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					 FINAL REPORT




 KANPUR CITY
DEVELOPMENT
    PLAN




JAWAHARLAL NEHRU       August 2006
  NATIONAL URBAN
 RENEWAL MISSION
    (JNNURM)

                   JPS ASSOCIATES (P) LTD.
                        CONSULTANTS
                                       Acknowledgement

This report was prepared by a multi-sectoral team led by Mr. Pritam Kapur, Project Director, who
has seen the overall co-ordination and Dr. Vinita Yadav, Project Manager, who has not only
managed the project and worked on chapters but also gone through each and every chapter and
carried out improvements so that consistency can be maintained in the report. The team included
Mr. D.C.Awasthi (Municipal Services Expert), Mr. S.S. Mathur (Team Leader) who has worked
for initial two weeks, Mr. S.K.Relan, institutional Expert, Mr. Punit Mathur and Mr. O.P. Bohra
as Financial Expert and Mr. K.K. Mahapatra as Environmental Expert who have given their
valuable input for different chapters. The team would also like to acknowledge the efforts put in
by Mr. Shukla, Mr. Birender, Mr. Davis, Mani, Ranjit and Gopal who provided excellent
administrative support in production of the final version of the report.

The team appreciates the valuable feedback received from Ms. Anita Bhatnagar Jain, Divisional
Commissioner, Mr. Anurag Srivastav, District Magistrate, Mr. Badal Chatterjee, Municipal
Commissioner, Mr. U.N. Tiwari, Additional Commissioner of K.N.N., Mr. Deepak Kumar, Vice
Chairman, KDA which helped in the improvement of the report.

The team would like to place on record its appreciation of the cooperation received from Ms.
Anita Bhatnagar Jain, Divisional Commissioner for bringing all the officials under one umbrella
to discuss the city vision, strategies, action plan and financial investment and special thanks to
Mr. Badal Chatterjee, Municipal Commissioner and Mr. U.N.Tiwari, Addl. Municipal
Commissioner and his team who has provided their support throughout the study period and not
only helped us in timely completion of the stud y but also given their valuable feedback on the
current situation of Kanpur and their likely solutions.

Grateful acknowledgement is also made of the contribution of staff members of Kanpur Nagar
Nigam, District Urban Development Agency, U.P. Housing Board, Kanpur Development
Authority, U.P. Jal Nigam, Kanpur Jal Nigam and Kanpur Jal Sansthan for their continual
guidance and support in the preparation of report.

The research benefited greatly from regular consultations with different officials and other
stakeholders i.e. Merchant Chamber of Commerce, Indian Industries Association, Kanpur
Industrial Dev. Co-operative Estate Ltd., Kanpur Builders and Promoters Association, Property
Dealers and Builders Association, Hotel and Restaurant Association, Chauk Sharafa Vayapar
Mandal, eminent Citizens, non- government organizations and community development societies.
The names of the stakeholders are annexed. The team would also like to express its gratitude
especially to Mr. Amol Kumar Verma, Principal Secretary; Mr. S.P. Singh, Special Secretary;
Mr. Nisith Rai, Director, RCUES, Ms. Urmila Bagga, Joint Director, RCUES and Mr. Sree Ram,
Consultant RCUES for their participation and suggestions given in the seminars/presentations
organized during the course of the study in June and July 2006.
                                                                     KANPUR
                                                              City Development Plan (CDP)

                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sl. No.                                    Contents                             Page No.
           Executive Summary                                                      i-xiv

   1.      Approach to Development of ‘City Development Plan’ for Kanpur           1-6

   2       City Profile                                                            7-12

   3       Demography                                                             13-16

   4       Economy                                                                17-22

   5.      Land Use                                                               23-26

   6.      Housing                                                                27-36

   7.      Basic Services for the Poor in Kanpur                                  37-51

   8.      Road and Transportation Planning                                       52-62

   9.      Municipal Services                                                     63-83

  10.      Heritage and Tourism                                                   84-90

  11.      Environmental Management Plan for Kanpur City                         91-100

  12.      Stakeholder Consultations                                             101-107

  13.      Institutional Frame Work and Institutional Reforms for Kanpur         108-132

  14.      Kanpur Cantonment                                                     133-137

  15.      Vision and Strategies                                                 138-149

  16.      Finances of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in Kanpur                       150-169

  17.      Financing of Investment Plan And Project Phasing                      170-186

  18.      Status of Urban Reforms                                               187-189




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                         KANPUR
                                                                  City Development Plan (CDP)

                                          List of Tables

 Table No.                                    Contents                              Page No.
     2.1        Importance of Kanpur                                                   2-10
     3.1        Population Change                                                      3-13
     3.2        Spatial Distribution of Population (2006)                              3-15
     3.3        Literacy Rate                                                          3-15
     3.4        Population under reserved categories                                   3-16
     3.5        Population Projection by Different Methods                             3-16
     4.1        Workforce Participation in Kanpur                                      4-18
     4.2        Industrial status of Kanpur                                            4-20
     4.3        Growths in NSDP and Per Capita Income in Kanpur City                   4-22
     5.1        Land Use of Kanpur City (1961 – 1998)                                  5-24
     5.2        Land Use as per Master Plan 2021                                       5-25
     6.1        Type of Houses                                                         6-28
     6.2        Housing Provided by KDA till 1997                                      6-29
     6.3        Houses Provided by KDA in Post 1997 period                             6-29
     6.4        Houses Developed by KDA in last 3 years                                6-30
     6.5        Houses Developed by U.P. Housing Board (Upto 31st March                6-31
                2006)
     6.6        Access to Basic Services                                               6-32
     6.7        Housing Demand Projections (2001 to 2013)                              6-33
     7.1        Slum Population Details of Kanpur                                      7-38
     7.2        Comparison of Educational Level in Slum Basties                        7-39
     7.3        Level of employment in Slum Basties                                    7-39
     7.4        Level of Income in Slum Basties                                        7-39
     7.5        Housing at Slum Basties                                                7-40
     7.6        Houses Developed by KDA for Poorer Section of Society                  7-43
     8.1        Vehicle Registration Data for Kanpur City                              8-54
     8.2        Growth of Registered Vehicles in Kanpur                                8.54

Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                             KANPUR
                                                                    City Development Plan (CDP)


 Table No.                                    Contents                                Page No.
     9.1        Present status of water supply capabilities of Kanpur Jal Sansthan       9-65
     9.2        Installed capacity of treatment of raw water                             9-66
     9.3        Water Supply Indicators                                                  9-66
     9.4        Discharge and length of different drains                                 9-72
     9.5        Projected Waste Generation                                               9-74
     9.6        Waste Composition in Kanpur (in %)                                       9-76
     9.7        Type of Waste Storage Depots                                             9-78
     9.8        Investment Required for Improvement of Waste Depots in Inner             9-79
                Core Area
     9.9        Trend of Water Borne Diseases in Kanpur                                  9-82
    9.10        Trend Analysis of Malaria Cases                                          9-82
    10.1        Tourist Arrivals                                                        10-85
    11.1        Water Quality at Various Sampling Points                                11-93
    11.2        Emission Loads from Domestic Source                                     11-95
    11.3        Air Pollution                                                           11-95
    11.4        Point Source Emissions (in kg/hr)                                       11-95
    11.5        Noise Level at Selected Locations                                       11-96
    11.6        Sound Pollution                                                         11-97
    12.1        Institutional Responsibility Matrix                                     12-101
    12.2        NGOs consulted                                                          12-102
    12.3        Details of consultation held with CDS                                   12-103
    12.4        Details of Consultations held with Industries Associations              12-103
    12.5        Details of Consultations held with Trade Associations                   12-104
    12.6        Details of Consultations with Property Dealers & Builders               12-105
                Associations
    12.7        Details of Consultations with H otel Associations                       12-105
    13.1        Institutional Responsibility Matrix                                     13-128
    16.1        Revenue Composition of Kanpur Municipal Corporation                     16-151


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                             KANPUR
                                                                      City Development Plan (CDP)


 Table No.                                    Contents                                  Page No.
    16.2        Expenditure Pattern of Kanpur Municipal Corporation                       16-153
    16.3        Resource Gap of KNN (1998-2005)                                           16-156
    16.4        Finances of Kanpur Jal Sansthan                                           16-159
    16.5         Demand and Collection of Water Charges                                   16-160
    16.6        Tariff Rates of Water Consumption                                         16-160
    16.7        Financial Status of Kanpur Development Authority                          16-163
    16.8        Assumptions for Revenue Mobilization of KNN                               16-166
    16.9        Impact of reforms on KNN-(Ph-I)                                           16-167
   16.10        Assumptions for Resource Mobilization of KJS                              16-168
   16.11        Impact of Reforms on KJS Finances                                         16-168
    17.1        Project-wise of Investment Plan (2006-31)                                 17-172
    17.2        Sector-w ise Tentative Investments (2006-31)                              17-174
   17.3a.       Project-wise Summary of Investment Plan: Phase-I (2006- 2011)             17-176
   17.3b.       Sector-w ise Cost of Project Allocation- City Share                       17-177
    17.4        Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewable Mission (JNURM)
   17.4a        Source and Use of funds for the JNNUM (under submission I &II)
   17.4b        Department & Institution wise Cost of Project Allocation
    17.5        Assumptions for the generation of funds by KNN, KJS and KDA
    17.6        Source of Funds for 30% contribution of city
    17.7        KNN-surplus for contribution to JNNURM
    17.8        KJS-Surplus for contribution to JNNURM
    17.9        Generation of resources for meeting O&M cost for the new assets           17-185
                to be created under JNNURM
   17.10        Source of funds for funding of the JNNURM programme                       17-186




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                           KANPUR
                                                                    City Development Plan (CDP)



                                        List of Maps
   Map                              Description                               Page No.
    1         Zonal Map of Kanpur City                                           2-7
    2         Location of Inner and Outer City Area                             3-15

                                        List of Annexure s
Annexure                              Description                             Page No.
   1          Stakeholder Consultations                                       190-234
   2           List of Officials who attended the meeting held on 19th          235
               April 2006
     2        Introducing E-Governance in Kanpur                              236-239

     3        JNNURM and Methodology for Developing ‘City                     240- 252
              Development Plan’




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                      KANPUR
                                                               City Development Plan (CDP)



                                      List of Abbreviations


JNNURM         :       Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission
CDP            :       City Development Plan
UIDSSMT        :       Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium
                       Towns
IHSDP          :       Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme
KNN            :       Kanpur Nagar Nigam
KDA            :       Kanpur Development Authority
74th CAA       :       74th Constitutional Amendment Act




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                                                                KANPUR
                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)



                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


1.   JNNURM: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
     The central government has come out with the Jawaharlal Nehru National
     Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), which is a city-based programme, to
     build the capacity of cities for better urban management. It will cover 63 cities
     over a period of seven years starting from 2005-06. The JNNURM aims to
     provide an incentive to large urban areas to undertake institutional, structural
     and fiscal changes necessary for developing improved service delivery
     systems that are sustainable, address poverty and enhance local economic
     performance. The overall objective of the scheme is to improve the economic
     and physical infrastructure for the rapidly increasing urban population and also
     to provide essential facilities and services across the fast growing cities using
     public private partnership. C ities are expected to articulate their vision, their
     plans and their commitment through a City Development Plan. The City
     Development Plan jointly provides the starting point for this process.

2.   KANPUR CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
     City Development Plan for Kanpur city is both a perspective and vision for the
     future development. Kanpur City Development Plan (CDP) is the culmination
     of a study which was commenced about three months ago by JPS Assoc iates.
     This report is based on invaluable inputs the consultants received from the
     various stakeholders and the officers associated with the development of the
     city. This CDP, therefore, truly reflects the vision of the citizens, the poor and
     the slum dwellers and the officers who are determined to make Kanpur a
     futuristic city in the next few years.

     It involves studying the current stage of city’s development, setting out the
     direction for change, identifying the thrust areas and suggesting the alternative
     strategies and interventions for bringing in the required change. The CDP has
     identified the infrastructure projects to be implemented during mission
     duration across various urban sectors along with the proposed implementation
     mechanism including the Private Sector Participation (PSP) strategy.

     This report is divided into eighteen chapters, each dealing with a separate facet
     of the city and services of the city. The final chapters deal with the vision and
     strategy, financing plan and institutional reforms which are at the heart of
     sustainable development. The data collected from secondary sources and through
     interactive sessions/ interviews was analysed to make a realistic assessment of
     where the city is and the direction in which it has been moving. An analysis of
     the Kanpur City’s existing situation with respect to demography, economic
     activities, land use, poverty, urban infrastructure, environment, institutional
     and financial aspects was carried out to see its implications for service
     delivery and urban management.


      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                          i
                                                                KANPUR
                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)




3.   KANPUR – AN INTRODUCTION
     Kanpur is a metropolitan city, sprawling over an area of 260 sq km. Kanpur is
     the biggest city of the State of Uttar Pradesh and is main centre of commercial
     and industrial and educational activities. According to the census 2001,
     Kanpur has a population of 25.51 lakhs. It is administratively divided into 6
     zones and 110 wards with an average ward population range of 19000 to
     26000.

4.   DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
     The average annual growth of population is 3.5 percent during the period
     1991-2001 from the average annual growth rate of 2.6 percent in the previous
     decade (1981-91). One of the factors for this kind of growth can be higher
     number of in-migration to Kanpur City from other areas. As per the simple
     graph method, proposed population is 48 lakhs in 2031 which means that
     another Kanpur will be added in next 25 years. The average population density
     in Kanpur is 97.56 persons per hectare. The density in core area is six times
     higher than the outer area. Therefore, need is felt to decongest the inner core
     area to improve the quality of life.

5.   ECONOMIC GROWTH
     As far as economy is concerned, most of the yesterday’s industries are sick.
     Mostly small and medium sector industries are flourishing. Tanneries appear
     to be thr iving. There are not much of new age industries such as I.I.T. Kanpur
     is growing as a trade and commerce centre. Kanpur has an image of dying
     city. Power shortage and electricity cut for 10-12 hours per day on average
     being observed. There is no air connectivity between major stations. All this
     create hindrance in the economic growth of the city. For the economic growth
     of the city, image building exercise is required. We have to make efforts so
     that ex IITians will commit to Kanpur. The infrastructure and means of
     communication needs to be improved so that trading activities can be boost.
     The need is also felt to facilitate marketing linkages for small scale industries.

6.   URBAN PLANNING AND HOUSING DEVELOPMENT
     Kanpur Development Authority is planning to develop additional 33700 ha for
     growth of city. In the master plan 2021, provision for inner and outer ring
     road, new terminals, vegetable and grain markets and development of new
     colonies in close proximity to commercial hub has been proposed. The
     preparation as well as approval of master plan has taken more than 7 years.
     Master plan should be speedily approved and implemented in the city. Steps
     should also be taken to move industry to conforming area and to ensure good
     connectivity to new markets and terminals.

     Most of the residents stay in one to two room tenements indicating large
     EWS/LIG population. Large number of residents uses their premises for work
     cum residence purpose. No new colony has been developed by private


      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                          ii
                                                                KANPUR
                                                        City Development Plan (CDP)



     colonizers. An estimated 1.8 lakh additional houses are required by 2013.
     Huge requirement for additional housing is felt besides meeting existing
     shortage. Housing industry itself can stimulate economy of Kanpur.

     The strategy for planned development will be speedy development of planned
     townships, stimulating housing development through public -private
     partnership, improvement in quality of KDA/UPHB housing, reservation of 25
     percent area for EWS housing to avoid formation of new slums, location and
     demand led construction of EWS housing, d    ifferential pricing in mixed land
     use areas and outsourcing approval of building plans and granting completion
     certificates.

     KDA has proposed to develop 10,000 acres to accommodate 16 lakh by 2021.
     The new development will be in Gangotri Township which will be developed
     across Ganges and close to civil lines, Hi tech city over 5000 acre including
     1800 acres by Sahara, 2500 acre for New Kanpur city towards Bithoor road
     and two housing projects of UPHB of 1350 acres and 1500 acres towards
     western side of Kanpur

     The strategy is to green the parks with the involvement of RWAs,
     development of water bodies, green belts e.g. Kidwai Nagar, rain water
     harvesting (1.5 lakh liters already saved), introduction of CNG buses,
     developing the locations for weekly markets and shifting of cattle colonies.

7.   BASIC SERVICES FOR THE URBAN POOR
     According to census 2001, the slum population was 3.68 lakh i.e. 14.5 percent
     of total population in 390 slums. As per the survey conducted by D.U.D.A in
     1997-98, the population was 4,19,859 and total households were 98,208
     whereas slum population is about 5.0 lakh in 2006 as per K.N.N. estimate,
     which is twenty percent of total population. A large number of below poverty
     line (BPL) population (about 60%) also live -in slums. 66 percent population is
     below 35 years old. This section has rising aspirations which need to be
     addressed. Out of total slum population, 64% (2,69,427) are illiterate whereas
     only 35.8% (1,50,432) are literates, More than 40 percent are self employed.

     Majority of households i.e. more than 51 percent live in Kutcha Houses made
     of grass, mud etc. and jhuggi jhopri’s. Majority of house holds (55%) get
     water from public stand posts and only 19 percent have individual taps.
     Presently, access to sanitation services is markedly less than access to other
     basic services. Majority of households use public toilets followed by
     households using individual flush. Even then open defecation is still at a large
     scale i.e. 25 percentage of the slum households openly defecate.

     Slums are classified into two categories for planning purposes: slums which
     are requiring relocation and those which can be improved in-situ There should
     be separate government policy for dealing with the slums located at different
     type of land i.e. private land (hata land), public land (KDA, KNN, Railway,

      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                         iii
                                                                KANPUR
                                                        City Development Plan (CDP)



                                                               -3
     Gram Samaj, Irrigation, Nazul land), combined land of 2 authorities (KDA,
     KNN and railway land) and those slums required or not required for
     development project. Funds will be provided for improving basic ser vices to
     slums not to be relocated (water, sewers, public toilets, roads and improving
     houses) and in-situ development by constructing multi-storey housing on Pune
     style and undertaking a massive EWS housing initiative successful by demand
     led EWS housing with proper connectivity. The Community Development
     Societies (CDS) will be actively involved through various P-P -P initiatives.

     The Strategy to empower slum dwellers will be relocation of slums dwellers
     by adopting consultative process, encouraging the formation of micro credit
     organisations, construction of community toilets as per their need and with due
     consultation, allowing CDS to bid for O&M of community toilets, IEC
     activities for sensitizing on hygiene, SWM and sanitation, involvement of
     CDS in planning, implementation and monitoring of infrastructure projects to
     improve ownership, proper maintenance of community centres and further
     construction as per demand and motivating slum dwellers to use services like
     piped water, toilets and electricity and pay for their use.

8.   URBAN TRANSPORT
     The city is predominantly dependent upon private buses and tempos for the
     intra-city passenger travel. There are approximately 80 private buses and 980
     auto rickshaws and tempos plying in the city. U.P.S.R.T.C has ordered for 108
     new CNG buses to replace old fleet of buses. 1000 new CNG taxi permit has
     been given. The maximum numbers of vehicles registration are of two
     wheelers from 1999 to 2006 followed by cars. The overall traffic situation in
     Kanpur is chaotic, roads are overloaded. The railway line between Kanpur and
     Farrukhabad divides the city into north and south city and rail level crossing
     falls between main Kanpur city and south city due to which frequent traffic
     jam is seen all along the G.T. road and traffic movement is restricted. Mixed
     traffic results in low corridor speed. There are poor intersection geometrics
     and signaling system, inadequate parking facilities. There is no proper
     alighting and boarding facility.

     The strategy required is segregation of traffic to improve speed, enforcement
     of discipline in tempos regarding boarding and alighting points, strict checking
     of polluting vehicles to reduce pollution, building consensus for removal of
     encroachments and undertaking a drive on inculcating traffic sense.

     The works proposed for integrated development of transport are integrated
     development of 116 Kms of roads including 53 Kms of PWD roads, flyovers
     at Bada Chauraha, Vijay Nagar Chauraha and Guthaia Crossing, ROBs at
     Jarib Chauki,kalyanpur,shyamnagar and Dadanagar, Bridge over Ganges to
     connect Gangotri township, Bus terminals at Jhakarkatti, Chunniganj and
                                            -
     Azad Nagar and development of multi storey parking for Birhana road,
     Naveen market, Murray company bridge and motijheel-swaroopnagar area.


      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                         iv
                                                                KANPUR
                                                        City Development Plan (CDP)



9.   MUNICIPAL SERVICES

     a. Water supply
        The main source of surface water in the city is from the catchments of
        Ganga River and Pandu River. The total water supply requirement is 600
        mld but only 385 mld of potable water is being supplied. The total supply
        from treatment plants is about 255 mld water (210 mld raw water from
        Bhaironghat pumping station and 45 mld from Lower Ganga Canal) and
        approximately 130 mld water is drawn from groundwater comprising of 80
        mld from tube wells (about 135) and 50 mld from hand pumps (about
        9830). The availability of water is adequate but distribution system needs
        improvement. Main issues are that numbers of connection is not increasing
        due to excess use of ground water, low pressure and unreliable service,
        low utilization due to old and leaky system, Inadequate funds for O&M.
        The need is felt to expand distribution as demand of 464 mld will rise to
        860 mld by 2031.

        The emphasis will be on improving water supply distribution for the inner
        core in phase 1 (Rs 319 cr). This will comprise of replacing old and leaky
        pipes in inner core area, renovation of the zonal pumping stations and
        improving capacity, providing for inter-connection of various water
        treatment plants to balance shortfall in capacities. Additional WTPs and
        feeder mains to connect to outer colonies will be considered in phase 2 (Rs
        694 cr).


     b. Sewerage
        The source of sewer is mostly from domestic households but the waste
        generated from industries also flow into sewers. The present arrangements
        segregate industrial effluents from domestic sewerage for sewerage
        treatment plants. The industrial units in Panki and Dada Nagar industrial
        area also discharge industrial effluents, which finally flows in River Pandu
        through three Nalas, flowing north to South in South of Kanpur city.
        Current coverage of sewer system is around 60 percent and load is 360
        mld. In 1997, total amount of waste water measured in drains and at the
        STPs was about 370 mld of which 160 mld was intercepted under GAP-1.
                                                       d
        At present inflow of treatment plants is 63 ml and only 17 percent of the
        total waste water generated.

        Main issues related to sewerage are mixing of storm water drains with
        sewage increases load on STPs, old sewers in inner core area unable to
        carry current load, damaged and leaky and unsatisfactory arrangements for
        treating tanneries and industrial effluents.

