Global Trends in Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles by kdv77245


									Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles

  Global Trends in Cleaner
     Fuels and Vehicles
                   Elisa Dumitrescu
     United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),
                 PCFV Clearing-House
The PCFV: Background & Mission

• September 2002: Launched at World Summit on Sustainable
Development (WSSD) to: ―Help developing countries to develop
action plans to complete the global elimination of leaded gasoline
and start to phase down sulphur in diesel and gasoline fuels,
concurrent with adopting cleaner vehicle requirements.‖

• Cleaner Fuels + Cleaner Vehicles = Reductions in polluting
emissions/better urban air quality

• Launch of Global Lead
Campaign, Promotion of sulphur
reductions in fuels (support for
region and country goals with
ultimate goal of 50 ppm or below)
• Cleaner vehicle technology

Industry             Governments


Int. Organisations
Partnership Activities
The Partnership provides assistance to governments, international
organizations and NGOs for the promotion of cleaner fuels and vehicles.
Specifically, this means:

• Technical, networking (including experts), and funding support for
regional and national workshops, seminars and training sessions aimed at
developing and implementing action plans for the elimination of leaded gasoline,
the reduction of sulphur and the promotion of cleaner vehicles and vehicle

• Support for specific activities, such as awareness campaigns and
demonstration heavy duty diesel vehicle retrofit projects aimed at
demonstrating cleaner vehicle technology and lower emissions;

• Global Working Groups developing resources on Sulphur Reduction in
Fuels, Public Awareness, Octane, and Leaded Gasoline Phaseout: Valve
Seat Recession;

• Annual Global Partnership Meetings
Support to Date

• Regional and sub-regional events in Africa for
Lead Phaseout;
• National technical expert groups
• Public awareness campaigns and
environmental training events in over 10
• 3 regional workshops for sulphur in Central
America in Guatemala, El Salvador, Mexico;
• Central & South America Auto Clubs one-day
training on cleaner fuels and vehicles;
• Cleaner fuels and vehicles regional workshop
for Central and Eastern Europe & Turkey in
• Lead Phase-out support to Yemen;
• Santiago, Chile Diesel Bus & Truck Retrofit
Project (USEPA);
• Training on Cleaner Vehicles in Bulgaria
Support, ctd.

• Tools for Retrofit and Cleaner Bus Fleets
(forthcoming) & upcoming regional training
for bus fleet managers to be held in Turkey;
• Upcoming Sulphur and Octane reports.

UNEP Urban Air Quality Projects

• Study on Nairobi Vehicle Emissions
• Air Quality Workshops and Air Quality Monitoring in Tanzania and
• Study of soil lead levels and blood lead levels in and around
Nairobi, Kenya
• Hybrid Vehicles Report (forthcoming)
Urban Air Quality Worldwide
                                                        Nairobi CBD, 2005
                                                        Thomas Harrison-Prentice

° WHO:
   – Every year 1.5 billion urbanites breathe air that exceeds WHO
   – Well over 800,000 deaths each year due to urban air pollution;

   – More than 70% of deaths from outdoor air pollution occur in the
   developing world;
   – World health costs of urban air pollution are estimated to
   approach US$1 billion per year.
   – In developing countries the health effects of air pollution cost
   between 5% - 20% of GDP.
Transport and Air Quality

° Almost half the world’s population now lives in cities;

° Urban air pollution largely attributed to transport and
industry emissions;

° Local pollution often severe;

° Transboundary movement of pollutants such as PM,
nitrogen, heavy metals, organic pollutants;

° Key to climate change: Road transport is responsible for 1/5 -
1/4 of all CO2 emissions globally...
  Health Effects
                                                 Particles (PM 10 /PM 2.5) Premature death,
                                                 aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular
       Premature Deaths                          disease, aggravated asthma, and acute respiratory

            Cancer                               Sulphur oxides (SOx) impact respiratory health
                                                 and aggravate asthma. In addition, SOx result in
                                                 the acidification of local environments, damaging
    Developmental Effects                        buildings and urban greenery.

                                                 Ozone (O3) irritate the respiratory system; reduce
     Hospitalization                             lung function and make it more difficult to breathe
                                                 deeply; and, inflame and damage the lining of the
Asthma Attacks and Bronchitis                    lungs, which may lead to permanent changes in
                                                 lung tissue.

  Carbon Monoxide (CO) Exposure to elevated CO levels is associated with impairment of visual
  perception, work capacity, manual dexterity, learning ability, and performance of complex tasks.

  Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) Respiratory illness and acid rain.
Transport & Air Quality: Europe

                           Transport emissions of air pollutants

• Air pollutant emissions in European countries decreased by 1/3 in the
past decade (PM and ozone precursors down by 30-40% from 1990-2003);
• Technical improvements/tighter standards for transport;
• Intro of cleaner fuels directly impacts emissions from road transport - form
of transport closest to people, therefore more exposure;
• But overall growth in volume of concern...
    Loss in average statistical life
expectancy (months) due to identified
        anthropogenic PM 2.5

                                        Particulate Matter
                                        ° Avg. 9 months of life
                                        expectancy lost
                                        ° 4 million life years
                                        lost annually
                                        ° 386,000 premature
                                        deaths annually
                                        ° 110,000 serious
                                        hospital admissions

                                        Ground-Level Ozone

                                        ° 21,400 premature
                                        deaths annually
Vehicular Pollution Control
    Cleaner Fuels and Vehicles: A System for Better Air Quality

• Vehicles, both petrol and diesel,
emit significant amounts of

• Cleaner fuels and vehicles most
viable method of reducing vehicle
emissions, air pollution today;

• Low-sulphur and lead-free fuels
affect emissions directly;

• And enable the use of cleaner vehicle technology such as catalytic
converters, which can further reduce pollutants by around 90%;

• Cleaner fuels (ultra-low sulphur petrol and diesel) allow for the use of latest
high-fuel efficiency technology in vehicles. Advanced engines make 20-45%
reduction in CO2 possible.
Cleaner Fuels - Unleaded
° Leaded gasoline affects mental development children (loss of IQ) & health
of adults - toxic even at very low levels;

° Lead elimination enables the use of catalytic converters in petrol vehicles
(CO, HC, NOx around 90%);

° Partnership Campaign to Eliminate Leaded Gasoline Worldwide by end

° Turkey: January 2006 phase-out.

Example of Leaded Petrol In Egypt:

Yearly effects of leaded gasoline estimated to cause up to 11,000 heart
attacks, 1,400 strokes, up to 11, 000 premature deaths, and average IQ loss
of 4.25 in children.
Leaded Petrol Worldwide
Why Low Sulphur?
° Diesel sulphur levels in Europe can be as low as 10 ppm while in
developing countries levels reach 10,000 ppm...

Lowering sulphur
1. Lowers Emissions From Existing Vehicles:
    SO2 From All Vehicles
    PM From Diesel Vehicles
    CO, HC, NOx From All Catalyst Vehicles

2. Enables Advanced Vehicle After-treatment technologies below 500
ppm & Tighter Standards For New Vehicles;

3. Enables Retrofit of Existing Heavy-Duty Vehicles;

4. Low sulphur petrol enhances functioning of three-way
catalysts (maximum efficiency at near-zero sulphur levels).
Increase in In-Use Vehicle Emissions
 in Bangkok Due To Sulfur in Fuel
Percent Increase
Compared to 150 PPM Sulfur

60%                    67%
                                              500 ppm    800 ppm

30%                                     74%

               CO/10               HC                  NOx

      Michael Walsh
Increase in In-Use Vehicle Emissions
 in Bangkok Due To Sulfur in Fuel
Percent Increase Compared to 150 PPM Sulfur

100%                                               350 ppm      500 ppm
 60%       45%
 30%                                                 16%
 20%                                          5%
 10%                              0%
                 HC                    NOx                 PM

            Michael Walsh
Sulphur Reduction Engine Benefits

                                                               Going from 10,000 to 5,000 ppm
                                                                 sulphur diesel, engine life is
                                                              expected to increase by over 40%
Engine life increase (%)

                           80                                                                      high


                           40                                                                      low


                                1.000   3.000              5.000      7.000    9.000      11.000   13.000
                                                                     PPM sulphur

          Engine life and sulfur levels. Source: Detroit Diesel
Global Trends for Sulphur in
Global Trends for Sulphur in Fuels, ctd.
                                              C u rr e n t a n d E x p e c te d D ie s e l S u lfu r L im its
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 Michael Walsh


                                                                                                                                       * future plan s no t ye t a nnou nc ed

                                                                                                                                                           IFQC, 2005

US: 2006 sulphur in gasoline avg. 30 ppm, cap of 80 ppm; diesel 15 ppm cap by June
2006; coincide with US Tier II standards for cars, light-trucks, and sport-utility
Europe: “Zero sulphur” introduced in 2005 for both petrol and diesel; 10 ppm
maximum allowable by 2009; widespread already in Europe due to tax incentives.
Vehicle Emissions Standards Worldwide

                              Correlated to
                              spread of low
                              sulphur fuel...
The Systems Approach: Vehicle
• Cleaner fuels allow for more advanced vehicle emission standards and
improved technology:

• For petrol vehicles, 3-way catalysts used with the closed-loop air/fuel
control systems. Standard technology on all new petrol cars. Lead poisons
catalyst, maximum efficiency at ultra-low (50 ppm or less) sulphur.

