Clays and Clay Minerals. Volume 9. Proceedings of the

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Clays and Clay Minerals. Volume 9. Proceedings of the Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                   BOOK        REVIEWS                                                                  235

specimens, b u t m e t h o d s of adjusting crystallographic                       le sujet une d o c u m e n t a t i o n aussi exhaustive q u ' o n puisse
directions parallel to axes of rotation or other instru-                           le souhaiter. Aussi tous ceux, chimistes, physiciens,
m e n t a l directions. Crystallographers interested in accu-                      biologistes qui s'int@ressent aux cristaux liquides a u r o n t
r a t e m e a s u r e m e n t of lattice p a r a m e t e r s will be a m u s e d   int@r@t k le consulter.
a n d possibly p e r t u r b e d b y t h e historical outline of units                                                                        J. WYART
of w a v e l e n g t h given on pages 4I to 44. The m e a s u r e m e n t          Laboratoire de Mindralogie
of X - r a y intensities is discussed in great detail, including                   Sorbonne
such things as t h e variation w i t h w a v e l e n g t h of t h e                1 Rue Victor-Cousin
sensitivity of d e t e c t i n g devices. Line broadening from                     Paris 5e
small particle size, or r a t h e r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of particle      France
size from line b r o a d e n i n g a n d from small-angle scattering,
is discussed fully, b u t there seems to be no discussion of
line broadening from mistakes or stacking faults, a n d                            Piezoelectric Properties of Wood. B y V. A.
only a casual m e n t i o n of line broadening from strain.                           BAZtIENOV [BA~ENOV]. Pp. x i i + 180. N e w Y o r k :
The short chapter on radiation protection a n d the subject                           C o n s u l t a n t s B u r e a u , 1961. Price $ 9.50.
index to all three volumes are v e r y welcome.
                                                                                   W o o d is u n d e n i a b l y an anisotropic material, a n d m a y be
     I n short, V o l u m e I I I of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Tables for
                                                                                   compared to an irregular crystal, with the remains of
X - r a y Crystallography, like Volumes I a n d II, is a
                                                                                   the p l a n t cells corresponding to the u n i t cells of a crystal
necessity for all those working in t h e field of X - r a y
                                                                                   structure. The investigation of the piezoelectric properties
crystallography.
                                                                                   of wood is therefore of interest to crystallographers,
                                                             A. J. C. WILsoN
                                                                                   particularly since t h e discovery of t h e p r o p e r t y is
 University College
                                                                                   a t t r i b u t e d to ~ubnikov. Moisture would obviously be
Cardiff                                                                            a disturbing factor, and the e x p e r i m e n t s described in
Great Britain
                                                                                   this book were carried out on t h i n plates of wood b a k e d
                                                                                   to c o n s t a n t weight at 100 °C. a n d t h e n i m p r e g n a t e d
Molecular Structure and the Properties of                                          w i t h a m i x t u r e of beeswax and rosin. The book begins
 Liquid Crystals. B y G. W. GRxY. L o n d o n : Aca-                               w i t h three chapters of general theory, one on e x p e r i m e n t a l
   d e m i c Press. 1962. Price 63s.                                               methods, one on elastic anisotropy, and one on the
                                                                                   correlation of the m a g n i t u d e of t h e piezoelectric effect
G. W. Gray a voulu, dans son livre, @tablir le r61e de la                          in wood w i t h such things as t h e species of tree, t h e
constitution chimique des compos@s organiques purs sur                             density, and the distance from the centre of the trunk.
la n a t u r e et les propri@t6s des phases mdsomorphes                            The three chapters at t h e end of t h e book deal with the
qu'ils p e u v e n t fournir. Depuis la d@couverte des cristaux                    structure of cellulose a n d the w a y in which wood is
liquides, k la fin d u si@cle dernier, presque simultan@ment                       built up from cellulose and other substances. I t seems
par F. Reinitzer et O. Lehmarm, et l'ceuvre f o n d a m e n t a l e                established t h a t the piezoelectric effect is due to oriented
de Georges Friedel qui d d m o n t r a i t qu'il s'agissait d'@tats                cellulose, a n d n o t to any of the other constituents.