        The renovation of inner core sewers using trench less technologies,
        segregation of storm water and sewers to avoid choking of sewers,


      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                         v
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)



         completion of works under GAP-II, construction of decentralized STP in
                                                       n
         new colonies by UPHB will be undertaken i phase-I (Rs 297 crore). In
         phase -II (Rs 3799 crore), main and branch trunks will be covered outlying
         areas and construction of additional STP for increased population.

      c. Storm Water Drains
         Kanpur city is habituated between two rivers Ganges on north and Pandu
         River on south. There are 17 nalas discharging wastewater in Ganga over a
         stretch of 20 KM from Bithoor downstream to Jajmau. Out of all Nala,
         Sisamau Nala has the biggest catchments area of 1985 hectares. All the
         Nalas, discharging in Ganga River have been tapped except Sisamau.
         Under the GAP (Ganga Action Plan) Phase -II, Sisamau nala, the largest
         nala in Kanpur City, presently carrying a flow of around 138 mld will be
         diverted for treatment.

      d. Solid Waste Management
         At present waste generation in the city is around 1500 MT presently.
         Apart from solid waste generated by households, commercial
         establishments and institutions, Kanpur also has a number of industries
         and other businesses that generate d  ifferent type of waste such as bio-
         medical waste, sludge, buffing and other waste produced by tanneries in
         Jajmau area, industrial waste produced by textile, rubber and other
         industries operating in the city etc. The main issues are outdated
         equipment causing unreliable service, inadequate bins, no segregation of
         waste and proper composting/SWM disposal arrangement, non-operative
         treatment facilities of tannery waste. The strategy would be introducing
                                                                        i
         house to house collection and user charge, improving rel ability by
         replacing old equipment, improving efficiency by transfer stations and
         providing tricycles, provide for a Treatment/composting plant, outsource
         an integrated SWM and conservancy service on PPP basis.

10.   CITY VISION
      After intensive consultation with various stakeholders the vision identified for
      city is:
               To make Kanpur a clean and healthy city with high quality
               infrastructure such as better roads, airport, and basic services
               so that it is recognized as a premier city of U.P. and an
               environment which attracts people and develops business. The
               government machinery should be efficient, effective,
               accountable and transparent by adopting customer oriented
               approach to improve confidence of entrepreneurs and
               encourage them to come forward for P-P-P schemes.




       Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                         vi
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)



11.   INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
      In Kanpur, the main institutions are Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kanpur Jal
      Sansthan, U.P.Jal Nigam and Kanpur Development Authority.

      a. Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN)
         Kanpur Nagar Nigam is administered under the Uttar Pradesh Municipal
         Corporation Adhiniyam, 1959. The strength of the council is 110 in
         addition to the Mayor. The corporation is divided into six zones and each
         zone is headed by an Assistant Commissioner. The inner core area of
         Kanpur comprises of 67 wards out of total of 110 wards. The corporation
         is divided into two wings, viz. elected wing and the administrative wing.
         The administrative wing of the corporation is headed by a Municipal
         Commissioner appointed by state government and supported by two Add.
         Commissioners also appointed by the state government. The main sources
         of revenue of KNN are taxes (mainly property), license fees, rent of the
         municipal properties, interest, etc. The total receipt on revenue account
         including grants-in-aid has been estimated by KNN at Rs.193.25 crores
         and capital receipts are expected to be Rs.6.90 crores for the year 2006-07.

         Kanpur Nagar Nigam’s financial health needs urgent improvement.
         Though the balance sheet shows a small surplus, it is not true
         representation as accounts are maintained on cash basis. The institution is
         unable to pay even pension, PF etc. and has outstanding liabilities of
         nearly Rs 90 crores.
         Hence there is need to improve both revenues and cut down on costs.
         Some of the measures which are proposed are given below.

      Bringing Institutional Efficiency in Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN)
      To bring the efficiency in the functioning of different institutions (KNN, KJS
      and KDA) and to generate the resource for contributing their share (30%),
      KNN will generate surpluses through the following:
      Ø Reforms in property tax which will include bringing all the properties
          under Unit Area Method from annual rental value (ARV), surveying all
          properties to verify the area etc.
      Ø Introduction of door to door collection of solid waste and introduction of
          user charge
      Ø cost savings by way of reduction in fuel cost of solid waste collection
          vehicles by introducing new fuel efficient fleet and introducing transfer
          stations to reduce kms to be run
      Ø savings in electricity cost by P-P-P of streetlights, and
      Ø reducing administrative and general administration costs by abolishing
          some posts
      Ø By reducing strength of white collar workers by introduction of e-
          governance and by out sourcing bill collection
      The impact of the various improvement measures at the end of five years is
      given below:


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                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)




Impact of Proposed Improvements on the Financial Health of KNN by 5th Year
(Rs Crore)
   S. Item                                         Improvement       2010-11
  No.
   1 Improvement in property tax                          various         26.24
   2     User charges for SWM                             Rs 30           14.40

   3     Reduction of SWM costs                           20%             02.81

   4     PPP in streetlights                              15%             0.45
   5     Savings by e-governance                          10%             1.20

    6 Abolition of surplus posts                          340 no          1.22

    7 P-P-P in bill collection                            25%             1.01

         Total annual improvement by 5th yr                               47.33


   b. Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS)
      The delivery of water and sewerage services in the city is the responsibility
      of Kanpur Jal Sansthan. This is a specialized institution. It earns revenues
      by way of water and sewerage tax and also by charging for water supplied.
      Currently there are no meters in the city and charges are on flat rate basis.

         Kanpur Jal Sansthan is also making a loss of about Rs 5 crores per annum
         and is also unable to pay its electricity bills of about Rs 11 cr p.a. (which
         are paid by GoUP from its grants to KNN). Because of poor pressure and
         unreliabil ity of timings of water supply caused by frequent power failures,
         the numbers of connections are not increasing at the desired rate, though
         KJS has surplus capacity.

         Some of the measures like replacing old leaky pipes and improving storage
         etc. at the regional pumping stations, the performance of KJS will improve
         and it will be able to provide more connections.

   Bringing Institutional Efficiency in Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS)
   The KJS will improve its financial performance and generate surpluses by:
   Ø introducing the improvement in its population coverage (connections) and
      introducing metering,
   Ø Increased income by way of reduced leakages and hence giving additional
      connections in inner core
   Ø Introduction of a user charge for treatment of waste water
   Ø Savings in power and work force because of renovation of sewers etc.
   Ø Improvement in water and sewerage tax because better coverage of


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              properties by KNN

           The impact of the various proposed measures on the health of KJS at the end
           of five year period (2010-11) is shown below:

      Impact of Proposed Improvements on the Financial Health of KJS by 5th
      Year                    (Rs Crore)
      S.No                             Item                    2010-11
        1   Increased income by reduced leakages in inner core    06.38
            area
       2      Introduction of user charge for treating waste water            10.80

       3      Additional revenue by increasing connections                    06.00

       4      Improvement in water & sewer tax                                04.35

              Total improvement                                               27.43


12.        INFRASTRUCTURE RELATED PROJECTS PROPOSED TO BE
           UNDERTAKEN
           Based on the analysis of infrastructure needs and the stakeholder analysis,
           several projects were identified. All projects can obviously not be taken up
           simultaneously. Hence a prioritization of projects has been done based on
           discussions with the stakeholders and with the various officials involved with
           the management of the city.
           The entire work to be carried out has been divided into two phases. The Phase-
           I comprises of projects planned in first five years i.e. 2006-2011. While phase-
           II covers the projects proposed to be undertaken in the next twenty five years.
           The prioritization of works to be carried out in Phase-I is given below:

           a. Prioritisation of Projects
              The following projects have been identified after holding intensive
              consultation with stakeholders:
              1. Improving transport infrastructure including improving trunk Roads, so
                 as to h ave an immediate impact of improvements on the citizens of
                 Kanpur at large
              2. Improving solid waste management both in the inner core and outer
                 city
              3. Redevelopment of inner core city including shifting of industries to
                 conforming areas
              4. Renovating old/broken water pipelines resulting in contaminated water
              5. Repair / rehabilitation of broken sewerage / sewerage connected to
                 drains
              6. Redevelopment of slums according to Bombay Model
              7. Improving basic services in Slums


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       8. Housing for the EWS

13. CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN
    The entire work is divided into two sub-missions. Sub –mission-I comprising
    of Improvement of infrastructure and sub-mission-Ii comprising of ‘Improving
    Basic Services to the Poor’

   Sub-mission-I: Infrastructure Projects
   1. Under the project on improving traffic ma nagement, improving the
      transport system and its infrastructure, the following activities will be
      taken up:
      Ø Widening of roads including construction of footpaths, road furniture,
          deep drains, proper signalling, improving intersection design etc. with
          a view to improve circulation speed in the city corridor,
      Ø Construction of Central Bus Station at Jhakarkati and Chunniganj and
          a bus terminal at Ajad Nagar in Phase-I.
      Ø construction of flyovers at Bada Chouraha, Vijay Nagar Chouraha and
          Guthaia crossing as also construction of 5 Rail Over Bridges (ROBs)
          etc.,
      Ø construction of over bridge on river Ganges to connect the proposed
          Gangotri township to be located across Ganges, with the central
          Kanpur area.
      Ø Development of Parking Areas, parking lot/space on PPP bas is,
          development of Heritage Area and preservation of Water Bodies.

   2. Under the solid waste management, purchase of cleaning equipment like
      dumpers, placer, special waste container van, tri-cycle and auto rickshaws
      and construction of modern dustbins has be en taken in phase-1. It is
      proposed to introduce door to door collection and levy a user charge. In
      Phase-II the new areas of the city will also be covered with improved Solid
      Waste System.

   3. In the inner core area, following tasks will be undertaken
      Ø Widening of congested roads in the inner core area, including
          construction of footpaths, road furniture, deep drains etc.
      Ø shifting of industries from non-conforming areas to conforming area
          i.e. in industrial estates to be set up at Chakeri-1 and Chakeri-2, in
          P hase-I and develop an Industrial Estate at Bhouti Mandhana by pass
          in Phase-II.
      Ø conversion of old and leaky pipelines covering 530 km of distribution
          system in the inner area with new high capacity pipelines.Renovation
          of the raw water pump house , rising mains, water treatment plant,
                                                                h
          renewal of CWMR reservoir, , renovation of Benaj avar water works
          and Bhairav Ghat intake well.
      Ø Modernisation of sewers line by restoration/renovation of sewerage
          pumping station and sewer line using trench less technologies and


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          construction of new sewage pumping station at Bhagwat Das Ghat.
        Ø Modernization of open drains
        Ø Construction of modern dustbins in place of 152 old and open dustbins
          and purchasing special container, dumper etc. for solid waste
          management.

     4. Under the water supply component, emphasis is given for bringing
        improvement in water supply distribution for the inner core as described
        above. In Ph-II, additional WTPs and feeder mains to connect to outer
        colonies will be considered.

     5. As far as improving the sewers are concerned, in addition to the tasks
        described above for the inner core area, the following additional tasks will
        be also be undertaken in first phase:
        Ø segregation of storm water and sewers to avoid choking of sewers,
        Ø completion of works under GAP-II,
        Ø construction of decentralized STP in new colonies by UPHB
        The connecting main and branch trunks to cover outlying areas and
        construction of additional STP for increased population is proposed in
        phase -II.

     6. Work will also be undertaken on improvement of Ghats and places of
        heritage. The social infrastructure such as improving parks, ladies hostel,
        improvement of community halls, developing green belts etc. will also be
        undertaken.

     7. In the area of Kanpur Cantonment Board,      several       infrastructure
        improvement projects similar to the KNN area will be undertaken such as
        renovation of old sewers, improving roads, construction of one RoB etc.

     Sub-mission-II: Improving Basic Services for the poor
     Under the submission – 2 of JNNURM, the following activities will be
     undertaken:
     Ø In-situ development of 390 slums by bringing improvement of roads and
         drains, hand pump, water supply, sewerage, street lighting and
         construction of 7461 houses
     Ø EWS housing is proposed to be built for relocation of those slums which
         are on untenable sites such as falling near the river/footpath/ or site which
         is required for development works
     Ø 5 slums to be developed on Bombay          /Pune model with multi- storey
         housing and improved infrastructure.

14. FINANCIAL INVESTMENT
    In order to meet the above plan for infrastructure improvement, the following
    investment plan is proposed; which comprises of investment proposed in the
    first phase of five years and the total plan over the next 30 years.


      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                         xi
                                                                   KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)



          Financial investment plan                            (Rs Crore)
       S. No           Description                 Investment in Ph-I Total Plan
                                                       (2006-11)       (2006 -31)
            Sub-Mission-I
         1 Re-Development of inner city                            1332           1957
         2 Augmenting water supply                                 0.00            469
         3 Extending sewerage                                        31           3624
            Improving      solid      waste
         4 management                                             43.25             605
            Construction/improvement of
         5 drains                                                   172             172
            Improving     roads,     RoBs,
         6 Flyovers, terminal, addl. bridge                        1179           1671
         7 Development of parking lots                               17             17
         8 Water bodies/ Ganga river front                           15             15
            Improving social infrastructure
         9 & environment/greening                                    22              22
            Improvements     in     Kanpur
         10 Cantonment Board Area                                   35              35
            Total of sub-mission-I                                2828            8573

              Sub-mission-II
         11   Basic Services for Urban Poor                         960           4218

              Grand Total (Sub-mission-I &
              Sub-mission II)                                     3789           12791

       It can be seen that an investment of Rs 3   789 crores is planned in Phase-I
       during the next five years, followed by an investment of Rs 8998 crores in
       Phase-II comprising of the next five years, thus bringing the total investment
       in Kanpur City of Rs 12791 crores over the next thirty years.

15. FINANCING PLAN
       Under the provisions of JNNURM, for cities of the size of Kanpur 50%
       contribution will be made by GoI, provided the balance 50 percent is made up
       of contributions from GoUP to the extent of 20 percent and the City’s
       contribution to the extent of 30 percent.

       Hence the plan in phase -I is based on the city’s capacity to raise its share of 30
       percent.

       a. Mobilization of city’s share
          The city’s share comprises of
          Ø Revenues to be mobilized by KNN in next five years, including

        Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                          xii
                                                           KANPUR
                                                   City Development Plan (CDP)



       savings from improved efficiencies enumerated earlier in the chapter
       on institutional efficiency
   Ø   Revenues to be mobilized by KJS in the next five years from
       improvement in its efficiencies and contribution from the GAP-II
       project
   Ø   Revenues by way of a betterment tax to be levied at the rate of 5% of
       the property tax (provided under law0
   Ø   Contribution by way of departmental budgets and revenues earned by
       the UPSIDC while developing and selling plots/sheds for relocation of
       non-conforming industries etc.
   Ø   Contribution by way of departmental budgets of PWD for roa ds
       improvement

                 Details of mobilization of city’s share
    S. No.                               Item                          Amount
       1       By savings and mobilization of funds by KNN                373.77
       2       By increased revenues by KJS                               142.36
       3       By introduction of betterment tax                              11.93
       6       From budget of UPSIDC-shifting non-conforming                 426.18
               industries
       7       Budget for PWD for improving trunk roads                      190.00
       8       From budgets of UPSRTC & tourism                               14.00
                     Total                                                 1168.81

b. Use and source of funds
   Based on the infrastructure investment plan presented above and the funds
   that the city is able to mobilize, the source and use of funds is as given
   below:

            Use and source of funds for Phase-I (2006-2011)
     S. No.       Use of funds                              Rs Cr
       1      Sub-mission-I                                         2828
       2      Sub-mission-II                                         960
              Total                                                 3789
              Source of funds
       1      GoI thru JNNURM                                       1948
       2      GoUP contribution                                      779
       3      City contribution                                     1169
             Total                                                  3896
   It can be seen that the capacity of the city to raise resources is slightly
   higher than the plan and to that extent some additional projects for about
   Rs 280 crores can be undertaken (difference between source and use of
   funds).

 Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                     xiii
                                                                   KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)



16. REFORMS

Reforms are being carried out at two levels, one at the level of the Nagar Nigam and
the other at the level of the State. In this chapter we focus mainly on the reforms to be
carried out by the Nagar Nigam or which impact the working of the Nigam.

   a)   Adoption of accrual based accounting: Although KNN has computerized its
        accounts and is using the Tally software, its accounts are on ‘cash basis’.
        KNN is awaiting directions from the state Govt. to change. It is estimated that
        it will switch to accrual accounting by next year.
   b)   Budgeting for the poor: KNN has agreed in principal to introduce budgeting
        for the poor. Its budgets formulation from next year will include such an
        exercise and these will be widely published and discussed withteh
        stakeholders.
   c)   Introduction of e-governance: KNN is already in the process of
        commissioning an IT company for introduction of e-governance in KNN. The
        work is expected to start in second half of this year, and may take three years
        to be completed fully.
   d)   Reforms of property tax: GIS mapping to a certain extent is already done.
        KNN is currently carrying out a house to house survey and also updating its
        GIS maps so that it has up to date information, including the data on built
        area and other details. This is likely to increase the income to KNN
        substantially.
   e)   Levy of reasonable user charge for services rendered : User charge is to be
        introduced for parking, solid waste collection, green belt use, community
        toilets etc. KJS is to introduce a user charge for treatment of waste water.
   f)   Provision of basic services to the poor: Thrust on housing and in-situ
        development of slums is being planned. The Community Development
        Societies are to be empowered and encouraged to take up PPP jobs.
   g)   Earmarking of land for EWS housing in all housing projects : It is proposed to
        increase the reservation of land for EWS housing to 20-25% in all future
        housing projects with a view to provide basic services to the poor and to
        avoid formation of slums.
   h)   Increased PPP and outsourcing to improve efficiency: Several areas are under
        consideration for PPP, these include (i) Outsourcing of solid waste collection
        (ii) O&M of parking lots (iii) PPP for plants for conversion of plastics to
        hydrocarbons (iv) Outsourcing of bill collection (v) O&M of parks thru
        RWAs etc.
   i)   Reforms by state on rent by-laws: Although some improvements have been
        made in the rent bye-laws, they are still not conducive for the landlords to
        evict tenants or to revise old low rents to market rents. These amendments
        need to be made both for housing development and also for KNN to increase
        its rental income.




         Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                     xiv
                        CHAPTER 1:
APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF ‘CITY
    DEVELOPMENT PLAN ’ FOR KANPUR
                                                                   KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


           1. APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT OF ‘CITY
              DEVELOPMENT PLAN’ FOR KANPUR


1.1    INTRODUCTION
       The city development plan (CDP) for Kanpur is the culmination of a study
       which was commenced about three months ago by JPS Associates. This report
       is based on invaluable inputs the consultants received from the various
       stakeholders and the officers associated with the development of the city. This
       CDP, therefore, truly reflects the vision of the citizens, the poor and the slum
       dwellers and the officers who are determined to make Kanpur a futuristic city
       in the next few years.

       This report is divided into eighteen chapters, each dealing with a separate facet
       of the city and services of the city. The final chapters deal with the vision and
       strategy, the financing plan and the institutional reforms which are at the heart
       of sustainable development.

       Each chapter of the report summarizes the issues that have emerged as a result
       of a study of the secondary data that the consultants collected and the
       discussions held by the consulta nts with various stakeholders. It then examines
       the issues that have arisen and examines the various strategies that are needed
       to address the issues identified.

       This rapid assessment report formed the basis on which further discussions
       were held with the various departments involved as also to hold widespread
       consultations with the various officers, associations, industry associations,
       NGOs, RWA and the representatives of the poor and economically weaker
       section of the society.

       The feedback received from them has formed the basis of prioritizing the
       infrastructure needs of the city as also the status of various reforms initiated by
       the Kanpur Nagar Nigam and how they are affecting the common man.

       This forms the basis of the development of the city vision and strategies to
       achieve the vision.

       It may be pointed out that in assessment of the needs of infrastructure in the
       city during the next 20 years, a good projection of population growth and
       population densities is very important. In this report efforts have been made to
       project the population and a mean of various methods of calculations is
       recommended, so that we err on the higher side and do not fall short of the
       infrastructure requirements in a short time.
       As will be seen from the chapters that follow , the problems of Kanpur are
       many, not the least amongst them is the problem of stagnating economic
       activity, the large number of families belonging to the Economically Weaker
       Section and the problem of overcrowding in the inner city.

Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                                1-1
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)



       On the other hand, we found the city to have many areas of strengths which
       can be exploited, not the lease of them being the good work done by DUDA in
       organizing the inhabitants of the slum dwellers and the confidence and the
       positive attitude that we witnessed in our interac tions with the various
       societies.

       Considering the desirability of introducing P-P-P in many of the services in
       the city, it is highly desirable that the corpus and capacity built by DUDA by
       way of community development societies be leveraged to the maximum as
       they can provide many of the services such as ‘Solid Waste Collection’
       efficiently. Involving them in such P-P-P efforts will also make the societies
       sustainable, and the surplus so generated could be used for starting other small
       businesses.

       The methodology followed for the development of the City Development Plan
       is described below:

1.2    ANALYSIS OF SECONDARY DATA
       The data collected from secondary sources and through interactive sessions/
       interviews was analysed to make a realistic assessment of where the city is and
       the direction in which it has been moving and its strengths and weaknesses.
       An analysis of the Kanpur City’s existing situation with respect to the
       followings was carried out to see its implications for service delivery and
       urban management.
       •     Demography
       •     economic activities i.e. identification of existing nature of commercial
             and industrial establishments
       •     urban land use
       •     urban poverty
       •     characteristics of the slums
       •     urban infrastructure and services (like transportation, water supply and
             sanitation, sewerage and solid wastes management, drains etc.)
       •     physical and environmental aspects and
       •     institutional aspects

       A critical assessment as well as projections of population growth,
       infrastructure needs and resource requirements in the short term and long term
       perspective was also carried out.

1.3    IDENTIFICATION OF KE Y STAKE HOLDER’S
       The list of key stakeholders, who are involved in the urban service delivery,
       was collected from various government departments i.e. Kanpur Nagar Nigam
       (K.N.N.), Kanpur Development Authority (KDA), District Urban
       Development Authority (D.U.D.A), District Industrial Centre (D.I.C) and
       Directorate of Industries etc. and compiled to prepare a final list. The key
       stakeholders identified were as follows:
       •     community development societies (CDS),


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                             1-2
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       •     ex- appointed elected representatives,
       •     trade associations,
       •     industries associations,
       •     builders associations,
       •     social organizations,
       •     non-governmental organizations.

       A list of officials from different departments such as Housing Board, District
       Urban Development Authority, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur Jal
       Nigam, Kanpur Jal Sansthan, Department of Industries, U.P. State Industrial
       Development Corporation, U.P. Financial Corporation, Pollution Control
       Board, Traffic cell, Kanpur Police etc. involved in the preparation of urban
       development plan was also drawn up. The final list of stakeholders is annexed
       with a brief report on the consultations (Annexure I).