Diesel Technology

•Diesel Technology
• For new diesel vehicles, progress made in reducing diesel engine
emissions by improving diesel technology (advanced high-pressure fuel
injection, lightweight materials, advanced transmissions, low-resistance
tires, etc.);
• + Exhaust Treatment Technologies
    • Oxidation Catalyst (also used on flex fuel vehicles and CNG); can operate with
    fuel sulphur levels of 500 ppm, maximum effectiveness is reached with 50 ppm or
    less fuel sulphur. Reductions of PM by diesel oxidation catalysts range between
    20-50%, with reductions in HC and CO of between 60-90%.

Diesel Technology, ctd.

• Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF): Filter out PM and are usually paired with
catalysts. DPF’s work best when sulphur levels are less than 15 ppm, but
still operate at 95% efficiency with 50 ppm sulphur fuel. Reduce PM by 80-

• Around the world, more than 200,000 DPFs have been installed as retrofits
and more than 1 million DPF-equipped cars have been sold in Europe.
DPFs have also been used successfully on a variety of off-road engines
since the mid-1980s. (MECA)

Diesel Technology, ctd.

Other Diesel Technology...
• Flow-Through Filters: relatively new, PM reduction 30-70%
• Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): Can reduce NOx emissions by 75
to 90 percent, HC emissions by up to 80 percent, and PM emissions by 20
to 30 percent.
• NOx Adsorbers: catalyst technology; Nox reductions up to 90%

Cleaner fuels also enable...

• State of the art vehicles with low emissions: hybrids, modern diesels
(Euro 5)

• Retrofit options for existing heavy-duty diesels with DOC’s, DPF’s or a
combination (London, NYC, Mexico City, Beijing, Santiago) - significant
decrease in PM emissions

• Cost-benefit analyses of fuel sulphur reductions performed in US, Canada,
Europe, Mexico, China, Brazil (included incremental costs of fuels and vehicles).
All concluded that benefits of reducing sulphur from fuels far outweigh the costs.

• Mexico cleaner vehicle plan incorporating ultra-low (15 ppm) sulphur diesel,
emissions standards comparable to the US standards, and urban retrofit
programmes estimated benefits at 10-20 times greater than implementation
costs, by 2030, US $4 billion in annual benefits (reduced health costs), including
close to 30% reduction in average particulate levels and 4,000 less premature
deaths annually.

• In China requiring Euro-3 fuel and vehicle emission standards in 2007 and
Euro-4 levels in 2010 estimated to yield net benefits of approximately US$30
billion in 2020 and US$60 billion in 2030.

• US Tier II standards to reduce PM emissions by more than 90% over current
levels; EPA estimates that full implementation of new standards for vehicles with
yield almost US$5 in benefits for every dollar spent by industry to implement—
and eliminate as many as 4,300 premature deaths every year.
PCFV Role In Turkey
Turkey well on its way to cleaner fuels and vehicles... Lead phased out,
high market share of low sulphur diesel, Euro IV requirements as of 2007,
support for alternative fuels (bioethanol and biodiesel).

Potential Areas of Action Identified in Budapest: Promotion of cleaner
fuels, strategies for existing vehicle fleet, emissions from existing heavy-duty
diesel vehicles, fuel adulteration, capacity building on cleaner fuel and
vehicle issues in civil society and at municipal level, improved dialogue
between government, industry and NGOs….

PCFV Support Includes:

•Access to Tools, Research, Awareness Information

• Support for activities - training, working groups, cross-sectoral
dialogue and partnerships

• Join the PCFV - greater access to the PCFV network of experts
           Thank you!

              PCFV Clearing-House
             Urban Environment Unit
Division of Policy Development and Law (DPDL)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
         P.O Box 30552 Nairobi, KENYA
             Tel: (+254 20) 7624735

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