin America                                                                  targeted for the different programmes.
                                                                                           




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                2006                                                                                               10
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                          Relevance        ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Barrientos, A         Non-Contributory Pensions      Very Useful                                         This paper considers existing non-contributory pension programmes,
Lloyd-Sherlock, P     and Social Protection                                                              such as cash transfers for the old, in Africa and Latin America. It
                                                                                                         evaluates their impact on poverty and vulnerability of the old, on
                                                                                                         aggregate poverty, and on household investment in physical and
                                                                                                       human capital. The paper argues that these programmes have a
                                                                                                         significant impact on skip- and multi-generational households,
                                                                                                         especially young children, and overall on poverty and social
                                                                                                         investment in developing countries.
Gerry, Redmond;       Poverty in Transition:           Useful                                            Examines the extent of poverty in the transition economies in
Klugman, Jeni         Social Expenditures and the                                                        Central Eastern Europe, especially Russia. Focuses on the
Micklewright, John    Working-Age Poor                                                                   importance of unemployment benefits for the working-age poor.
                                                                                                         Only section 6.2 mentions the importance of universal child
                                                                                                        allowances in these states.
Mehrotra, Santosh;    Social Protection In The       Not Useful                                          Interesting paper, very informative but it only focuses on informal
Biggeri Mario         Informal Economy: Home                                                             labor and how it affects the workers. It also focuses on pensions and
                      Based Women Workers                                                                retirement schemes for the home based workers, particularly women.
                      And Outsourced                                                                     Not relevant to this project.
                      Manufacturing In Asia
Economic Policy       The Social and Economic        Not Useful                                          The paper talks about the reduction of poverty through South
Research Institute    Impact of South Africa’s                                                           Africa’s Social Security System. It mentions the poverty line but it is
                      Social Security System                                                             not stated what the poverty line is. The Child Support Grant
                                                                                                        disburses cash to those children whose families fall under the
                                                                                                         poverty line. What’s the poverty line? Don’t know, it is not
                                                                                                         mentioned in the report. The number of eligible grant recipients was
                                                                                                         estimated at 3 million.
DFID Practice Paper   Social transfers and chronic    Essential                                          Very applicable to project. Describes challenges and issues in
                      poverty: emerging evidence                                                         implementing social transfer programmes. Goes into detail on
                      and the challenge ahead                                                            strategies of how to fight corruption. Defines the different types of
                                                                                                        social transfer programmes and gives successful examples of social
                                                                                                         transfer programmes, many of these examples are targeted at
                                                                                                         children.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                               11
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                  Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Maluccio, J.            Coping with the ‘Coffee        Relevant                                          Paper examines the role of Red de Proteccion Social (RPS) a
2005. FCND              Crisis’ in Central America:                                                      conditional cash transfer programme implemented in Nicaragua.
Discussion Paper 188,   The Role of the Nicaraguan                                                       Gives details about the model, objectives and results of the
IFPRI                   ‘Red do Proteccion Social’.                                                      programme. Much of the programme is targeted at improving health
                                                                                                         and education standards for children.
van der Hoek, Tamara    Through Children’s Eyes an      Useful                                           Interesting paper but not completely applicable. One of the main
(2005), Innocenti       Initial Study of Children’s                                                      objectives of this paper is “to consider child poverty from the
Working Paper 2005-     Personal Experiences and                                                         perspective of children actually living in poverty and to capture their
06, UNICEF              Coping Strategies Growing                                                       personal experiences and own ways of dealing with it” (2005, p. 35).
                        up Poor in an Affluent                                                           According to the author, these findings should challenge researchers
                        Netherlands                                                                      to explore how they should respond to children’s concerns and how
                                                                                                         they can ensure that welfare targeted at poor children reaches them
                                                                                                         and address their needs.
Levy, H. ; Lietz, C.;   Alternative Tax-Benefit       Very Useful                                        Good charts. This paper compares the distributional implications of
and Sutherland, H.      Strategies to Support                                                            three European countries that have recently experienced substantial
(2005), , Innocenti     Children in the European                                                         but very different reforms of their systems to support families with
Working Paper 2005-     Union - Recent Reforms in                                                      children (reinforcing these existing structures while increasing the
07, UNICEF              Austria, Spain and the                                                           amount of public resources directed towards children): Austria,
                        United Kingdom                                                                   Spain and the United Kingdom. Explores which aspects of the
                                                                                                         designs support children most.
Barrientos, A.;         Child Poverty and Cash        Very useful                                        Excellent comparative charts. Addresses the effectiveness of cash
DeJong, J. (2004),      Transfers                                                                        transfers in addressing childhood poverty in developing and
CHIP Report No. 4,                                                                                       transition economies. It argues that the provision of cash transfers
CHIP – Childhood                                                                                        and basic services to the poor are complementary activities, in order
Poverty Research and                                                                                     to ensure that supply responds to demand arising from the transfer
Policy Center                                                                                            programmes. According to its authors, recently, there has been an
                                                                                                         increasing emphasis on targeted cash transfers as a key instrument in
                                                                                                         reducing poverty, deprivation and vulnerability among children and
                                                                                                         their households.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                               12
                                                                                        Data
                                                                                      applies to   Includes
                                                                         Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                  Title                           Relevance          ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Cameron, Lisa A.        An Analysis of the Role of       Useful                                               During the Asian financial crisis Indonesia instituted a safety net
                        Social Safety Net                                                                     programme for children designed to keep them in school during the
                        Scholarships in Reducing                                                              increasing economic hardships. The study found that the programme
                        School Drop-Out During                                                                did work for some age groups, to a limited extent. It found that the
                        the Indonesian Economic                                                            programme was well implemented and targeted the appropriate
                        Crisis                                                                                children well. This programme was focused on keeping children in
                                                                                                              school but it did so by giving cash transfers to families to help defray
                                                                                                              school costs and other opportunity costs. It was a cash transfer
                                                                                                              programme that effectively kept some children in school.
Piachaud, David         How Effective is the British    Not useful                                            An analysis of the recent British government’s attempt to reduce
Sutherland, Holly       Government’s Attempt to                                                               child poverty. Not that relevant as one of the main points of this
                        Reduce Child Poverty?                                                                 system was to increase the employment of parents. Second main
                                                                                                              point was to increase income through the tax and benefit system. Tax
                                                                                                            reform probably is not applicable for the truly poor as they don’t
                                                                                                              earn enough for it to matter. It did include a direct cash transfer but
                                                                                                              this was only ¼ of the programme and not it’s highlights. Mainly
                                                                                                              dealt with poverty not safety nets but has good analysis on what
                                                                                                              types of children will be helped when poverty reduction is the goal.
Innocenti Report Card   A League Table of Child         Not useful                                            This League Table is a comprehensive estimate of child poverty in
No. 1                   Poverty in Rich Nations                                                               the industrialized world. Includes an depth analysis of child poverty
                                                                                                              in rich nations and the relevant factors, reasons, policy, relativeness,
                                                                                                              etc. it is a good resource but it may not be relevant to child poverty
                                                                                                             in poor nations.
Samuel Marly            UNDP In Focus Newsletter,      Applicable,                                            Explains in detail the Conditioned Transfer for Education (CTE)
                        Cash for Education             focus on                                               being implemented in different countries. The article gives several
                                                       education                                              successful examples of CTE programs as well as examples of
                                                                                                              environments that may not be suitable for CTE programs.
UNDP Human              A 2020 Vision: New             Relevant                                               This article focuses on social transfers from developed to non-
Development Report      Thinking on Aid and Social                                                            developed countries. It examines the EU and analyzes whether the
2005                    Security                                                                              EU system of social transfers would work on a global level.
                                                                                                              Relevant for the social transfer aspect of project, but does not focus
                                                                                                             on children.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                          2006                                                                                                13
                                                                                Data
                                                                              applies to   Includes
                                                                 Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                         Relevance      ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Melanie Raymond       Educational Grants Closing   Relevant                                           Article analyzes education grants, and how they improve the
Elisabeth Sadoulet    the Gap in Schooling                                                            schooling standards and drop out rates of children in poor, rural
                      Attainment between Poor                                                         areas through the analyses of PROGRESSA. Goes into great detail
                      and Non-Poor                                                                    about the ratio of drop out rates in relation to level of parents’
                                                                                                     schooling, and other possible reasons that may affect children in
                                                                                                      school. Very heavy in numbers. .
Sheila B. Kamerman,   Social Policies, Family      Very useful                                        This paper analysis the existing policies in OECD countries in regard
Michelle Neuman,      Types and Child Outcomes       paper                                            of child poverty, to offset poverty, deprivation, vulnerability, and the
Jane Waldfogel and    in selected OECD countries                                                      risk factors that can trigger a lifelong cycle of disadvantage. The
JeanneBrooks-Gunn                                                                                     researches child outcomes and of the different social policies that
                                                                                                   may affect them. The paper discusses social policies and child
                                                                                                      outcomes in various OECD countries, one particular outcome, child
                                                                                                      poverty, and its negative consequences for children, a summary of
                                                                                                      the research linking different family types with different outcomes
                                                                                                      and the social policies that may lead to different positive and
                                                                                                      negative outcomes. The paper concludes that knowledge-building is
                                                                                                      proceeding, in particular, with regard to child poverty and the
                                                                                                      policies that can reduce or eliminate this problem




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  2006                                                                                                14
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                         Relevance        ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Pamela Morris, Dan     The Effects of a Time-         Relevant,                                          Examines the effect of a time-limited welfare programme on school-
Bloom, James Kemple,   Limited Welfare Program        but only                                           age children using data on almost 3,000 children from Florida’s
and Richard Hendra     on Children: The              some parts.                                         Family Transition Programme (FTP). Was one of the first welfare
                       moderating Role of Parents’                                                       reform initiatives to impose a time limit on the receipt of cash
                       Risk of Welfare                                                                 assistance, and it combined the time limit with an array of mandatory
                       Dependency                                                                        services. The effects of FTP on children were moderated by
                                                                                                         families’ risk of long-term welfare dependency. Contrary to
                                                                                                         predictions, there were few effects of FTP on middle childhood and
                                                                                                         adolescent children for children of parents most likely to be long-
                                                                                                         term welfare dependent (those most likely to hit the time limit).
                                                                                                         However, consistent negative effects on this same age group of
                                                                                                         children were found for children of parents least likely to be long-
                                                                                                         term welfare dependent parents who had the largest employment
                                                                                                         gains and effects of FTP were most strongly negative for the oldest
                                                                                                         adolescent children. Suggests a different theoretical model for
                                                                                                         movements into employment.
Background             Meeting of the                Very useful.                                        A background to the existing social policies in OECD countries. It
Documents the Caring   Employment, Labour and          Charts,                                           summarizes the existing social assistances to families with children,
World: National        Social Affair Committee at      graphs,                                           table 4.2 summarizes the existing cash benefits for disabled children,
Achievements tables    Ministerial Level on Social     tables.                                           4.3 summarizes child support arrangements in selected OECD
and charts, OECD       Policy,                                                                          countries, summarizes child care, maternity and parental benefits,
                                                                                                         unemployment benefits, housing assistance, pension programmes
                                                                                                         etc. Up to page 40 are graphs and tables of social policies and
                                                                                                         programmes in regards of children.
Patel, F. (2004), ,    Improving Child Wellbeing       Useful           A                                Analyzes how some poor states have made the greatest
CHIP Policy Briefing   – Lessons in Social Policy                                                        improvements in child wellbeing in recent years as a result of strong
No. 5, CHIP –          from the ‘High-Achievers’                                                         social policy. These achievements were made despite the fact that
Childhood Poverty                                                                                        incomes were not necessarily growing rapidly. While these ten
Research and Policy                                                                                      countries are undoubtedly diverse in economic, political, social,
Center                                                                                                   cultural and geographical terms, the paper highlights six key
                                                                                                         principles and a good number of good practices that were common
                                                                                                         to the states’ human development successes.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                              15
                                                                                      Data
                                                                                    applies to   Includes
                                                                       Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                   Title                           Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Sefton, T. (2004),       A fair share of welfare:         Useful           A                                Useful if we choose to work on UK as a case study. This report
CASE Report 25,          public spending on children                                                        evaluates the amount the British government spends on children,
Centre for Analysis of   in England                                                                         particularly poor children, on major public services: education,
Social Exclusion                                                                                            health, social care, housing, and also social security. The study aims
(CASE) & Save the                                                                                           to find out the priority the government attaches to meeting the needs
Children Fund (SCF)                                                                                         of children and address child poverty in England. It also analyzes
                                                                                                            special or targeted initiatives directed at poor children and assesses
                                                                                                            their importance relative to mainstream funding of public services.
Shepherd, A.; Marcus,    Policy paper on social           Useful           A                                This paper analyzes mechanisms for social protection in low income
R.; Barrientos, A.       protection                                                                         countries, clarifying the meaning of social protection and its role
(2004), (DFID)                                                                                              within poverty reduction. It argues the following benefits of social
                                                                                                            protection policies. Good definitions for the glossary on Social
                                                                                                            protections, Safety nets, and Social security.
Marcus, R. (2004)        The role of cash transfers in   Very, very        A                                Very, very useful and handy paper. Good comparisons. It highlights
CHIP Briefing 2;         tackling childhood poverty       useful                                            how and why cash transfers - and social protection strategies in
CHIP – Childhood                                                                                            general - can make a highly effective contribution to the reduction of
Poverty Research and                                                                                        childhood poverty, and indeed already have in several countries.
Policy Center
Sadoulet, Elisabeth;     Can Conditional Transfer         Useful                                            It explores the role of Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes
Finan, Frederico; De     Programs Improve Social                                                            serving as risk management instruments for the poor. Despite the
Janvry, Alain; Vakis,    Risk Management?                                                                   fact that CCTs are not designed to deal directly with shocks or serve
Renos                                                                                                       as “insurance” instruments per se, the results indicated that they can
                                                                                                         provide an important safety net role by protecting a child’s education
                                                                                                            from shocks.
Gertler, Paul            The impact of conditional       Not useful                                         These are the official notes from a discussion in South Africa about
                         cash transfers on human                                                            Progressa and it’s adaptability to other, African settings. The design,
                         development outcomes. A                                                            implementation and impacts of Progressa are discussed. Then it turns
                         review of evidence from                                                            towards looking at South African programmes. However, despite the
                         PROGRESA in Mexico and                                                           title the discussion never gets in to how South Africa could use a
                         some implications for                                                              Progressa like programme. Discussion concludes with questions and
                         policy debates in South and                                                        answers from the attendees.
                         Southern Africa




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                        2006                                                                                               16
                                                                                Data
                                                                              applies to   Includes
                                                                 Effective-   Regional       Case
Author              Title                          Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Dachi, H.A.         Child Labour and its Impact    Not useful                                         Looks at child labour and its impact on children’s access to, and
Garrett, R.M.       on Children’s Access to and                                                       participation in, primary education in Tanzania. These child
                    Participation in Primary                                                          labourers have been sometimes labeled the ‘lost’ children. The study
                    Education                                                                         is a preliminary investigation so many of the recommendations are
                                                                                                     for areas of further study. It finds that the elimination of child labor
                                                                                                      is to simplistic an idea and unachievable in the short term. They
                                                                                                      realize that since the life of a child in Tanzania is similar to that of
                                                                                                      an adult’s, for the future one should look at programs for working
                                                                                                      adults furthering their education rather than emulate western style
                                                                                                      schooling.
Boyle, Siobhan      Reaching the Poor. The         Not useful                                         The study shows that for all groups (the poorest and slightly better
Brock, Andy         ‘costs’ of sending children                                                       off) the costs (monetary and non-monetary) of education are a great
Mace, John          to school                                                                         burden on the households and act as a significant barrier to
Sibbons, Mo                                                                                           education.
                                                                                              
Arcia, Gustavo      A Cost-Effective Method         Useful                                            Outlines a cost-effective method for implementing a social safety net
                    for Targeting Social Safety-                                                      in a poor country. The authors find that a better method for
                    Net Benefits                                                                      allocating safety-net benefits for these countries is one that can be
                                                                                                      easily and efficiently implemented through the participation of local
                                                                                                   governments and local institutions. This works because local
                                                                                                      institutions know better than central authorities about the needs of
                                                                                                      poor households at a lower level of aggregation. This paper outlines
                                                                                                      such a method; a two-step approach to targeting safety net recipients.
                                                                                                      The initial step involves the use of national level survey data to
                                                                                                      identify the broad geographic regions in which poverty is located.
                                                                                                      Ends with specific screening criteria selected in collaboration with
                                                                                                      local leaders.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  2006                                                                                                17
                                                                             Data
                                                                           applies to   Includes
                                                              Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                      Relevance      ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
USAID                 Compensatory and Social     Useful                                           Examines the social and political contributions of assistance
                      Safety Net Programs                                                          programmes in relation to the economic reform process. Also
                                                                                                   examines the strengths and weaknesses in programme design and
                                                                                                   implementation, and its cost-effectiveness. They recommend that
                                                                                                   one should use a decision tree and checklist to design appropriate
                                                                                                   compensatory programmes and to incorporate monitoring plans into
                                                                                                   the design of programmes.
Coady, David P.       Evaluating Targeted Cash    Useful                                           Analyzes the effects of targeted cash transfer programmes through
Harris, Rebecca Lee   Transfer Programs                                                            direct and indirect outcomes. Using these two outcomes the authors
                                                                                                   study the general equilibrium effects of transfer programmes,
                                                                                                   focusing on the recent switch by the government of Mexico toward
                                                                                                targeted transfer programmes and away from universal food
                                                                                                   subsidies. Results indicate that the general equilibrium welfare
                                                                                                   impacts associated with domestic financing can be quite substantial.
                                                                                                   When initial redistribution mechanisms are inefficient, the welfare
                                                                                                   gains from switching to a better targeted direct transfer scheme are
                                                                                                   reinforced by efficiency gains associated with the removal of
                                                                                                   relatively distortionary financing instruments.
Arcia, Gustavo        Macroeconomic Impacts of    Useful                                           Examines the possible macroeconomic impacts (on fiscal balances,
                      Social Safety Nets                                                           tax revenues and labor supply) of establishing a social safety net in a
                                                                                                   developing country. The sustainability of a social safety net depends
                                                                                                   in large part on the rationalization of existing poverty alleviation
                                                                                                programs. The results also indicate that the size of the disincentive is
                                                                                                   very small, not exceeding four days per year and most of the
                                                                                                   reduction would accrue to child labor, which is one of the key
                                                                                                   objectives of social safety nets.