1.4    DISCUSSIONS/ CONSULTATIONS WITH KEY STAKEHOLDERS
       The o  bjective of the stakeholder’s consultation was to ensure that the CDP
       reflects ground realities and the needs of the people , as articulated by them,
       are incorporated in the CDP.

       For this purpose the methodology is: After identification of stakeholder,
       consultation with various stakeholders i.e. officials from departments such as
       Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur Jal Nigam,
       Kanpur Jal Sansthan, Housing Board, PWD, KESCO, District Urban
       Development Authority (DUDA), U.P. State Industrial Development
       Corporation etc. has been carried out to make them aware of city development
       plan and to know their view about city’s vision and strategy.

       Besides carrying out discussions with the officials, discussions with key
       stakeholders such as Community Organisations, trade associations , industry
       associations, hoteliers etc have also been carried out to find out their roles in
       city development, know their perception about the city vision and develop a
       set of mission statements during different stage s of project. The consultative
       process through stakeholder consultations forms an integral part of the
       preparation of City Development Plan.

       Both group discussions and individual discussions were held. It was found that
       best discussions were held in small groups of 8-10. In large groups, a few
       persons would dominate the discussions and it was difficult to get in-depth
       views. Hence instead of conducting large workshops, several small group
       meetings were held.

       Some key points which were expressed repeatedly by the citizens were (a)
       general dissatisfaction with the response of KNN to grievances of the citizens
       (b) grave concern about the quality of water and its contamination with
       sewage water (c) Poor state of environmental sanitation and Solid Waste
       Collection, particularly in the inner core area (d) lack of transparency and
       harassment at the hands of clerks and petty officers (e) poor state of transport


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                              1-3
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


       in the city and (f) poor connectivity of the city to the new colonies that are
       coming up in the outskirts.

       Many of these points have been addressed in the strategies proposed. In
       particular attention has been paid to introduction of e-governance, use of GIS
       to modernize city management and revamp of the grievance handling.

1.5    SELECTION AND PRIORITIZATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE
       PROJECTS
       Having identified the infrastructure needs of the city, it was realized that the
       requirements of revamping the infrastructure were gigantic and it would not be
       possible both financially and physically to handle all of them at the same time.
       Hence a scoping exercise was carried out under the guidance of the Divisional
       Commissioner, under which the overall infrastructure needs were identified
       and projects formulated.

       Next, the financial requirements for the projects and their phasing was
       discussed and decided. It was realized that in view of the limitation in the
       money that the city could raise as its own share (30%) under JNNURM, not
       every thing could be taken up immediately.

       Hence priorities had to be fixed and certain projects had to be scaled down.
       The priorities are discussed in the financial chapter, but in general priority was
       given to (a) those projects which will have an immediate visible impact e.g.
       improving the city roads (b) projects for urban renewal and improvement o        f
       the inner old city, specially repair of water and sewer lines in view of the
       health hazard they were causing and (c) modernization of the solid waste
       management system.

1.6    IMPROVING BASIC SERVICES TO THE POOR
       Realizing that no improvement of a city is possible unless a minimum standard
       of living and equity can be provided to the urban poor, considerable time was
       spent in understanding the problems of the poor, including visits and group
       discussions with slum dwellers.

       The consultants tried to understand the reasons why some of the earlier efforts
       had not been very successful. The new methodology suggested will try and
       avoid the mistakes of the past, chief being that resettlement of slums is a
       vexed issue and hence design of resettlement process should be demand driven
       and should involve extensive stakeholder consultations. As a result of the
       discussion, this chapter emphasizes the plan to re-develop about five slums in
       situ with high rise buildings and improved EWS housing in others.

       Further, security of tenure is to be guaranteed by allotting the house in the
       name of the slum dweller, but full ownership rights will pass on to the
       inhabitants after ten years or so i.e. after he has paid fully for the tenement.
       This is to avoid the slum dweller re-selling the tenement and returning to the
       old situation.


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                              1-4
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)



1.7    INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY BUILDING AND REFORMS
       This section of the study tried to understand the institutional issues concerned
       with the Kanpur Nagar Nigam and the Kanpur Jal Sanasthan. The reasons for
       the institutions being in financial difficulty were studied and the reforms
       which will help the institutions to become financially viable and effective
       service providers were identified.

       The institutions need an improvement in management and implementing the
       reforms, already started by them, in a more vigorous and faithful manner. For
       this purpose, role of e -governance, improved tools of management such as
       GIS etc. have been suggested.

       There is no doubt that financial health and efficient provision of services go
       hand in hand. Hence, by modernizing old and dilapidated fleet of Solid Waste
       Collection or by introducing Public Private Partnership in O&M of street
       lights or by outsourcing of bill collection, considerable savings and improved
       service levels can be achieved simultaneously. However, the real challenge is
       not going to be deciding which areas to outsource or even finding suitable
       parties. The challenge will be in successful change management and in hand
       holding the private parties during the crucial period of stabilization.

1.8    FINANCING PLAN
       This is the most important chapter of the CDP, as it outlines the various
       infrastructure projects in financial terms, together with the proposed phasing
       and priorities.

       The infrastructure development plan als o looks at the sources of funds and
       how the city will raise its own share of funds. As per the JNNURM norms, for
       a city of size of Kanpur (With a population between I million and 4 million)
       the GoI’s contribution will be 50%, while the balance 50% would comprise of
       the state (20%) and the city (30%).

       This means that the size of the infrastructure plan is limited by the city’s
       ability to raise its share of 30%. The city’s share comprises of the savings
       which KNN and KJS can contribute and also the budgetar y grants available to
       the city from GoUP in the normal course.

       While there is a provision of raising loans by way of market borrowings or
       bonds, we have not considered these options for Kanpur as in our opinion; the
       finances of the KNN and KJS are not robust enough to be able to get a good
       credit rating and to service the debt.

1.9    REFO RM AGENDA
       The last chapter of the ‘City Development Plan’ reviews the status of various
       mandatory and optional reforms mandated by JNNURM and the actions on
       initiated / to be initiated on them.



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1.10   NEXT STEPS
       The CDP will be followed by DPRs of each of the projects, signing of the
       ‘Memorandum of Agreement’ (MoA) with the GoI and release of funds to
       commence the projects.




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 CHAPTER 2:
CITY PROFILE
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

                                2. CITY PROFILE


       Kanpur is a metropolitan city, sprawling over an area of 260 sq km. According
       to the census 2001, Kanpur has a population of 25.51 lakhs . It is
       administratively divided into 6 zones and 110 wards with an average ward
       population range of 19000 to 26000 (refer Map no. 2.1).

       It is situated on the southern bank of Ganga River and has been an important
       place in the history of modern India. Kanpur is the biggest city of the State of
       Uttar Pradesh and is main centre of commercial and industrial activities. The
       City formerly known as Manchester of the country is now also called the
       commercial capital of the state. It is known for its cotton and woolen textile
       and leather industries. Kanpur is one of the biggest producers of Textile and
       Leather products. Apart from leather and textile industry, the fertilizer,
       chemicals, two wheelers, soaps, Pan Masala, hosiery and engineering
       industries are also operating prominently in the city.

       Kanpur is situated on the most important national highways no. 2 & 25 and on
       the main Delhi-Howrah railway trunk line. Kanpur is divided into two districts
       namely Kanpur-Nagar and Kanpur -Dehat. Kanpur comprises of 3 tehsil, 2
       Municipal Board, 2 Nagar Panchayats and 10 statutory Towns. Kanpur is also
       divisional headquarters of Kanpur commissionary consisting of Kanpur-
       Nagar, Kanpur-Dehat, Etawah, Auraiya, Farrukhabad and Kannauj districts.
       The town’s population is nearly 2.5 million with an average annual growth
       rate of 2.6 per cent.


       Map 1: Zonal Map of Kanpur City




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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)



       It was believed by some scholars that Kanpur has derived its name from
       Kanhiyapur. In the course of time, Kanhiyapur probably was abbreviated as
       Kanhapur and subsequently as Kanpur. The Kanhapur owes its origin to Hindu
       Singh, raja of Saehendi who came here in 1750 to bathe in holy river, the
       Ganga and established a village, which he named Kanhapur, the name which
       became Kanpur in the course of time. During British rule, it was spelled as
       Cawnpore. Others believe that the name is derived from Karnapur and is
       associated with Karna, one of the heroes of Mahabharata. Duryodhana made
       Karna a king, seeing him as a fitting match to Arjuna, and gifted him this area;
       hence the name Karnapur, which later became Kanpur.

2.1    EVOLUTION OF KANPUR
       Kanpur has traditionally been an industrial
       city. Prior to Independence, it was the
       second most industrialized city in India
       after Calcutta. It was called the
       ‘Manchester of India’ due to the existence
       of large number of cotton textile units.

       During British era, Kanpur was of
       strategic importance due to the important
       role which it has played during the great
       revolt of 1857. This led to the
       development of a large cantonment base at
       Kanpur. After independence, Kanpur
       continued to be an important city and
       large public sector companies made their
       existence in the city.

2.2    ABOUT THE PAST: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
       Kanpur origin until the thirteenth century was shrouded in the mist. Though no
       reference to Kanpur is found in history, two of its suburbs, Jajmau, which
       dates back to the Vedic age and Bithoor, where Lord Brahma performed the
       Ashvamedh Yajna and where the famous sage Valmiki has written the
       Sanskrit epic Ramayana, can be traced back to legendary times. The region
       covered by the present district of Kanpur was once included in the ancient
       kingdom of Panchala which extended from the Himalayan mountains in the
       north to the chambal river in the south. Kanpur’s first mention was found in
       1207 AD when Raja Kanti Deo of Prayag was attached to the throne of
       Kannauj and established the village Kohna, which later came to be known as
       Kanpur. Kanpur continued its association with Kannauj during the reins of
       Harsha Vardhan, Bhoj, Mihir, Jai Chand and early Muslim rulers. Later it
       came under the Jaunpur rulers and the Sur Dynasty. The first mention of
       Kanpur was made in 1579 during Sher Shah's regime. From 1773 to 1801, it
       was part of the Oudh kingdom.



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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

        In 1801, it came under the control of the British. In 1803 Kanpur became a
        district and also an important military station of the country. At that time
        British infantry lines and the parade grounds were established in the south of
        Parmat. Indian infantry too occupied the space in Kanpur. The Company Bagh
        was laid in 1847 and the construction of the Ganga canal was commenced in
        1854.

        Kanpur has become an important centre during the great revolt of 1857. It was
        the time when Nana Saheb Peshwa succeeded in liberating the city from the
        British for a short period. Sati-Chauraha Ghat (Cantonment) from where the
        British were to leave Kanpur was a sce ne of a terrible conflict and
        consequently came to be known as Massacre Ghat; so was Bibi Ghar where
        some British families were taking shelter.

        Besides military importance, Kanpur has also made significant contribution in
        the literature and fine arts. The legendary Birbal, a minister in the court of
        Akbar and known for his wit and wisdom was born in a village, Takuapur, of
        Kanpur District. Various acclaimed writers and poets of Hindi literature
        belonged to this area. Kanpur had been the centre of patriotic Hindi magazines
        and newspapers such as Brahman, Saraswati, Vishwamitra, Veer Arjun and
        Pratap.

2.2.1   Industrialization Starts
        The waves of industrialization reached the city in 1858. The first major
        industry, the Harness and Saddlery, was established in 1860. Other mills such
        as The Elgin Mills, The Cawnpore Woolen Mills (Lal Imli at present) and the
        Victoria Mills were set up in 1864, 1870 and 1885 respectively. After the First
        World War, several mills, the Swadeshi, the JK and the Lakshmi Ratan Cotton
        Mills were established. The first re-rolling mill of India was established in
        1928 by the Singh Engineering Work. The Second World War gave fresh
        impetus to industrial complex. In the post independence years, Kanpur has
        changed from a town of mill owners and mill workers to that of a city
        consisting of large middle class population of entrepreneurs and artisans. To
        cope with the industrial growth a second thermal power station was built at
        Panki in 1966 for augmenting the older riverside power station. Panki now
        produces a total of 284 MW of power.

2.2.2   An Educational Centre
        The city has gradually emerged as a dynamic city of academic importance.
        Kanpur’s beginning as a knowledge centre was in the mid 19th century when
        Christ Church College, the oldest educational institution in the city, was
        started as a high school and became a degree college in 1919. Modern day
        Kanpur is host of several institutes of repute such as Indian Institute of
        Technology Kanpur, two universities, viz. Kanpur University and Chandra
        Sekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, a Medical College
        and technical institutions such as the National Sugar Institute, the Central
        Textile Institute and the Leather Institute etc.


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                                                                       KANPUR
                                                               City Development Plan (CDP)

                               Table 2.1 Importance of Kanpur
      §   Locational Advantage               § Major textile and hosiery
      §   Raw Material Availability             manufacturing and distribution centre
      §   Strong Industrial Base             § Famous for its leather industry
      §   Skilled Labour                     § Contributes 13.5 % of c ountries
      §   entrepreneurial spirit of large       leather exports
          number of population               § Strong Trade and Commerce
      §   Access to big local market of      § Huge Upper and Middle Class
          U.P.                                  population providing strong demand
      §   Enough Sub Soil Water                 base
      §   Educational Base – I.I.T, AU,      § Strong base of Ordinance factories
          Dental Colleges, Leather           § Air force base
          Institute, Sugar Institute         § Setting up of Special Economic Zone
      §   Potential to attract new           § 2500 sq. feet Software Technology
          industries viz. Information           Park established by UPSIDC
          Technology Enabled Services        § potential to grow existing food
          (ITES) such as call centers that      processing industry
          are very cost sensitive

2.3       LINKAGE AND CONNECTIVITY
          Kanpur City is situated between the parallels of 25o 26’ and 26o 58’ north
          latitude and 79 o 31’ and 80 o34’east longitude. It is situated on the most
          important national highways no. 2 and 25 and state highway. It is also situated
          on the main Delhi-Howrah railway trunk line. It is situated on bank of holy
          river Ganga and is about 126 meters above the sea level. Within the city only
          one Civil Aerodrome is located at Kanpur Cantonment. Though presently
          there is no civilian air-service available for the city but a 9,000 feet air strip is
          available at civilian air terminal Chakeri (Ahirwan) which is approximately 11
          km. away and one at I.I.T (Kalyanpur) which is 23 Km away. The nearest
          civilian air port Amausi (Lucknow) is 65Km. away from Kanpur.

          Kanpur is connected by road with all the major cities of the country. It is
                                                             -
          situated on National Highway No. 2 on the Delhi Agra -Allahabad-Calcutta
          route and on National Highway No. 25 on the Lucknow-Jhansi-Shivpuri route.
          It is located at the distance of 79 km from Lucknow, 193 km from Allahabad,
          329 km from Varanasi, 398 km. Khajuraho, 269 km Agra and 222 kms from
          Jhansi.

2.4       CLIMATE AND GEOLOGY
          Kanpur’s climate is characterized by hot summer and dryness except in the
          south west monsoon season. The climate in Kanpur can be divided broadly
          into four seasons. The period from March to the mid of June is the summer
          season which is followed by the south-west monsoon, which lasts till the end
          of September, October and first half of November from the post -monsoon or
          transition period. The cold season spreads from about the middle of November
          to February.



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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

                                                                                 0
       The climate is of a tropical nature and shade temperature varies from 2 C to
          0
       48 C. Rainy season extends from June to September, with the period of
       maximum rainfall normally occurring during the months of July and August.
       About 89 percent of the annual rainfall is received during the monsoon months
       (June to September). The total rainfall in the district varies from between 450
       mm to 750 mm. The annual rainfall in Kanpur Nagar was recorded 441 mm in
       actual in 2004 and 783 mm in general (Statistics Diary 2005). On an average
       there are 40 rainy days i.e. days with rainfall of 2.5 mm or more in a year in
       the district. This number varies from 35 mm at Narwal to 45 mm at Kanpur.
       T he relative humidity varies from 15% to 85%. The relative humidity in
       Kanpur ranges from less than 30 percent in the summer season to 70 percent in
       monsoon season.

       The district lies in the Ganga basin which is formed of alluvium of the early
       quaternary period. In the district, no hard or consolidated rock exposures are
       encountered. The main constituents (sand, silt and clay) of alluvium occur in
       variable proportions in different sections. The mineral products of the district
       of saline earth from which salt petre and salt are derived and limestone
       conglomerates (U.P. District Gazetteers Kanpur).

2.5    KANPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION
       Kanpur municipality came into existence on 22nd November 1861, which was
       recognized first under the Act XX of 1856 and later under Act VI of 1868,
       then under Act XV of 1873 and again acts I of 1900. It became a municipal
       corporation in 1959. The corporation is administered under the Uttar Pradesh
       Municipal Corporation Adhiniyam, 1959. This has been amended in 1994 by
       UP Act 12 of 1994 (w.e.f. 30 May, 1994), UP Act 26 of 1995 (w.e.f. 30 May
       1995) and takes care of amendments mad in 74th CAA, 1992 including the
                                                    e
       functions given in 12th schedule of the constitution. The duties and powers of
       the Corporation and Corporation authorities are detailed in Sections 114 of the
       said Act. The Municipal Act lists the functions under two categories namely
       obligatory functions and discretionary functions. The major functions being
       performed by Kanpur Nagar Nigam are:
       • Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management
       • Urban poverty alleviation
       • Provision and maintenance of urban amenities and facilities such as parks,
           gardens, playgrounds.
       • Provide and maintain the lighting of the public streets, corporation
           markets, and public buildings and other places vested in the corporation
       • Maintenance of ambulance services
       • Registration of vital statistics including births and deaths.
       • Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries
       • Burial grounds, cremation grounds, etc.

       Though Water Supply and sewerage are also obligatory functions of
       Municipal Corporation as per the 12th schedule of 74th Constitutional
       Amendment Act (CAA), in the case of Kanpur they are looked after by
       Kanpur Jal Nigam and Jal Sansthan.
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                                                                 KANPUR
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       The corporation is headed by a Municipal Commissioner appointed by state
       government and supported by two Addl. Commissioners also appointed by the
       state government.

       The previous Municipal Council headed by an elected mayor completed its
       full term and as per provisions of the Act, the process of election has to be
       completed within six months. According to municipal act, strength of the
       council is 110 in addition to Mayor. The inner core area of Kanpur has 67
       wards out of total of 110 wards.

       The total sanctioned strength of employees of Kanpur Nagar Nigam is about
       9605 whereas current employment strength is only 5579. This shows that still
       42 percent seats are left vacant.

       The main sources of revenue of KNN are taxes (mainly property), License
       fees, rent of the municipal properties, interest, etc. The total receipt on
       revenue account including grants-in-aid has been estimated by KNN at
       Rs.193.25 crores and capital receipts are expected to be Rs.6.90 crores for the
       year 2006-07. Against this the expenditure on revenue a/c are estimated at
       Rs.189.78 crores and outgo on capital accounts is estimated at Rs.958 crores.
       The opening cash balance as on 1.04.06 has been estimated Rs.5.68 crores
       which is expected to go up and close at Rs.6.47 crores at the end of the year
       i.e., as on 31.3.2007.




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                                                                       KANPUR
                                                                City Development Plan (CDP)




                                  C.S.A.U Agriculture College




                                      H.B.T.I Eng. College


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                    KANPUR
                                                             City Development Plan (CDP)




                                             I.I.T Kanpur




                                            ITI, G.T. Road



Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                     KANPUR
                                                              City Development Plan (CDP)




                           Chattrapati Shahuji Maharaj University, Kanpur




                                      International Centre




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
 CHAPTER 3:
DEMOGRAPHY
                                                                   KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)

                                3. DEMOGRAPHY


         Kanpur is the most important metropolis and biggest city of Uttar Pradesh.
         According to the 2001 census, the city had a population of 25,51,337 which
         made it the fifth most highly -populated city in India. Among the big towns of
         Uttar Pradesh, the growth of Kanpur has been phenomenal. It ranked third
         after Lucknow and Varanasi in 1901, but by 1961 it assumed a position on top
         of the list. It has registered an increase of over five times from 1,97,170 in
                                                   f
         1901 to 8,83,815 in 1961 in the course o six decades. This is mainly due to its
         most central location in the state. Kanpur has benefited from its fertile
         agricultural hinterland of the Upper Ganga Valley and Bundelkhand plateau,
         the available developed links of transportation and the stimulant of World
         War-2 with its industrial demand. In spite of a low percentage of irrigated
         area, the density is quite high which is mainly due to industrial concentration.

3.1      POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS
         As per census of 2001, Kanpur total population is 2,551,337 as compared to
         the 1,874,409 people registered in 1991. It may be observed that the average
         annual growth in population has increased to 3.5 percent during the period
         1991-2001 from the average annual growth rate of 2.6 percent in the previous
         decade (1981-91) (Table 3.1). One of the factors for this kind of growth can be
         higher number of in-migration to Kanpur City from other areas. This growth
         rate is expected to continue in future. Out of total population, male population
         is 1,374,121 which is 53.8 percent and female population is 1177216 i.e. 46.2
         percent. The household size is 6.71 persons per household which is very high
         (Census of India 2001).

                             Table 3.1 Population Change
       Year      Total Population    Decadal Change      Decadal Growth Rate
                                                                 (%)
       1951          638,734
       1961          883,815             245,081                38.36
       1971         1,158,321            274,506                31.05
       1981         1,481,789            323,468                27.92
       1991         1,874,409            392,620                26.49
       2001         2,551,337            657,729                35.08
      Source: Primary Census Abstract, Part II B, Census of India 1991, Primary Census
      Abstract, Series 10, Volume 1, Census of India 2001




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       In the discussions, we have considered the area under the jurisdiction of
       Kanpur Nagar Nigam
       only. However, Kanpur                     Population Trends
       Cantonment Board has       3,000,000
       been dealt separately in
                                  2,500,000
       chapter 14. The Kanpur




                                    Population
       Urban Agglomeration as     2,000,000
       defined by the census of   1,500,000
       2001, population is
                                  1,000,000
       26,90,486 and area is
       comprised of Kanpur          500,000
       Municipal area and                 0
       outgrowth,       Kanpur              1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
       cantonment        board,                         Year              Total
       Armapur           estate,                                          Population
       northern railway colony
       and chakeri.

3.2    MUNICIPAL AREA
       According to 2001 census, municipal area is about 261.50 square kilometer.
       In 1961, municipal area was 114.55 sq. miles which has increased to 265.81
       square kilometer. It has increased to 29,683 in hectares in 1997-98.

3.3    METROPOLITAN REGION AREA
       The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam,
       includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometer around KNN boundary
       and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it
       spreads till murtaza nagar, in the west its limit is upto Akbarpur nagar
       panchayat limit, in the easte rn side the limit has been expanded on the road
       leading to Fatehpur and in extended upto. The metropolitan region area
       includes the area of shukla ganj nagar palika, unnao nagar palika, akbarpur
       nagar panchayat, bithur nagar panchayat area.