n o u v e a u x de la matibre, intermddiaires entre le solide                           The translator's n a m e is n o t given, which is perhaps
et le liquide isotrope, de tr6s n o m b r e u x t r a v a u x r a n t              just as well for his reputation. The t e x t abounds w i t h
th@oriques q u ' e x p d r i m e n t a u x , ont @td publids sur ce                such curious, t h o u g h usually intelligible, terms as
sujet.                                                                             reflected axes (inversion axes), c o n c o m i t a n t (compatible),
     Gray n'6tudie n i l e m d s o m o r p h i s m e lyotropique off               and real (non-zero). Occasionally, also, there are sentences
la birdfringence optique est li@e k la concentration de                            to which it is v e r y difficult to a t t a c h a m e a n i n g : ' W o o d
certains compos~is darts u n solvant convenable, ni le                             m a y regarded as a piezoelectric t e x t u r e consisting of a
m@somorphisme des compos@s biologiques. Aussi son livre                            set of cells as the e l e m e n t a r y particles of this t e x t u r e
s'adresse-t-il d ' a b o r d aux chimistes organiciens.                            t h a t are invested piezoelectric properties'. There is no
     Cependant, les sept premiers chapitres qui c o n s t i t u e n t              index.
pros de la moiti@ d u volume d@crivent m i n u t i e u s e m e n t les                                                                A. J. C. V~'ILSO=~
diffdrentes m~sophases, smectique, n@matique et chole-                              University College
st@rique; les re@rhodes d'identification, les d@terminations                       Cardiff
des t e m p e r a t u r e s de transformation; les a r r a n g e m e n t s         Great Britain
molgculaires qui se dgduisent des e x a m e n s au m o y e n
des m6thodes physiques bas6bs sur les rayons X, l'infra-
rouge, l'ultra-violet, la r@sonance magn@tique p r o t o n i q u e ;               Clays and Clay Minerals. Volume 9. Proceed-
les diff@rentes th6ories qui t e n t e n t d'expliquer ces ar-                       ings of the Ninth National Conference on
r a n g e m e n t s mol@culaires et leurs propri@tds.                                Clays and Clay Minerals. E d i t e d b y A. SWiNE-
     Dans les trois derniers chapitres, plus chimiques et                              FORD, Pp. x i + 6 1 4 .     New York:         P e r g a m o n Press,
f o r m a n t plus de la moiti@ d u volume, l'auteur @tablit des                       1962. Price £ 5.5.0.
 relations entre le m d s o m o r p h i s m e et la constitution
 chimique pour pr@voir, d'aprb, s la composition chimique                          This book contains papers given at the n i n t h annual
 d ' u n compos@ et les modifications apport@es /~ cette                           N o r t h American National Conference on Clays and Clay
 constitution chimique, les m@sophases qui p e u v e n t                           Minerals held at P u r d u e U n i v e r s i t y in October 1960.
 apparaltre.                                                                       The conference featured two symposia; t h e first 'On t h e
     Ce livre est un expos6 tr@s clair de tous les travaux,                        Engineering Aspects of t h e Physicochemical Properties
 de routes les hypoth6ses et th6ories qui se r a p p o r t e n t au                of Clays' h a d 9 papers and occupies 198 pages; the second
m@somorphisme des composds organiques. I1 fournit sur                              'On Clay-Organic Complexes' h a d 13 papers and takes
              236                                                                      BOOK   REVIEWS

              up 154 pages. There are also 20 papers, in 216 pages,                             consisted of two parts, a conference on m a g n e t i s m and
              which were given in general sessions dealing with a wide                          a s ~ n p o s i u m on electron and n e u t r o n diffraction. F o r
              range of clay mineral studies. The book begins w i t h a                          two sessions the two sections of t h e m e e t i n g combined
              report on a field trip held in conjunction w i t h the con-                       together and the present volume of seventy pages is a
              ference and is completed by an a d e q u a t e 11 page index.                     collection of the 20 papers delivered at these joint
                   As the title suggests, the unifying topic is clays, and                      sessions u n d e r t h e title ' N e u t r o n :Diffraction S t u d y of
              everyone working in this field will find s o m e t h i n g of                     Magnetic Materials'.