         New School SIPS PIA Project Team              2006                                                                                                18
                                                                                  Data
                                                                                applies to   Includes
                                                                   Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Barrett, Christopher   Poverty Traps and Safety       Useful                                            Explores: 1) What is chronic poverty and vulnerability? 2) How does
McPeak, John G.        Nets                                                                             nutrition-related health risk affect patterns of chronic poverty and
                                                                                                        vulnerability? 3) What are the implications for the design of
                                                                                                        development policy, especially safety net interventions? The authors
                                                                                                       focus on how the experience of and exposure to asset risk may trap
                                                                                                        certain households in chronic poverty and vulnerability. They find
                                                                                                        that ‘credible and ubiquitous safety nets can both (i) respect the
                                                                                                        human right to food and (ii) reduce downside risk,... raising the real
                                                                                                        prospect of income growth through capital accumulation and new
                                                                                                        technology adoption and market participation.’
Rawlings, Laura B.     A New Approach to Social      Essential                                          Evaluation of the first generation of social assistance programmes
                       Assistance: Latin America’s                                                      reveal that CCDs have been quite successful in addressing many of
                       Experience with                                                                  the criticisms of social assistance such as poor poverty targeting,
                       Conditional Cash Transfer                                                        disincentive effects, and limited welfare impacts. There is clear
                       Programs                                                                      evidence of success from programmes in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico
                                                                                                        and Nicaragua in increasing enrollment rates, improving preventive
                                                                                                        health care and raising household consumption. One of the lessons is
                                                                                                        that substantial reform in the delivery of social services is possible
                                                                                                        within a short period of time under different country circumstances.
                                                                                                        Also the role to be played by the strategic use of sound impact
                                                                                                        evaluations.
Tabor, Steven R.       Assisting the Poor with       Essential                                          This paper found that cash transfers do not have to be very large to
                       Cash: Design and                                                                 offer effective protection. If low income households already derive
                       Implementation of Social                                                         some of their earnings from informal sector activities or private
                       Transfer Programs                                                                transfers, then a cash transfer can be used to partly close the poverty
                                                                                                     gap rather than to provide a full replacement of income. Cash
                                                                                                        transfer programs are less likely to distort prices than in-kind transfer
                                                                                                        programs, and they provide the recipient with much more choice.
                                                                                                        However, sustaining political support for cash transfer programs is
                                                                                                        difficult.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    2006                                                                                                 19
                                                                               Data
                                                                             applies to   Includes
                                                                Effective-   Regional       Case
Author              Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Low, Jan W.         Can Cash Transfer              Useful                                            Key cash transfer programme lessons from Mozambique. Cash
Garrett, James L.   Programs Work in                                                                 transfers require significant administrative capacity and a relatively
Ginja, Vitória      Resource-Poor Countries?                                                         advanced information base to identify and reach the target
                    The Experience of                                                                population. Social assistance experiences applicable to other
                    Mozambique                                                                    resource-poor countries in designing social assistance programmes
                                                                                                     are needed. They recommend adequately targeted support to
                                                                                                     destitute persons incapable of physical labor in urban areas where
                                                                                                     administrative costs are more manageable than in more isolated rural
                                                                                                     sites.
Steve Tabor         Cash Transfers Exercise I      Useful                                            This is a World Bank exercise on designing your own, country level,
                    and II                                                                           cash transfer programme. In this exercise you are given hypothetical
                                                                                                     situations and asked to choose and design the best cash transfer
                                                                                                     programme for that situation. In total a four part exercise.
Swaminathan, S.A.   Lessons in designing safety    Useful                                            A synopsis of the book Safety Net Programs and Poverty Reduction.
Aiyar               nets                                                                             It does not analyze the books findings. It outlines the books take on:
                                                                                                     main concerns, design guidelines, choosing an approach, cash
                                                                                                     transfers, in-kind transfers, public works programmes and credit
                                                                                                     programs. The authors point out that poorly designed safety nets
                                                                                                     squander funds and fail to reach the needy, so here they examine
                                                                                                     how this recent World Bank book offers lessons on good design.
Levine, Anthony     Orphans and Other             Not useful                                         Recognizing the growing numbers of orphans worldwide needing
                    Vulnerable Children: What                                                        help, the World Bank organized a workshop with partner agencies
                    Role for Social Protection?                                                      that brought together practitioners and researchers to share
                                                                                                     experience and information. This report records those experiences
                                                                                                     and information. Participants at the workshop emphasized the
                                                                                                     importance of addressing both the immediate and long term needs of
                                                                                                     orphans and vulnerable children. Concludes with ways forward
                                                                                                     which emphasize that the profile of the problem of orphans and
                                                                                                     vulnerable children must be elevated with governments and elevated
                                                                                                     within the World Bank and other development agencies.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 2006                                                                                              20
                                                                                  Data
                                                                                applies to   Includes
                                                                   Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Subbarao, K.           Safety Net Programs and        Useful                                            This is a book (it is available electronically). It reviews the
Bonnerjee,Aniruddha    Poverty Reduction                                                                conceptual issues during the choice of safety net programmes, cross-
Braithwaite, Jeanine                                                                                    country experiences and analyzes how country and region-specific
Carvalho, Soniya                                                                                        constraints help explain why different approaches are successful in
Ezemenari, Kene                                                                                        different countries. Concludes that there is no formula for providing
Graham, Carol                                                                                           the best or most appropriate program for a particular country. The
Thompson, Alan                                                                                          authors show what factors need to be addressed when designing the
                                                                                                        main forms of safety net programmes. (Note: complete book not
                                                                                                        read, just key sections.)
World Bank             The Design and                 Useful                                            PowerPoint presentation by the World Bank Institute on the effective
                       Implementation of Effective                                                      design and implementation of safety nets focusing on children.
                       Safety Nets                                                                      Acknowledges the centrality of children and youth issues. Looks at
                                                                                                        areas that need additional focus; implementation and regional
                                                                                                        outreach; and partnerships.
Ayala Consulting Co.   Workshop on Conditional        Useful                                            Sections included in this report include a description of the CCTs
                       Cash Transfer Programs                                                           that participated in the workshop, positive operational experiences of
                       (CCTs):                                                                          the programmes, challenges, and final conclusions. The workshop
                                                                                                        concluded that it is important to: select the appropriate cycle and
                                                                                                      payment modality; avoid payment delays; avoid political
                                                                                                        interference of programs; achieve the highest amount of participation
                                                                                                        of local and institutional actors; advance the decentralization
                                                                                                        process; reduce administrative costs; create alliances between the
                                                                                                        social and financial sectors; limit additional workload of beneficiary
                                                                                                        mothers; and design proactive monitoring and evaluation systems.
Timothy M. Smeeding    Social Protection for the     Irrelevant                                         Presents the effectiveness of social protection programs in eight rich
and Katherin Ross      Poor in the Developed                                                            countries. Not relevant for children or poor countries.
                       World: The Evidence from
                       LIS
Jamaica Information    PATH Beneficiaries to get      Useful                                            Good example of a working conditional cash programme in Jamaica.
Service                Increase                                                                         Children between ages of 6 and 17 required to attend school 85% of
                                                                                                        the time in order to get benefits.
                                                                                                


        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    2006                                                                                              21
                                                                                  Data
                                                                                applies to   Includes
                                                                   Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                          Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Alain de Janvry and   Conditional Cash Transfer       Useful                                            Information included on PROGRESSA is repetitive, but some of the
Elisabeth Sadoulet    Programs: Are They Really                                                         concluding points are useful. He includes suggestions on how
                      Magic Bullets?                                                                    Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes can be made more efficient.
                                                                                                
IFPRI                 IFPRI: Food for Education:      Useful                                            Useful information on a working CCT programme in Bangladesh. I
                      Feeding Minds Reduces                                                             have included in the abstract the logistics of the programme, and the
                      Poverty                                                                           number of families that it reaches. Although the number of children
                                                                                                        in school has increased enormously, the nutritional status of the
                                                                                                       children have not improved significantly. Abstract includes useful
                                                                                                        suggestions on how the programme can be improved.
Programma de          Family Allowances               Useful                                            PRAF is a CCT programme in Honduras that focuses on both the
Asignacion Familiar   Program – Phase II                                                                health and education of children. Abstract includes the target
(PRAF)                Executive Summary                                                                 beneficiary information, the money invested in the programme, and
                                                                                                        the logistics of the programme.
                                                                                                
Dr. Bernd Schubert    Title: The Pilot Social Cash    Useful                                            Describes Conditional-free cash transfer programme in Zambia. The
                      Transfer Scheme Kalomo                                                            programme offers USD$6 monthly to beneficiary households. The
                      District – Zambia                                                                 programme assumes that the beneficiaries will know best how to
                      Consultant: Dr. Bernd                                                             spend the money in order to survive, and does not put any rules or
                      Schubert                                                                         regulations on the money. Abstract includes details of programme.
Eliana Cardoso and    The Impact of Cash              Useful                                            The article describes the impact of the Bolsa Escola programme on
Andre Portela Souza   Transfers on Child Labor                                                          children in Brazil. The article shows that the programme has a
                      and School Attendance in                                                          significant impact on the number of children attending school, but
                      Brazil                                                                            not on a decrease on child labor. Details included in Abstract.
                                                                                               
Patricia Justino      Beyond HEPR: A                 Irrelevant                                         This paper analyzes key social security issues in Vietnam and
                      Framework for an                                                                  proposes a Classification Scheme for the development of an
                      Integrated National System                                                        integrated national security system. Not applicable – does not
                      of Social Security in                                                             mention children.
                      Vietnam                                                                   




         New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                              22
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                  Title                        Relevance      ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
World Bank              Safety Nets Projects         Essential                                         This is a list of active World Bank projects that include safety nets.
                        Portfolio: Cash Transfers                                                      Compiled from the World Bank's Projects & Operations database.
                                                                                                       There are over 120 active projects (as of June 2001) containing
                                                                                                       safety net elements. The projects have been classified according to
                                                                                                      the type of interventions (cash, in-kind transfers, public works, etc.),
                                                                                                       themes (such as targeting, capacity building, and decentralization),
                                                                                                       and country settings.
Ravallion, Martin       Targeted Transfers in Poor    Useful                                           The author looks at the role of targeted transfers in poor countries in
                        Countries: Revisiting the                                                      light of the new theories on the social costs of uninsured risks and
                        Trade-Offs and Policy                                                          unmitigated inequalities. Puts forward a new perspective on social
                        Options                                                                        protection policies in poor countries, suggesting that there is scope
                                                                                                      for these policies to compensate for the market failures that help
                                                                                                       perpetuate poverty, particularly in high-inequality settings. Is
                                                                                                       focused on creating a larger role for targeted transfers, does not deal
                                                                                                       specifically with children or safety nets.
Barbara Martin Korpi,   Early Childhood Education     Useful                                           Describes the Early Childhood Education and Care Policy (ECEC)
Ministry of Education   and Care Policy in Sweden                                                      in Sweden, which has been developed as part of family policy with
and Science, Sweden                                                                                    linkages to labour market policy. ECEC is organized for children of
                                                                                                       ages 1-6 and school-age child care for children of ages 6-12, so that
                                                                                                      parents are able to combine parenthood with work and studies.
                                                                                                       ECEC is also responsible for children in need of special support and
                                                                                                       children in risk of being badly treated. ECEC has played an
                                                                                                       important role in the integration of children with disabilities into
                                                                                                       society. However, this particular paper mostly talks about its history,
                                                                                                       funding and financing and how are its responsibilities divided
                                                                                                       between the state and municipalities.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                                23
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                  Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
OECD. Australian        OECD Review of Family          Useful.                                           A thematic review of policies to support the reconciliation of work
Department of Family    Friendly Policies: The          Read                                             and family life in Australia. Over the last two decades the Australian
and Community           Reconciliation of Work and   chapter 4-5.                                        government implemented initiatives to assist with the reconciliation
Services, Department    Family Life, Australia’s     Appendix B.                                         of work and family. Assist families to combine work and family life
of Employment and       Background Report                                                              reflect broader social and economic goals such as: • supporting the
Workplace Relations                                                                                      well-being of families and early childhood development; •
and Work and Family                                                                                      supporting growth in the labour supply; • supporting choice for
Life Consortium                                                                                          families; • ensuring business can benefit from a diverse workforce;
                                                                                                         encouraging mutually beneficial working arrangements for
                                                                                                         employers and employees; and • addressing joblessness among
                                                                                                         families with children.
OECD Immervoll,         Can Parents Afford to          Useful                                            Quantifies the net cost of purchasing centre-based childcare in
Herwig; Barber, David   Work? Childcare Costs,                                                           OECD countries taking into account a wide range of influences on
                        Tax-Benefit Policies and                                                         household budgets, including fees charged by childcare providers as
                        Work Incentives                                                                  well as childcare-related tax concessions and cash benefits available
                                                                                                      to parents. Family resources are evaluated for different employment
                                                                                                         situations in order to assess the financial trade-offs between work
                                                                                                         and staying at home. Results are disaggregated to identify the policy
                                                                                                         features that present barriers to work for parents whose employment
                                                                                                         decisions are known to be particularly responsive to financial work
                                                                                                         incentives: lone parents and second earners with young children
                                                                                                         requiring care.
National Center for     Child Care & Early             Useful                                            Explains how federal child care subsidies have the potential to
Children in Poverty,    Education                                                                        support parent’s employment and children’s development and what
Columbia University.                                                                                     groups are more likely to request the subsidy. Families with children
                                                                                                       through age 5 are more likely to use child subsidies than families
                                                                                                         with children ages 6 and over.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                               24
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                         Relevance        ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
National Center for    Pathways to Early School      Interesting                                         A guide of special challenges of helping babies and children whose
Children in Poverty,   Success Helping the Most                                                          earliest experiences, environments, and specially relationships
Columbia University.   Vulnerable Infants,                                                               create not a warm and nurturing atmosphere, but to a “toxic
Jane Knitzer           Toddlers, and Their                                                               stress”—exposing them to such high and consistent levels of stress
Jill Lefkowitz         Families                                                                          that their growing brains cannot integrate their experiences in ways
                                                                                                         that promote growth and learning. It describes 10 strategies that
                                                                                                         programmes and communities can implement to ensure these babies,
                                                                                                         toddlers, and families are connected to sufficiently intensive
                                                                                                         supports that can get them on a path to early school success.
National Center for    Child Care and                 Could be                                           Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) subsidies assist low-
Children in Poverty,   Development Fund (CCDF)         useful                                            income families with the cost of child care so that they may work or
Columbia University    Subsidies                                                                         prepare for employment. Assistance is provided in the form of either
                                                                                                        a contracted child care slot or a voucher that may be used to access
                                                                                                         care by any provider that meets state requirements.
National Center for    Whose security? What            Useful                                            This paper focuses on how Social Security helps children. The
Children in Poverty,   Social Security Means to                                                          programme is responsible for keeping many middle and low income
Columbia University.   Children and Families                                                             children from falling into poverty when a parent dies or becomes
Nancy K. Cauthen
                                                                                                        disabled. This is one of the programmes in which we have to draw
                                                                                                         the line or it falls into a grey zone. It is not targeted at children but it
                                                                                                         affects children directly.
Campaign 2000: End     Family Security In Insecure   Interesting                                         This article is basically a proposal to the Canadian Government on
Child Poverty in       Times: Tackling Canada’s                                                          how to increase the welfare of the children and families living on
Canada.                Social Deficit                                                                    minimum wage. It is interesting as a tool on different proposals to
                                                                                                      increase children safety nets but it is not relevant to our policies’
                                                                                                         research.
Campaign 2000: End     Poverty Amidst Prosperity.    Interesting.                                        This article is a proposal on how to reduce child poverty but it also
Child Poverty in       Building a Canada for All     It could be                                         mentions very briefly how the new tax cut will help children. Even
Canada.                Children                         useful.                                          though it does not mention any government programme in detail it
                                                                                                        mentions the tax cuts as benefiting children.
Campaign 2000: End     Alberta: Income Security        Useful                                            This particular article focuses on income security, and following the
Child Poverty in                                                                                         trend of the previous articles the child and family benefit policy
Canada.                                                                                                  bases its essence on tax benefits. In this case it is based solely on the
                                                                                                       Canadian province of Alberta tax benefits.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                                   25
                                                                                  Data
                                                                                applies to   Includes
                                                                   Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                        Relevance        ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Canada Revenue         Your Canada Child Tax         Useful                                             Interesting article. Not only explains the Canadian Child Tax Benefit
Agency                 Benefit                                                                          but it also delineates what constitutes a family. Not only married
                                                                                                        couples could attain this benefit but those non-married couples living
                                                                                                       together for more than a year, even same sex couples.
National Center for    Early Childhood              Interesting                                         This paper focuses only on how to spend smarter on children in
Children in Poverty,   Comprehensive Systems          but not                                           order to improve society’s productivity in the end. It has a special
Columbia University    that Spend Smarter             useful.                                           focus on promoting social and emotional health and well-being,
                       Maximizing Resources to                                                          which is a critical precursor to both later health and school readiness.
                       Serve Vulnerable Children                                                        The emphasis is on planning for better financing and maximizing
                                                                                                        existing resources in implementing systems change. However, it
                                                                                                        doesn’t mention in detail any government programmes.
DFID                   Using social transfers to    Essential                                           This study examines how social transfers – particularly cash
                       improve human                                                                    transfers and vouchers – can improve human development. They
                       development                                                                      look at how this is especially important for the extreme poor and
                                                                                                        socially excluded.
                                                                                   
DFID                   Impact Evaluation of Bolsa   Irrelevant                                          A discussion about an evaluation of the Bolsa Familia programme
                       Familia                                                                          which is a Brazilian version of the Mexican Progresa programme.
                                                                                                        Not the actual evaluation, just what the background information is
                                                                                                        and what questions need to be addressed in an actual evaluation.
                                                                                               