3.4    POPULAT ION DENSITY
       Kanpur has a population density of 9756 per square kilometer. It is less as
       compared to the density of other major towns such as Ahmedabad (18424 sq.
       km.), Banglore (19027 sq. km.), Chennai (24,231 sq. km.) and Hyderabad
       (21,207 sq. k.m.) as pe r the 2001 census. The population density also varies
       from area to area. For example, old city area, which is identified as core area
       by KNN and is comprised of 67 wards, is very densely populated. The
       population density in core area is 30401 persons per s q. km. whereas it is 5617
       persons per sq. km. in outer city area.

3.5    SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
       For the spatial distribution of population, the city division into inner city area
       and outer area has been taken into consideration (refer Map No. 3. 1). The
       average ward population in Kanpur is 23,193 varying from 19717 in Khalasi
       Line to 26588 in Nawabganj. As per 2001 census, the total population of inner

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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

       old city area is 15, 31, 331 (Table 3.2). The population in inner old city area
       ranges from 19, 717 in Khalasi Line to 26,532 in Nirala Nagar. In the rest of
       the city, which is comprised of 43 wards, the population ranges from 19757 in
       Safipur to 26,629 in Daheli Sujanpur. The city is growing more towards North
       east direction.

                Table 3.2 Spatial Distribution of Population (2006)
    Ward Name             Total      Area (sq. km.) Population      Density / sq.
                         Wards                                         km.
 Inner Old City Area       67            50.37         1531331        30401
 Outer City Area           43            181.57        1020004         5617
Source: Data provided by Kanpur Nagar Nigam 2006

                    Map 3.1: Location of Inner and Outer City Area




3.6    AGE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
       An analysis of the age-wise population reveals that percentage of people up to
       19 years of age was high at 46 percentage and marriageable age group from 20
       to 34 years was 26 p ercentage of the total population in urban area of Kanpur
       District (Census of India 2001). The 35 to 59 years group represented 23
       percent and 5 percent were people with age more than 60 years.

3.7    OTHER DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS
       Kanpur city has literacy rate of 69 percent as per 2001 census. It has increase
       more than 7 percent from 61.8 percent in 1991 to 69 percent in 2001. The
       literacy rate has also increased among male and female population. As shown
       in table 3.3., male literacy rate is higher at 72.5 percent as compared to female
       literacy rate which is 64.7 percent.
                                Table 3.3. Literacy Rate
                         1991 Census                         2001 Census
                Total     %      Literates     %     Total     %     Literates  %
Population 1874409               1157994 61.8       2551337          1758807 69.0
Male          1027431 54.8       705813      68.7   1374121  53.86    997001   72.5
Female        846978     45.2    452181      53.4   1177216  46.14    761806   64.7
Source: Primary Census Abstract, Part II B, Census of India 1991 and Primary Census
Abstract, Series 10, Volume 1, Census of India 2001

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           Out of total S.C. Population, which is 282368, 60 percent stay in inner city
           area and total male population is 53.7 percentage. Out of total 1417 S.T.
           population, 51.9 percent are male and 68 percent of them stay in inner old city
           area (Table 3.4).

                   Table 3.4 Population under reserved categories
    Ward Name           Total    S.C. Population B.C. Population                 S.T.
                       Wards                                                  Population
Inner Old City Area      67           169374            227653                   969
Outer City Area          43           112994            226404                   448
                                      282368            454047                  1417
Source: Data provided by Kanpur Nagar Nigam 2006

 3.8       POPULATION PROJECTION
           The population of Kanpur City as per census of 2001 is 25,32,138 and
           population estimated as per the simple graph method comes close to the actual
           population. They are proximate to each other. For the present study, we are
           taking the projected figure of 48 lakh for 2031.

                  Table 3.5 Population Projection by Different Methods
  S. No.     Methods                                 Population Assessed
                                         2001     2011        2021            2031
  1          Arithmetic Method           23.53 25.94          28.35           30.78
  2          Simple Graph Method         25.75 31.9           40.58           48.00
  3          Geometric Increase Method 29.16 31.5             63.07           76.79
  4          Semi Log Growth Method      29.00 40.57          56.77           70.00

 3.9       KEY ISSUES
           Ø The population during last two decades has increased at the rate of 3.5
             percent against the national average of 2.1 percent.
           Ø Though there was a decrease in the population growth rate from 1961 to
             1991 but from 191 to 2001, it has increased steeply from 26.5 percent to
             35 percent.
           Ø The increase in population is likely to increase the demand of housing.
           Ø The population density in core area is 6 times that of outer core area. We
             have to locate the congest pockets and try to decongest the areas.




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CHAPTER 4:
 ECONOMY
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

                                   4. ECONOMY


4.1    INTRODUCTION
       Kanpur has traditionally been an industrial city and on economic center. At
       one point in time it was the second most industrialized city in India being
       second only to Calcutta. Due to large number of cotton textile units and a
       vibrant trade center for cotton it was also called he ‘Manchester of India’.

       Kanpur has several locational advantages i.e. location at a vantage point on
       two national highways i.e. NH2 and NH25; raw material availability for many
       industries viz. leather, food processing, plastics etc., proximity to large
       markets, availability of skilled manpower due to various institutes located
       within Kanpur (viz. Institute of Technology, Chander Shekhar Azad
       Agricultural University, Central Pulse Research Institute, Leather Institute
       etc.) and existing traditional industrial base attracting skilled workers to the
       city.

       During the British times, it was mainly the industries related to tanneries,
       cotton and woolen clothes production, sugar mills, flour mills, refineries
       which were established in Kanpur. Kanpur during that time was of strategic
       importance for movement of troops from one region of the country to another.
       This lead to development of a large cantonment base at Kanpur and
       contributed to development of leather industry in the form of various saddle
       units catering to the requirement of British troupes.

       After independence, Kanpur continued to be an important city and large public
       sector companies such as British India Corporation, National Textile
       Corporation, ordnance factories, etc were set up here. Private sector also set up
       large units such as many factories of JK Industries group, Lohia machines,
       Duncans, etc.

       At present, Kanpur has mostly industries relating to leather shoe making and
       cotton textiles. Other factories include manufacture silk, woolen and jute
       textiles, food products, fire-bricks, fertilizers, railway wagons, textile
       machinery, television sets, metal ware, leather goods, soap, tents, durries,
       fountain pens, hosiery, cutlery, television picture tubes, etc. In Kanpur (MC),
       the banking services were availed by only 61 percent of the households
       (Census 2001). About 8 percent of the households did not possess basic assets
       such as vehicles (bicycles, scooter, moped, car, jeep, etc.), televisions and
       radios.

       Kanpur City is surviving because of the following:
       - Defence Establishments like OEF, SAF and Ordinance Factory etc.
       - Tanneries, which have swelled from 170 nos in 1995 to 300 in 2006
       - Coaching industry for I.I.T, JEE, IAS/IPS etc.
       - Trading Activities

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                                                                   City Development Plan (CDP)



  4.2     WORKFORCE PARTICIPATION
          According to 2001 census, out of total main workers i.e. 1040278, the
          proportion of cultivators are 18.5 percent, agricultural labourers are 7.6
          percent, household industries are 3.6 percent and other workers are 70.3
          percent. The workforce participation rate as per 2001 census (main and
          marginal workers) is about 29.9 percent. Table 3.1 presents the category wise
          break up of workforce as per the 1991 and 2001 census.

                     Table 4.1 Workforce Participation in Kanpur
Sl.             Category                 1991                                       2001
No.
                                         No. of        Percentage         No. of        Percentage
                                        Persons                          Persons
1     Main Workers
i     Cultivators                    66731             2.75                 192414 17.8
ii    Agricultural Laborers          39330             1.62                  78742 12.4
iii   Livestock, Forestry,           4614              0.19
      Fishing etc.
iv    Mining and Quarrying           117               0.00
v (a) Manufacturing       &          3885              0.16                   37319 3.9
      Processing in HH
      Industry
v (b) Manufacturing       &          151314            6.25
      Processing other than
      HH industries
vi    Construction Workers           11631             0.48
Vii   Trade & Commerce               149224            6.17
viii  Transport,     Storage         41549             1.71
      &Comm.
ix    Other Services                 172432            7.12                 731803     17.55
Sub Total – Main Workers             640827            26.49               1040278     24.96
2     Marginal Workers               212               00.02                207555     4.97
3     Non – Workers                  1777448           73.49               2920166     70.06
Source: Primary Census Abstract General Population Series 25, Part II-B, Census of India 1991; Total
Population: Table A -5 Primary Census Abstract of Total Population - 2001, Series 10, Uttar Pradesh,
Census of India 2001

          It is also seen from the table that the percentage of workers has increased
          sharply from 7 p  ercent to seventeen percent in 2001. Out of total workers,
          over 17.55 percent are employed in other services which indicate that the
          major employment is provided in service sector. The percentage of people
          who are employed in non- workers has also decreased from 73.49 percent to
          70.06 percent in the 1991 to 2001 census which shows that employment
          opportunities has been generated over a decade.




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                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)

4.3     INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES IN AND AROUND
        KANPUR

4.3.1   Industrial Areas in Kanpur:-
                    s
        As per the di cussions with various officials from industry department, in
        Kanpur mainly 10 industrial areas exist. They are as follows:
        1. Panki Industrial Area Site No. 1 to 5 Panki, Kanpur.
        2. Dada Nagar Co-operative Industrial Estate, Dada Nagar Area-235 acres
        3. Govt. industrial Estate, Fazalganj
        4. Shikshit Berojgar Industrial Asthan Panki
        5. Uptron industrial Estate, Panki
        6. Industrial Area, Rooma
        7. Kanpur Mahayojna
        8. Jajmau
        9. Saresh Bagh
        10. Fazalganj

4.3.2   Type of Industries

4.3.2.1 Heavy / Medium Scale Industries
        There are many heavy and medium scale industries which are engaged in the
        production of defence items, industrial machines, LMS (Two Wheelers),
        leather, cloth industries. It has been observed that out of total 83
        heavy/medium industries, 38 are currently working whereas 45 industries have
        been closed. As far as their ownership is concerned, 3 are of central
        government, 6 are of defence, one is of state government and twenty eight are
        private industries. Up to March 2005, total heavy scale industrial units are 83
        and investment made is 873.88 crores. These industries provide the
        employment to total 65563 people. Table No. 3.2 presents the number of
        heavy and small scale registered units, its investment and people employed.

4.3.2.2 Small Scale Industries
        A large number of small-scale industries have been established recently. Out
        of total small scale industries, number of registered units are 12,241 as against
        7033 in March 1998. It has been observed that almost same amount of
        unregistered units exist. Out of total registered u nits, existing operative units
        are 10,967 whereas 5186 i.e. 47 percent are either sick or closed. The
        investment made in small-scale industries is 354.82 crores. Upto March 2005,
        total people employed in small scale industries were 54807 whereas it was
        33676 up to March 1998 which shows that there is an increase of 61 percent in
        last seven years. The turn over of small scale units for 2005-06 is 20 crore.
        Currently in Kanpur, a variety of industries exists. The details are stated below
        in table 3.2.




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                                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)

                                  Table 4.2 Industrial status of Kanpur
                                                                     (Upto March 2005)
 S.            Industries           No. of Units            Investment In (In Cr)           Employment
 No.                            H.I S S I     Total       H.I      SSI       Total     H.I    SSI    Total
  1     Food Products             7     933      940         37.77   25.41     63.18    1355   3997     5352
  2     Beverages, Toba           0       20      20          0.00    0.86      0.86       0    137      137
  3     Cotton Textiles           9     400      409       279.42    14.79 294.21      37037   2154    39191
  4     Wool, Silk &
        Synthetic                    4      98      102     99.47       7.1   106.57    4214    601        4815
   5    Jute, Hemp& Mesta            2      52       54     22.13      2.86    24.99    5290    310        5600
   6    Hosiery & Garments           1    1250     1251      5.65     21.15     26.8     110   3965        4075
   7    Wood Products                0     348      348      0.00      7.16     7.16       0   1538        1538
   8    Paper Products &             5     525      530      5.85     14.18    20.03     702   2143        2845
   9    Leather Products           12     1826     1838     19.06      44.7    63.76    3864   8522       12386
  10 Rubber& Plastic                 4     684      688     14.16     46.49    60.65     750   4210        4960
  11 Chemical &
        Chemical                   12      532      544    230.12     36.57   266.69    4103    3691       7794
  12 Non-Metallic Miner              1     159      160      1.37     12.24    13.61      41    1178       1219
  13 Basic Metal Industry            8     180      188      8.42     13.54    21.96    1129    1347       2476
  14 Metal Products                  0    1128     1128      0.00     24.68    24.68       0    5326       5326
  15 Machinery & Part                8     531      539     14.04     15.51    29.55    1632    3007       4639
  16 Electrical Machine              2     301      303      1.75     18.44    20.19     185    1517       1702
  17 Transport Equipment             3     120      123      87.4     10.74    98.14    4510    1085       5595
  18 Miscellaneous Mfg               5    1439     1444     47.27     20.60    67.87     641    4560       5201
  19 Repairing& Servicing            0    1715     1715      0.00      17.8     17.8       0    5519       5519
               TOTAL               83 12241 12324          873.88    354.82   1228.7   65563   54807     120370
Source: Directorate of Industries Uttar Pradesh Kanpur

       4.3.3    Recent Industrial Shift
                Over a period of time, the industrial profile of Kanpur has undergone a drastic
                change. On one hand, total number of industries such as textile, rayon, metal,
                select chemicals industries has declined. Textile and Jute industries have been
                closed long time back. National Textile Corporation and U.P. Spinning Mills
                are also closed recently. Recently, some of the important industries were
                closed down which include Elgin mills, JK Industrial plants (Cotton &
                Spinning mills, Rayon, Tube Works), Kanpur Chemical Works, Kanpur Jute
                Udyog, Tannery Corporation, Kanpur Textiles, Swadeshi Cotton Mills. Some
                of the major industries which closed in recent past are:

                -   Duncans industry employing 1200 staff and works and disbursing Rs. 1.25
                    crores as monthly wages were closed almost three years back.
                -   LML Ltd., which was manufacturing and marketing two wheelers under
                    the name of LML Vespa, has also gone for lock out. It was employing
                    5000 workers and their ancillary units (almost 50 nos.) were giving
                    employment of almost 5000 workers and LML with the ancillary units
                    together used to disburse Rs. 5 to 10 crores as monthly wages.

                With the disclosure of LML Ltd. and Duncons, there is a setback to industry in
                Kanpur.


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        The reasons for close down of industries were mainly
        Ø Usage of outdated techniques
        Ø Inability to accept newer and more efficient technologies
        Ø Change in policies of the Government which lead to uncompetitiveness of
            certain existing units i.e. recent closure of fertilizers unit of Duncan’s
            industries
        Ø Inefficiency especially in public sector companies
        Ø Labour unrest and
        Ø Technological obsolescence

        On the other hand, industries such as leather, light engineering and food
        processing etc. have grown. Small scale and cottage industry (hosiery etc.)
        have also mushroomed. As per the discussions, mainly following industries
        are flourishing: Rice, Dal, Oil, Spices, Flour Mills, Pan Masala, Cattle Feed,
        Hosiery, Ready made Garments, Finished Leather, Shoes & Chappals, Purses
        and Belts, Steel Elmira’s and Boxes, Agricultural implements, Engineering
        Workshops, Auto parts, Plastic Goods, Polyethylene Bags, Grease, Refining of
        lubricants, Surgical Bandage & Tapes, Medicines – Allopathic, Ayurvedic,
        Homeopathic, Soaps and detergents, Soaps and detergents, Packaging,
        Defence items, Rubber chappals, Packaging Amul, Canaspati, Oil, Sugar
        (Ghatampur), Industrial Machines, Ball point pens, Newspapers (Printing
        Press), Rolling Mills, Woolen Mills; H.A.L., Artificial Limb Factory; Water
        and Industrial Pumbs, Cold drinks, Paints and thinners, Tanneries.

4.3.4   Decline in New Industrial Investments
        In Kanpur, recent investments in industries have gone down as compared to its
         hinterland towns i.e. Agra, Allahabad, Chitrakoot Dham, Lucknow, Barrelly,
         Jhansi etc. The main reason for the decline in industrial growth is the change
         in the basic factors that lead to urban growth. In Kanpur, before the economic
         reform starts, the growth was determined mainly by its proximity to raw
         material, market, availability of manpower etc. In current scenario, growth is
                           n
         determined by i vestment made in the city. The need is felt to attract the
         investments for fuelling economic growth.

        There has been no significant change in the employment in defence
        establishments. However, the tanneries provide employment to 30,000 to
        50,000 workers in Jajmau and generated further employment in purchase and
        marketing and business in suppliers of chemicals used in tanning.

4.4     ECONOMIC PROFILE AND PER CAPITA INCOME OF KANPUR
        It is observed that the economy in terms of NSDP of the Kanpur City has
        increased from Rs 2937.58 in 1998-99 to Rs 3166.61 crores in 2002-03
        resulting in a growth of economy of about 1.98 percent per annum during the
        period. The per- capita income of the Kanpur City showed negative growth
        over the same period. The table no. 3.3 gives the growth rates of NSDP and
        PCI by years.



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                                                                         City Development Plan (CDP)

              Table 4.3 Growths in NSDP and Per Capita Income in Kanpur City
                         At current Prices                             At constant (1993-94) prices
            Total     Growth    Per            Growth      Total NSDP Growth           Per capita     Growth in
            NSDP      in        capita         in NSDP     (Rs Crores)    in NSDP      NSDP (in       Per Capita
  Year      (Rs.      NSDP      NSDP (in       over                       over         Rs.)           NSDP
            Crores)   over      Rs.)           previous                   previous                    over
                      previous                 year(%)                    year(%)                     previous
                      year(%)                                                                         year(%)
1998-99 4489.36                 11502.3                     2937.58                   7526.93
1999-00 4550.26 1.36%           11378.5       -1.08%        2952.92       0.52%       7384.15         -1.90%
2000-01 4721.53 3.76%           11527.2       1.31%         2988.72       1.21%       7296.67         -1.18%
2001-02 5411.71 14.62%          12897.3       11.89%        3249.28       8.72%       7743.77         6.13%
2002-03 6290.15 16.23%          14679.5       13.82%        3166.61       -2.54%      7389.99         -4.57%
Average               8.99%                   6.48%                       1.98%                       -038%
Source: Department of Economics and Statistics, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh

      4.5      KEY ISSUES
               For development of Industries, the following issues need to be addressed:
               Ø Power shortage and roistering being observed for 10-12 hours per day on
                    average
               Ø Poor law and order situation in the city
               Ø Poor infrastructure in the state as well as city
               Ø No air connectivity between major stations
               Ø Government Schemes for providing incentives to entrepreneurs are not
                    implemented sincerely and seriously
               Ø Ethical and transparent functioning of financial institutions
               Ø The state government has to come out with aggressive and promotional
                    industrial policy and ensure its implementation.
               Ø Non-confirming industries (approx. 1000) should be shifted to confirming
                    areas on priority basis.




      Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                                         4-22
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)




                                             Mega Mall




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
CHAPTER 5:
 LAND USE
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

                                 5       LAND USE


       The process of planned development for Kanpur city was started way back in
       1943 when Kanpur Development Board has prepared the first development
       plan. With the change in socio -economic situation over a period of time , the
       need was felt to make changes in the old master plan. In 1962, responsibility
       of preparation of new master plan has been assigned to Town and Country
       Planning Department, Uttar Pradesh for Kanpur development area falling
       under Kanpur Development board and Kanpur Development Parishad area
       which was declared planned area as per the government order of U.P.
       (Regulations of Building Operation) Act 1958 (U.P. Act No. 34 of 1958). This
       Master Plan of Kanpur recognized the functional characteristic of Kanpur as
       an industrial and commerc ial town of Uttar Pradesh.

       Kanpur city has grown from an area of 8236 hectare in 1946 to 29670 hectare
       in 1962 which includes the cantonment area too. In 1962, it was spread from
       Beri Akbarpur in west to Ruma in east and from Ganga River in north to
       Pandu River in south. As per Master plan 1991, in 1962 out of total 29,670
       hectare, 8863.5 hectare (29.9%) was developed land and rest 18235.7 hectare
       (61.5%) was agricultural land, 2570.8 hectare (8.6%) was open land. In 1997-
       98, total metropolitan region area has increased to 89131.15 hectare out of
       which 4,743.9 hectare (5.31 %) was non-defined (prohibited area) and rest
       29,683 hectare and 54,704 hectare (61.39%) was urban and rural area
       respectively.

       Over a period of time, Kanpur has developed linearly from east to west along
       Ganga River and G.T road. The Central Business District (inner city) is
       located in the north central part. It is heavily built up and characterized by
       mixed commercial and transport related activities. The public, semi-public,
       residential and other land use activities have been mostly concentrated in the
       west. Due to physical constraints of river in the north and cantonment in the
       east, industrial concentration followed western/ southern expansion.

5.1    LAND USE STRUCTURE
       The land use structure has been explained on the basis of Master Plan. From
       1961 to 1998, area covered under residential and commercial land use has
       almost doubled from 31.77 to 62.93 and 1.86 to 3.28 respectively. The area
       under industries has increased marginally (6. 42% to 6.93%). This is due to
       closure of many large scale industries in recent times. The area under public
       utilities has increased marginally from 6.59% to 6.90% (Table 5.1). It has been
       observed that there has been enormous increase in the mixed-landuse and
       marginal increase in the industrial and public utility land-use. This is only
       indicative and to know the actual extent detailed field survey is required. The
       spatial growth pattern reveals that high growth has taken place in the core area
       and steps to decongest the inner core are required.

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                                                                   KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)

                    Table 5.1: Land Use of Kanpur City (1961 – 1998)
 Sl.      Land Use                                   1961                1998
 No.                                            Area       %         Area      %
                                              (hectare)           (Hectare)
   1     Residential                             2815.9 31.77       8813.38 62.93
   2     Commercial                                164.6 1.86        460.35 3.28
   3     Industrial                                569.4 6.42        970.42 6.93
   4     Parks        and        Playground/       105.1 1.19        959.08 6.84
         Recreational
   5     Public Utilities and Services             584.0 6.59        966.55 6.90
   6     Government                                148.4 1.67        298.62 2.13
   7     Traffic and Transportation                771.7 8.71       1452.85 10.37
   8     Railway Land                              817.4 9.22         -
   9     Defence Establishments                  2689.2 30.34         -
  10     Water bodies/ River & Drains              197.8 2.23          82.60 0.60
         Total                                   8863.5 100% 14003.85 100%
  11     Open Area                               2570.8    -
  12     Agriculture Green belt                 18235.7            15679.15
                                                                   29683.00
  13     Rural Area                                        -       54704.25
  14     Non-defined area                                           4743.90 5.31
         Grand Total                            29670.0           89131.00
Source: Kanpur Master Plan 1970, Draft Master Plan 2021

 5.2     DEVELOPMENT/ MASTER PLAN INITIATIVES FOR KANPUR
         CITY

 5.2.1   Development Plan of 1943
         Development Plan has been prepa red by Kanpur Development Board in 1943.
         Due to change in socio-economic condition, the need is felt to revise this
         master plan.