              interest in t h e book. The subject m a t t e r , m a i n l y the                     The reader will n o t be surprised to find t h a t nearly
              physical chemistry a n d mineralogy of clays, will be of                          all the papers are concerned w i t h the transition metals
              only marginal interest to crystallographers. Crystallo-                           of the iron group and their alloys or compounds. Unless,
              graphers, however, m a y be interested in the one-dimen-                          however, he has k e p t in close touch w i t h this work he
              sional swelling in water of crystals of the b u t y l a m m o n i u m -           m a y well be surprised at the precision and discrimination
              vermiculite complex described by Garrett and Walker.                              in m e a s u r e m e n t which is now being achieved, t h e range
              I n the swollen crystals the 10 /~ thick alumino-silicate                         of problem which is being studied (covering elastic and
              layers are separated by some h u n d r e d s of /~ of water.                      inelastic, coherent and incoherent scattering) a n d the
              Facing p. 558 is a p h o t o g r a p h showing crystals before                    variety a n d complication of the m a g n e t i c a r r a n g e m e n t s
              and after swelling in which the swollen crystal appears                           in solids which now stand revealed. As examples of t h e
              to be about 40 times as thick as the crystal before                               former we m a y n o t e very careful studies of magnetic
               swelling.                                                                         form factors, aimed at giving precise knowledge of t h e
                   The editor a n d the printers are to be congratulated on                      spin-density distribution in magnetic atoms, and meas-
               t h e appearance of the book. The printing is good and few                        u r e m e n t of the t e m p e r a t u r e - d e p e n d e n c e of t h e lifetime
               errors were noticed. The interval b e t w e e n t h e conference                  of spin waves in m a g n e t i t e : on the last topic we can see
               and the publication of the proceedings, nearly two years,                         the fascinating magnetic structures postulated for chro-
               does seem r a t h e r long for w h a t is in effect an annual                     mium, m a n g a n e s e chromite and m a n y of the rare-earth
               production.                                                                       metals, involving sinusoidally varying magnetic m o m e n t s
                                                                       G. BROW~                  and spiralling configurations of spins.
               Rothamsted Experimental Station                                                       I t is n o t usual to r e c o m m e n d a collection of conference
               Harpenden                                                                         papers as general reading. However, this compilation is
               England                                                                           exceptional. The papers are c o m m e n d a b l y short, averag-
                                                                                                 ing little m o r e t h a n three pages each, a n d a reader w i t h
               P r o c e e d i n g s of the International Conference                             only a slight interest in the subject m a y find t h a t to
                  on Ma~,netism and Crystallography. Kyoto,                                      read t h e m all straight t h r o u g h does n o t require u n d u e
                  25-30 September, 1961. V o l u m e III. N e u -                                perseverance. I t will be rewarded by a well-balanced
                                                                                                 view of the present knowledge and prospects in this field.
                  tron Diffraction Study of Ma~,netic Mate-
                    r i a l s . J o u r n a l of t h e P h y s i c a l Society of J a p a n .                                                                   G. E. BACON
                    V o l u m e 17. S u p p l e m e n t B - I I I 1962. Pp. 71. Price            Atomic Energy t~esearch Establishment
                    U.S.$1.00.                                                                   Harwell
                The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Magnetism and Crystal-               England
                lography h e l d in Kyoto, J a p a n , in S e p t e m b e r 1961




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