Ilahi, Orazem, and     “How Does Working as a         Useful                                            This study measures the impact of child labor on adult wages and
Sedlacek               Child Affect Wage, Income                                                        poverty incidence through each of these potential avenues. Using a
                       and Poverty as an Adult?”                                                        data set on adult earnings in Brazil, child labor is allowed to affect
                       Social Protection                                                                adult earnings through its impacts on work experience, years of
                       Discussion Paper Series, #                                                      schooling, and human capital attained per year of schooling. Adding
                       0514, The World Bank                                                             up these positive and negative effects, the empirical findings
                                                                                                        demonstrate that early entry to the workforce reduces lifetime
                                                                                                        earnings by 13% to 20%. Child labor also raises the probability of
                                                                                                        being poor later in life by 13% to 31%.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    2006                                                                                                26
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                  Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Bravo, Jorge            Intergenerational transfers   Irrelevant                                         This paper examines the available evidence on intergenerational
                        and social protection in                                                         transfers in Latin America, their social and economic importance in
                        Latin America, United                                                            different national contexts, their effects on distributional outcomes
                        Nations Expert Group                                                             and on the medium and long-term financial sustainability of social
                        Meeting on Social and                                                           protection systems.
                        Economic Implications of
                        Changing Population Age
                        Structures, Mexico DF
Barrientos and Lloyd-   Non-Contributory Pensions      Useful                                            This paper evaluates the impact of cash transfers for the old, in
Sherlock                and Social Protection                                                            Africa and Latin America on poverty and vulnerability, on aggregate
                                                                                                         poverty, and on household investment in physical and human capital.
                                                                                                         The paper argues that these programmes have a significant impact on
                                                                                                        poverty and social investment in developing countries.
Phillipa Thomas         Ending Child Poverty &        Essential                                          This paper examines the new understandings of social protection and
                        Securing Child Rights: The                                                       how these relate to child rights. It argues that social protection
                        Role of Social Protection                                                        instruments, and in particular, cash transfers have enormous
                                                                                                         potential to reduce child poverty. However, in order to maximize the
                                                                                                         benefits for child wellbeing, social protection systems need to be
                                                                                                         grounded within a rights based approach and linked to wider
                                                                                                         development in an holistic manner.
Glassman, A.            “Redes de protección social   Irrelevant                                         It has basic information and some specific data about social
                        en los países andinos,” en                                                       protection policies in Andean countries
                        Equidad, BID (magazine on
                        social policies with social
                        responsibility), Marzo                                                   
                        2002, Vol. III, Número 1




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                               27
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author               Title                          Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
CPAG                 Ten Steps to a society free    Irrelevant                                         It is interesting but very, very long paper. Its ten recommendations
                     of Child Poverty - Child                                                          are: 1) All political parties to commit to eradicate child poverty; 2)
                     Poverty Action Group’s                                                            Poverty proof policies – make each consistent with eradicating child
                     manifesto to eradicate Child                                                      poverty; 3) Uprate the combined value of child tax credit and child
                     Poverty, Child Poverty                                                            benefit at least in line with the fastest growing of prices or earnings.
                     Action Group, London                                                              The element of this that is child benefit ought to be maximized; 4)
                                                                                                       Increase the adult payments within income support in line with those
                                                                                                       for children; 5) Reform the administration of tax credits and benefits
                                                                                                       – ensure they get the right amount, to the right people at the right
                                                                                                       time; 6) Ensure all children have full access to the requirements –
                                                                                                       meals, uniforms and activities – of their education; 7) Provide
                                                                                                       benefit entitlements to all UK residents equally, irrespective of
                                                                                                       immigration status; 8) Work towards better jobs, not just more jobs;
                                                                                                       9) Introduce free at the point of delivery, good quality universal
                                                                                                       childcare; and 10) Reduce the disproportionate burden of taxation on
                                                                                                       poorer families.
The Milton           Reform of Tax and Child        Irrelevant                                         This is an interesting analysis of the current poverty trends in the US
Eisenhower           Poverty Policy                                                                    (with sources). It focuses on child poverty (18% of children aged
Foundation                                                                                             five and under live in poverty in the US) and inequality (the top 2.7
                                                                                                       million people in America today have a total income equal to that of
                                                                                                       the bottom one hundred million) patterns, proposing reforms of taxes
                                                                                                       and specific child poverty policies (tax cut for the poorest, reform
                                                                                                       job training and welfare reform).




         New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  2006                                                                                                28
       Country Specific Literature Review

       Bangladesh
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                        Relevance        ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
The World Bank,       Delivery Mechanisms of       Very Useful                                         This study carries out an analysis of the practical issues and the
Shaik S. Ahmed,       Cash Transfer Programs to                                                        financial costs relative to the transfer of cash benefits from source to
                      the Poor in Bangladesh                                                           recipients and the cost effective way of transferring funds to the
                                                                                                       beneficiaries. The study analyzes and compares three alternative
                                                                                                     delivery mechanisms: The Income Generation Vulnerable Group
                                                                                                       Development (IGVGD), the Primary Education Stipend Programme
                                                                                                       (PESP) and the Rural Maintenance Programme (RMP). This study
                                                                                                       also looks into targeting and leakage issues that affect delivery
                                                                                                       mechanism. A field level survey has been conducted to assess
                                                                                                       beneficiaries view on the existing delivery mechanism and on the
                                                                                                       prospect of using technologically advanced alternative delivery
                                                                                                       mechanisms in the rural setup.
Meng, Xin             Evaluating the Food for      Very Useful                                         The Food for Education (FFE) programme was introduced to
Ryan, Jim             Education Program in                                                             Bangladesh in 1993 and has been operating for more than 8 years.
                      Bangladesh, August 6,                                                            This paper evaluates the effect of this programme on school
                      2003,                                                                            participation and duration of schooling using household sample
                                                                                                    survey data collected in 2000. The authors found that the
                                                                                                       programme is successful, because the participating children on
                                                                                                       average have 20 to 30 per cent higher school participation rates,
                                                                                                       relative to their counterfactuals, who did not participate in the
                                                                                                       programme, and they also tend to stay 0.5 of a year to 2 years longer
                                                                                                       than their counterfactuals.
Syed Hashemi, World   Linking Microfinance and     Very Useful                                         This paper analyzes the Income Generation for Vulnerable Group
Bank                  Safety Net Programs to                                                           Development (IGVGD) programme in Bangladesh. The IGVGD is a
                      Include the Poorest, The                                                         collaborative food security intervention jointly led by the
                      Case of IGVGD in                                                                 government of Bangladesh, the World Food Program (WFP) and the
                      Bangladesh, Focus Note 21,                                                    Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), Bangladesh’s
                                                                                                       largest NGO. This paper looks at the programme’s structure,
                                                                                                       operation and evaluates its impact on the poor.




       New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    2006                                                                                                29
        Bangladesh
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author               Title                          Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Abdul-Muyeed,        IGVGD vis-à-vis micro-        Very Useful                                         This article looks at the IGVGD programme in Bangladesh, which
Chowdhury            finance, Focusing on the                                                          opened up a new horizon in the field of poverty alleviation. The
Yasmin, Rabeya       vulnerable, The                                                                   article analyzes the impact of IGVGD on the poor of Bangladesh
                     Independent                                                                       and concludes that, the ultra poor, previously by passed by the
                                                                                                    development program, came into focus as IGVGD for the first time
                                                                                                       showed the way to deal with the problem faced by the most
                                                                                                       vulnerable in Bangladesh.
Tietjen, Karen       The Bangladesh Primary        Very Useful                                         This paper looks at the Primary Education Stipend Project, (PESP),
                     Education Stipend Project:                                                        which aims to increase the educational participation— enrollment,
                     A Descriptive Analysis,                                                           attendance, persistence, and performance—of primary school-aged
                     2003                                                                              children from poor families throughout Bangladesh by providing
                                                                                                    cash payments to targeted households. PESP was initiated by the
                                                                                                       Government of Bangladesh (GOB) in July 2002, the Primary
                                                                                                       Education Stipend Project began its first official year of operation in
                                                                                                       January 2003, with the goal of supporting more than 5 million
                                                                                                       pupils.
IFPRI, Akhter U.     Food For Education            Very Useful.                                        This discussion paper is an analysis of the Food for Education
Ahmed, Carlos del    Program in Bangladesh: An                                                         programme in Bangladesh. It starts with the overview of the FFE,
Ninno                Evaluation of its Impact on                                                       and the evaluates it’s educational effectiveness based on school
                     Educational Attainment and                                                        survey results. The paper also looks at the effectives of the targeting
                     Food Security, Discussion                                                       methods and the food grain distribution system. The authors also
                     Paper Briefs, Food                                                                recommend that FFE could focus on programme extensions aimed at
                     Consumption and Nutrition                                                         improving the cognitive abilities of children by combining FFE with
                     Division of the                                                                   school feeding and by expanding the programme to pre-school
                     International Food Policy                                                         children.
                     Research Institute,
                     Discussion paper 138




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                               30
       Bangladesh
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author              Title                           Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
The World Bank,     Project Performance             Very Useful                                        This project performance audit report (PPAR) covers the
                    Assessment Report, June                                                            Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project (BINP, Credit 2735-BD).
                    13,2005, Bangladesh,                                                               The US$67.4 million project was financed by a credit of
                    Integrated Nutrition Project,                                                      US$59.8'million approved in May 1995. The project closed with
                                                                                                      disbursements of US$5 1.6 million in December 2002. The PPAR
                                                                                                       was prepared by the Operations Evaluation Department (OED),
                                                                                                       based upon the Implementation Completion Reports (ICR), project
                                                                                                       documents, and interviews with government officials and Bank staff
                                                                                                       with experience of the projects. It also draws on the OED impact
                                                                                                       study Maintaining Momentum toward the MDGs? An Impact
                                                                                                       Evaluation of Interventions to Improve Maternal and Child Health
                                                                                                       and Nutrition Outcomes in Bangladesh, including the fieldwork for
                                                                                                       that study, which took place in November 2003 and August 2004.




       New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    2006                                                                                            31
        Brazil
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                        Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
MDS-CF (2005)          Demonstrativo - Resumo        Useful                                            Chart with information about number of municipalities that are
                       Bolsa Família por UF                                                            involved in Bolsa Familia, participating families, and investment in
                                                                                                       each state and in the country as a whole.
MDS-CF (2005)          Demonstrativo - Programas     useful                                            Chart with number of families and investment of each programme
                       de Transferência de Renda                                                       that conformed Bolsa Familia (Bolsa Alimentação, Cartão
                       por Região Administrativa                                                       Alimentação, Bolsa Escola, and Auxílio Gás). The information is
                                                                                                       divided by five geographical regions.
Duarte, E. (2004),     Social determinants in       Irrelevant                                         Brief presentation of the main socioeconomic & demographic
MDS-CF                 health: determinants in                                                         determinants of the health Inequalities in Brazil. It can be useful for
                       health: The Brazilian The                                                       a future study on health programmes in Brazil and Latin America.
                       Brazilian case
                                                                                   
Marques, Mendes,       A importância do bolsa        Useful                                            This paper presents a good analysis of the Bolsa Familia
Guedes Leite, and      família nos municípios                                                          programme’s scope and impact.
Hutz (2004), MDS-CF    brasileiros
                                                                      
Yapa, Sedlacekb, and   Limiting Child Labor          Useful                                            This paper analyzes the effects of the programme known as the
Orazemc (2002)         Through Behavior-Based                                                          Programa de Erradicacao do Trabalho Infantil (PETI) which was
                       Income Transfers: An                                                            implemented in poor rural states of Northeast Brazil. Using data on
                       Experimental Evaluation of                                                      children in PETI municipalities and children in a matched set of
                       the PETI Program in Rural                                                      control municipalities, this study derives estimates of the
                       Brazil                                                                          programme's impact on child schooling, labor supply, academic
                                                                                                       performance and hazardous work. The programme increased time in
                                                                                                       school, reduced labor force participation and hazardous work, and
                                                                                                       increased academic success for children in the programme.
PSDB - Comissão        “Rede de Proteção Social:     Useful                                            This paper analyzes the impact of the different social protection
Executiva Nacional     fazer mais para quem                                                            programmes of Brazil between 1994 and 2002 in a wide social and
                       precisa mais,” in Brasil                                                        economic framework.
                       1994-2002: la era do Real
                                                                      


        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                                32
        Brazil
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author              Title                           Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Sedlacek, Duryea,   “Child Labor, Schooling,         Useful                                            This paper shows that in Latin America, child labor does have a
Ilahi, and Sasaki   and Poverty in Latin                                                               negative and significant effect on educational enrollment. It affirms
                    America,” in Social                                                                that targeted conditional cash transfer programmes for human
                    Protection Discussion Paper                                                        development, such as PROGRESA (now Oportunidades) and Bolsa
                    Series, # 0511, The World                                                         Escola, are correct in requiring that beneficiary children actually
                    Bank                                                                               attend school rather than concentrating on school enrollment.
Faria, V. (2003)    “Reformas institucionales y      Useful                                            This is a good background paper to understand the context in which
CEPAL               coordinación                                                                       Brazilian social protection programmes are implemented.
                    gubernamental en la
                    política de protección social
                    de Brasil,” in Serie de
                    Políticas Sociales, CEPAL
                    # 64
Maria Coleta de     Some notes on the family as     Irrelevant                                         The argument developed in this paper is that the family in Brazil has
OLIVEIRA            a mechanism of social                                                              reduced its capacity to deal with the increasing demands placed
                    protection in Brazil,                                                              upon its members. The central question is what are the conditions
                    UNESCO                                                                             that have to be considered by policy makers in order to anticipate an
                                                                                                       expanded contribution of the Brazilian family in offering social
                                                                                                       protection to the population, in the context of the redefinition of the
                                                                                                       social role of the State in Brazil.
MDS-CF (2004)       Análise comparativa             Essential                                          This paper presents a useful synthesis (participants, investment,
                    de programas de proteção                                                           antecedents, and funding) of all social protection programmes that
                    social 1995 a 2003                                                                 were active until 2004 in Brazil.
                                                                                               




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                                33
        Indonesia
                                                                                  Data
                                                                                applies to   Includes
                                                                   Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                         Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
World Bank Institute   Protecting the Vulnerable:     Useful                                            Outlines Indonesia’s pre financial crisis social expenditures and the
                       The Design and                                                                   impact of the crisis. Explains the new social safety net programmes
                       Implementation of Effective                                                      that arose out of the crisis. Goes on to describe the performance of
                       Safety Nets. The Case of a                                                       the post-crisis Indonesian social safety net programmes for the sale
                       Post-Crisis Country.                                                          of subsidized rice, employment creation, community empowerment,
                       Indonesia                                                                        scholarships / block grants for education and health care subsidy
                                                                                                        programmes. This paper is a basic outline of the situation not an in-
                                                                                                        depth analysis.
Irawan, Puguh          Strengthening Policies and    Essential                                          A thorough look at the social safety net programmes that were
Rahman, Erman          Programmes on Social                                                             developed in Indonesia in response to the 1997 financial crisis.
Romdiati, Haning       Safety Nets: Issues,                                                             Explains Indonesia’s historical social insurance policies. Provides a
Suhaimi, Uzair         Recommendations and                                                              detailed look at the main social safety net programmes that were
                       Selected Studies. Social                                                      implemented during the crisis in an effort to mitigate its adverse
                       Policy Paper No. 8                                                               impacts. After a detailed look at the programmes it examines the
                                                                                                        targeting, coordination, fund use, transparency, the role of partners
                                                                                                        and financiering. Concludes with recommendations. Also includes
                                                                                                        very helpful annexes outlining each programme.
International Social   Supporting the                Not useful                                         Following the earthquake and Tsunami that struck Aceh there were
Service,               Development of the                                                               many newly vulnerable families and children. This report looks at
UNICEF Indonesia       Alternative Care System at                                                       what action and solutions should be taken to protect and care for
                       Provincial (Aceh) and                                                            vulnerable children. Outlines Indonesian law and policy for these
                       National Levels in                                                               situations and the varied organizations and associations that can and
                       Indonesia                                                                        do help in these situations. Recommends strengthening the
                                                                                                        Indonesian legal protection framework. Recommends that inter-
                                                                                                        country adoption should be guaranteed. Recommends that support
                                                                                                        for families caring for separated children must exist and that
                                                                                                        Indonesia should de-institutionalize solutions.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    2006                                                                                               34
        Indonesia
                                                                                Data
                                                                              applies to   Includes
                                                                 Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                        Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Baulch, Bob           Developing a Social           Useful                                            The authors develop a methodology for creating a country level
Wood, Joe             Protection Index for Asia                                                       social protection index. This index quantifies social protection using
Weber, Axel                                                                                           four indicators: expenditure, coverage, poverty targeting and impact.
                                                                                                      The authors specifically quantify Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mongolia,
                                                                                                   Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam. After developing the index the authors
                                                                                                      look at how this index can be used by policy makers.
Arifianto, Alex       Making Services Work for     Essential                                          Looks at the Indonesian social safety net programme tasked with
Marianti, Ruly        the Poor in Indonesia: A                                                        promoting health care for the poor: Jaminan Pemeliharaan
Budiyati, Sri         Report on Health Financing                                                      Kesehatan (JPK), and how it works after changes to the programme
Tan, Ellen            Mechanisms in Kabupaten                                                         in 2004. Recognizes that the health care safety net can secure
                      Tabanan Bali                                                                 primary health care for the poor but doe not guarantee good quality
                                                                                                      care. The majority of the report looks at the operational aspects of
                                                                                                      the programme.
Sumarto, Sudarno      Designs and                  Essential                                          The rapid creation of social safety nets in response to the financial
Suryahadi, Asep       Implementation of the                                                           crisis was a new experience for Indonesia. This study found that the
Widyanti, Wenefrida   Indonesian Social Safety                                                        implementation of these new programmes suffered from problems
                      Net Programs: Evidence                                                          of targeting and delivering benefits to the target groups. The authors
                      from the JPS Module in the                                                   look at the five main new safety net programmes, for the fiscal years
                      1999 SUSENAS                                                                    98/99 and 99/00. The effectiveness of the safety nets varied across
                                                                                                      programmes and regions. Overall the programmes have been
                                                                                                      hampered by a lack of information available to everyone including
                                                                                                      the Indonesian government.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  2006                                                                                               35
         Indonesia
                                                                                  Data
                                                                                applies to   Includes
                                                                   Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                   Title                       Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Sumarto, Sudarno         Assessing the Impact of     Essential                                          This article looks at the same newly created (post financial crisis)
Suryahadi, Asep          Indonesian Social Safety                                                       safety net programmes as the earlier articles. In this article the
Widyanti, Wenefrida      Net Programs on                                                                authors specifically explore how these safety net programmes have
                         Household Welfare and                                                          impacted household welfare and poverty. They look at poverty data
                         Poverty Dynamics                                                            from 1998 and 1999 and use statistical analysis to gauge the impact
                                                                                                        of participation. The authors found that participation in the
                                                                                                        programmes did have a positive impact. However, ‘only the
                                                                                                        subsidized rice programme appears to have significantly reduced the
                                                                                                        risk of poverty.’ Only the credit programme was found to be not
                                                                                                        effective.
Sumarto, Sudarno         Safety Nets and Safety      Essential                                          The two JPS safety net programmes compared here are cheap rice
Suryahadi, Asep          Ropes: Comparing the                                                           programme and the employment creation programme. The authors
Pritchett, Lant          Dynamic Benefit Incidence                                                      found that the two programmes were differently targeted so their
                         of Two Indonesian “JPS”                                                        results varied. The rice programme was targeted towards the
                         Programs                                                                    permanently poor, regardless of the ‘shock’, and the employment
                                                                                                        programme was targeted towards the poor and those affected by the
                                                                                                        ‘shock’ that were not poor. This paper only addresses the targeting
                                                                                                        issues.
Policy Brief 5, Inter-   Social Safety Nets –         Useful                                            A short paper / brief that details the safety net programs introduced
Regional Inequality      Indonesia                                                                      in 1998. Covers the background, details, impacts and lessons
Facility.                                                                                               learned. The lessons they found that could offer useful to other
                                                                                                        countries are: 1. Effective targeting is crucial, 2. There must be
                                                                                                      some local flexibility, 3. Long term poverty alleviation strategies are
                                                                                                        unsuitable as safety nets during a crisis.