 5.2.2   Kanpur Master Plan 1991
         Kanpur Master Plan (1968-91) has been prepared by Town and Country
         Planning Department, Uttar Pradesh for 21 lakh population and has been
         passed in 1970. After the establishment of Kanpur Development Authority in
         1974, planning as per master plan has started taking place. The Master Plan
         was prepared for 29670 hectare to cater the population of 10 lakhs. The plan
         has proposed the strengthening of existing commercial centre, shifting of non-
         confirming industries towards the eastern and western parts of the city, higher
         education facilities in the western side, provision for big recreational centres
         near the Pandu River and on open spaces near Ganga River, dairy farming on
         green belt and rural areas, construction of new roads as well as widening of
         existing road network, construction of bypass to ease traffic movement in the
         city, construction of bridges across the river Ganga and planned development
         of identified few ring towns, higher density of residential development within

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         the municipal boundary and arrangements of services like water supply,
         sewerage, drainage, etc.

5.2.3    Draft Master Plan of 2 021
         Due to lack of desire to implement the proposed land use, changes in land use,
         unauthorised construction and encroachment of land, lack of importance to
         commercial places, offices and recreation places, master plan of 1991 could
         not be fully implemente d. The planned development has not taken place as per
         Master Plan of 1991 and targets kept under the plan have not been met. Due to
         growth in economic and industrial activities and physical spread, problems
         such as residence, transport, lack of community facilities, environment
         pollution, number of slum basties etc has increased manifolds. In order to
         correct the imbalances of the past development and to promote systematic and
         planned development of the city, it becomes imperative to revise the Master
         plan and the work was assigned to Town and Country Planning Department
         (TCPD). TCPD has prepared a revised Master Plan for 2021 taking into
         consideration the requirements of revised population of 45.0 Lac projected for
         2021.

         The master plan added 33700 hectare land for future growth of the city. It
         proposed to reserve 14043 hectares of land, which is 41.67 percentage of
         proposed area, for accommodating about 45.0 lakh population projected for
         2021. A gross residential density of 300 persons per hectares is prescribed in
         the master plan. The entire city was divided into Planning Districts in order to
         provide all types of facilities to the proposed population assigned to each
         District. The Master Plan proposed integration of all the schemes under the
         housing board with the schemes already under the KDA, provision for inner
         and outer ring road for improved circulation, provision for new truck and bus
         terminals, grain and vegetable markets, new colonies proposed in close
         proximity to commercial hub to decongest the inner core city. The proposed
         landuse for Kanpur is given in table 5.2.

                         Table 5.2: Land Use as per Master Plan 2021
   Sl. No.                 Use              Area in Hectares       %    UDPFI
       1       Residential                           14043.00     41.67  45-50
       2       Commercial                               879.99     2.61    4-5
       3       Public and semi-public                 2074.00      6.14  12-15
       4       Utilities                                461.00     1.37      -
       5       Industrial                             1871.00      5.55    5-7
      6.       Government and                         4668.00     13.85      -
               Semi-government
        7.     Recreational                           3221.00      9.56  16-20
        8.     Traffic and Transportation             3362.00      9.98    6-8
        9.     Others                                 3124.00      9.27   8-10
               Total                                 33703.99 100.00
         Source: Proposed Land Use under Draft Master Plan 2021, table-8, Revised Master
         Plan (Draft) of 2021

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       In comparison to UDPFI guidelines for million plus cities proposed by the
       Ministry of Urban Development, G.O.I., the land use proposed is not adequate
       for many activities. For example, it should be 45-50% for residential, 4 to 5%
       for commercial, 12-15% for public & semi- public and 16-20% for recreational
       activities whereas it is 41.6, 2.6, 6 and 9.56 percentage for residential,
       commercial, public -semi public and recreational activities respectively. Thus
       in all these sectors the land use component has been less than the required
       norms.

5.3    EMERGING CONCERNS
       Ø Increase in population has induced a great pressure on existing services
         and facilities like schools, colleges, health centre, etc.
       Ø There is a shortage of opens spaces, parking areas, loading and unloading
         platforms in most of the commercial and industrial areas.
       Ø There is an acute shortage of open spaces in high density built up areas,
         especially inner city.
       Ø Small-scale industries, nursing homes, commercial offices are functioning
         in the area allocated for residential land use.
       Ø Encroachments on road lead to chaos and reduce the effective road area.
       Ø Reduction in area under traffic and transportation in proposed master plan
         will further increase the traffic load on the existing over strained transport
         network.
       Ø Need is felt to proportionately increase the area covered under road vis -à-
         vis traffic volume so that it will be commensurate with the increased
         traffic Volume.
       Ø Steps should be taken to speed up the shifting of industries from non-
         confirming area to confirming area.
       Ø Need is to speedily approve the master plan which has gone for state
         government approval and implement it.
       Ø The time taken in the preparation of master plans should be reduced. In
         the present case, the master plan preparation has taken more than 7 years
         and still it has not been notified.
       Ø There should be good connectivity to new markets and terminals to ensure
         its success.
       Ø Making affordable houses available for urban poor.
       Ø The road connectivity to south city is currently in bad state and it need to
         be four lane.
       Ø Steps should be taken to identify the existing cattle rearing areas and in
         the outskirts land should be identified and developed for shifting of cattle
         colonies.
       Ø Sites in different wards/zones , where organised weekly markets can be put
         up, needs to be identified and provisions for different facilities such as
         parking, community toilets etc. should be made.




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                           5-26
CHAPTER 6:
  HOUSING
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


                                 6       HOUSING


6.1    INTRODUCTION
       The total number of households is 377, 150 as per the census of 2001. Out of
       total households, 45 percent belong to BPL and EWS categories; 21 percent
       and 18 percent belongs to LIG and MIG households respectively and HIG
       households were 16 percentage (Census 2001). In 2004, a study has been
       conducted by RITES in which they have taken sample of 2.5 percent
       household’s i.e. 9429 to study the housing stock over a period of time. The
       sample was a representative sample in terms of representing the different
       Income Groups (BPL, EWS, LIG, MIG and HIG), housing type (plotted and
       flats) and location of house stock and supply, different Income Groups i.e. 30
       percent from MIG and LIG followed by HIG (16.27%), EWS (15.42%) and
       BPL (7.96%).

6.2    HOUSING STATUS
       As per the proposed Environment Management Plan (2000), existing housing
       localities has been broadly categorized into seven zones:
       • City core area - It comprises old interior areas in 24 densely populated
           wards. It has maximum housing de nsity and many dilapidated houses. It is
           characterized by limited civic amenities, which are already exploited
           beyond their capacity.
       • Intermediate North-West Areas- It comprises primarily of houses which
           were constructed for accommodating various government officers. It
           includes posh Civil Lines, Tilak Nagar, Arya Nagar and Swaroop Nagar. It
           has comparatively better housing quality than other areas.
       • Intermediate South-West Areas- It comprises areas which are dominated
           by middle-income group. These areas are still developing in terms of
           population as well as housing construction. There is sharp contrast in
           quality of housing blocks in these areas as most of them are individual
           private dwellings and owned by households with uneven economic status.
           It has moderately developed civic amenities with few well-maintained
           residential blocks.
       • Intermediate Eastern Areas - These areas are characterized by abundance
           of slum ‘Hatas’ which affects the overall scenario of housing quality.
           These areas are quite similar to city core area as it also has high housing
           density, dilapidated houses and limited civic amenities.
       • Eastern Housing Areas - These areas are close to defense establishments
           and situated far away from main city. Housing development along GT
           Road after Chakeri is very slow.
       • Western Housing Areas- This area comprises of housing schemes i.e.
           Panki, Kalyanpur, Indra Nagar which falls in western part of the city. This
           area has high growth rate of housing development but is lagging behind in
           terms of provision of corres ponding civic amenities.



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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


6.3    INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
       The key institutions involved in planning and development of housing include:
       • Town and Country Planning Department- It play the advisory role to
          GoUP on matters pertaining to urban planning. It pre pares Development
          Plans under provision of U.P. Regulation of Building Operations Act,
          1958, and U.P. Urban Planning Development Act, 1973.
       • Kanpur Development Authority- It has been established under
          Development Authority Act 1974. It works with an objective of area
          development according to its development plan. KDA has powers to
          acquire, develop and dispose off land and other property. From 1974 till
          2000, KDA built MIG, HIG, LIG houses at various places. In 1974,
          Ratanlal Nagar and Indira Nagar colonies and Barra Scheme were built.
          Since 2004, KDA has stopped constructing houses (HIG/MIG/LIG) and at
          present it is just developing land and disposing it off by way of plotting.
       • U.P. Housing and Development Board (UP Avas Vikas Parishad)- U.P.
          Housing Board is mandated to build houses under U.P. Housing Act, 1965.
          The board is responsible for development of area and construction of
          special housing and development schemes. At present U.P. Housing Board
          is not constructing houses for MIG and HIG and rather selling the plots to
          them so that they can build their own houses
       • Kanpur Nagar Nigam- It is responsible for provision of civic amenities
          such as drainage, sanitation, street lighting, roads etc. KNN is also
          involved in development of housing stock for EWS in va rious parts of the
          city.
       • District Urban Development Agency (DUDA) - They give the demand
          of EWS/LIG housing to U.P. Housing Board and KDA, they acquire the
          land, build the houses. DUDA/ District Administration prepared the list of
          allottees under VAMBAY scheme for EWS/LIG houses and give it to
          respective agencies for house allotment.
       • UP Cooperative Housing Federation - It also facilitate housing activity
          by constructing housing stock and providing loan facility.

6.4    HOUSING STOCK
       Kanpur has a housing stock of about 5 lakh dwelling units as shown in the
       Table No. 6.1. Out of total houses, about 85 percent of the houses are in urban
       area and remaining 15 percentages falls in the rural areas of Kanpur (Kanpur
       Vision Document 2004). The pucca houses are 75 p     ercent whereas remaining
       25 percent are either semi pucca or kutcha. As far as type of material is
       concerned, 82 percent are houses made of RBC/RCC whereas 18 percent are
       made of grass, leaves, mud etc.

                               Table 6.1 Type of Houses
 Distribution of census houses by predominate wall material      No.    Percentage
 RBC / RCC & Burn Brick Houses                                  415,370       82.01
 Houses of grass, leaves, mud, unburnt bricks, etc               91,105       17.99
 Total                                                          506,475         100
Source: Kanpur Vision Document 2020



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                                                                City Development Plan (CDP)


6.4.1 KDA Housing Stock
      KDA has impleme nted more than 90 housing schemes since 1974 in Kanpur
      and developed more than a lakh dwelling units (Vision Document 2004).
      Administratively, Kanpur is divided into four zones for this purpose and in
      addition, there is a zone for World Bank funded scheme. KDA works on no
      profit no loss basis. The profit margin, which they get in acquiring the land
      from farmers and disposing it off, is spent in development of infrastructures by
      way of building approach roads, internal water supply, sewerage, storm water
      drains. KDA also receives Infrastructure fund from state government to
      construct roads and carrying out development work etc. KDA also provide
      subsidized houses to EWS/LIG category under various schemes such as
      Vambay, Ashray etc. Under VAMBAY scheme, it constructs houses on
      specific demand from district administration and receives the funding too.

       Table 6.2 and 6.3 gives the detail of houses provided by KDA till 1997 and in
       post 1997 period. Till 1997, about 7 percent of total properties developed by
       KDA were unsold. This percentage has increased to 23 percent in the post
       1997 period (1997-2005).

                    Table 6.2 Housing Provided by KDA till 1997
       Zone         Total   Allotted   % of allotted houses     Remaining      % of remaining
                                                                                   houses
  Zone 1             9637    9286             96.36                  351             3.64
  Zone 2            16756    15161            90.48                  1595            9.52
  Zone 3            32551    30426            93.47                  2125            6.53
  Zone 4            18130    15541            85.71                  2589           14.29
  World Bank        19662    19515            99.25                  147             0.75
  Total             96736    89929            92.96                  6807            7.04
  Source: Kanpur Development Authority 2005

                Table 6.3 Houses Provided by KDA in Post 1997 period
       Zone        Total    Allotted   % of allotted      Remaining          % of remaining
                                         houses                                  houses
   Zone 1           642       296         46.10               346                 53.89
   Zone 2          1297       908         70.01               689                 29.99
   Zone 3          6145      5548         90.28               597                 9.72
   Zone 4          2902      1686         58.09               1216                41.90
   World Bank       600       410         68.33               190                 31.67
   Total           11586     8848         76.37               2738                23.63
  Source: Kanpur Development Authority 2005




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                                                                    City Development Plan (CDP)


             The break up of unsold properties as             Figure 6.1 Nature of Unsold Properties
             shown in figure 6.1 depicts that 87                               Shops
             percent of unsold properties are meant               Other Res.
                                                                                 3%
                                                                     6%
             for    EWS/LIG       category      (Vision
             Document 2004). The main reason due to                                         Ashray
             which EWS/LIG houses remain unsold                                              50%

             are firstly, their remote location,              EWS/LIG
                                                                37%
             secondly, lack of infrastructure i.e. not
             well connected to the main city by                        Plots
             approach roads and street lighting etc.,                   4%
             thirdly increase in cost of these houses
             every year due to whic h they become unaffordable for poor people, fourthly
             EWS houses which are built under VAMBAY scheme remain unsold due to
             time taken by district administration in providing the list of allotted to KDA
             for disposal of houses. Mainly houses are vacant in Sani village, Daheli
             Sujanpur, Gangapur Macharia, Gunjan Vihar, Arra Bingava and Vajidpur
             (Table 6.4).

                        Table 6.4 Houses Developed by KDA in last 3 years
S.     Type of Houses         Houses         Houses         Houses       Houses       Houses      Houses/
No.                           built / Land   built / Land   built   /    built    /   built/      land
                              Developed      Developed      Land         Land         land        which is
                              up to 31st     in 2003 - 04   Developed    Develope     develop     not
                              March                         in 2004-     d      in    ed up to    allotted
                              2003                          05           2005- 06     31-3-06     up     to
                                                                                                  31-3-06
1      Residential Houses
1.1    Economically Weaker Section
A      VAMBAY                    350          115          256              1015       1736        799
B      ASHRAY                    3871         164          265              352        4652        1291
C      Very low income          39452         127          326              331        40516        23
       category houses/land
       Sub total                43673         406          847              1698       46904       2113
 1.2 Low Income Group           19417         123          237               0         19777        7
 1.3 Middle Income               5500          0            0                0         5500         14
       Group
 1.4 High Income Group           1044          0            0                0         1044         3
       Sub total                25961         123          237               0         26321        24
       Total of Residential     69634         529          1084             1698       73225       2137
       Houses Developed
 2     Residential Land
 2.1 Low Income Group           N.A.          651          1072             790                     382
 2.2 Middle Income              N.A.          192          551              385                     293
       Group
 2.3 High Income Group          N.A.           24          118              275                    181
       Sub total                27559         867          1741             1450      31901        856
       Total                    97193        1396          2825             3148      105126       2990
Source: Data collected from Kanpur Development Authority 2006




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                                                                        City Development Plan (CDP)



      6.4.2 Housing provided by U.P. Housing Board
            U.P. Housing board develops the land and allot plot for construction of HIG,
            MIG and LIG houses. The housing schemes by U.P. Housing Board are
            Deendayal Puram, Hanspuram and Pani-Kaluanpuri Yojana. As per the latest
            data available UPHDB has 1126.32 hectare area in possession and out of
            which only 688.54 hectare (61 %) has been developed (RITES 2004). About 5
            to 10 percent residents carry out tiny/petty activities like grocery shops, barber
            shops etc. at their residences. The primary survey conducte d by the RITES
            revealed that majority of the existing houses in Kanpur town are plotted type
            as compared to flats/ apartments and also people have a high preference for
            this type of houses.

               Upto 31st March 2006, U.P. Housing Board has developed 26,690 houses
               (Table 6.5). Out of total developed houses, 91 percent have been allotted but
               only 68.8 percent houses have been occupied so far. The vacant houses are
               mostly in Yojana no. 2 which is lying vacant mainly due to their location at a
               remote place and poor connectivity with the main city.

         Table 6.5 Houses Developed by U.P. Housing Board (Upto 31st March 2006)
                         Year of starting                                                          % of
 S.                                           Acquired       Develope     Allotted    Acquired
            Yojana     the scheme (under                                                         Acquired
No.                                         land (in acre)   d Houses     Houses       Houses
                           section 32)                                                            Houses
  1    Yojana No. 1         20.9.1980          519.74          7617         7195        5498       72.2
  2    Yojana No. 2         20.9.1980          818.34         11818        10279        8341       70.6
       Phase 1 & 2
  3    Yojana No. 3        28.8.1982          470.30           7255         6936        4535          62.5
       Total                                  1808.30         26690        24410       18374          68.8
Source: Data collected from U.P. Housing Board 2006

               U.P. Housing Board constructs the houses for economically weaker section
               and allots them directly. The houses constructed under VAMBAY scheme are
               allotted against list of allottees received from DUDA or district administration.
               This leads to further delay in allotment as after construction of houses by
               U.P.H.B, they wait for further instructions from district administration for
               allotment.

               Under VAMBAY the subsidy is 50 percent (Rs. 25,000 is paid by central
               government) and land is provided free. The cost of houses constructed under
               VAMBAY scheme is Rs. 50,000 whereas they are sold at Rs. 25,000/- only.

      6.5      HOUSING SIZE
               In 2004, almost two  -third of houses is one or two room units, which reflects
               high proportion of EWS and LIG category in the city. In last four decades
               (1961 to 2005), population occupying one room tenements has decreased from
               67.2 to 40.1 percent but still that percentage is on higher side. The break-up in
               terms of size of house is presented in the Table No. 6.6.




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                                                                   City Development Plan (CDP)



                      Size of Houses in 1961                       4%    Size of Houses in 2005
                 2%
                                                                 3%
               3%
                                                             7%
            6%
                                                           13%                40%          One Roomed House
                                      One Roomed House                                     Two Roomed House
         21%
                                      Two Roomed House                                     Three Roomed House
                                      Three Roomed House                                   Four Roomed House
                         68%
                                      Four Roomed House                                    Five rooms
                                      Five rooms                 33%                       Six rooms



      Source: Master Plan of Kanpur 1961 and Vision Document for 2020 of Kanpur 2004

6.6      HOUSING USAGE
         It has been observed that most of the respondents preferred to use the houses
         for residential-cum-work purpose. The people belonging to LIG and MIG
         have higher preference for residential-cum-work purpose as reflected in the
         response of 49 percent respondents of LIG and MIG categories. It has been
         observed that mainly cottage industries such as leather goods, soap making,
         tents, durries, cotton & silk clothes, hosiery are carried out in the residential
         area. Most of the households preferred plotted housing and felt requirement
         for additional area to carry out the economic activity within their residential
         complex.

6.7      PHYSICAL CONDITION OF HOUSES
         As per 2001 census, 20720 houses were in dilapidated state which needs
         reconstruction and therefore add to the housing needs . They are mainly located
         in the inner part of the city. Through qualitative assessment of the condition of
         houses by primary survey, it has been brought out that 67.32 percent of houses
         are in fair condition where as 28.08 percent are in good condition and 4.60
         percent are in bad condition.

6.8      ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES
         Out of total houses, still 33 percentage houses are not covered by electricity,
         17 percentage by safe drinking water and 36.5 percentage by toilet. Table 6.6
         reveals that still 10 percent houses are not covered by any of basic services.
         The access to basic utility services for the existing housing stock is presented
         in the table 6.7:

                            Table 6.6 Access to Basic Services
      Proportion of houses having Electricity,
      safe drinking water & toilet                                 % age to total
      Electricity                                                       66.38%
      Safe Drinking Water                                               82.39%
      Toilet                                                            63.61%
      Electricity & Safe Drinking Water                                 59.63%
      Toilet & Safe Drinking Water                                      57.82%
      Electricity & Toilet                                              58.40%


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                                                                City Development Plan (CDP)


      All three facilities                                           53.32%
      None of the 3 facilities                                       10.15%
      Source: Kanpur Development Authority Vision Document, Draft Final Report, November 2003

6.9       HOUSING DEMAND AND SHORTAGE
          The housing need and demand has been assessed on the basis of housing
          shortage, reconstruction of houses, population projections, household size and
          expansion of existing houses. The estimated housing demand for different
          income category has been reflected in Table 6.8

               Table 6 .7: Housing Demand Projections (2001 to 2013)
      Income Group                    Number of Dwelling Units
                             2006 - 10                   2011 – 13
          BPL                          12829                                          11715
          EWS                          18456                                          16853
           LIG                         25178                                          22991
          MIG                          19268                                          17594
           HIG                         14932                                          13635
          Total                        90663                                          82788

          Majority of the respondents (67.94%) prefer the housing supply done by
          UPHDB followed by KDA (13.34%), private builders (12.44%) and co-
          operative society (6.28%). MIG and HIG (12.44%) income group prefers more
          the private builders/ contractors. It has been felt that the private builders will
          play a major role in housing activity. Total future land requirement is 3216
          hectares. The preferred locations, where the land could be acquired for future
          housing colonies and the availability of land in these locations, have been
          identified at Panki, Kalyanpur, Lakhanpur and Rama Devi.

6.10      PROPOSED HOUSING SCHEMES
          Gangotri scheme by KDA is around 3 kms. from the existing town center on
          the other side of river Ganga. The area falls under Unnao District but has been
          brought under KDA jurisdiction for development purposes through a
          Government notification. The scheme is proposed on a parcel of land that is
          5.7 kms long and 1.5 kms. wide between river Ganga on one side, new barrage
          on the left side and Shuklaganj highway on the right side. This area receives
          major traffic from Lucknow and Unnao industrial belt. This is in immediate
          proximity to the Kanpur city centre (Civil Lines) and if a new bridge is
          planned through Civil Lines, the site of Gangotri will be just 2.5 kms. from
          Parade, Bada Chowraha.

          KDA has also planned to develop 5000 acre through Hi-tech city out of which
          1800 acre has already been allotted to Sahara, 2500 acre as land bank in New
          Kanpur City which is located at Kalyanpur-Bithoor road and Jawaharpuram on
          Shivali road and 2500 acres will be given to private sector to develop. Till
          2021, KDA is planning to develop 10,000 acres additional land for housing
          which will accommodate 16 lakh population.


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                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)



       U.P. Housing Board is planning to develop 2 schemes of 1350 acre and 1500
       acre each. This is mainly for the planned development of western part of
       Kanpur City. The 1350 acre scheme is will be located adjacent to I.I.T. on
       southern part of G.T. road till Mandna. The plan is to settle the population
       staying in 10 villages, which falls under this scheme, in a planned manner. The
       second scheme of 1500 acre will be located from the boundary of National
       Sugar Institute till Mandna on northern part of G.T. Road. This will help to
       develop the population of 8 villages falling within this scheme in a planned
       manne r. The plan is to integrate these colonies with the old city and also to
       provide all the infrastructure and services such as schools, hospitals, transport,
       park, commercial centre, post office, bank etc. This scheme will provide
       permanent and temporary employment.

6.11   ISSUES
       • There is no clear cut demarcation between residential area and other land
          uses.
       •   Considerable number of residents use the residential areas for commercial
           purposes
       •   The need is for a special policy for providing mixed land use in a few
           selected areas.
       •   There is a complete mismatch between the increase in the demand for
           good quality housing and the growth of housing near the city centre.
       •   Though there exists a huge demand for EWS/ LIG housing still many of
           the existing houses built for EWS/LIG remains unsold.
       •   Majority of the city population falls under EWS or LIG category. This
           gives additional challenge to provide affordable housing for EWS or LIG
           with adequate civic services.
       •   The person’s belonging to low income group face various problems in
           availing loan facilities such as lengthy procedures, unwillingness shown by
           banks to give the loan to EWS group etc.
       •   It has been observed that provision for basic urban services is not
           satisfactory enough to bring homogenous development within the new
           developed area. Most of the new developed areas fall under poor to
           average state of housing quality.
       •   Though KDA and UPHB are self-sufficient for financing the land
           acquisition and development, but they require funds for providing houses
           for low income group houses and for connectivity of new developed areas
           to main city.
       •   The general direction of development of the city in future will be towards
           South, West and to a lesser extent on the east. However, these areas suffer
                                             ch
           from infrastructure bottlenecks su as lack of better connectivity, street
           lighting etc.



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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


6.12   STRATEGIES
       • There is an urgent need for speedy development of new planned housing
         schemes and providing better linkage between inner core city and new
         planned schemes so that the inner core city can be decongested. This
         problem can be solved by adopting two ways:
            ⇒    KDA is considering development of a new township across river
                 Ganges called Gangotri which is in close proximity to inner core city
                 and Housing Board is also planning to develop two residential
                 schemes i.e. one is of 1350 acre and another is of 1500 acre.
            ⇒    Increase in housing stock by the disposal of surplus land and
                 properties of sick industrial units such as British India Corporation
                 and National Textile Corporation.
        • NGOs and other voluntary organisations should motivate residents of inner
          core city to shift to newly developed colonies.
        • The development of new housing colonies should be such that it takes care
          of the additional demand of housing by different income group, affordable
          prices, preference of people for location of colony and housing as per the
          study conducted by U.P. Housing Board.
        •   The construction of houses should be at preferred location taking into
            consideration its location, connectivity, travel time taken etc.
        •   Steps should be taken to improve the level of urban services provided in
            existing housing colonies by additional funding and accountability of
            personnel providing the facility for satisfactory completion of task.
        • The ways and means of additional funding through private developers,
          financial institutions should be sought to meet the additional funding
          requirement for outside development cost for new planned colonies (U.P.
          Housing Board’s two schemes, Gangotri scheme, New Kanpur city,
          Jawahar puram and hi-tech city) better connectivity through roads,
          provision of street lighting, connection of trunk lines with main lines of
          water supply, sewerage ad solid waste management etc.
        •   The methods such as single window clearance, online facility i.e. status of
            building plans sanctioning and other requests of applicants should be
            adopted to minimise the hassles faced by households in acquiring houses.
        • The mixed land use should be identified and provided in certain areas
          keeping in mind the type of colony, width of road, availability of water,
          light etc. as there exists the great demand for certain economic activities
          (especially cottage industries) that can be performed in the residential
          areas.
        • There should be differential pricing policy for plots/ plotted houses used
          by H.I.G. /M.I.G. /L.I.G. for residential-cum-work purpose. The
          plots/houses for residential-cum-work purposes should be higher than
          those meant for residential or commercial purpose only.
        • The following steps should be taken to dispose off unsold housing stock

Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                           6-35
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


            meant for EWS/ LIG households built up by KDA and U.P. Housing
            Board properties:
            ⇒   The study should be carried out within a timeline to find out the
                reasons behind unsold properties in each scheme.
            ⇒   Analysing the options available to expedite selling of unsold
                properties
            ⇒   The steps should be taken to decide what action needs to be taken for
                expediting the sale of unsold properties and preparing a phase-wise
                action plan to do the same.
            ⇒   Proper implementation and monitoring of the action plan prepared
                for speedy disposal of unsold houses.
        •   There exists a huge demand for EWS, LIG houses but they are governed
            by different considerations. The steps such as preferable location; usage of
            good quality building materials, preparation of building plans and decision
                       f
            on price o housing with due consultation with EWS/LIG households or
            allottees and laws to avoid re -sale of houses allotted to EWS/LIG should
            be adopted to ensure that the housing scheme meant for economically
            weaker section should become a success.
       •    The city is predominantly inhabited by the lower strata of society.
            Therefore development authority should ensure that minimum 25 to 30
            percent of houses should be earmarked for EWS/ LIG households in all
            housing projects i.e. both public and private sector housing schemes.
       •    The areas marked for EWS/ LIG should have better connectivity with
            main city, basic infrastructure and means of employment etc. so that the
            people will be willing to move there. The prices should be within reach of
            EWS/LIG category and easy loan facility should be provided to them to
            increase their affordability.
       •    Liberal loan facility should be made available to the different income
            groups (H.I.G/M.I.G./L.I.G) of society as per their requirement. The
                                                                 e
            process from applying to clearance of loans should b simple so that even
            illiterates, people belonging to low income group and below poverty level
            can also avail such facility.




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                            6-36
                           CHAPTER 7:
BASIC SERVICES FOR THE POOR IN KANPUR
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


         7. BASIC SERVICES FOR THE POOR IN KANPUR


7.1    INTRODUCTION
       This section deals with the basic condition of urban poor and slums in Kanpur.
       The data sources are both secondary i.e. collection of data/information/reports
       from DUDA, KNN, Census as also intensive consultations with the
       stakeholders and interactions with officials of DUDA, slum dwellers and
       community development society members. The objective of the discussions
       were to identify the issues concerning urban poor, their access to basic
       services, problems which they are facing, prioritisation of problems, likely
       solutions and making strategically etc.

       The population of Kanpur has increased at a faster pace in last decade. The
       decadal growth rate of population has increased from 26.5 percent in 1981-91
       to 35 percent in 1991-2001 (refer chapter 2 for detailed analysis). With the
       increase in population during last two decades, the need and demand for
       employment has also increased. There exists a demand and supply gap
       between the people searching job and availability of suitable job. Along with
       growth in population, demand for housing has also increased as has been
       explained in detail in Chapter 6. Due to lack of availability of suitable houses
       and poor paying capacity, many poor people are forced to occupy the vacant
       land both private and public or have to stay in the older, densely populated
       area. This has led to the increase in areas where urban poor are staying in
       Kanpur.

7.2    STATUS OF POVERTY IN KANPUR
       Though no recent study is available to accurately assess the extent of poverty
       levels in Kanpur but from the discussions with various stakeholders we
       understand that poverty levels are quite high in Kanpur. Kanpur was an
       industrial town having a dozen textile mills, shoe manufacturing units,
       tanneries, a scooter unit, spice packaging units and various other small and
       medium scale industries. Many of the industries have closed down in recent
       past (refer chapter 3). This along with many other sick units has led to large
       unemployment and increase in urban poverty.
       In addition to this, more than twenty percent of the population in Kanpur stays
       in areas marred with unhygienic living conditions and lack of civic amenities.
       The urban infrastructure is not satisfactory enough to bring homogenous
       development in new a    reas. The growth of housing stock is not able to keep
       pace with the population growth. This has increased the housing stock deficit
       which has given rise to slum dwellings.

7.3    SLUMS IN KANPUR
       As per the survey conducted by DUDA and documents from KNN, total slums
       in Kanpur are 390. According to census 2001, the slum population was 3.68
       lakh i.e. 14.5 percent of total Population. As per the survey conducted by


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                            7-37
                                                                      KANPUR
                                                               City Development Plan (CDP)


        D.U.D.A in 1997-98, the population was 4,19,859 and total households were
        98,208. As per K.N.N e   stimate, slum population is about 5.0 lakh in 2006
        which is twenty percent of total population. A large number of below poverty
        line (BPL) population (about 60%) also live-in slums.

                       Table 7.1: Slum Population Details of Kanpur
              Category                    Population                Percentage
          Male                                    1,38,113                 32.89
          Female                                  1,14,648                 27.32
          Children                                1,67,098                 39.79
                   i). Boys                         89,520                 53.57
                   ii). Girls                       77,578                 46.43
          Total                                   4,19,859                   100
         Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997 -98

7.4     URBAN POOR’S PERSPECTIVES OF SERVICE LEVELS

7.4.1   Age -wise Categorisation
        As per the DUDA Survey Report of 1997-98 the slum children of age 0-5
        years were 16 percentage
        where as the boys and girls            Age wise Categorisation

        of age between 5 -18 years
                                           30             30      28
        were 30 percentage which                                        21
                                                % population




                                           25
        shows     that   maximum                16
                                                  covered




                                           20
        number of people in slum           15
                                           10                                  5
        belongs to this category.
                                            5
        The youth of age 18 to 35           0
        were 28% whereas the                  0–5   5 – 18 18 – 35 35 – 60 60 - &
                                                                           Above
        people of age 36 to 60 and
                                                             Age
        60 & above were estimated
        21%       and     5     %.
                                               Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997-98

7.4.2   Caste Composition
        Out of the total population i.e. 4,19,859 (as per survey carried out by
        D.U.D.A), 19,172 (19.53 %) belonged to general category, 35,646 belonged to
        scheduled caste (39.29%), 27,930 (28.44%) belonged to backward class and
        15,460 (15.74%) belonged to minority group.

7.4.3   Literacy Level
        Out of total slum population, 2,69,427 (64%) are illiterate whereas only
        1,50,432 (35.8%) are literates. Out of total literates, 35 percent are educated
        upto primary level whereas only 3.5 percent are graduated and 1 percent is
        post-graduated (Table 7.2). It has been observed during field visit that 50
        percent of the youth are educated upto 10th whereas only 10-15 % adults are
        educated till 10th standard, only 3-4 percent people are graduates and 5 percent
        has received vocational education.

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                                                                      KANPUR
                                                              City Development Plan (CDP)



             Table 7.2: Comparison of Educational Level in Slum Basties
Sl.          Education      Total Literates         Male             Female
No.
                               No.         %         No.          %         No.       %
1       Primary                 53438     35.53     29, 851       33.98   23,587     37.75
2       Junior High             29016     19.29     17, 741       20.19   11,275     18.36
        School
3       High School            22441      14.92     15,136        17.24     7,305    11.26
4       Inter                  38709      25.73    20, 642        23.51   18, 067    28.85
5       Graduation               5312      3.53      3, 419        3.89     1,893     3.02
6       Post-Graduation          1516      1.00      1, 038        1.19       478     0.76
        Total               1,50,432               87, 827                62, 605
Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997-98

7.4.4   Employment
        In slum areas, more than 24 percent (1,02,763) are unemployed out of total
        eligible people for employment. Out of total employed persons (15%), 39
        percent people are self employed. 25 percent are working in private offices
        whereas about 20% have government jobs. The maximum percentage of slum
        dwellers (about 39 %) is self employed which shows that either they have their
        own small establishments or work as casual labourers. It has also been
        observed that a large number of women’s are also employed. They are
        working mainly as maid in nearby colonies. The child labour is also in
        existence as one can see children’s working in the collection of solid waste
        and its segregation etc. The detail employment pattern is given in table 7.3.

                   Table 7.3: Level of employment in Slum Basties
             Sr. No.    Employed Person       Total Employee      Percentage
               1      Government Jobs                         13,113                 19.61
               2      Semi Govt. Jobs                          10,134                15.16
               3      Private Jobs                             17,361                25.98
               4      Self Employed                            26,227                39.25
                      Total                                   66,835
         Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997-98

7.4.5   Income Group
        The income of the slum household is also low. The detail of Households is
        different income group is given in table no. 7.4.

                         Table 7.4: Level of Income in Slum Basties
          Sl. No.               Income in Rs.       Number of                  % of
                                                    Households               households
         1           Less than Rs.500 / -                  20,507                  20.88
         2           Rs.501/- to 800/-                     24,904                  25.36
         3           Rs. 801/ - to 1000/-                  23,123                  23.54


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         4             Rs. 1001/- to 1500/-                            14,772                  15.04
         5             Rs. 1501/- to 2000/-                             7,892                   8.04
         6             Rs. 2001/- to 3000/-                             4,882                   4.97
         7             More than Rs. 3000/-                             2,128                   2.17
                              Total                                    98,208
   Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997-98

        It may be seen that majority of the Households 48,027 (about 49%) have
        income ranging from Rs. 501/- to 1000/- whereas more than 20 percent
        households have income less than 500/-. Only 14 percent households earn
        more than Rs. 1501/-.

7.4.6 Housing
        Majority of households i.e. more than 51 percent live in Kutcha Houses made
        of grass, mud etc. and jhuggi jhopri’s. Only 21 percent stay in Pucca Houses
        (Table 7.5). In slums, about 47 percent have their own houses whereas 41%
        lives in as tenant whereas rest are living as unauthorised occupants as
        informed by DUDA, Kanpur.

                           Table 7.5: Housing at Slum Basties
             Sl. No.      Type of House            Number                        Percentage
                1      Pucca                            21010                              21.39
                2      Semi – Pucca                     22803                              23.21
                3      Kutcha                           37969                              38.65
                4      Jhuggi-Jhopri’s                  12446                              12.68
                5      Others                            3990                               4.07
        Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997-98

7.4.7   Water Supply and Electricity
        It may be seen that in slums access
        to individual water connections is                         Water Supply Facilities
        low and people generally use                              Other
                                                                 sources
        public stand posts, hand pumps, or                        (11%)
        wells in a few cases. Majority of             Individual                           Public Stand
        house holds (55%) get water from             Hand Pumps                               Posts
                                                        (15%)
        public stand posts and only 19                                                       (55%)
        percent have individual taps. It has
        been observed that main source of               Individual
                                                            Taps
        water supply in slum areas is hand                 (19%)
        pumps and wherever piped water
        supply is there, either supply is inadequate or it’s not regular or it’s very dirty.
        They are only able to use the water after carrying out the sedimentation and
        filtering.

        Out of total households in slum, about 40 percent have electricity whereas
        others use either kerosene, wood etc.


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7.4.8   Sanitation Facilities
        Presently, access to sanitation                        Sanitation Facilities
        services is markedly less than access
        to other basic services. While, it may
        be worthwhile to note that the                                25%
                                                                                    32%
        proportion of people having access to
        sanitation in urban areas is
        considerably greater when compared
        to their rural counterparts, the                         19%
        problems are more exacerbated in                                      24%
        slums. Urban sanitation is perceived
        as being important because of the           Public Latrines          Individual Flush Toilets
        health factor. In case of alums, it has
                                                    Individual Septic Tank   Others
        been observed that sanitation
        facilities are worst and in alarming
        condition.                                 Source: DUDA Survey Report 1997-98


        Majority of households use public toilets followed by households using
        individual flush. Even then open defecation is still at a large scale i.e. 25
        percentage of the slum households openly defecate.

        During the visit in slums (May 2006) located at different part of the Kanpur
        city, it has been observed that sanitation condition is still very poor in most of
        the slum areas considering only 20 percent people have individual toilets and
        the others i.e. approx. 45 percent use community toilets and 35 percent still go
        for open defecation.

        To minimize open defecation and to bring improvement in overall sanitation,
        two schemes have been introduced: a) Low Cost Sanitation Scheme b)
        Construction of Community toilets.

        Centrally sponsored low cost sanitation schemes continue to remain a key
        component of urban sanitation not only for urban poor or slum populations,
        but it is also an appropriate intervention wherever the costly option of
        underground drainage is not feasible. Under Low Cost Sanitation Scheme of
        KNN, 2430 off-site toilets and 2366 on-site toilets were provided
        beneficiating 12490 and 12161 population respectively. In totality, 105138
        slum dwellers have been benefited under this scheme. However, during visits
        to slum areas it has been observed that low cost sanitation scheme for building
        individual toilets was not widely accepted by the individuals due to lack of
        space in their houses and not in a position to pay their share.

        Under construction of community toilets scheme, 12 community toilets having
        140 seats were built for 7000 beneficiaries and 14287 sewerage connections
        have been provided to 73487 beneficiaries. At present 49 community toilet
        complexes are under construction for 33000 beneficiaries.

        During visit to different slums following observations were made:

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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


        − Poor construction i.e. bad designing, usage of poor quality material etc.
          and maintenance
        − Lack of proper management of community toilets
        − Inadequate water supply and lighting in the toilets
        − Cleaning service is not administered properly.
        − Unhygienic condition of the public toilets
        − Distance
        − Lack of willingness to pay and use the community toilet facility

7.4.9   Sewerage System and Solid Waste Management
        In most of the slums , sewerage system is either non-existent or it is found
        chocked. The problem of blocked sewerage also exists in the slums where
        people stay in pucca houses. The open drains in the slums are of very small
        size and are mostly blocked due to lack of cleaning and solid waste finding its
        way into drains.

        There is no proper way of slid waste disposal which exists at the slum level. In
        40% of the slums solid waste is collected by govt. or private persons but
        disposal sites are either non-existent or are poorly managed. In many slums
        solid waste can be seen flowing in the drains leading to chocked drains and
        health hazardous situation.

7.5     HOUSING PROVIDED FOR ECONOMICALLY WEAKER SECTION
        Under central government sponsored scheme, VAMBY, housing for slum
        development with 20 per cent fund component for sanitation, is being
        provided. In Kanpur, KDA is building houses for poorer sections under EWS,
        BPL and VAMBY scheme on specific demand from district administration
        and allotment is done by district administration. Under VAMBY scheme, 50
        percent subsidy in land development is provided and land is provided free.
        VAMBY is costed at Rs. 50,000 and sold at Rs. 25,000. Rest of the amount is
        paid by central government. Under VAMBY scheme 1736 houses and under
        ASHRAY 4652 houses have been constructed by KDA whereas under very
        low income houses 40,516 houses and 19,777 houses for low income group
        has been built up. Out of total built up houses (66681) by KDA, only 2120
        houses (3.2 %) have remained unsold. The main reason due t which        o
        EWS/LIG houses remain unsold are one, their remote location, secondly, lack
        of infrastructure i.e. not well connected to the main city by approach roads and
        street lighting etc., thirdly increase in cost of these houses every year due to
        which they become unaffordable for poor people, fourthly EWS houses which
        are build under VAMBAY scheme remain unsold due to time taken by district
        administration in providing the list of allotted to KDA for disposal of houses.




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             Table 7.6 Houses Developed by KDA for Poorer Section of Society
S.     Type of Houses     Houses      Houses     Houses     Houses     House                   Houses/l
No.                       built       built      built      built      s built                 and
                          Developed Developed Develope Develop develo                          whic h is
                          up to 31st in 2003 - d        in ed      in ped up                   not
                          March       04         2004- 05 2005- 06 to 31-                      allotted
                          2003                                         3-06                    up      to
                                                                                               31-3-06
1      Economically Weaker Section
A      VAMBAY               350                115              256         1015       1736         799
B      ASHRAY              3871                164              265          352       4652         1291
C      Very low income    39452                127              326          331      40516          23
       category houses
       Sub total          43673                406              847         1698      46904         2113
2      Low Income         19417                123              237           0       19777           7
       Group
       Total              63090                529          1084            1698      66681         2120
Source Data collected from Kanpur Development Authority 2006

              U.P. Housing board too constructs houses for EWS and BPL under VAMBY
              and ASHRAY scheme. EWS and LIG houses are subsidized to the extent of 20
              percent which they include in the cost of land development. The houses
              developed in Yojana no.2 has left vacant due to its remote location and poor
              connectivity with main city.

      7.5.1   Future Housing to be provided for Economically Weaker Section
              Presently, the population of slum is approximately 5 lakhs which require 1
              lakh EWS houses. There have been schemes earlier for developing the
              infrastructure in slums but construction of houses was not an integral part of
              it. Under JNNURM, houses for urban poor will be built. So far, two agencies
              i.e. KDA and UPHDB have been engaged for building the houses for poor.
              Current demand is to provide 1, 50,000 EWS houses out of which 50,000
              houses are required immediately and one lakh houses would be required for
              additional population in next 25 years.

              Presently few families are living in pucca houses and rest live in kutcha
              houses. It is estimated that almost half live in kutcha houses and rest half in
              pucca houses. Thus there is immediate demand for 50,000 houses, which will
              be met by construction of 50,000 in situ houses. This construction is proposed
              to be undertaken by DUDA itself on the land of Malin Basti. The total cost of
              house for beneficiary is Rs.80,000 only out of which Rs.64,000 is subsidy
              under IHSDP (Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme).

              The short-fall (1 lakh houses) needs to be met by involving private sector and
              housing society. It should be made mandatory for them to build certain
              percentage of houses for EWS/LIG out of tota l housing.



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        The finances are required for development of infrastructure such as roads,
        water supply, sewerage and street lighting etc. within slums and connecting
        them to the main city. This has been taken care in finance chapter.

7.6     REVIEW OF URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION SCHEMES
        Many efforts have been undertaken at national and state level for poverty
        alleviation though their success varies from place to place. It has been
        observed that to increase the reach of different programmes and for their
        intended bene fits to target groups, the involvement of community is very
        necessary. In Kanpur, since 1992 District Urban Development Authority
        (DUDA) has implemented many schemes for poverty alleviation and bringing
        overall improvement of slums with the active involvement of slum dwellers.
        The details of schemes are as follows:

7.6.1 Urban Basic Services Programme (UBSP) Scheme
      The UBSP scheme was launched in 110 slums with the objective of bringing
      in improvement in the standard of living of the Urban poor specially women
      and children of the lower strata of the society and other weaker sections and to
      fulfil the basic needs of urban poor through designing their own programmes
      with the help of government and non-government organisations. The main
      target groups were people living below the poverty level and special emphasis
      has been laid on women, children and other backward classes such as schedule
      caste, schedule tribe, handicapped, old etc. The basic principle of UBSP
      scheme was community participation and to utilise the money provided under
      plans and schemes of different government departments. Under this scheme,
      Raja Purwa, which is a located in south Kanpur with a population of 5213,
      was undertaken for community financed operation and maintenance of water
      supply and sanitation programmes. A complex of 50 public latrines with a
      biogas plant and a pump for lifting water was built to provide 24 hour piped
      water for the latrines and bathing units in the complex as well as to eleven
      stand posts in different parts of the slum. Similar projects have been carried
      out in twenty one other slum areas.