         New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                                36
       Indonesia
                                                                         Data
                                                                       applies to   Includes
                                                          Effective-   Regional       Case
Author             Title                    Relevance       ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Hastuti            Rice for Poor Families    Useful                                            Examines one of Indonesia’s safety net programmes, the RASKIN,
Maxwell, John      (RASKIN): Did the 2002                                                      or Rice for Poor Families programme. Looks at the programme in
                   Program Operate                                                             it’s 2002 configuration. Concludes that the programme has
                   Effectively?                                                                succeeded in delivering a large amount of cheap rice all over
                                                                                            Indonesia. That many initial problems with the programme were
                                                                                               overcome. That targeting is essential, and while not targeted
                                                                                               perfectly the issues with effective targeting are so large that there is
                                                                                               no simple solution.




       New School SIPS PIA Project Team            2006                                                                                                  37
        Jamaica
                                                                                Data
                                                                              applies to   Includes
                                                                 Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                     Relevance          ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
The World Bank        Programme of                                                                    The Word Bank (WB) describes in details the objectives and the
                      Advancement Through                                                             background of the Programme for Advancement Through Health
                      Health and Education      Essential                                             and Education (PATH) of Jamaica. It describes the target population
                      (PATH)
                                                                                                     of PATH and enumerates its conditionalities and describes the
                                                                                                      enrolment process.
Ministry of Labour    Programme of                                                                    This bulletin explains the Social Safety Net reforms taken by the
and Social Security   Advancement Through                                                             Ministry of Labour and Social Security in Jamaica. The main
                      Health and Education:                                                           purpose of the bulletin is to explain that three previous social
                      Advancing Families in     Essential
                                                                                                     programmes have been brought together into the Programme of
                      Jamaica                                                                         Advancement Through Health and Education (PATH). Through
                                                                                                      PATH, the Ministry aims at reducing the administrative costs and 
                                                                                                      improved efficiency and effectiveness of conditional cash 
                                                                                                      transfers.
Ayala Consulting Co   Workshop On Conditional                                                         This report lists the results of the workshop on "Conditional Cash
                      Cash Transfer Programs                                                          Transfer Programs (CCTs): Operational Experiences,” financed by
                      (CCTs): Operational                                                             the Social Protection Sector of the Latin America and the Caribbean
                      Experiences
                                                                                                     Region of the World Bank, and carried out together with Ayala
                                                                                                      Consulting between April 29th and May 1st, 2002 at the
                                                 Useful                                               Universidad de Las Américas (UDLA) in Puebla, Mexico. The
                                                                                                      report gathers the information collected during the workshop in
                                                                                                      order to be used as a decision making tool in the future. It
                                                                                                      enumerates programmes from Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Costa
                                                                                                      Rica, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Turkey. One of the
                                                                                                      conclusions of the report is that all CCT programmes share the same
                                                                                                      problems across nations.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  2006                                                                                             38
        Jamaica
                                                                                   Data
                                                                                 applies to   Includes
                                                                    Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                  Title                       Relevance         ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Overseas                Policy Brief 4, Programme                                                        The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) describes in details the
Development Institute   Of Advancement Through                                                           objectives and the background of the Programme for Advancement
                        Health and Education                                                             Through Health and Education (PATH) in the island of Jamaica.
                        (PATH)                      Very Useful
                                                                                                        ODI enumerates the beneficiaries per household and the dollar
                                                                                                         amount to be received. In the Lessons Learned section ODI explains
                                                                                                         that the lack of an independent unit within the Ministry of Labour
                                                                                                         and Social Security that takes charge of PATH has posed problems
                                                                                                         since the public beliefs that PATH is the selection system and not
                                                                                                         the programme in its own right.
Ayala, Francisco        Lessons Learned In The                                                           It examines the Programme for Advancement Through Health and
                        Design and Implementation                                                        Education (PATH) in Jamaica. Analyses the reasons and the need
                        of a Conditional Cash                                                            for implementing such programme. This work details the budget and
                        Transfer Program            Interesting
                                                                                                        the targeted groups to benefit from the programme. It concludes by
                                                                                                         expressing that conditional cash transfers are the types of
                                                                                                         programmes difficult to implement, and such programmes should be
                                                                                                         kept as simple as possible in the beginning stages until the
                                                                                                         programme is stabilized and working at full speed.
Rawlings, Laura B.      A New Approach to Social                                                         Explains the experience with the rapid introduction of conditional
                        Assistance: Latin                                                                cash transfer (CCTs) programmes in Latin America and Caribbean.
                        America’s Experience with   Interesting                                          Rawlings defines CCTs as break away point from the traditional
                        Conditional Cash Transfer
                                                                                                       social assistance and they have become a popular path to deliver
                        Programs                                                                         social services. One of the document’s conclusion is there is no
                                                                                                         “magic bullet” for reforming social programmes, however, CCTs
                                                                                                         have demonstrated that such programmes are effective.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                            39
        Jamaica
                                                                                 Data
                                                                               applies to   Includes
                                                                  Effective-   Regional       Case
Author              Title                        Relevance          ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
United Nations      Millennium Development                                                             The UNDP document explains the overall or global Millennium
Development         Goals: Jamaica                                                                     Development Goals (MDGs) as well as the local MDGs in order to
Programme                                                                                              create the necessary connection between the global settings of the
                                                                                                       MGDs with the local priority settings. The document concludes by 
                                                  Useful                                               indicating that Jamaica has made good progress, so far, towards 
                                                                                                      meeting the majority of the MDGs. Such achievement provides 
                                                                                                       the country with a strong foundation on which to move to 
                                                                                                       achieve the goals. 
The World Bank      Conditional Cash Transfers                                                         This document is a series of tables and graphs describing the
                    on Trial: A Debate on         Useful                                               Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) programmes in Brazil, Mexico,
                    Conditional Cash Transfer                                                          Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Turkey.
                    Programs. Summary of                                                               Their budgets, target populations, and impacts are clearly shown in
                    Evidence                                                                           this World Bank document.
                                                                                              




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   2006                                                                                            40
        Kenya
                                                                                Data
                                                                              applies to   Includes
                                                                 Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                        Relevance      ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
A newsletter from      Kenya Launches Mass          Not useful                                        Brief description of a literacy programme launched in 2003. Does
UNESCO Nairobi         Literacy 2003                                                                  not include details of project, or programme impacts.
Office
Jayshree Balachander   World bank support for        Useful                                           Schedule of a World Bank conference on early childhood
                       early childhood                                                                development in 2005. Includes an encyclopedia of terms for early
                       development: Case studies                                                      childhood development.
                       from Kenya, India, and the
                       Philippines
Geoff Foster           Safety Nets for Children      Useful                                           Describes Child headed households and the challenges facing them,
                       affected by HIV/AIDS in                                                        such as food insecurity and lack of health care. Describes
                       Southern Africa                                                                community safety nets for orphaned children that assist one another
                                                                                                      through activities such as labor-sharing
Stephen Kidd           Social Security and           Useful                                           Article outlines pilot cash transfer programmes, and possible
                       Children affected by AIDS                                                      obstacles of implementing programmes. Does not include detail
                                                                                                      about any specific programme.
The World Bank         Implementation completion    Not Useful                                        Article describes and tracks a programme to improve education
                       report for an early                                                            system for Kenyan children. Programme objectives include
                       childhood development                                                          improved training for teachers and improved education centres to
                       project                                                                        decrease dropout rates.
Bureau of              Government Policies and       Useful                                           The International Child Labor Programme administers US
International Labor    Programs to Eliminate the                                                      Department of Labor grants and contracts to remove children from
Affairs, U.S.          Worst Forms of Child                                                           exploitative work, improve access to basic education for child
Department of Labor,   Labor                                                                          laborers, and raise awareness about child labor worldwide.
Washington DC
Bureau of              Reduce Exploitation of        Useful                                           General description of funding provided by US Dept. of Labor to
International Labor    Child Labor and Address                                                        programmes in Africa, one of which is Kenya. Details of Kenya
Affairs, U.S.          Core International Labor                                                       programme not included in Report
Department of Labor,   Standards Issues
Washington DC




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                      2006                                                                                          41
        Kenya
                                                                               Data
                                                                             applies to   Includes
                                                                Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                Title                        Relevance      ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Bernard Van Leer      A focus on young African      Useful                                           NPPCAN Kenya aims to support and enhance community coping
Foundation            Children                                                                       strategies and capacity to protect children affected by HIV/AIDS.
                                                                                                     They plan to achieve this objective by enhancing community
                                                                                                     understanding of HIV/AIDS and its impact on children through a
                                                                                                     carefully designed awareness campaign on HIV/AIDS and
                                                                                                     children’s rights including community and government
                                                                                                     responsibility in securing those rights.
USAID                 Kenya Country Study           Useful                                           General statistics and facts about Kenya.
Office of the Vice-   National Policy on Orphans   Essential                                         The National Policy on OVCs seeks to support and protect the rights
President and         and Vulnerable Children                                                        of OVC in the areas of child survival, child development, child
Ministry of Home                                                                                     protection and child participation.
Affairs
ICS Africa            The Effect of Deworming      Essential                                         Describes deworming programme in Kenya, started by ICS to
                      on Primary School Student                                                      deworm primary school age children in schools.
                      Health and Attendance in
                      Rural Kenya
The World Bank        Workshops on Orphans and      Useful                                           Useful, but not specific to Kenya. Describes workshop on OVCs,
                      Vulnerable Children and                                                        describes terminology used, and includes an encyclopedia of terms
                      Conditional Cash Transfers                                                     that can be used in talking about OVCs.
                      in Kenya
Kipkorir, L.I. and    A Case Study of early        Essential                                         In 1991 the Kenya government, with assistance from the Bernard
Njenga, A.W.          Childhood Care and                                                             van Leer Foundation created the Preschool Education Project, based
                      Education in Kenya                                                             at the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). The objectives of the
                                                                                                     project were to improve the quality of preschool education through
                                                                                                     the development of viable training systems, and the creation of
                                                                                                     curriculum and other support materials for use by trainers, teachers
                                                                                                     and children.




        New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                          42
       Kenya
                                                                              Data
                                                                            applies to   Includes
                                                               Effective-   Regional       Case
Author                 Title                      Relevance      ness         Cases       Studies   Notes
Edward Miguel UC       Child Health and           Essential                                         Detail description of deworming project in Kenya. Among the
Berkeley and Michael   Education: The Primary                                                       seventy-five primary schools in the sample, the selection of schools
Kremer Harvard         School Deworming Project                                                     for assistance through the programme was randomized, providing
University             in Kenya                                                                     plausible identification of the impact of health gains on education.
Bernard Van Leer       Community Support to        Useful                                           Proposal on implementation of project to help OVCs by improving
Foundation             AIDS Orphans                                                                 day care centres, training teachers, and monitoring children’s well
                                                                                                    being.




       New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     2006                                                                                           43
VI. Classification Scheme
Policy type
Cash Transfers
       Conditional Cash Transfers
               Education: EFE Bangladesh – PESP Bangladesh – Young Program Brazil – Bolsa
               Familia Brazil – PETI Brazil – DIKDASMEN/DIKTI Indonesia – PATH Jamaica
               – PSDP Kenya
               Health (maternal, pre/post natal, age focused): Bolsa Familia Brazil – JPS/BK
               Indonesia - PATH Jamaica
               Family: Bolsa Familia Brazil
               Child/family: allowances: PATH
               Lone parents:
               Unemployment benefits (lone parent/family/work):
               Housing: Bolsa Familia Brazil
               Multi-generational support (old age pensions): PATH
               Vulnerable children (orphans, HIV/AIDS, refugee, minority groups): SAC Brazil
               – Cash Subsidy Kenya
       Unconditional Cash Transfers (Income Support)
               Family:
               Child/family allowances:
               Lone parents:
               Unemployment benefits (lone parent/family):
               Housing:
               Multi-generational support (old age pensions):
               Vulnerable children: SAC Brazil
In-Kind Transfers
       Conditional In-Kind and Other Transfers
               Food (conditional benefits: aid, subsidy, feeding): EFE Bangladesh – IGVGD
               Bangladesh – BINP Bangladesh – OPK Indonesia
               Education (conditional benefits: fee waivers, scholarship): BINP Bangladesh –
               National Centre for Childhood Education Kenya – Early Childhood Development
               Project Kenya
               Health: (conditional benefits: fee waivers/vouchers/free basic health care):
               JPS/BK – Indonesia
       Unconditional In-Kind Transfers (Same categories as Conditional):
Tax Benefits / Tax Credits
       Family Income:
       Family size:
National Legal Framework:
       Child Support: Sentinela Program Brazil
       Parental Leave:
Additional Policies
       Income: PIS/PASEP Brazil




New School SIPS PIA Project Team          1/May/2006                                     44
Name of Programme
Year started and length of programme
Agencies involved
Programme description
Targeting
Conditionalities
Coverage (how many people, households)
Cost
Programme sources




New School SIPS PIA Project Team         1/May/2006   45
VII. Countries

BANGLADESH (1)

Policy Type: Started as a conditional in-kind transfer (food) and later changed to conditional
cash transfer (education).

Name of Programme: Food For Education (FFE)15

Year Started and Length of Programme: July 1993, later changed to cash transfer Cash For
Education

Agencies Involved: The government of Bangladesh

Programme Description: The programme was designed to combat poverty and malnutrition by
developing long-term human capital. In order to achieve this, the FFE’s strategy is to use
targeted food transfer to encourage poor families to enroll children in primary school and keep
them there.16 The FFE programme provides a free monthly ration of food grains to poor families
if their children attend primary school. If one primary-school-age child from a designated poor
family attends school the household is entitled to receive 15 kg of wheat or 12 kg of rice per
month.17 To be eligible for the maximum of 20 kg of wheat or 16 kg or rice, the household must
send more than one child and all primary school-age children to school.18 This food subsidy is
intended to compensate households for the withdrawal of children from paid employment.19

Targeting: Households with primary-school-aged children. The FFE programme uses a two –
step targeting mechanism. First, two to three Committee districts that are economically backward
and have a low literacy rate are selected from each of the 460 rural Thanas (subdistricts). The
FFE programme covers, all government, registered non-government, community (low-cost), and
satellite primary schools, and one Ebtedayee Madrasa (religion-based primary school) in these
selected Committees. Second, the Primary Education Ward committee and the School
Management Committee jointly prepare the list of beneficiary households with primary-school
aged children, based on four criteria:
    1. A landless or near-landless household that owns less than half an acre of land.
    2. The household head’s principal occupation is day labourer.
    3. The head of household is a female.
    4. The household earns its living from low-income artisanal occupations.


15
   Unless otherwise indicated CHIP, Armando Barrientos, Jocelyn DeJong, (2004), “Child Poverty and Cash
Transfers”, CHIP Report No. 4.
16
   Meng, X.; Ryan, J.,(2003), “Evaluating the Food for Education Program in Bangladesh”.
17
   Meng,X.; Ryan,J.,(2003).
18
   Meng,X.; Ryan,J.,(2003).
19
   Akhter U. Ahmed, Carlos del Ninno, (2006), “Food For Education Program in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of its
Impact on Educational Attainment and Food Security”, IFPRI, Discussion Paper Briefs, Food Consumption and
Nutrition Division of the International Food Policy Research Institute, Discussion paper 138.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  1/May/2006                                                46
Conditionalities: Households with primary-school aged children become eligible for FFE
rations if they meet the above described targeting criteria and their children maintain a school
attendance of 85% of classes each month.20

Coverage (number of people, households): By 2000, the FFE programme covered about 27%
of Bangladesh’s primary schools. Of 5.2 million students enrolled in schools with FFE, about
40% receive food grains through the programme. The FFE covers approximately 2.1 million
households.21

Cost: From its 1993 beginning until 2000 the FFE covered some 17,811 primary schools and 2.1
million students (which is 13% of total primary-school aged students).22 The programme costs
US$0.10 per student per day, totaling US$77 million in 2000.23

Programme Sources: The government of Bangladesh finances the programme. However, 44%
of food aid is accounted from donor countries.24




20
   Akhter U. Ahmed, Carlos del Ninno, (2006).
21
   Akhter U. Ahmed, Carlos del Ninno, (2006).
22
   Meng,X.; Ryan,J.,(2003).
23
   Akhter U. Ahmed, Carlos del Ninno, (2006).
24
   Akhter U. Ahmed, Carlos del Ninno, (2006).


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                1/May/2006                                         47
BANGLADESH (2)

Policy Type: Conditional in-kind transfer – Food

Name of Programme: Income Generation Vulnerable Group Development (IGVGD)25

Year Started and Length of Programme: 1988

Agencies Involved: Government of Bangladesh, World Food Program and the Bangladesh Rural
Advancement Committee (BRAC)

Programme Description: The IGVGD, a component of the Vulnerable Group Development
(VGD) programme, is built on a government safety net program that provides free food (grain)
for an 18-month period to destitute, female-headed households at the highest risk of hunger.26
The programme uses food grain assistance to attract the very poor and to supply to their
immediate consumption needs. The programme involves skills training (through a six month
training in areas such as poultry and livestock raising, vegetable gardening) and savings and
credit services to build their development capacity. Local elected representatives select women
entering the program as recipients of free food. After selection, each woman receives 30
kilograms of wheat per month as long as they satisfy the conditionalities described below.

Targeting: The programme is designed for women-headed households (widows or abandoned
women) based on the following criteria:
    1. Households with not more than 15 acres of land
    2. Monthly household income less than Taka300 (approximately US$5.23; dependent upon
        seasonal wage employment
    3. Women of reproductive (18-49) age
    4. Day labor or temporary worker
    5. Lack of productive assets.
Other programme selection prerequisites include:
    1. VGD member must be a permanent resident of the area
    2. Not associated with any NGO
    3. Did not get VGD card before
    4. One card per family
Priorities are also given:
    1. Female headed households
    2. Those who are mentally and physically capable of undertaking IGA activities

Conditionalities: The women only get 30 Kg of wheat if they a) save 25 Taka (approximately
US$0.43) per month; b) attend 66 hours of social awareness training and refresher training; 84

25
   Unless otherwise indicated, Shaik S. Ahmed, (2005), “Delivery Mechanisms of Cash Transfer Programs to the
Poor in Bangladesh”, Social Protection Discussion Paper Series, No. 0520, Social Protection Unit, Human
Development Network, The World Bank.
26
   World Bank, “Linking Microfinance and Safety Net Programs to Include the Poorest, The Case of IGVGD in
Bangladesh”, Focus Note 21.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                                  48
hours of skill and enterprise development training; c) attend 50% of group meetings; and d)
voluntarily use loan in income generating activities.

Coverage (number of people, households): Between 1988 and 2002, the total numbers of
beneficiaries of this programme are 1,689,129. A total amount of Taka.3,700,740,720
(approximately US$64,601,137) has been disbursed as loans to 1,217,591 such women. The
2005-06 IGVGD cycle under implementation now encompasses 304 upazilas (subdistrict) of 43
districts with 466,200 beneficiaries.27

Cost: As of 2004, US$16,881,90228

Programme Sources: The origins of fund for this programme are from the government of
Bangladesh, the World Food Program, other bilateral donors and non-governmental
organizations.




27
  Chowdhury.Abdul-Muyeed ; Rabeya Yasmin, (2006), IGVGD vis-a-vis micro-finance, Focusing on the
vulnerable, The Independent.



New School SIPS PIA Project Team                1/May/2006                                         49
BANGLADESH (3)

Policy Type: Conditional Cash Transfer – Education

Name of Programme: Primary Education Stipend Program (PESP)29

Year Started and Length of Programme: 2002

Agencies Involved: Government of Bangladesh

Programme Description: The Primary Education Stipend Project (PESP) aims to increase the
educational participation / enrollment, attendance, persistence, and performance of primary-
school-aged children from poor families by providing cash payments to targeted households.30
The transfer is 100 Taka (approximately US$1.5) per month to families with one child in primary
school and 125 Taka (approximately US$1.7) per month to families with two or more children.

Targeting: Families with primary school aged children. The families also have to meet certain
criteria:
    1. Destitute women headed family (destitute means widowed, separated from husband or
         divorced)
    2. Principal occupation of the household head is day labor
    3. Family of low-income professionals (fishing, pottery, blacksmithing, weaving, and
         cobbling)
    4. Landless or households that own 0.50 acres of land (marginal or share-cropper)

Conditionalities:
   1. Children must be enrolled in primary education
   2. Children must attend 85% of school days
   3. Obtains at least 40% marks in the annual examination.

Coverage (number of people, households): Yearly number of beneficiaries is 5,236,889.

Cost: As of 2004, US$110,490,490

Programme Sources: The government of Bangladesh




29
     Unless otherwise indicated, Shaik S. Ahmed, (2005).
30
     Karen Tietjen, (2003), “The Bangladesh Primary Education Stipend Project: A Descriptive Analysis”


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     1/May/2006                                          50
BANGLADESH (4)

Policy Type: Conditional Cash Transfer

Name of Programme: Rural Maintenance Program (RMP)31

Year Started and Length of Program: 1982

Agencies Involved: The government of Bangladesh, the Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA) and the European Commission (EC)

Programme Description: The major objectives of the programme are two-fold: 1) to establish a
system throughout rural Bangladesh whereby approximately 60,000 miles of farm-to-market
earthen roads receive year-round, routine maintenance, and in the process; 2) to provide stable
employment and income to approximately 60,000 members of the most disadvantaged and hard-
to-reach group, destitute women.32 The RMP programme pays a daily salary of 51 Taka
(approximately US$0.78) for each woman in the group in exchange of maintaining the rural
roads around their village, and requires participants to save 10 Taka (approximately US$0.15)
from their salaries.

Targeting: RMP recipients are selected on certain criteria:
   1. Must be a permanent woman resident of the district committee.
   2. Must be either destitute, widowed, divorced, separated from husband (not less than one
      year), who are household head but does not have alternative means of income.
   3. Must be between eighteen to thirty-five years of age.
   4. Those women who have higher number of dependent will be given priority (dependant
      means children less than twelve years of age, disabled children and husband and
      dependant parents).
   5. Must have the physical and mental capacity to do laborious works.
   6. Those who have been working for the RMP for less than one years and never been fired
      and capable of satisfying the above criteria will be automatically selected.
   7. Not a member of VGD (Vulnerable Development Group program) or any other targeted
      programme.

Conditionalities: Required to a) maintain the rural roads around the village; b) acquire income
generating and other survival skills training; and c) save money on a regular basis.

Coverage (number of people, households): Yearly number of beneficiaries are 41,400 women

Cost: As of 2004, US$3,655,885

Programme Sources: The programme is financed 45% by the Government of Bangladesh,
22.5% by CIDA and 22.5% by EC.
31
     Unless otherwise indicated, Shaik S. Ahmed, (2005).
32
     CARE, Rural Maintanance Program, Project Description.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                 51
BANGLADESH (5)

Policy Type: Conditional in-kind transfer. Food, Services, Education

Name of Programme: The Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Program (BINP)33

Year Started and Length of Programme: Became effective in July 1995 and closed in 2002. In
2002 the programme expanded to cover the entire country under the project, National Nutrition
Programme.

Agencies Involved: Government of Bangladesh, the World Bank, UNICEF, the Canadian
Government, World Food Program and various non-governmental organizations34

Programme Description: BINP was initiated in response to the very high level of malnutrition
prevalent in the country. It was designed to funnel resources into a wide array of projects that
have the ambitious goal of addressing the many factors that contribute to the poor health of
Bangladesh’s mothers and children.35 The project’s long-term goal was to reduce malnutrition in
Bangladesh to the extent that it ceased to be a public health problem by following three
intermediate objectives: (a) to improve the capacity of national level nutrition institutions in
Bangladesh in the areas of advocacy, analysis of causation and consequences o f malnutrition,
policy advice, operational research, and operational support of national programs; (b) to improve
the capacity o f communities, households and individuals in the project area to understand their
nutritional problems in practical terms and take appropriate action to address them at their own
level; and (c) to improve the nutritional status of the population in the project area, with
particular emphasis on pregnant and lactating women and on children.
To achieve these objectives, the project had three components:
    1. National nutrition activities, which included institution building, operational research,
        and monitoring and evaluation. This part of the programme used 32% of the total
        resources, totaling US$19 million.
    2. Community-based nutrition component (CBNC), which used growth monitoring as a
        framework for nutritional counseling and targeted supplementary feeding for children
        aged under 24 months, and for pregnant women. The main activities of the CBNC
        included the following: Monthly growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) for children
        under two years of age and pregnant and lactating women (PLW); b) Supplementary
        feeding (SF) of malnourished PLW and malnourished and growth faltered children under
        2 years of age; c) Nutrition education for pregnant women, mothers of children under
        two, and adolescent girls.36 This programme used 56% of the total resources, totaling
        US$32.6million.
33
   Unless otherwise indicated, The World Bank, (2005), Project Performance Assessment Report, Bangladesh,
Integrated Nutrition Project.
34
   Nutritional Surveillance Project, (2001), Evaluating national nutrition programs in Bangladesh: the role of the
Nutritional Surveillance Project, Bulleting No.5.
35
   International Food and Nutrition Center, Bangladesh Forges a Futurefor its People with Ambitious Nutrition
Project
36
   The World Bank, (2005), The Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project Effectiveness and Lessons, Bangladesh
Development Series Paper No. 8.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                     1/May/2006                                                      52
       3. Inter-sectoral nutrition activities, which included programs from other sectors to improve
          nutrition, such as home gardens and poultry keeping. This part of the programme used
          12% of the total resources, totaling US$7 million.

Targeting: The first part of the project, or the national nutrition activities, targeted the whole
population, through the use of nationwide media, which transmitted the programme’s most
important messages.
The second part of the project, or the community based nutrition component, covered 40 of the
country’s 480 thanas (about 8-9% of the population)and only operated in rural areas. The critera
for the selection of the thanas were:
                    a. At least one district per division.
                    b. About half the thanas would be included in each chosen district.
                    c. A range o f distressed and non-distressed thanas, but excluding thanas that
                        are most disaster-prone or that lack basic health infrastructure.
                    d. Only thanas with 80 percent of infants fully immunized were to be
                        included.Ideally all poorly or malnourished children and pregnant and
                        lactating women should have been covered by the BINP.

Conditionalities: The programme was designed for poorly or malnourished children and
pregnant and lactating women.

Coverage (number of people, households): As of 2001, the BINP was working in 59
subdistricts (thana) in the country37

Cost: The US$67.4 million project was financed by a credit of US$59.8 million approved in
May 1995.The project closed with disbursements of US$51.6 million (May 1995-December
2002).

Programme sources: The World Bank, UNICEF and the Government of Bangladesh financed
the funds for this programme.




37
     Nutritional Surveillance Project, (2001).


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 1/May/2006                                       53
BRAZIL (1)

Policy type: Additional Policies regarding income

Name of Programme: Abono Salarial PIS/PASEP. It is a wage allowance. The acronym PIS
stands for “Programme of Social Integration” and PASEP for the “Programme of Formation of
Public Server.”38

Year Started and Length of Programme: 1970, and it continues to operate. In 1975, it was
renamed as PIS/PASEP.

Agencies Involved: Ministry of Labor and Employment (Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego)

Programme Description: Wage allowance of around 141.80 dollars=R$30039 (this amount is
almost equal to one minimum wage) that has the following objectives: 1) to integrate employee
into the life and the development of the companies; 2) to assure employees the fulfillment of
gradual individual patrimony; 3) to stimulate savings and correct distortions in the income
distribution; 4) to make possible the parallel use of accumulated resources to foster
socioeconomic development. Although this programme is not focused on children, its income
benefit helps poor families to reach a better standard of living. In order to receive the benefit, the
worker must go to the Caixa Econômica Federal (CEF) with his/her ID card and number of
registration in the PIS to make the withdrawal in the proper agency: lottery houses,
corresponding bank branches or ATMs. The public servers, who receive the benefits in the
branches of the Bank of Brazil, also must present an identity card and the number of registration
in the PASEP.

Targeting: Workers from the public and private sector

Conditionalities: Workers who received, at least, 2 monthly minimum wages in the previous
year, registered in cadastre in the PIS/PASEP have at least 5 years and worked in the previous
year for at least 30 days.

Coverage (number of people, households): 10,009,020 workers were identified to receive the
allowance in 2005/200640. According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment, the number of
workers who benefit from this annual wage allowance has risen by almost 3 million, from
4,673,863 in 1998 to 7,861,841 in 2003.




38
   Unless otherwise indicated, MDS (2004a), Análise comparativa de programas de proteção social - 1995 a 2003,
Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome, Brasilia/DF, April.
39
   This amount is converted from Reais into US dollars according the Interbank rate conversion to April 25, 2006
40
   _____ (2005a), “Começa nesta quarta-feira o pagamento do Abono Salarial PIS/PASEP para trabalhadores
nascidos em dezembro,” in Notícias Section of the Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego’s website, Brasilia/DF,
September 27, 2005.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                                 54
Cost:41 US$628,223,776 in 2003 (1,796.72 million of Reais); US$350,210,072 in 2002
(1,216.98 million of Reais); US$465,883,146 in 2001 (1,036.59 million of Reais);
US$414,792,201 in 2000 (808.43 million of Reais); US$369,242,257 in 1999 (667.59 million of
Reais); US$490,653,179 (592.66 million of Reais); US$528,996,387 (590.36 million of Reais);
US$620,288,721 in 1996 (644.48 million of Reais); and US$399,413,395 in 1995 (388.11
million of Reais).

Programme Sources: Resources are from the Fundo de Amparo ao Trabalhador, a special fund
of the Ministry of Labor and Employment




41
  Each amount is converted from Reais into US dollars according to the Interbank rate conversion by December 30
of each year .


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                                55
BRAZIL (2)

Policy type: Conditional Cash Transfers – Education

Name of Programme: Young Program of Social and Human
Development Program (Agente Jovem de Desenvolvimento Social e
Humano Programa)42

Year Started and Length of Programme: 2001, and it continues to run today

Agencies Involved: The National Plan Against Sexual Violence to Infants and Young People
(Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento da Violencia Sexual Infanto-Juvenil) of the National
Secretary of Social Assistance (Secretaria Nacional de Assistência Social - SNAS), Ministry of
Social Development and Fight Against Hunger (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e
Combate à Fome)43

Programme Description: This programme targets young people who are at social risk and are
marginalized. Those selected to take part should attend courses in different subjects for between
6 and 12 months. During that time, they receive a monthly compensation of R$ 65 that can be
withdraw from ATMs with a magnetic card. The objective of the courses is to encourage entry of
young people into the education system, preparing them for future inclusion in the job market.

Targeting: For young people between 15 and 17 years out of the schooling system, and
participating or have participated in other social programmes. This programme is also for those
adolescents who have a criminal history or have some kind of disability

Conditionalities: To receive the compensation, it is necessary that: 1) the adolescent is
registered in the cadastre (official registry); 2) the municipality fulfills all the norms established
by the Programme; 3) the adolescent participates in at least of the 75% of both classes at the
school and activities that the Programme establishes44

Coverage (number of people, households): The total of young people who have benefited from
the programme was: 78,540 in 2001; 104,746 in 2002; and 89,928 in 2003

Cost: Per year in millions of Reais: 43.26 in 2001; 18.70 in 2002; 43.60 in 2003; and 59 in 2004

Programme Sources: The sources for this Programme come from the Federal Government with
fund from international organizations. According to the Report 29158 of the World Bank (WB),
the Programmematic Human Development Sector Reform Loan (PSRL) of the WB added to the
funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) to Brazil in the social sectors
and is consistent with the ongoing US$30 billion IMF standby arrangement.

42
   Unless otherwise indicated, MDS (2004a)
43
   _____ (2004b), Projeto Agente Jovem de Desenvolvimento Social e Humano, website of the Ministério do
Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome, Brasilia/DF.
44
   _____ (2004b)


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  1/May/2006                                              56
BRAZIL (3)

Policy type: Conditional Cash Transfer Programme to Poor Families

Name of Programme: Bolsa Família Programme45

Year Started and Length of Programme: The programme was established on October 20,
2003 and was legally formalized on January 9, 2004 (Law # 10.836). Bolsa Família Programme
unified in one only programme the following cash transfer programmes previously operated by
separate ministries: Bolsa-Escola, Auxílio-Gás, Bolsa-Alimentação, and Cartão-Alimentação.
According to organizers, this unification was done to provide more agility in the provision of
money, to reduce bureaucratic system, and to facilitate the control of resources, giving more
transparency to the programme.

Brief summary of the programmes that were unified under Bolsa Familia:

- Auxílio-Gás
   • Cash Transfer Programme aimed to help poor families by compensating for the increase
       cost of the kitchen gas due to liberalization of the market.
   • It ran from 2001 to 2003.
   • The number of participating families went from 8,556,785 in 2002 to 8,229,144 in 2003.
   • The Federal Government invested 606.90 millions of Reais in 2002 and 800.20 millions
       of Reais in 2003.

- Bolsa-Alimentação
   • Cash Transfer programme to poor families to address infant mortality and malnutrition.
   • It ran from 2002 to 2003.
   • The number of participating families was 966,553 in Dec 2002, 1,669,587 in Sep 2003,
       and 369,463 in Dec 2003.
   • The Federal Government invested 390,000 Reais in 2001, 118.81 millions of Reais in
       2002, and 264.42 millions of Reais in 2003.

                   - Bolsa-Renda (tranfered to Bolsa-Alimentação)
                   o Emergency Cash Transfer Programme to help families in rural areas affected
                      by dry seasons, well-known natural disasters, and recognized situation of
                      emergency announced by the Federal Government. The Government paid the
                      maximum of 30 Reais per family.
                   o It ran from January 2001 to Sept 2003.
                   o The number of participating families was 1,012,801 in Dec 2001 and
                      1,665,759 in Dec 2002.
                   o The Federal Government invested 279.46 millions of Reais in 2001, 245.16
                      millions of Reais in 2002, and 155.35 millions of Reais in 2003


45
     Unless otherwise indicated, MDS (2004a)


New School SIPS PIA Project Team               1/May/2006                                     57
- Bolsa-Escola
   • Cash Transfer programme to poor families intended to reduce school dropout rates and
       child labor.
   • It ran from 2001 to 2003.
   • The number of participating families was 4,794,405 in Dec 2001, 5,106,509 in Dec 2002,
       5,056,245 in Sep 2003, and 3,771,199 in Dec 2003.
   • The Federal Government invested 409.80 millions of Reais in 2001, 1,532.20 millions of
       Reais in 2002, and 1.429.51 millions of Reais in 2003.