7.6.2   DUDA -SIFSA Scheme
        SIFSA scheme has been started by DUDA in 1995. Under the above scheme,
        in 78 slums, through 5 Satellite Centres, with the help of one doctor, 5 ANM
        and 80 community based distribution worker they have tried to distribute door
        to door distribution of family planning tools and implementation of mother
        and child development scheme. Due to these efforts child productivity ratio
        (CPR) has increased from 3 to 35 p ercent.

7.6.3   Nehru Rojgar Yojana
        Under this scheme, two sub-schemes were implemented. They are small
        industry scheme i.e. giving loan of Rs. 20,000 to SC people and Rs. 16,000 for
        general people out of which Rs. 5000 and 4000 was subsidy given by DUDA
        and rest of the amount was loan provided by bank and provision of training to
        men and women for different industrial activities. Under the housing
        development scheme, loan has been provided for bringing improvement of

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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


        their shelter and training to both men and women to bring improvement in
        their own houses.

7.6.4 Community Structure Scheme
      Under this component, help in the form of blankets, sticks, glasses for old
      persons and clutches, hearing machine, artificial limbs etc. to disabled persons
      were provide d. Programmes/ camps were organised to provide necessary
      advice for leaving the habit of drinking, drugs etc. in 10 slums and distribution
      of stitching machines to widows.

7.6.5   National Slum Development Programme (NSDP)
        The National Slum Development Programme (NSDP) was started in 1996-97
        to provide the basic services in 390 slums covering 4 lakh 67 thousand
        population. It includes the entire component covered under UBSP Schemes
        with special emphasis on community participation. Under UBSP scheme, the
        emphasis has been laid on following aspects:
         Ø education programmes such as opening of anganwadi centres (220) for
                                     -6
             children belonging to 3 years and non-formal education centre for 8   -15
                                                                         -6
             years old children which has benefited 8800 children of 3 age group
             and 2100 of 8-15 age group;
         Ø Special health improvement programme were launched to improve the
             health of the children & women i.e. provision of nutritious food to 8800
                                               -3
             children and health check up of 0 age group children and vaccination to
             7000 kids and 2400 pregnant ladies for keeping them free from different
             diseases.
         Ø Community Structure Scheme i.e. providing tricycle (400) to
             handicapped ladies and men and eye check-up camps for old people;
         Ø economic activities such as formation of self-help groups (300) and
             training to women for different small scale industries i.e. tie & dye,
             bookbinding, repair of fridge & T.V, food preservation, computer, short
             hand and typing training and marketing
         Ø environment and cleanliness through tree plantation and their
             maintena nce
         Ø development of park i.e. planting trees and its maintenance, installation of
             lights using solar energy by slum dwellers

7.6.6   Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rojgar Yojana
        The main aim of SJSRY is to provide self -employment to poor unemployed
        and partially employed people and to provide beneficial employment available
        under urban wage employment. As in the case of U.B.S.P. scheme, this
        programme too depend on appropriate community structure and all the
        facilities under this scheme is made available through community structures
        etc. Under this scheme, 100 DWCUA (development of women and child in
        urban area) groups have been formed, skill development for 2000 self
        employment beneficiaries, 12 production centre for 100 DWCUA groups; loan
        for micro enterprise for 5000 self-employment beneficiaries and
        implementation of Urban Wage Employment Programme in Bithoor,
        Shivrajpur, Bilhour, Ghatampur areas.

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       It has been observed during the visits to different slums in Kanpur that though
       many efforts, as explained above, have been taken under different schemes to
       bring improvement in slums and to improve the standard of living of people
       below poverty line (BPL) which has benefited poor community, but a lot has
       yet to be done. Some of the issues such as poor quality of water, clogging of
       drains, non-availability of primary schools and dispensary, poor quality of
       house construction, stoppage of physical infrastructure schemes leading to
       poor quality of life in certain slums exists which need to be tackled.

7.7    STAKEHOLDER’S CONSULTATIONS
       During our interactions with the slum dwellers, their CDS (Community
       development Societies) and with NGOs and DUDA officials we gathered that
       while considerable work has been done in Kanpur for improving basic
       services to the poor and for rehabilitation of people living in slums, the efforts
       haven’t always been successful because:
       • Many a time’s schemes have been formulated without taking their
           convenience of feasibility of shifting to distant locations into
           consideration. This is apparent from the number of EWS houses lying
           vacant.
       • There is a lack of faith of the slum dwellers in the motives of authorities in
           shifting the slum dwellers. This combined with their insecurity about the
           lack of tenure of their housing makes them reluctant to move to new places
           or for in situ development.
       • Many of the slum dwellers are unable to pay the down payment and
           instalments for the houses.
       • The quality of houses offered are often below standard and slum dwellers
           feel that they are not getting value for money.
       • Most importantly, most EWS schemes so far have been at far away places
           and hence not suitable for them to shift to, given the poor transport
           facilities and the additional time and cost of commuting.

       The stakeholders report that the CDS’s have been well organized and they
       have done good work in developing alternate employment for slum dwellers,
       in building capacity in terms of taking up small businesses and services, in
       forming ‘Self Help Groups’ to encourage thrift and to take care of cash needs
       etc. However, the CDS’s need to have a business model and five year plan to
       grow and to provide employment and wages to their members.

       One of the weaknesses of organizing the poor and inhabitants of slums has
       been the lack of good and viable NGOs in Kanpur. Hence activities carry on
       till such time they are supported by the government programs but loose steam
       when the programs are withdrawn.

       The living conditions in the slums continue to be poor as has been described
       earlier. Due to this the incidence of gastro related diseases is high and many
       inhabitants loose wages due to frequent illness.


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       As a result of the foregoing and earlier analysis, the main issues that emerge
       for the urban poor are summarized in the section below.

7.8    KEY ISSUES
       • Lack of proper shelter, poor access to basic needs and lack of awareness
         make the slum dwellers life style very poor. About 20 percent of the
         Kanpur’s population is living in slums; hence all housing programmes
         should target provision of better shelter for them on priority basis.
       • The resettlement of the slum dwellers should be done taking into
         consideration their requirement, distance between their place of work and
         stay.
       • In many of the slums water through public stand posts and hand pumps
         have been provided but it has been observed that lots of water is wasted.
       • The quality of piped water supply, which slum dwellers receive, is very
         poor and suspected to be contaminated. Without filtration it is impossible
         for them to use it for drinking purpose.
       • Only in a few slums sewerage lines have been provided and they were
         often chocked.
       • No proper mechanism of solid waste disposal exists. Either the disposal
         sites are non-existent or even if they exist, they are located at far away
         place which the slum dwellers find inconvenient to use. The few waste
         disposal sites that exist are in a sad state of affairs as they are not cleaned
         on a daily basis and the waste gets scattered all over the place creating a
         health hazard.
       • In most of the slums, no provision has been made to provide storm water
         drains. Due to which water logging takes place adding to the unhygienic
         condition within the slums.
       • While the city has made provision for public sanitation facilities in a few
         slums, still about 30-40% slums go for open defecation, causing both a
         health hazard and a problem of safety.
       • At present the number of notified slum is 390 and strategies for
         rehabilitation and implementation of central and state government schemes
         can only be carried out in the notified slums. There is a need to carry out a
         fresh survey to cover all slums and poor communities so that the actual
         demand for housing and basic services for urban poor can be ascertained
         and overall city environment can be improved.

7.9    CITY’S VISION FOR THE POOR
       The city should be free of slums and the poor should be provided basic
       services and minimum facilities for dignified living. These should include:
       • Improving access to drinking water, preferably piped water in the house.
          Most modern cities are now moving from standposts and hand pumps to
          supply of safe piped water
       • Improving access to either low cost sanitation or public sanitation facilities
          to bring down open defecation.
       • Organizing solid waste services and their efficient disposal so that the
          environmental sanitation in the slums improves

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       •   Improving the drainage and roads in the slums so as to reduce water
           logging, mosquitoes and other health hazards
       •   Rehabilitation of slums either by shifting them to new (but convenient)
           locations or by in-situ development. This should be done through active
           community involvement only and should be demand led.
       •   Education and orientation of slum dwellers to pay a reasonable user charge
           for the services provided

7.10   STRATEGIES

7.10.1 Rehabilitation of Slums
       The objective of rehabilitation should be to improve the living conditions of
       the poor and to reduce the environmental pollution caused by the poor living
       conditions and poor basic services in the slums. The slum dwellers living in
       Kutcha or makeshift houses should be resettled in properly designed houses
       with minimum amenities. The facilities provided should use the subsidy
       available under JNNURM to provide houses at affordable cost and in easy
       instalments.
       • The slums should be divided into two categories for planning purposes:
           slums which are required for undertaking development project and slums
           which are not required for any such project.
       • There should be separate government policy for dealing with the
           a) slums located at different type of land i.e. private land (hata land),
               public land (KDA, KNN, Railway, Gram Samaj, Irrigation, Nazul
               land), combined land of 2-3 authorities (KDA, KNN and railway land)
               and
           b) slums required or not required for development project.
       •   The two scenario arises for the physical and social development of the
           slums on the basis of observation and discussion with the stakeholders:
            I.   If the land which they are occupying is required for the development
                 project, it becomes necessary to remove the slum and provide
                 housing on alternate sites. In this case, the following steps should be
                 taken:
                 a) Slum dwellers should be appraised of the future development
                     work and need to shift them out
                 b) Convincing them to shift to a new place
                 c) Consultation with them for alternate site selection for their
                     relocation
                 d) Site selection should be such that slum dwellers should be ready
                     to be rehabilitated in a regular colony. For that purpose, the
                     location should be in nearest available area as per the Master
                     Plan so that the distance between their work place and stay
                     should become less. It should have good quality of housing as per
                     their requirement and all the basic facilities should be provided.
                 e) If shifted and rehabilitated at longer distance from their earlier
                     locations, special arrangement for public transport/ buses should
                     be made for to and fro travel for their work place.

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                 The slums cleared for development purpose should be properly
                 protected by fencing etc. till the time project starts and in any
                 circumstance, slum people should not be allowed to come back on
                 the same land.
             II. If the land they are occupying is not required urgently for public
                 purpose, they may be allowed to stay and improvement can be
                 brought in at the same place. In that case, two way development can
                 be adopted:
                 a) In-situ development for ensuring the planned development of
                     slums and other low income areas, in terms of bringing
                     improvement in roads, water supply, sanitation and street lighting
                     etc. and advancement of liberal loans to improve their shelters,
                     should be provided to improve quality of life.
                 b) Five slums such as Vijay Nagar, Kalwa Mandi, Dabouli West,
                     Juhi Ambedkar Nagar and Ravidas Vihar at Jajmau will be taken
                     up for model development on Pune Model i.e. the slums should
                     be temporarily vacated and on their place multi-storey housing
                     should be made. In this case, the following steps should be taken:
                      i. In case, DUDA will get the houses constructed through
                         UPHB/KDA, land should be transferred to them by title
                         holders.
                     ii. In case, some other agency (title holders) will develop the
                         land and construct the houses, some portion of the land will
                         be given back to the agency (title holders) on whose land
                         slum is located so that they can meet the cost of land
                         development and construction of houses.
                    iii. The houses should be given on hire and purchase basis with a
                         condition that houses can’t be resold in first ten years. This
                         will avoid the re-sale of houses.
                    iv. For the slum dwellers, liberal loans should be advanced so
                         that they can give their share without any difficulty.

       The financial aspects of rehabilitation of the slums, subsidizing of the EWS
       housing, self financing, strategies for in-situ development in areas where land
       cost is high and policies to be pursued to ensure security of tenure and
       avoiding the misuse or resale of subsidized housing provided are outlined in
       the chapter on ‘Financial Operating Plan’.

7.10.2 Community Development and Employment:
       •  The Community Development Societies should be actively involved in
          the infrastructure projects such as construction of brick roads, community
          toilet blocks, collection of solid waste etc. The involvement can be of two
          ways:
          a) selection of projects which they want for their area
          b) identifying space and other requirements for the identified project
          c) providing labour for the project work. This will reduce the cost of
             infrastructure provision and slum dwellers will get employment.


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         •   The time, duration and amount of water to be supplied in those slums
             where people have taken piped supply should be fixed first to have a
             reliable/steady water supply. This should be propagated in other slums
             and people should be motivated to take new connection for piped water
             supply. For the new applicants, water supply lines should be laid and
             household connections should be given at subsidized rates.
         •   For those who have received training under SJSRY scheme, venues for
             employment generation should be opened up so that they can get
             immediate employment and contribute the overall economy. Those who
             have not received training and are unemployed should be motivated to
             join nearest training centre for skill development training so that trainees
             can get skilled and semi-skilled jobs by either self -employed or by
             exploring job prospects somewhere else. Incentives such as scholarships,
             certificate etc. should be provided to encourage them to join these courses.
         •   For the new migrants coming to the city for jobs , camping sites at
             appropriate locations should be built up to provide them temporary
             shelter.
         •   Mixed land use may be permitted in their rehabilitated colonies to help
             them get self employed by opening small establishments. This will also
             serve the local population residing in the colony.
         •   In rehabilitated colonies, facilities such as primary schools, health centres,
             community halls, parks and play grounds must be provided before shifting
             the population.
         •   Public-Private participation should be encouraged to pr ovide housing for
             EWS.
         •   For increasing the education level in slums,
              − Balwadi’s and Anganwadi’s should be promoted to inculcate the desire
                 for education from childhood.
              − Non-formal education centres should be opened for providing
                 education to school drop outs and aged people.
         •   The steps should be taken to reduce transmission and distribution losses
             by keeping a check on illegal electricity connections.
         •   Community toilets should be built to stop open defecation.

7.11   STEPS TO BE TAKEN
       • More community toilets as per community need, proper design should be
         built in those areas where land size is too small or people can’t afford to
         build individual toilets.
       • The Operation and maintenance facility of the community toilets should be
         laid in the hands of the Community Development societies so as to ensure
         effective cleaning and functioning of the toilet.
       • For using community toilets, subsidized monthly rate of Rs25-30 should be
         fixed.
       • Water facility should be positively provided round the clock within the
         Community toilet complex so as to enable the proper cleanliness of the
         premises.
       • IEC activities to



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             − generate awareness and ensure that no solid waste is thrown in the
               drains which will enable us to solve the problem of blocked drains.
             − education campaigns on water conservation so that water loss from
               public stand-posts or hand pumps can be minimised

         • Relocation of slums dwellers in a planned manner keeping in mind their
           holistic development and by adopting consultative process.
         • Though the slum dwellers are ready for in-situ development it is
           suggested that development in the existing areas can be taken up only in
           the context of provision of Urban Basic services.
       •   Special focus on providing Public Health Centres (PHCs) in each slum
           and organising health education and various health service camps.
       •   Involving      Community       Development      Societies     in    planning,
           implementation and monitoring of infrastructure project and in the form
           of labour and sharing the cost of development for infrastructure projects
           viz. construction of drains, brick road, community toilets etc.
       •   Encouraging the formation of micro credit organisations and enhancing
           their financial capacity by linking them with financial institutions.
       •   Proper maintenance of community centres and further construction of
           community centres for community development activities.
       •   Organising awareness camps about cleanliness, usefulness of using piped
           water supply and community toilets, need for better education and health
           facilities, about women empowerment and child development.
       •   A few slums will be adopted for building EWS housing and pilot project
           as per Ahmedabad model with a strategy designed to bring about holistic
           development ranging from basic urban services provision to social
           development i.e. education, health and employment ge neration activities.




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                            SLUM DEVELOPMENT




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                                  Community Toilet




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                       CHAPTER 8:
ROAD AND T RANSPORTATION PLANNING
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


            8        ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION PLANNING


        With the high population growth and changing travel & traffic characteristics,
        transportation problems are aggravating in the city of Kanpur. The yawning
        gap between demand and supply of transport infrastructure is steadily
        increasing. The capital intensive transport infrastructure development is
        imperative for medium and long-term solutions. Kanpur is facing the problem
        of regulating inter-city traffic together with the city traffic. The railway
        network passing through the city has resulted in a large number (16) of rail
        level crossings. The congestion is evident all along the G.T. Road and at all
        those places where the railway network cuts the road network. In the past,
        some remedial measures were exercised by constructing six Roads Over
        Bridges (Murray Crossing, Jhakkarkati, Narender Mohan Setu, Govind Puri,
        Dada Nagar and Panki) and a by-pass on the southern end of the city to ease
        the traffic congestion. The spurt in city population and motorized vehicles (3.3
        lakh to 5.4 lakh) has compounded the problem further. The problem of
        pollution and air quality deteriorating, when the rail level crossings are closed,
        beside generating long queues of traffic leading to congestion and traffic jams
        are some of the major problems.

        Moreover the focus of this section is to review the current status of
        transportation system, road network in Kanpur. The elements reviewed and
        assessed include:
        • Existing Transport System
        • Road Network Characteristics
        • Traffic Characteristics


8.1     EXISTING TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN KANPUR

8.1.1   Public and Goods Transport System

        •       Public Transport System
                The city is predominantly dependent upon private buses and tempos for
                the intra-city passenger travel. There are approximately 80 private buses
                and 980 auto rickshaws and tempos plying in the city. Earlier, there were
                city buses operated by U.P.S.R.T.C. to cater to the need of commuters
                which have been withdrawn subsequently. Recently U.P.S.R.T.C has
                ordered 108 new CNG buses to replace old fleet of buses. One mother
                station and 7 daughter stations are under construction and 1000 new CNG
                taxi permit has been given.

                There are approximately 5,000 cycle-rickshaws in the city, commonly
                used for making short trips. In the absence of adequate public transport
                system, the people are forced to depend upon their personalized modes to
                sustain in the growing economic activities. The growth of
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            scooter/motorcycles has been phenomenal during the last decade.
            Motorized two wheelers grew from 2.7 Lakhs in 1999 to 4.5 Lakhs in
            2006.

        •   Goods Transport System:
            Although intra -city goods transportation by light commercial vehicles is
            allowed within inner CBD circle, their operations and movements
            augments the congestion in main market area and slow down the traffic
            movement. The critical road stretches are Ambedkar Road, Mall Road,
            Meston Road, Latouce Road, P-Road, Nayaganj Road, Halsey Road, Canal
            Road, Cooperganj Road, Suterkhana Road, and section from Bakerganj to
            Ghantaghar.

            Loading, unloading and goods transport operation by handcarts, cycle
            carts, buffalo carts and by other slow vehicles are normally used during
            day time in the area encircling Ambedkar Road, Mall Road, Canal Road,
            Kidwai Nagar Road, Baradevi Road, Chawla Market Road, Fazalganj
            Road and Eye Hospital Road. At present, 500 Kharkharas, 200 bullock
            cart, 350 hand cart and 400 trolleys are plying within the city for
            transportation of goods. Light goods vehicles such as mini-trucks goods
            tempos and goods autos create the traffic congestion at intra-city goods
            operation within the above circle.

8.1.2   Vehicle Population in Kanpur
        The vehicle registration data for Kanpur city was collected from R.T.O.
        department at Kanpur are tabulated in table 8.1. The maximum numbers of
        vehicles registration are of two wheelers from 1999 to 2006 followed by cars.
        The numbers of total vehicles registered were 32,932 in 1999-2000 whereas it
        was 49,468 in year 2005-06, indicating demand and need of these vehicles in
        Kanpur. The demand is moreover for two wheelers as the ratio of buying two  -
        wheeler vehicles with in these years shows rapid increase of registration.

        In Kanpur city, major share and            Share of registered Vehicles in Kanpur
        maximum growth is observed in                               (2006)
        two wheelers. Out of total
        vehicles, in 2006 83 percentage                                83%
        two-wheelers, 13 % Cars, 4 % of
        trucks were registered whereas it
        was 79% two-wheelers, 18%
        cars and 1% each for Auto, Bus
        and Trucks in 1995.
                                                          4%                    13%

                                                          2-Wheelers     Cars    Trucks




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                    Table 8.1 Vehicle Registration Data for Kanpur City
               YEAR 2-Wheelers        Cars       Bus Auto Trucks                            Total
              1999-00        21494 5831           47            1351                        28723
              2000-01        25112 4464           95     102     582                        30355
              2001-02        26470 4604           47      98     480                        31699
              2002-03        35510 5637           66     277    1299                        42789
              2003-04        39192 5962           63     336    1391                        46944
              2004-05        39512 6737           65      46    2014                        48374
              2005-06        39352 6415           84     119    1727                        47697
            Source: Regional Transport Office, 2006

             •   Growth of Motor Vehicles
                 There is a huge gap between the demand and supply of public transport in
                 Kanpur. This has resulted in manifold increase in personalized vehicles,
                 both slow and fast modes and intermediate public transport modes such as
                 tempos, cycle -rickshaws etc. Growth of motor vehicle s in Kanpur City for
                 the period between 1999 and 2006 is presented in Table 8.2. The average
                 growth rate of fast vehicles in the city has been to the tune of 9% between
                 years 1999 and 2006. Motorized two wheelers constitute 84% of the total
                 registered ve hicles in 2006.