- Cartão-Alimentação
   • Cash Transfer programme to malnourished families, or families with malnourished
       members.
   • It ran from January to December 2003.
   • The number of participating families was 774,764 in Sep 2003 and 349,905 in Dec 2003.
   • The Federal Government invested 290.13 millions of Reais in 2003.

Agencies Involved: This programme depends on the National Secretary of Income and
Citizenship (Secretaria Nacional de Renda de Cidadania - SENARC) at the Ministry of Social
Development and Fight Against Hunger (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à
Fome). While the Ministry of Social Development manages the programme, beneficiary
payments are made through the banking system and many aspects of the programme’s
implementation are decentralized to 5,561 municipalities.46

Programme Description: Conditional cash transfer programme that works on two dimensions:
1) alleviation of poverty immediately, through the provision of monetary transfers; and 2)
eradication of poverty and promotion of social inclusion, through the basic social rights (such as
health, education, food, and social protection) and through access to complementary policies.
Through this programme, the Federal Government transfers income to families monthly. This aid
is thought to facilitate for these families access to basic goods and services - health, food,
education, and social assistance. For families with monthly income of up to R$ 50, the benefit is
fixed on R$ 50 plus a variable benefit of R$ 15 for each child between 0 and 15 year old, with a
limit of three benefits. For families with a monthly income between R$ 50 and R$ 100, the Bolsa
Familia gives them a variable benefit of R$ 15 for each child between 0 and 15 year old, with a
limit of three benefits. According to the World Bank47, Bolsa Familia seeks to “reduce current
poverty and inequality, by providing a minimum level of income for poor families; and [to]
break the inter-generational transmission of poverty by conditioning these transfers on
compliance with key human development objectives, such as school attendance and health
visits.”

Targeting: The programme targets families with monthly income not higher than R$ 100. To
become a beneficiary of the Programme, it is necessary to belong to one of the following groups:
1) families who are already benefited from any of the old programmes and are already registered


46
   _____ (2005b), “Brazil’s Bolsa Familia Program Celebrates Progress in Lifting Families out of Poverty,” in News
& Broadcast, The World Bank Group, December 19.
47
   _____ (2005b)


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    1/May/2006                                                 58
in the cadastre; 2) those families who are not benefited from any programme, therefore they are
not registered in any cadastre, so they have to wait to be included by the City Hall.

Conditionalities
The Programme presents three conditionalities:
   • Health: regular visit to health centers, especially for pregnant and breast-feeding women
       as well as for children under 7 years old to receive health care and vaccinations.
   • Schooling: all the children from 6 to 15 year old must attend school on a regular basis.
   • Alimentary education: all beneficiary families must participate in alimentary classes
       offered by the Federal Government.

Coverage (number of people, households): In December of 2003, it benefited 3,615,596
families with school-age children. According to official reports of March 2005 (when the total
number of participating families was 6,562,155), the immense majority of the beneficiary
population is located in the Northeast region with 50,6% (3,322,318 families), the Southeast with
26,4% (1,730,318 families); the South with 10,6% (698,475 families), the North with 8%
(526,941 families), and Center-West with 4.3% (284,103 families).48 The third week of June,
2005, the number of families reached 7,114 million. Two years after its introduction, the
programme is improving living conditions for eight million poor families throughout Brazil, and
the government hopes to achieve universal coverage (around 11.2 million families) by 2006.
“Bolsa Familia is having a positive impact and, to date, there is no quantitative evidence to show
that it is creating dependency among beneficiary families," commented Kathy Lindert, team
leader for the Bolsa Familia project.49

Cost: In December of 2003, the Federal Government invested 572.40 million of Reais in the
programme. According to other sources, it seems that the Federal Government would make an
annual investment of 6.5 billion of Reais.50

Programme Sources: The programme depends mainly on federal resources, of which 43%
comes from municipalities. It also counts on support from the World Bank. This support includes
analytic and advisory assistance, and technical and financial partnering on the design, launching
and implementation under a $572.2 million loan.51 The funding assistance from the Inter-
American Development Bank (IADB) supported enhancements to four cash transfer programmes
that Bolsa-Família currently involves (Bolsa Alimentação, Bolsa Escola, Agente Jovem, and
Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil). In its first phase, Bank assistance provided
support to protect the budgets for these programmes, among other social programmes.52




48
   _____ (2005c), Relatório - Programas de Transferência de Renda por Região Administrativa, Fome Zero –
Presidencia da República, Brasilia/DF, Marzo.
49
   _____ (2005b)
50
   Albuquerque, F. (2005), “Programa social chega a 8,7 milhões de famílias carentes,” in Brasil Agora, Agência
Brasil, December 23.
51
   _____ (2005b)
52
   _____ (2004c), Report 29158: First Programmatic Human Development Sector Reform Loan Project, Vol. 1 of 1,
World Bank, Washington DF, June


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                               59
BRAZIL (4)

Policy type: National legal framework

Name of Programme: Sentinela Programme - Protecting children and adolescents from sexual
abuse and exploitation (Combate ao Abuso e à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes –
Sentinela)53

Year Started and Length of Programme: It started in 2001 and runs until today.

Agencies Involved: Sentinela Programme is included in the National Plan of Confrontation to
Child and Adolescent Sexual Violence and is coordinated by the Ministry of Social Development
and Fight Against Hunger (Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome). It is
developed in partnership with provincial and city governments.

Programme Description: The objective of the programme is to have 24-hour centers and
counseling services with a wide range of professionals, such as psychologists, social workers,
and educator assistants to take care of victims of violence and sexual abuse and give direct
counseling. Professionals forward each case to the current net of health services in each city.

Targeting: Child and adolescent victims of violence, sexual abuse and exploitation as well as
their families

Conditionalities: None

Coverage (number of people, households): The programme covers 315 municipalities. In
province of Minas Gerais, for example, 510,000 children and adolescents who were victims of
sexual abuse were seen by professionals from the Sentinela Programme (with a local investment
of R$ 800,000 per year).54

Cost: The programme was invested 5 million of Reais in 2000, 5.1 million of Reais in 2001,
16.17 million of Reais in 2002, and 16.17 million of Reais in 2003.

Programme Sources: In is funded by the Federal Government with support of UNICEF Brazil.




53
 Unless otherwise indicated, MDS (2004a)
54
 Tavares, V. (n/d), Programas sociais atendem 8 milhões de pessoas em MG, website of the Ministério do
Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome, Brasilia/DF.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  1/May/2006                                             60
BRAZIL (5)

Policy type: Cash Transfer

Name of Programme: Eradication of Child Labor Programme - PETI (Programa de Erradicação
do Trabalho Infantil - PETI)55

Year Started and Length of Programme: The programme was launched in 1996 as a pilot
project in areas with coal mines in the Southern province of Mato Grosso do Sul. As the
programme progressed, it targets areas of the country with high incidence high risk of child
labor, particularly in agriculture which accounts for 90% of rural working children.56

Agencies Involved: Nacional Secretary of Social Protection - SNAS (Secretaria Nacional de
Assistência Social - SNAS) at the the Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger
(Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome).

Programme Description: This is a Cash Transfer Programme for families with children
between 7 and 15 years old who are involved in dangerous and unhealthy labor activities. Those
activities had been regulated by the Secretaria de Inspeção do Trabalho, at the Ministério do
Trabalho e Emprego.57 Its aim was to reduce child labor by creating an after school programme
which doubled the length of the school day. PETI also provided an income subsidy to low-
income households whose children participated.58

Targeting: Children from 7 to 15 years old whose families receive an income below one-half the
minimum wage.

Conditionalities: The programme was similar to the urban Bolsa Escola in that it tied a transfer
payment to school attendance of children aged 7-14. However the programme also included a
feature absent in the urban programme that directly attacked the likelihood of child labor in the
form of an after-school educational programme. Programme features include59:
• Qualified households must have per capita income below one-half the minimum wage.
• Households are required to sign a contract stipulating that their child will not work.
• The child must attend school at least 80% of the time.
• The child must attend after-school sessions called the Jornada Ampliada which roughly
doubled the length of the school day.
• The household will receive a monthly income transfer if it fulfilled the contract.



55
   Unless otherwise indicated, MDS (2004a)
56
   Yapa, Y.; Sedlacekb, G.; Orazemc, P. (2002), Limiting Child Labor Through Behavior-Based Income Transfers:
An Experimental Evaluation of the PETI Program in Rural Brazil, paper presented at the Conference “First Meeting
of the Social Policy,” June 18. Available at the Inter-American Development Bank.
57
   _____ (2004d), Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI), website of the Ministério do
Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome, Brasilia/DF.
58
   Yapa, Y.; Sedlacekb, G.; Orazemc, P. (2002)
59
   Yapa, Y.; Sedlacekb, G.; Orazemc, P. (2002)


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                                61
Coverage (number of people, households): The total number of children who have benefited
from the programme per year is: 3,710 in 1996; 37,025 in 1997; 117,200 in 1998; 130,431 in
1999; 394,969 in 2000; 749,353 in 2001; 809,228 in 2002, and 810,823 in 2003.

Cost: It was invested 930,000 Reais in 1996, 14.44 million of Reais in 1997, 39.52 million of
Reais in 1998, 81.94 million of Reais in 1999, 122.98 million of Reais in 2000, 252.89 million of
Reais in 2001, 386.30 million of Reais in 2002, and 394.38 million of Reais in 2003. The states
differ in the amount of the transfer associated with each participating child.60




60
     Yapa, Y.; Sedlacekb, G.; Orazemc, P. (2002)


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                   1/May/2006                                 62
BRAZIL (6)

Policy type: Cash Transfer and Unconditional In-Kind Transfers

Name of Programme: Serviços de Ação Continuada - SAC 61

Year Started and Length of Programme: 1995

Agencies Involved: Ministry of Social Assistance (Ministério de Assistência Social)

Programme Description: SAC provides a technical and financial support to programmes and
projects executed by states, cities, Federal Districts, and social entities whose objectives are to
take care of vulnerable children and their families.

Targeting: Children from 0 to 6 years old who are vulnerable due to poverty, lack of access to
basic public services, with fragile familial and affective bonds, discriminated against because of
ethnicity, deficiency, age, poverty, and other social issues.62

Conditionalities: Children must belong to families with an income below one-half the minimum
wage.

Coverage (number of people, households): The total number of children who have benefited
from the programme per year is: 1,551642 in 1995; 1,420,313 in 1996; 1,281,107 in 1997;
1,309,985 in 1998; 1.371.859 in 1999; 1,549,055 in 2000; 1,620,831 in 2001; 1,631,162 in 2002;
1,650,608 in 2003.

Cost: The programme cost 278.50 million of Reais in 1995, 291.30 million of Reais in 1996,
304.21 million of Reais in 1997, 323.09 million of Reais in 1998, 315.31 million of Reais in
1999, 338.62 million of Reais in 2000, 359.62 million of Reais in 2001, 359.66 million of Reais
in 2002, and 355.31 million of Reais in 2003.




61
  Unless otherwise indicated, MDS (2004a)
62
  _____ (2004e), Atenção à Criança de 0 a 6 anos, website of the Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate
à Fome, Brasilia/DF.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  1/May/2006                                                63
INDONESIA (1)

Policy type: In-kind transfer – Conditional in-kind – Requires subsidized payment – Food
subsidy programme

Name of Programme: Special Market Operations for Rice (OPK: Operasi Pasar Khusus)63

Year Started and Length of Programme: Started in 1998 in response to the Asian economic
crisis. Latest budget data is from 2000.

Agencies Involved: State Ministry of Food and Horticulture, the Food Logistic Agency

Programme Description: The programme is aimed at assisting food insecure and poor families
nationwide to meet their fundamental nutritional needs. The programme distributes 20
kilograms of rice per family every month at the subsidized price of 1,000 rupiah per kilogram in
2000. Beneficiaries consist of pre-prosperous families and prosperous stage I families. Pre-
prosperous families are the historically poor, while prosperous stage I families can be considered
those ‘just barely getting by’. The distribution of rice is carried out through 45,000 distribution
points throughout the country. In addition the programme has been widely publicized and has
been monitored by the implementing agencies along with Universities and NGOs. In fiscal year
1998/1999 it was estimated that the average beneficiary received a transfer benefit of around
6,413 rupiah per month which contributed 6% to the average income of poor households.

Targeting: Targeted to poor families. Components of the targeting were: the family is able to
seek modern medical assistance, are able to seek family planning, are able to seek services for
sick children, have access to contraception and all family members are able to eat at least twice a
day.

Conditionalities: Programme is a subsidy, rice is sold at below market prices and in large
quantities. Consequently, families still some need money to buy the rice even at the low prices.

Coverage (number of people, households): The OPK programme continued to expand in
December 1999, reaching over 12.3 million families. The figure in October 2000 shows that the
programme had distributed 162,048 tonnes of rice, or around 93 per cent of the target, to over
10.4 million families with an average of 15.5 kilogram/month/family.

Cost: The government spent around 2.7 trillion rupiah (US$342 million) or an estimated 3.4
trillion rupiah at market prices in the fiscal year 1998/1999.

Programme Sources: State budget



63
  Irawan, Puguh; Erman Rahman; Haning Romdiati; Uzair Suhaimi “Strengthening Policies and Programmes on
Social Safety Nets: Issues, Recommendations and Selected Studies” UNESCAP Social Policy Paper No. 8. United
Nations. 2000. pp157-212.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 1/May/2006                                               64
INDONESIA (2)

Policy type: Cash transfer – Conditional cash transfer – Requires school attendance – Education

Name of Programme: Scholarship and Block Grant for Primary and Junior; or Higher
Education. (DIKDASMEN/DIKTI Beasiswa dan DBO Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah /
Tinggi)64

Year Started and Length of Programme: It started in 1998 in response to the Asian economic
crisis. Latest budget information is for 2000.

Agencies Involved: Department of National Education

Programme Description: Scholarship and block grants for primary and secondary schools. The
scholarship programme was developed as an effort to prevent a large number of children from
poor families from dropping out of school (at primary, lower and upper secondary schools).
During the crisis, many poor and near-poor families found it difficult to keep their children in
school, as they found their financial capacity too small relative to the school fees they had to pay.
By providing funding for those children, the Government enables the poor families to let their
children stay in school. It is a national programme covering all eligible children and schools in
all provinces of Indonesia. The programme also provides block grants to primary, secondary and
upper high schools that provide services to the poor to improve their ability to manage and
maintain the quality of their services.

Targeting: Targeted to poor families. Components of the targeting are: the family is recognized
as poor through a national survey, or the family is recognized as poor through school based
committees.

Conditionalities: Programme is a conditional cash transfer. Children have to be in school for
the families to receive the money.

Coverage (number of people, households): As of 2000 it had provided scholarships to about
4.3 million students and block grants to approximately 132,000 schools throughout the country.

Cost: 667 billion rupiah in 2000 (US$84 million)

Programme Sources: State budget and loans from the World Bank and Asian Development
Bank.




64
  Irawan, Puguh; Erman Rahman; Haning Romdiati; Uzair Suhaimi “Strengthening Policies and Programmes on
Social Safety Nets: Issues, Recommendations and Selected Studies” UNESCAP Social Policy Paper No. 8. United
Nations. 2000. pp157-212.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 1/May/2006                                               65
INDONESIA (3)

Policy type: Cash and in-kind transfer – Unconditional cash and in-kind – Health programme

Name of Programme: Social Safety Net for the Health Sector (JPS-BK Jaring Pengaman Sosial
Bidang Kesehatan)65

Year Started and Length of Programme: It started in 1998 in response to the Asian economic
crisis. Latest budget data is from 2000.

Agencies Involved: Department of Health

Programme Description: This programme has as its objective helping poor families maintain
their health and nutritional status. Programme extends basic health and reproductive health
services and a system of health referrals to poor families. These services are provided by
community health centres and their networks, including village midwives. The programme
maintains and improves the nutritional status of pregnant women, children under two, post-
partum women, as well as babies of poor families. Eligible families are issued health cards with
which they can seek medical assistance from community health centers or other health facilities.
Once selected families are eligible to receive medical assistance for one fiscal year and for the
following fiscal year if selected again. Under the programme, every person receives 10,000
rupiah for basic health services for the whole year.

Targeting: The selection of the target group is based on a combination of the National Family
Planning Coordinating Agency’s list of Pre-prosperous and Prosperous I families, and local
criteria determined by village teams which consist of village midwives, the health section of
village community councils, the village community reliance institutions, with assistance from the
Family Planning Field Officer.

Conditionalities: Programme is an unconditional cash and in-kind transfer of health services.

Coverage (number of people, households): By October 2000, the programme had given health
cards to around 10 million poor families, 92% of the target. 71% of pregnant mothers were
covered, 49% of women delivering were covered and 44% of post-natal women receiving basic
services were covered.

Cost: 1,030.4 billion rupiah in 2000 (US$134 million)

Programme Sources: State budget and two loans from the Asian Development Bank.




65
  Irawan, Puguh; Erman Rahman; Haning Romdiati; Uzair Suhaimi “Strengthening Policies and Programmes on
Social Safety Nets: Issues, Recommendations and Selected Studies” UNESCAP Social Policy Paper No. 8. United
Nations. 2000. pp157-212.


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 1/May/2006                                               66
JAMAICA (1)

Policy Type: Conditional Cash Transfer

Name of Programme: Programme for Advancement Through Health and Education (PATH)

Year Started and Length of Programme: April 200266*. The programme was launched as a
four year programme; however, it has been extended through 2006 in order to reach 236,000
beneficiaries.67

Agencies Involved: Ministry of Labor and Social Security

Programme Description: The programme consolidates three cash transfer programmes. The
three programmes are: a) Food Stamps, b) Old Age and Incapacity, and c) and some aspects of
the Outdoor Poor Relief. PATH main objectives are to increase educational success and 
improve health conditions among Jamaicans who are considered to be poor, to reduce child 
labour by requiring an 85% school attendance among children between age 6 and 17 years, 
to reduce poverty by increasing the value of benefits to the poor, and to serve as a safety 
net for poor families. 

Targeting: Children, pregnant/lactating mothers, the elderly, and the disable.

Conditionalities: Children 0 – 1 yr are required 5 visits to health care facilities per year, children
1 – 6 yrs are required 2 visits to health care facilities per year, pregnant mothers 4 visits to health
care facilities, lactating mothers up to 6 months are required 2 visits to health care facilities,
elderly are required 2 visits to health care facilities per year, disabled are required 2 visits to
health care facilities per year, destitute are required 2 visits to health care facilities per year.
Children 6 – 17 yrs. must have at least 85% attendance per school year.

Coverage (number of people, households): The programme targets 236,000 people in total.
Out of the total target population 168,000 are children 0 – 17, 11,000 are pregnant/lactating
women, 33,000 are elderly, 19,000 are disabled, and 5,000 are destitute Jamaicans.

Cost: Total cost for three years US$66.6 million. The first year, the programme was launched as
a pilot programme covering 20,000 beneficiaries and it disbursed $1.5 million. The second year
the programme was launched in the entire island and it disbursed $18.4 million-$6.5 per month
per beneficiary, the third year $21.2 million were disbursed-$7.5 per month per beneficiary-, and
the fourth year $25.5 million were disbursed equating to $9 per month per beneficiary. 68 If a


66
    Programme for Advancement Through Health and Education, Advancing Families In Jamaica,
jis.gov.jm/special_sections/ATILABOUR/PATH.pdf
67
   Conditional Cash Transfers on Trial, A Debate on Conditional Cash Transfer Programs, December 2, 2005,
68
   Ayala, Francisco V., “Lessons Learned in the Design and Implementation of a Conditional Cash Transfer
Program; Programme for Advancement Through Health (PATH) Jamaica, www1.worldbank.org/sp/safetynets/
Training_Events/CCT_PATH_Presentation.pdf


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  1/May/2006                                                67
household has five children under the age of 17, and all five comply with the health and
education conditionalities, the household will receive the sum of the cash allotted per child.

Programme Sources: The World Bank will disbursed US$40 million and the Jamaican
Government will disbursed US$37.5 million for the period 2002-2005.

* From April to December as pilot programme involving 20,000 beneficiaries.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team                  1/May/2006                                     68
KENYA (1)

Name of Programme: Cash Subsidy for Children Affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya69

Year Started and Length of Programme: The programme started in 2004 and is just
completing the pre-pilot.

Agencies Involved: Government of Kenya and UNICEF

Programme description: The pre-pilot programme distributed KSh. 500 (US$6.25) per child
per month. By 2006, the programme distributed Ksh 1,000 per child every month. The
programme is designed in such a way that it will retain children within the community, reduce
poverty levels and vulnerability, support households by bolstering their incomes and
empowering them economically to support OVC (Orphans and Vulnerable Children). The total
estimated number of orphans in Kenya is 1,800,000 and is expected to rise to two million by
2101. Of these, 60% have been orphaned as a result of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

Targeting: 75% of the beneficiaries are orphans, while 25% are other vulnerable children.

Conditionalities:
- The selection of families is organized by the District Children’s officer (using a
   questionnaire assessing each child) and involves participation of community committees.
- Beneficiary must be immunized, attend school and acquire a birth registration certificate.
- The main criterion for receiving funds is primarily that families should already be taking
   care of the OVC. Families living with double-orphans receive priority, while poor families
   living with single-orphans may also qualify if the orphans’ circumstance is determined to be
   the same or worse than that of a double orphan. A family can receive a subsidy for each
   child they are caring for.
- Households are advised on the type of expenses they should be incurring with the financial
   supplements to their budgets (e.g. nutritious foods, health services etc) and are also
   cautioned that their support may be suspended if abuse is found or suspected.

Coverage (number of people, households): To date, the programme has reached 500 children
from 410 households in three districts: Nairobi, Kwale and Garissa. Future plans include:
 - The programme targeted 500 children on its inception is being scaled to reach 2,500 OVCs.
    The beneficiaries will receive KSh 500 (US$6.25) a month in the pilot 14 districts.
 - By 2006, the pilot project carried out by the government, UNICEF and DFID in 14 districts

Cost: The pre-pilot scheme cost US$60,000.

Programme Sources: In June, 2005, UNICEF funded KSh.40 million (US$528,000)

Agencies Involved: Kenyan Government, UNICEF, DFID
69
   Unless otherwise indicated Emanuel Asomba (2006) “Making Cash Count: Lessons from Cash Transfer Schemes
in East and Southern Africa for Supporting the Most Vulnerable Children and Households”


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                1/May/2006                                              69
KENYA (2)

Name of Programme: The Primary School Child Deworming Project (PSDP) in Kenya70

Year Started and Length of Programme: 1998 to 2001. Due to the administrative constraints
of ICS, the health intervention was phased in to each group of schools over several years. The
Group1 schools received free deworming treatment in 1998, 1999, and 2000, the Group 2
schools in 1999 and 2000, and Group 3 received treatment in 2001.

Agencies Involved: Internationaal Christelijk Steunfonds Africa (ICS)

Programme Description: The programme is carried out in Kenya’s Busia district, a poor and
densely-settled farming region in rural western Kenya. Parasites infect over 92% of school-aged
children in western Kenya. The average daily wage for agricultural labor in Busia is .US$85.
The intervention consists of medical treatment of hookworm, roundworm, whipworm, and
schistosomiasis: these parasites infect over 92 percent of school aged children in western Kenya.
Among the 75 schools in the study, the selection of schools was randomized. The programme
consists of deworming medical treatment with albendazole and praziquantel provided at six-
month intervals. In addition to medical treatment, the project intervention in treatment schools
consists of NGO public health lectures on worm prevention methods, and the provision of health
education materials focusing on proper hygiene and sanitation. In each school one health teacher
and head teacher have been inducted on how to run the deworming programme.
        The main empirical result of the health programme is associated with significantly higher
school participation after two years of medical treatment: The estimated average gain in primary
school participation among treated pupils is 8%, reducing overall average school non-
participation by one-third among treated pupils. Treatment effects are especially larger for girls
and younger children. Pupils are considered school participants if they are present in school on
the day of an unannounced attendance check. However, deworming is not associated with gains
in either academic test score performance.
        The deworming programme in Busia is ongoing. It is done bi-annually. ICS has plans to
scale up the programme to cover Bungoma and Mumias Butere Districts.

Targeting: 30,000 children between ages 2 and 14 children in rural western Kenya in 75 primary
schools.

Conditionalities:
- Children must be between ages of 6 and 18 and pupils of the sample schools.
- The ICS field staff administered questionnaires in early 1998 to collect information on
   school and pupil characteristics, including household asset ownership and sanitation
   facilities at home, personal hygiene, and certain health symptoms associated with worm
   infection.


70
  Unless otherwise indicated Edward Miguel and Michael Kremer (2000) “Child Health and Education: The
Primary School Deworming Project in Kenya”



New School SIPS PIA Project Team                 1/May/2006                                             70
Coverage (number of people, households): 119,434 children in 2004 children and 302,023 in
200571.

Cost: The total deworming cost per pupil treated in 1999 is $1.46 USD with nearly half the cost
on deworming drug purchases.

Programme Sources: ·Donors include Partnership for Child Development (PCD), World
Concern has been the major donor of drugs (about 2 million pills of mebendazole),
Schistosomiasis Control Initiative donated 50,000 capsules of prziquantel. Other donors include
IICO and Liberty through ICS Netherlands and the Young Green Foundation

Agencies Involved: Government of Kenya (especially Ministries of Health, Education and
Provincial Administration), the local communities and ICS




71
     Email from ICS Africa employee


New School SIPS PIA Project Team            1/May/2006                                        71
KENYA (3)

Name of Programme: National Centre for Childhood Education72

Year Started and Length of Programme: The demand for early child development services in
Kenya resulted in the establishment of a large network of child development centres, mostly in
rural areas, by parents of children who did not have access to privately owned nursery schools.
In the 1970s the Government of Kenya stepped in to provide training support and supervision for
the centres. In 1984 the National Center for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) was
established at the Kenya Institute of Education. NACECE was responsible for the training of
trainers, curriculum development, research, and coordination. District Centres (DICECE) were
responsible for training teachers at the district level, inspection, community mobilization, and the
evaluation of local programmes.

Agencies Involved: The community was the most important partner in the development of the
centres, taking responsibility for the provision of physical facilities, payment of salaries,
organization of feeding programmes, and provision of learning and play materials. Some
communities received financial and supervisory support from non-governmental organizations
and the local government

Programme Description: The objectives of the project are to improve child cognitive and
psychosocial development, improve child health and nutrition, increase school entry and
enrolment at the appropriate ages, and reduce repetition and drop-out rates in lower primary
school.

The processes by which these are to be achieved include improving the quality of early
childhood development services, mainly through the activities of frontline workers who are fully
trained and supported, and by providing additional inputs such as health and nutrition; increasing
the access and participation of the poor; improving family capacity for child care; and increasing
community capacity to organize, manage, and finance early childhood development activities.

Targeting: Districts were selected on the basis of a composite indicator that took into account
the availability of early childhood development services, health and nutrition status, school
enrolment, drop-out rates, and income. The project initially focused on upgrading the
performance and management of about 20,000 existing early childhood development centres
through teacher training and community capacity building. The second stage involved
implementation of pilot interventions to improve the scope and coverage of early childhood
development services.

Coverage (number of people, households): 1.5 million pre school children. The project
initially focused on upgrading the performance and management of about 20,000 existing
childhood development centers.

72
     Unless otherwise indicated, by Jayshree Balachander “World Bank Support for Early Childhood Development”



New School SIPS PIA Project Team                    1/May/2006                                              72
Cost: The core components of the project are an improved Teacher Performance component
(US$5 million) to provide initial, orientation, and refresher training for teachers, as well as
mechanisms for support, and a Community Capacity Building and Mobilization component
(US$3.5 million) to improve parenting skills and strengthen the organization, management,
supervision, and quality control of early childhood development services and develop the
communities’ capacity to mobilize and manage local resources, as well as monitor their
utilization. The pilot components will include the following: community grants ($5 million) to
assist community-managed early childhood development centres (constrained by low levels of
funding) to pay for the salaries of pre-school teachers, school materials, and health and nutrition
services; to subsidize fees for the poorest children; and to improve school facilities; health and
nutrition services ($4.5 million), which would develop a replicable model, emphasizing
prevention and promotion, to optimize the health and nutrition status of pre-school children at
the community level; pre-school to primary school ($1 million) transition pilot programme, in
those primary schools which have pre-schools attached, to provide continuity in both the
curriculum and in teaching methodologies between pre-school and primary schools. A regular
monitoring system as well as a mid-term and a final evaluation will be set up to evaluate the
impact of early childhood development services and to assess the differential effects of diverse
early childhood development packages and delivery systems on child outcomes. The total project
cost (including contributions from the government, the World Bank, and other donors) is US$35
million.

Programme Sources: World Bank and other donors (unable to find specific information
regarding other donors).

Agencies Involved: World Bank, Government of Kenya




New School SIPS PIA Project Team             1/May/2006                                         73
KENYA (4)

Name of Programme: Early Childhood Development Project73

Year Started and Length of Programme: Started in 1993, and latest data on programme found
for 2004

Agencies Involved: World Bank, Government of Kenya, contracted NGO organizations.

Programme Description: With over half of the children in Kenya under the age of six living in
poverty, 80% of preschool children being worm infested and more than 50% suffering from
anemia, 34% of the preschool age group (0-6) being stunted (i.e., chronically malnourished) and
with elementary schools reporting rising grade repetition and increased absenteeism rates, poor
classroom performance and increased school dropout rates, the case for a well-designed Early
Childhood Development (ECD) programme was not difficult to make. The project was built on
existing infrastructure, and demonstrated commitment to ECD in Kenya. This was evidenced by
a long-standing practice of government supported ECD activities that began in the early1970's.
These activities included the establishment of ECD centers around the country as well as the
National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) at the Kenya Institute of Education
(KIE) (see third Kenya Project).

The project objective was to improve quality and educability of children in poor Kenyan
households through the achievement of the following: a) improved child cognitive and psycho-
social development; b) improved child health and nutrition; c) increased school enrollment at the
appropriate age; and d) reduced dropout and repetition rates in lower primary school. An
objective that was established at the midterm review was to introduce HIV/ AIDS education, by
supplying material, curriculum development and financing support to orphans and HIV/AIDS
awareness campaigns to programme officers and teachers.

Targeting: The programme targets teachers, trainers, head-teachers, zonal inspectors, local
authority and District Centers of Education, Science and Technology for improved teacher
performance, key community leaders and managers of ECD centres to improve their capacity to
manage preschools, NGOs to deliver health and nutritional services to children 3-6 years of age
who attend ECD centres, and children 1-3 years of age in households, and another component
targeted 1st and 2nd graders in Kenya, who had the highest drop out rates.




73
 Unless otherwise indicated, Sahr Kupundeh (2005) “World Bank Implementation Completion Report For an Early
Childhood Development Project”


New School SIPS PIA Project Team                1/May/2006                                              74
Coverage (number of people, households):
Indicator                                                              Projected numbers
1. Number of children reached by ECD inputs from the project           800,000 children
2. Increase in enrollment in ECD centers as a result of the project    200,000 children
3. Reduction in school repetition from class 1 to class 3 primary by   Reduce repetition by 25%
    25% below 1997 level.
4. Reduce school drop out rate between class 1 and class 3 by 20%      Reduce school drop out by
    from 1997 level.                                                   20%
5. Number of children reached by health and nutrition input from       60,000 children
    the project
6. Number of children reached by community grants component            57,000 children

Cost: US$27.8 million

Programme Sources: The World Bank

Agencies Involved: The World Bank, The Government of Kenya, and NGOs.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team           1/May/2006                                      75
VIII. Lessons Learned

 Although specific social protection policies exist, most of the programmes found are not
 specifically directed towards children. Most programmes focused on families or one member of
 the family, such as pensions for the elderly or wage allowances for the bread-winners. In those
 cases, it is difficult to determine if children receive a direct benefit from the programme or not.
 It would be very useful if more research is done to deepen the Classification Scheme that has
 been constructed here and establish more specific parameters about what programmes contribute
 to the social protection for children.

 Our research showed that there is no one clear definition for social protection. In addition it is
 even more difficult to tease out a definition of social protection for children. Every agency has
 its own definition(s) of what social protection is or what it should be. At the same time when
 researching specific country programmes there is often either a lack of information, or
 contradictory information from the various government agencies, NGOs or multi-lateral
 institutions. In some instances various sources cite or disseminate differing data regarding the
 same programme. This shows the difficulty encountered when embarking on this type of
 research. The researcher may grow confused about the data related to the project.

 This report is only an initial attempt at defining a Classification Scheme for the social protection
 of children; and completing a limited institutional mapping. However the barriers faced in not
 just finding information about social protection, but in trying to extract concrete definitions and
 specific data about existing programmes show that a comprehensive definition, Classification
 Scheme and institutional mapping do not exist and are vitally needed. The research for this
 report ended up proving the need for this report.




 New School SIPS PIA Project Team              1/May/2006                                          76
IX. Appendix
Terms of Reference

 Institutional Mapping of Social Insurance and Protection Schemes for Children, Women,
                                    and Families (SIPS)

Client: UNICEF
        Enrique Delamonica, Programme Officer, Global Policy Section, DPP
New School Consultants: The New School SIPS PIA Project team
        Tanya Chen, Alejandra Davidziuk, John Lindsay, Martin Mercado, Natalia Meszaros
Project Coordinator: The New School
       Mark Johnson, Graduate Program in International Affairs

1. Background:

Many developed and developing countries have a collection of disparate social assistance
programmes (social security, safety nets, cash transfers and social insurance, among others)
which evolved partially as a response to mitigate the cost of structural adjustment policies. These
programmes can be used as the launching pad for establishing universal social security
programmes for children. However, their scope and impact on children is unclear. There
currently exists a lack of knowledge and specific data on the state of social security programmes
for children worldwide. To map the diversity of social assistance programmes which impact
children in developing countries.

2. The Purpose of the Project:

To create a Classification Scheme that will lead to an inventory and an Institutional Mapping of
Social Insurance and Protection Schemes. We will then research five specific countries within
the Institutional Mapping, chosen by UNICEF. The Classification Scheme will consist of a
research structure in which the institutional mapping will be included. The institutional mapping
will be composed of country specific information of Social Insurance and Protection Schemes
for Children, Women, and Families.

3. Objectives:

   a) At the end of four weeks, starting on 7/2/06 and ending on 21/2/06, we will have
      completed a preliminary literature review. The literature review will be reflected in a
      reading list. The readings appropriate for this project will have abstracts written and
      relevant notes taken and will create an additional document.

   b) At the end of four weeks, starting on 31/1/06 and ending on 20/2/06, we will have an
      understanding of existing child-focused social programmes and policies in developing
      countries.

           Activities:


New School SIPS PIA Project Team             1/May/2006                                         77
             Individual and group research in order to find essential national and global data
             Weekly meetings with the client to define and refine the scope of the research

   c) At the end of six weeks, we will have used the research on old, new, and ongoing
      prominent child-focused social assistance programmes to create a Classification Scheme
      for the Institutional Mapping of Social Insurance and Protection Schemes.

          Activities:
           Group sessions to determine the main issues and design the Classification Scheme
             that will guide country specific research
           Weekly meetings with the clients to define and refine the scope of the
             Classification Scheme

   d) At the end of eleven weeks, we will have improved the understanding of the main issues
      that involve child-focused social assistance in different regions by establishing an
      Institutional Mapping of Social Insurance and Protection Schemes of five countries.

          Activities:
           Individual and group research in order to find essential national data and
             legislation and policies.
           Weekly meetings with the clients to define and refine the scope of the
             Institutional Mapping.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team            1/May/2006                                            78
4. Timeline:

                                                                Weekly Timeline
Activity                          2/7   2/14 2/21 2/28    3/7   3/14 3/21 3/28    4/4   4/11 4/18 4/25     5/2
Submit ToR. to Client and
                                        2/14
Project Coordinator


a. Preliminary literature review 2/7           2/21


b. Classification Scheme
                                               2/21             3/14
   design
c. Literature review and
   development of institutional                                 3/14              4/4
   mapping

Submit draft report to client                                                     4/4


Continue Institutional
                                                                                  4/4               4/25
Mapping

Incorporate client feedback
                                                                                  4/4               4/25
into the report


Prepare for Presentation                                                                     4/18          5/1


Presentation to client
                                                                                                           5/9
organization


5. Deliverables:
    a) Initial literature review which will include a classification of the most important terms
        (such as the differences and similarities among cash transfers, safety nets, social security,
        cash assistance, and social protection programmes) and a selection of the main issues
        regarding child-focused Social Insurance and Protection in developing counties
        (including national and global organizations, experts, and main reports on the field). Each
        consultant will be responsible for researching an average of three articles per week during
        the preliminary literature review period.
    b) Classification Scheme for Institutional Mapping
    c) Institutional Mapping of five countries




New School SIPS PIA Project Team                      1/May/2006                                           79
List of Resources Searched

USAID – www.usaid.gov
DFID – www.dfid.gov.uk
World Bank – www.worldbank.org
SMERU – www.smeru.or.id
Asian Development Bank – www.adb.org
WHO International Digest of Health Legislation – www3.who.int/idhl-rils/
Inter American Development Bank – www.iadb.org
Government of Jamaica, Jamaica Information Service – www.jis.gov.jm
Jamaica Ministry of Labour and Social Security – www.jis.gov.jm/labour/index.asp
Jamaica Ministry of Education and Youth – www.jis.gov.jm/education/index.asp
Jamaica Ministry of Information and Development – www.jis.gov.jm/information/index.asp
Jamaica Ministry of Finance and Planning – www.jis.gov.jm/finance_planning/index.asp
International Bureau of Education – www.ibe.unesco.org
UNESCO Office for the Caribbean – www.unescocaribbean.org
Overseas Development Institute – www.odi.org.uk
University of the West Indies – www.uwi.edu
United Nations Development Group – www.undg.org
International Food Policy Research Institute – www.ifpri.org
Latin American Studies Association – http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/
Jamaican Mission to the U.N. (reached by phone)
Jamaican Consulate General in New York (reached by phone)
UNICEF website – www.unicef.org
UN website – www.un.org
UNDP website – www.undp.org
World Bank website – www.worldbank.org
ICS website – www.icsafrica.org
US Department of Labor website – www.dol.gov
Human Rights Watch website – www.hrw.org
Kenyan Government website – http://www.kenya.go.ke
Bangladesh Government Official Website – http://www.bangladeshgov.org/
Virtual Bangladesh – http://www.virtualbangladesh.com/bd_contents.html
Bangladesh Local Government Division – http://www.lgd.gov.bd/
Bangladesh Online – http://www.bangladeshonline.com/
OECD – Organization for Economic cooperation and Development – www.oecd.org

Databases searched using these terms: safety nets, social security, social protection, social
insurance, social safety nets, children safety nets, children social security, children poverty:

Google – www.google.com
EBSCO (Academic Search Premier) – http://www.ebsco.com/
J Store – http://www.jstor.org/
LexisNexis – http://www.lexisnexis.com/




New School SIPS PIA Project Team              1/May/2006                                           80
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New School SIPS PIA Project Team            1/May/2006                                         81
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New School SIPS PIA Project Team           1/May/2006                                        82
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New School SIPS PIA Project Team           1/May/2006                                          83
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New School SIPS PIA Project Team           1/May/2006                                           84
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   Family Life Consortium.

Patel, F. 2004, “Improving Child Wellbeing – Lessons in Social Policy from the ‘High-
      Achievers’,” CHIP Policy Briefing, No. 5, Childhood Poverty Research and Policy Center
      (CHIP).

Piachaud, D.; Sutherland, H. 2000, “How Effective is the British Government’s Attempt to
     Reduce Child Poverty?” in Innocenti Working Paper, No. 00-06, UNICEF Innocenti
     Research Centre, Florence.

Ravallion, M. 2003. “Targeted Transfers in Poor Countries: Revisiting the Trade-Offs and Policy
     Options” in Social Protection Discussion Paper Series, No. 0314, The World bank,
     Washington DC.

Raymond, M.; Sadoulet, E. 2003, “Educational Grants Closing the Gap in Schooling Attainment
    between Poor and Non-Poor,” in UCB CUDARE Working Paper, No. 986, Department of
    Agricultural & Resource Economics, Berkely.

Rawlings, L. 2004,“A New Approach to Social Assistance: Latin America’s Experience with
     Conditional Cash Transfer Programs,” in Social Protection Discussion Paper Series, No.
     0416, The World bank, Washington DC.

Rawlings , L.; Rubio, G. M. 2003, “Evaluating the Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer
     Programs: Lessons from Latin America,” in Policy Research Working Paper Series, No.
     3119, The World Bank, Whasington DC.

Sadoulet, E.; Finan, F.; De Janvry, A.; Vakis, R. 2004, “Can Conditional Transfer Programs
     Improve Social Risk Management?” in Social Protection Discussion Papers on Social
     Protection, The World Bank, Washington DC.

Samson, M.; Lee, U.; Ndlebe, A.; Mac Quene, K.; van Niekerk, I.; Gandhi, V.; Harigaya, T.;
    Abrahams, C. 2004, “The Social and Economic Impact of South Africa’s Social Security
    System,” in EPRI Research Paper Series, No. 37, Economic Policy Research Institute,
    Cape Town.




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Samuel, M. 2004, “Cash for Education,” in UNDP In Focus Newsletter, January, UNDP p. 7-9.

Schubert, B. 2005, “The Pilot Social Cash Transfer Scheme Kalomo District – Zambia,” in
     Working Paper 52, IDPM/Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC), Manchester.

Sefton, T. 2004, “A fair share of welfare: public spending on children in England,” CASE Report
     25, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion (CASE) & Save the Children Fund (SCF).


Shepherd, A.; Marcus, R.; Barrientos, A. 2004, Policy paper on social protection, DFID, London.

Smeeding, T.; Ross, K. 1999, “Social Protection for the Poor in the Developed World: The
    Evidence from LIS,” in Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No. 204, The
    Luxembourg Income Study Project

Subbarao, K.; Bonnerjee, A.; Braithwaite, J.; Carvalho, S.; Ezemenari, K.; Graham, C.;
    Thompson, A. 1997, Safety Net Programs and Poverty Reduction, The World Bank,
    Washington, DC.

Swaminathan, S.A. 1998, “Lessons in designing safety nets,” in PREM Notes, No. 2, The World
    Bank, Washington DC

Tabor, S. 2002, “Assisting the Poor with Cash: Design and Implementation of Social Transfer
     Programs,” in Social Protection Discussion Paper Series, No. 0223, The World bank,
     Washington DC.

Tabor, S. 2002, Cash Transfers Exercise I and II, The World Bank, Washington DC,

The World Bank 2001, Safety Nets Projects Portfolio: Cash Transfers, The World Bank,
    Washington DC.

The World Bank 2002, The Design and Implementation of Effective Safety Nets, The World
    Bank, Washington DC.

Thomas, P. 2005, Ending Child Poverty & Securing Child Rights: The Role of Social Protection,
    Briefing Paper, Plan UK, London.

TMEF, Reform of Tax and Child Poverty Policy, at The Milton Eisenhower Foundation website.
   Available at: http://www.eisenhowerfoundation.org/aboutus/wn_ReformofTax.html (07-
   12-06)

UNDP 2005, “A 2020 Vision: New Thinking on Aid and Social Security,” in UNDP Human
   Development Report 2005, New York.

UNICEF-IRC 2000, Innocenti Report Card No. 1 A League Table of Child Poverty in Rich
    Nations Innocenti Report Card No. 1, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence.



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Van der Hoek, T. 2005, “Through Children’s Eyes an Initial Study of Children’s Personal
     Experiences and Coping Strategies Growing up Poor in an Affluent Netherlands,”
     Innocenti Working Paper, No. 05-06, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence.



Country Specific Literature Review


BANGLADESH

Abdul-Muyeed, C.; Yasmin, R. “IGVGD vis-à-vis micro-finance - Focusing on the vulnerable,”
    The Independent

Ahmed, S. S. 2005, “Delivery Mechanisms of Cash Transfer Programs to the Poor in
    Bangladesh,” in Social Protection Discussion Series, No. 0520, Social Protection Unit.
    Human Development Network, The World Bank.

Akhter U. Ahmed; Carlos del Ninno 2002, “Food For Education Program in Bangladesh: An
     Evaluation of its Impact on Educational Attainment and Food Security,” in FCND
     Discussion Paper Briefs, No. 138, Food Consumption and Nutrition Division of the
     International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington DC.

Hashemi, S. 2001, “Linking Microfinance and Safety Net Programs to Include the Poorest.”
    Focus Note 21.Washington, D.C.: CGAP, 2001.

The World Bank 2005, “Project Performance Assessment Report,” in the Bangladesh, Integrated
    Nutrition Project, The World Bank Bangladesh.

Tietjen, K. 2003, The Bangladesh Primary Education Stipend Project: A Descriptive Analysis,
      commissioned by the Partnership for Sustainable Strategies on Girls' Education, published
      by The World Bank.

Xin Meng; Ryan J. 2003, "Evaluating the Food for Education Program in Bangladesh," in
     ASARC Working Papers 2003-07, Australian National University, Australia South Asia
     Research Centre.


BRAZIL

Coleta de Oliveira, M. 2000, Some notes on the family as a mechanism of social protection in
     Brazil, UNESCO.




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Duarte, E. 2004, Social determinants in health: determinants in health: The Brazilian The
     Brazilian case, Special Presentation at the Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde –Ministério
     da Saúde, Brazil.

Faria, V. 2003, “Reformas institucionales y coordinación gubernamental en la política de
      protección social de Brasil,” in Serie de Políticas Sociales, CEPAL # 64.

Marques, R.; Mendes, A.; Guedes Leite, M.; Hutz, A. 2004, A importância do bolsa família nos
    municípios brasileiros, Diretoria do Departamento de Avaliação e Monitoramento,
    Secretaria de Avaliação e Gestão da Informação, and Ministério do Desenvolvimento
    Social e Combate à Fome.

MDS-CF 2004, Análise comparativa de programas de proteção social 1995 a 2003, at the official
   website of the Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (MDS)
   http://www.mds.gov.br

MDS-CF 2005, Demonstrativo - Resumo Bolsa Família por UF, at the official website of the
   Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (MDS) http://www.mds.gov.br

MDS-CF 2005, Demonstrativo - Programas de Transferência de Renda por Região
   Administrativa, at the official website of the Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e
   Combate à Fome (MDS) http://www.mds.gov.br

PSDB 2002, “Rede de Proteção Social: fazer mais para quem precisa mais,” in Brasil 1994-2002:
    la Era do Real, Comissão Executiva Nacional.

Sedlacek, G.; Duryea, S.; Ilahi, N.; Sasaki, M. 2005, “Child Labor, Schooling, and Poverty in
     Latin America,” in Social Protection Discussion Paper Series, N° 0511, The World Bank,
     Washington DC.

Yapa, Y.; Sedlacekb, G.; Orazemc, P. 2002, Limiting Child Labor Through Behavior-Based
     Income Transfers: An Experimental Evaluation of the PETI Program in Rural Brazil,
     Seminar paper for the First Meeting of the Social Policy Monitoring Network: Conditional
     Cash-Transfer Programs at the IADB.


INDONESIA

Arifianto, A., Marianti, R., Budiyati, S., Tan, E., 2005, Making Services Work for the Poor in
      Indonesia: A Report on Health Financing Mechanisms in Kabupaten Tabanan Bali, Case
      Study published by The SMERU Research Institute. Jakarta, Indonesia. www.smeru.or.id

Baulch, B., Wood, J., Weber, A., 2006, “Developing a Social Protection Index for Asia” in
     Development Policy Review, 24 (1): 5-29.




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Hastuti, Maxwell, J., 2003, Rice for Poor Families (RASKIN): Did the 2002 Program Operate
     Effectively? in SMERU Field Report. Jakarta, Indonesia. www.smeru.or.id

Irawan, P., Rahman, E., Romdiati, H., Suhaimi, U., 2001, Strengthening Policies and
     Programmes on Social Safety Nets: Issues, Recommendations and Selected Studies Social
     Policy Paper No. 8, United Nations, New York.

Overseas Development Institute, 2006, “Social Safety Nets – Indonesia” in Policy Brief 5, Inter-
     Regional Inequality Facility, www.odi.org.uk/inter-regional_inequality

Sumarto, S., Suryahadi, A., Widyanti, W., 2005 “Assessing the Impact of Indonesian Social
    Safety Net Programs on Household Welfare and Poverty Dynamics” in The European
    Journal of Development Research, Vol.17, No.1, 155–177.

Sumarto, S., Suryahadi, A., Widyanti, W., 2001, Designs and Implementation of the Indonesian
    Social Safety Net Programs: Evidence from the JPS Module in the 1999 SUSENAS
    SMERU Working Paper, Jakarta, Indonesia. www.smeru.or.id

Sumarto, S., Suryahadi, A., Pritchett, L., 2000, Safety Nets and Safety Ropes: Comparing the
    Dynamic Benefit Incidence of Two Indonesian ‘JPS’ Programs The SMERU Research
    Institute. Jakarta, Indonesia. www.smeru.or.id

The World Bank Institute. 2005, Protecting the Vulnerable: The Design and Implementation of
    Effective Safety Nets. The Case of a Post-Crisis Country. Indonesia The World Bank
    Institute, Washington DC.

UNICEF Indonesia, International Social Service, 2005, Supporting the Development of the
    Alternative Care System at Provincial (Aceh) and National Levels in Indonesia


JAMAICA

Ayala Consulting Co. 2003, “Final Report,” in Workshop On Conditional Cash Transfer
     Programs (CCTs): Operational Experiences, The World Bank.

Ayala, F. 2002, “Program for Advancement Through Health and Education (PATH) Jamaica”, in
     Lessons Learned In The Design And Implementation of a Conditional Cash Transfers
     Program, The World Bank.


Ministry of Labor and Social Security 2005, “Programme of Advancement Through Health and 
     Education, Advancing Families in Jamaica,” in National Security Strategy 
     http://www.jis.gov.jm/labour  
 




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NPEP 2003, Programme of Advancement Through Health & Eeducation (PATH), The National
    Poverty Eradication Programme (NPEP), Programme Coordinating and Monitoring Unit
    (PCMU), Office of the Prime Minister, Jamaica.

ODI 2006, “The Programme for Advancement through Health and Education (PATH),” in Policy
     Brief No. 4, Overseas Development Institute (ODI).

Rawlings, L 2004, “A New Approach to Social Assistance: Latin America’s Experience with
     Conditional Cash Transfer Programs”, in Social Protection Discussion Paper Series,
     Working Paper No. 30165, Washington DC, The World Bank.

Smith, D. 2004, Millennium Development Goals - Jamaica, from sources of partners working
     with UNDP and the Government in Jamaica.

The World Bank 2005, Conditional Cash Transfers on Trial, A Debate on Conditional Cash
    Transfer Programs, The World bank


KENYA

Balachander, J. 1999, “World Bank support for early childhood development: Case studies from
     Kenya, India, and the Philippines,” in Food and Nutrition Bulletin, United Nations
     University 20 (1): 136-145.

Bernard Van Leer Foundation, A focus on young African Children
     http://www.bernardvanleer.org

Bernard Van Leer Foundation, Community Support to AIDS Orphans
     http://www.bernardvanleer.org

Foster, G. 2004, “Safety Nets for Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa,” in
     Pharoah, R (ed): A Generation at Risk? HIV/AIDS, Vulnerable Children and Security in
     Southern Africa, ISSMonograph No. 9.

ICS Africa 2002, “The Effect of Deworming on Primary School Student Health and Attendance
     in Rural Kenya,” in the ICS Africa website, Internationaal Cristelijk Steunfonds Africa,
     Nairobi. Available: http://www.icsafrica.org/stories/2002/teodopsshaairk.htm (08-28-06)

ILAB 2002, Reduce Exploitation of Child Labor and Address Core International Labor
    Standards Issues, International Labor Affairs Bureau ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor,
    Washington DC.

ILAB 2006, Kenya: Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child
    Labor, International Labor Affairs Bureau ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington
    DC.




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Kidd, S. 2006, Social Security and Children affected by AIDS: Models and Challenges, Policy
     Division, DFID.

Kipkorir, L.I.; Njenga, A.W. 1993, “A Case Study of early Childhood Care and Education in
     Kenya,” Paper prepared for the EFA Forum 1993, New Delhi, September 9-10.

Miguel, E.; Kremer, M. 2000, “Child Health and Education: The Primary School Deworming
    Project in Kenya,” Paper presented to the Workshop in Trade and Development 2000,
    November 13, Yale Department of Economics.

Republic of Kenya, National Policy on Orphans and Vulnerable Children, Draft 3, Office of the
    Vice-President and Ministry of Home Affairs.

The World Bank 2004, Implementation Completion Report for an Early Childhood Development
    Project (No. 29658), The World Bank. Available at: http://www-
    wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSServlet?pcont=details&eid=000090341_20050103112623
    (06-05-06)

The World Bank 2006, Workshops on Orphans and Vulnerable Children and Conditional Cash
    Transfers in Kenya, February 20-21 Nairobi. Available at:
    http://web.worldbank.org/servlets/ECR?contentMDK=20842052&contTypePK=64590420
    &folderPK=2291683&sitePK=461654&callCR=true (08-28-06)

UNESCO 2003, “Kenya Launches Mass Literacy,” in a Newsletter from UNESCO, Nairobi
   Office

USAID 2006, Kenya Country Study, United States Agency for International Development
    (USAID), Washington DC.




New School SIPS PIA Project Team           1/May/2006                                         91

								
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