                      Table 8.2 Growth of Registered Vehicles in Kanpur
 Type of                                                     YEAR
 vehicles                                                                                                 %
                    1999-    2000-01 2001-02 2002-03              2003-        2004-05 2005-06
                    2000                                           04                                   growth

                     (a)        (b)       (c )         (d)          (e)          (f)         (g)          (h)
 Multi-
 axle/articulated        47         47           51          57           57           57          58      23.40
 vehicles
 Medium &
                     13700       7271      7477         8196        7989          8986       10551        -22.99
 heavy tracks
 LCV (4-
                      1166       1209      1846         2183        2354          2469        2487       113.29
 wheelers)
 LCV (3-
                      2678        605       557          894        1382          1872        2210        -17.48
 wheelers)
 Buses                 218        301       376          288         317            85          80       -63.30
 Mini Buses              69       153       267           45          56           232         235       240.58
 Taxis                 734        253       314          445         480           464         413       -43.73
 Auto-rickshaws        111        153       252          529         850           876         980       782.88
 and Tempos
 2-wheelers         273208 321215        298170       352698      381675       420465       455807        66.84
 Car Jeeps           35812      43428     39453        48491       54194        60199        65994        84.28
 Tractors             2566       3543      3409         4238        4645         5967         1327       -48.29
 Trailers              406        422       434          425         425          425         1232       203.45
 Others               2084       1181      1441         1192        1200         1216         1216       -41.65
 TOTAL              332799 379781        354047       419681      455624       503313       542590        63.04
Source: Regional Transport Office 2006

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8.2     ROAD NETWORK CHARACTERISTICS
        Kanpur has a radial pattern of network, which include two National Highways
        namely, NH-25 (Kanpur-Lucknow Road) and NH-2 connecting Kanpur to
        Kolkata in East and Kanpur to Delhi in the North. G.T. road, Hamirpur road
        and bye pass roads are other major arterial roads in the city. Parwathy Bangla
        Road, Mall Road, Dad Nagger Road, Jawahar Road, Eye Hospital Road,
        Prithviraj Chauhan Road and Panki Road are some of the major sub-arterials
        roads within the city. The road infrastructure such as signage , signals etc. has
        not been expanded in accordance with the increase of population and vehicles.
        It has been observed that 71 percent of roads are already saturated or nearing
        saturation. Although 27 percent of road network has a width of over 30m, 50
        percent capacity utilization has been deteriorated due to encroached roads. Out
        of total road network, 70 percent surface quality is poor.

8.2.1   Road Surface Quality
        Most of the roads in Kanpur have
        poor surface quality. Out of total         Road Surface Quality in Kanpur

        272 meter road observed only 81.2             300                     272
        m (30%) of road length has a good
                                                Carriageway
                                                      250
                                                      200         175.1
        surface       quality       whereas
                                                     (m)

                                                      150   81.2
        approximately 175.1 m was in bad              100
                                                       50                15.7
        condition and needed the repairs                0
                                                          Good Bad Very TOTAL
        and 15.7 m (6%) have the very                                   bad
        poor conditions. This coupled with
                                                            Road Surface Qulaity
        inadequate carriageway width
        signifies lower road capacity which means reduced level of service on roads.

8.2.2   Speed and Delays on Road Systems
        The road system in the study area offers a very poor level of service. Out of
        total road length, 65 percent offers traffic stream journey speed of only upto
        20 km/h during peak periods whereas average journey and running speeds is
        17.4km/h. There is not much significant variation between two speeds which
        indicates saturation-flow conditions on the road systems.

8.2.3   Level of Service of Road System
        Level of service offered by roads depends upon volume of traffic and capacity
        of the road sections. Based on the capacities as recommended by IRC,
        Volume-Capacity ratios (V/C ratio) have been worked out. In Kanpur more
        than 26% of road lengths have V/C ratios of more than 0.8 which denotes
        forced traffic flow conditions and is worst level of services. Most of the city
        core roads (Meston road, Canal Road, Halsey road, Latouchey road, Birhana
        road (near Nayaganj), Canal road (near Narona), Nayaganj road and Kidwai
        Nagar road near Ghantaghar ) have more than one V/C ratios. These roads are
        under utilized due to encroachments and poor surface quality. The journey
        speeds on these roads were found very low due to so much congestion and
        needs some remedial measures.
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8.3     TRAFFIC CHARACTERISTICS
        An unprecedented growth of motor vehicles has resulted in a host of traffic
        problems in the city. There were 5.4 lakh motorized vehicles registered in
        Kanpur till March 2006. Two wheelers share constituted 84 percent of the
        total registered vehicles. As against a fleet of 80 buses and 235 mini buses
        meant for intercity bus operation, a large proportion of public transport
        demand is catered by 980 tempos plying in different routes in the city.

8.3.1   Average Daily Traffic (ADT) at Outer Cordon
        On an average day a total of 89468 vehicles in Kanpur enter and exit at the
        outer corridors. Amongst the various roads, Unnao Road carries the maximum
        volume of traffic with average daily traffic of 24472 vehicles while G.T. Road
        at Mandhana accounts for the least traffic of 8459 vehicles per day at outer
        cordon.

8.3.2   Average Daily Traffic (ADT) at Inner City Locations
        Average daily traffic (16 hour duration) in terms of vehicles and PCUs at
        various inner-city locations reveals that Kalpi Road, M.G. Road, G.T. Road,
        Baker Road, Guru Gobind Singh Marg. Hamir Road are the heavily trafficked
        roads with ADT (16 hours) in excess of 30,000 vehicles.

8.3.3   Tempo Movement
        In absence of adequate public transport system by bus, the large intracity
        passenger demand is catered by 980 auto-rickshaws and tempos registered
        with RTA. The tempo movement is very high especially on Ambedkar and
        Mall Road stretches and at Parade and Bara Chauraha. This leads to
        congestion on busy city roads.

8.3.4   Parking Demand and Supply
        Due to a high demand of parking spaces, an effort was made to assess the
        current parking demand and supply on important roads in the inner CBD in
        Kanpur City. It has been observed that in absence of adequate off street
        parking the resultant demand is met primarily by on street parking which is
        prevalent on important road corridors. Unless some measures to create more
        off street parking spaces in the inner CBD are made, the traffic conditions will
        not improve. Scarcity of open spaces in the CBD may be substituted by
        construction of multi-stor ey and underground parking facility. Already four
        multi-storey parking spaces have been identified and will be developed on
        PPP basis.

8.4     ISSUES CONCERNING MOBILITY
        Some basic issues are as follows:

        •   Traffic Movement
            Ø The railway line between Kanpur and Farrukhabad divides the city
               into north and south city and total 11 level crossing falls between main
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             Kanpur city and south city i.e. on other side of G.T. road. The traffic
             movement is restricted on railway crossings from Jarib Chawki to
             Kalyanpur on G.T. road and frequent traffic jam is seen all along the
             G.T. road due to passing of trains.
           Ø Kanpur city is connected to industrial estate at Dada Nagar and Panki
             through Dada Nagar tri-junction and Vijay crossing. High traffic
             movement on this corridor cause frequent traffic jams.
           Ø There is regular slow moving traffic by vehicles i.e. hand cart, buffalo
             cart, between transport nagar and trading centres like Gurmandi,
             Bansmandi, Hatia, Mani Ram Bagia located within inner city. The
             goods, which reach transport nagar first, are carted to wholesalers in
             inner city and after its re-packaging again transported back to
             transport nagar for further distribution to other cities in eastern U.P.
             and part of Bihar. This resulted in lots of traffic jams and immediate
             steps should be taken to avoid the movement of goods.
           Ø There is a railway godown in city between Jhakarkati ROB and
             Kanpur Central. Items like cement, fertilizers etc. are off loaded in the
             godown and then sent further to Panki, FazalGanj and Dada Nagar
             industrial estate. The need is felt to shift the railway godown.

       •   Low corridor speed due to high composition of slow traffic
           Due to heterogeneous composition of Autos, Tempos, Rickshaws, Cycles,
           two-wheelers, cars and other small good vehicle traffic movement is very
           slow. There is no division of routes for fast and slow vehicles which cause
           congestion and increase the traffic problems. Another reason is that road
           surface quality is poor which also affects the steady movement of vehicles.
           Road like Ramadevi Chauraha, Vijay Nagar Road, Fajalgang and Station
           Road, etc. are facing bad surface quality and during rainy season the case
           becomes worst and alarming.

       •   Poor intersection geometrics and non-functional signal
           The intersections are very poorly designed. There is a need to improve the
           intersections of roads at many places of Kanpur City. The traffic signal,
           wherever installed, does not function properly which leads to slow traffic
           movement and reduce road safety. Steps shall be taken to install traffic
           signals on all the major intersections and traffic police shall be posted to
           follow the signal phasing. Presently traffic lights are controlled manually.


       •   Poor Road Surface Quality
           Transportation and movement of vehicles depends a lot on the road surface
           quality. In Kanpur city the road surface quality is poor on average due to
           lack of maintenance. The main problems related to road surface quality are
           in intra-city area. The areas such as Gumti, Shastri Nagar market area,
           Rawatpur, Azadpur, Nawabganj road, Kanpur Railway station to Fajalganj
           to Vijay Nagar road have poor road conditions due to lack of maintenance.
           Similarly, Ramadevi chauraha, Mall Road etc. needs improvement. The
           poor road surface quality leads to congestion and traffic slow down.
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       •   Inadequate parking space
           The basic parking issues can be summarized as under:
           i) The parking supply and demand presents a very grim picture in
               Kanpur. With an unprecedented growth of motor vehicles the demand
               of parking is growing day by day. The commercial establishments are
               found all along the arterial roads need high parking space for owners,
               employees and visitors. Majority of commercial establishments
               doesn’t account for parking space within their premises. Due to
               inadequate supply of off -street parking lots, supply is predominantly
               met on street with excessive use of inexpensive road space meant for
               traffic movement leading to haphazard parking and slow traffic
               movement.
           ii)   Buses and trucks parked at G.T. Road between Jarib Chowki and Gol
                 Chouraha creates chaos.
           iii) Absence of stringent measures for regulation
           iv) Absence of a parking policy

       •   No tempo terminal facilities
           Most of the local passengers depend upon the tempo and mini buses for
           their intra-city movement and transportation. Furthermost there are no
           terminals provided for tempo operation, the only space provided near
           Sirsaya Ghat is practically ignored by the operators. All operations
           originate and end at roadside. The worst being that tempo terminal exists
           on either side of Mall Road at Bara Chauraha which has resulted in chaotic
           traffic conditions at the intersections.

       •   No tempo stops earmarked for boarding and alighting
           In city, tempos and vikrams are plying unabated. These are backbone of
           public transport. But these vehicles cause big traffic nuisance and there is
           no proper place earmarked for boarding and alighting the commuters and
           they stop at any place and even if it is earmarked, no enforcement is there
           to check and control that tempos stop at earmarked place. It resulted in
           slow traffic movement.


       •   Traffic Congestion and Ambient Air Quality
           According to the study conducted by Central Pollution Control Board
           (CPCB), maximum numbers of vehicles (60%) held during the closure of
           level crossings are petrol driven two-wheelers. The number of diesel
           driven vehic les account for only 22 percent but they are enough to create a
           very thick smoke adding to visual obstruction and resulting in increased
           particulate mater in the air. Traffic congestion takes place on all significant
           crossings from Kalyanpur to Jarib Chowki on G.T. Road. The results of

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            Ambient Air Quality indicate that the suspended particulate matter (SPM)
            ranged between 780-788 ug/m3 when the crossings are open and shoots up
            to maximum of 4415 ug/m3 when the crossings are closed for train
            movement. The highest value was observed at Gumti Mo. 5.


        •   Lack of Public Transport
            The public transport system is non-existent in Kanpur. The only mode of
            travel for commuters is tempos and mini buses which contribute to air and
            noise pollution and traffic disorder.

        •   Inadequate traffic staff
            Present requirement of constables in traffic cell is 600 whereas only 400
            constables (66.6 %) are sanctioned. Out of sanctioned staff only 50 percent
            is available for controlling the traffic.

        •   Inadequate traffic signs and road markings
            It has been observed that traffic Signs and road marking have not been
            marked on almost all the major arterial roads which leads to irregular
            traffic movement and reduced safety.

        •   Encroachment on roads
            Majority of the roads are encroached by venders selling fruits and other
            items due to which public mobilization is also occurring. In main market
            areas such as Birhana Road etc. there are many encroachments on the road
            side. This leads to traffic jam, congestion on roads and slow down of
            traffic movement.

        •   Inadequate pedestrian facilities
            Other than a few roads, all other roads lack footpath availability and
            marking of zebra crossing for the pedestrian movements.

8.5     STRATEGIES FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
        P -Road, Meston Road, Halsary Road, Latouche Road Nayaganj Road,
        Sutarkhana Road, Cooperganj Road, Birhana Road fall in the inner CBD circle
        and being major market centre as well as shortest connection routes, these
        road have very high volume of slow and fast traffic. Chaotic traffic conditions
        persist during peak hours on busy roads. Although restricting movement of
        trucks and slow goods vehicles will ease the traffic situation to a great extent,
        it is also desirable to impose parking and other movement restrictions and
        segregate fast and slow vehicles in sections by providing separate tracks for
        slow vehicles wherever feasible.

8.5.1   Regulation /Segregation of Traffic
        Assessment of traffic characteristics in Kanpur has revealed the presence of
        large proportion of slow traffic in the total traffic mix. To manage traffic in
        efficient and economic manner, one of the methods is to adopt traffic
        segregation principle i.e. guide slow and fast moving vehicles in separate lanes
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        in the corridor with proper traffic signs and markings. In case segregation is
        not possible for want of sufficient space, certain roads should be identified for
        exclusive use of fast or slow vehicles or alternatively one -way system should
        be introduced.

8.5.2   Regulation of Slow Traffic in Kanpur
        Apart from segregation of slow and fast traffic, there is a need to regulate slow
        moving traffic in the city, specially in inner city. The composition of slow
        moving traffic (hand cart, bullock cart, trolleys and rickshaw) varies between
        40-48 percent on Mall Road between Lal Imli and Bara Chauraha out of which
        cycle rickshaw accounts for about 35 percent. Although they do not contribute
        to vehicular pollution, yet they affect travel speeds of motorized vehicles
        leading to acute congestion and more cycle time required for clearance at the
        intersections. Keeping this in mind, two steps should be taken:
        a) slow traffic movement should be banned on main arterial road sections
            (Mall road) and on some other roads (Meston road, Gumti No. 5 etc.) it
            should be banned during peak hours.
        b) All small moving vehicles need to be phased out gradually.

8.5.3   Road Surface Improvements
        Most of the roads have poor surface quality. Only 30 percent of road length
        has a good surface quality. After traffic segregation and regulation of slow
        moving traffic, road surface quality will be improved for uninterrupted traffic
        flow. Proper monitoring and maintenance of new constructed road will be
        done. Resurfacing of the broken roads should be taken phase wise depending
        upon the areas.

8.5.4   Intersection Improvements
        The major characteristic of traffic in Kanpur is of mixed vehicular movement
        ranging from primitive animal drawn carts to latest in the motor technology.
        While speed maneuverability, dimensions, control and other static and
        dynamic operational characteristics are significantly different from each other,
        but they occupy the same road space and move in aggregated flows having all
        types of vehicular interactions and impede traffic flow at important
        intersections. All major intersections such as Rawatpur, Bakarmandi,
        Chunniganj, Lal Imli, Parade, Bara Chaura ha, Meghdoot, Phulbagh, LIC,
        Narona etc. should be improved.

8.5.5   Parking Spots
        Haphazard parking of vehicles on roads should be stopped. Parking should
        only be allowed at identified 158 spots. Parking lots should be developed on
        public -private partnership basis. Parking fee should be charged from identified
        parking spots and from shop owners whose cars are allowed to park in front of
        their promises. Due consultative process should be adopted to fix different
        slabs for parking.

        Proper signage for parking sign boards/ No Parking should be erected at
        identified locations. Strict actions should be taken against those vehicle
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        owners who park their vehicle on roads. Collection of parking fees should be
        resorted as a disincentive measures.

8.5.6   Removal of E ncroachment
        The carriageway of all roads in the inner CBD circle should be widened to
        maximum extent by removing encroachments. Removal of encroachment will
        result in smooth and efficient vehicular movement using all the available road
        width and minimize congestion.

8.5.7   Conversion of Non CNG Vehicles to CNG
        The mother station of CNG already exists. Therefore there is an urgent need
        for conversion of bused and other vehicles to CNG to make city pollution free.

8.6     KEY ACTIONS
        − The need is to construct a flyover on Vijaynagar crossing and widening of
          existing RoB connecting Vijay nagar crossing to Dada Nagar industrial
          estate.
        − The main trading centres like Naya Ganj, Bansmandi, Hatia etc. needs to
          be shifted from inner core city to outskirts in the vicinity of Transport
          Nagar. This will minimise the movement of slow moving carts between
          trading centres located in inner core city and transport nagar.
        − The railway godown between Jhakarkatti ROB and Kanpur Central should
          be shifted to Panki Railway yard in the outskirts of the city so that traffic
          congestion can be avoided.
        − There is requirement of at least 6 ROB’s between Jarib Chowki and
          Kalyanpur and also at Shyam Nagar, Dada Nagar, Govind Nagar and one
          running parallel to Govind Puri Railway Bridge.
        − All main crossings and tri-sections need to be equipped with traffic lights
          and glow signs to regulate the movement of traffic.
        − There is a need to develop public transport system using CNG buses (108
          buses procured by U.P.S.R.T.C) in the first phase of the mission.
        − All slow moving animal and manual carting vehicles need to be phased out
          gradually and should be replaced by CNG buses and 3 wheelers all over
          the city.
        − All the tempos and loaders need to be phased out within next two        -three
          years and buses more than 10 years should also be phased out.
        − Parking lots at various locations needs to be developed for parking cars,
          two-wheelers etc. on PPP basis by KNN and KDA thereby removing
          congestion on roads due to parking of vehicles on either side of road.
        − The suitable site should be identified for development of parking area for
          buses and trucks currently parked at G.T. Road.
        − The sanctioned posts need to be filled immediately so that adequate
          constables could be posted in all the strategic points in city. This will help
          in improving the deteriorating law and order situation.
        − Regulatory measures should be adopted for restricting heavy vehicular
          movement from city during peak hours in morning and evening


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       − Important intersections should be kept encroachment free by continuous
         monitoring. Boarding of passengers by cycle rickshaws and tempo’s
         should be regulated 75 meter away from each approached arm to the
         intersection.
       − Construction of public transport bays (Bus/ tempo terminal) shall be taken
         up.
       − Tempo boarding/alighting should be displayed but it would not be allowed
         within 50 m reach of the intersection.




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        CHAPTER 9:
MUNICIPAL SERVICES
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


                          9. MUNICIPAL SERVICES


9.1     INTRODUCTION
        In Kanpur, steep growth (35 percent) in population from 1991-2001 has put
        tremendous pressure on urban infrastructure such as water supply, sewerage,
        solid waste etc. The primary responsibility of providing water supply and
        sanitation rests with state government and more specifically with municipal
        government. Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS) deals with water supply and
        sewerage system while Kanpur Nagar Nigam deals with social infrastructure
        such as Education, Health and Medical services. This chapter deals with
        present status, gaps and future requirement for basic civic services and
        focuses on strategies and investment required by different agencies to meet
        the gap.

9.2     KANPUR WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM
        Kanpur is the biggest and most important industrial city of Uttar Pradesh
        (India). It is situated on the right bank of river Ganga and relatively flat
        alluvial plain. It is biggest water supply system of Uttar Pradesh. The capital
        works are carried out by U.P. Jal Nigam (UPJN) whereas the operation and
        maintenance is carried out by Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS).

9.2.1   Kanpur Jal Sansthan
        In 1975, Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS) was constituted as a specialized body
        under the U.P. Water Supply & Sewerage Act and entrusted with the work of
        operation and maintenance of water supply and sewerage system. Prior to the
        creation of KJS, Water supply and sewerage services were looked after by
        Municipal Corporation.

        The working of Jal Sansthan is de-centralised. The entire city has been
        divided into four service districts namely city service, west service, south
        service and east service district for the management of water supply system.
        There are 6 Zones to manage the water supply. Each zone is headed by an
        Executive Engineer who vested with drawing and disbursing power, is
        responsible for Water Supply and Sewerage and also for revenue collection.

9.2.2   Salient Features of Kanpur Water Supply
        The piped water supply of Kanpur City was started in 1892. The Kanpur
        water works which is more than a hundred year old serves the city service
        district and part of south service district. Water works was established with a
        designed capacity of 4 million gall1ons per day to ser ve about 2 lakh
        population. It was started with three Settling Tanks, five Slow Sand Filters,
        two Clear Water Reservoirs (1.14 million gallons each) with steam operated
        filtered water pumping plants at Benajhabar. Distribution system was served
        by two balancing tanks of 3 lakh gallons capacity each. The source of intake
        was river Ganga and the Ganga water was pumped from Bhaironghat Raw
        Water Pumping Station which was about two kilometers away from

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        Benajhabar Treatment Works.

        River Ganga started receding towards Unnao due to which raw water supply
        started reducing. To meet the water demand, Kutcha Nala (5.4 Km.) was
        constructed from lower Ganga canal as raw water channel in 1920.
        Electrification of Kanpur Water Works was done in 1927. Major re-
        organisation works were carried out in 1937-42, 1951-56, 1977-81 and 1986-
        97.

        After construction of Ganga Barrage, a permanent and reliable source for the
        water supply is available to provide 1600 mld raw water. This is sufficient to
        cater the needs of the town upto 2031.

9.2.3   Water Purifications Measures
        Conventional methods of water purification, viz, coagula tion, filtration and,
        disinfection are used to treat surface water from the river Ganga and Lower
        Ganga Canal. In coagulation, raw water is treated with Alumina Ferric so that
        the colloidal impurities are precipitated, settled down and finally drained out
        in the form of sludge. There are 16 Slow Sand and 30 Rapid Gravity Filters in
        KJS.

        Rate of filtration in slow sand filters is comparatively very low. In the
        beginning, it was 9-11 litres per square foot per hour, which has gradually
        decreased with the increase in head loss. After attaining a head loss of
        normally 36 inches, the filter is closed. Perio dical recouping of sand is done.
        These filters are not functioning due to need for rehabilitation.

        In Rapid Gravity Filters, filtration rate is much higher as compared to slow
        sand filters. Conventionally, 400-550 litres per square foot per hour rate are
        met. However, two conventional Rapid Gravity Filters have been converted
        into bituminous coal-sand dual media filter in which the rate of filtration was
        four times of the conventional rate. After filtration process, water becomes
        apparently very clear but it may contain pathogenic impurities. To remove
        these impurities , chlorine is used.


9.2.4   Current Scenario
9.2.4.1 Source of Supply
        The main source of surface water in the city is from the catchment of
        following:
         Ø Ganga River
         Ø Pandu River
                                                                                   3
        The water flow in the Ganga varies between a mean minimum of 72.6 m /s
                                             3
        and a mean maximum of 8.860 m /s. After tapping water from upper and
        lower Ganga canals, minimum water flow of 6m3 /s is maintained in the river
        Ganga near Kanpur. The quality of water intake point has been satisfactory
        between the year 1997 and 2001 with DO ranging from 7.5 mg/l to 9.1 mg/l.
        In 2006, quality of water intake point is DO ranging from 4.5 mg/l to 7.0 mg/l

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9.2.4.2 Service Coverage
        The total water supply requirement is 600 mld but only 385 mld of potable
        water is being supplied. The total supply from treatment plants is about 255
        mld water (210 mld raw water from Bhaironghat pumping station and 45 mld
        from Lower Ganga Canal) and approximately 130 mld water is drawn from
        groundwater comprising of 80 mld from tube wells (about 135) and 50 mld
        from hand pumps (about 9830), thereby making a total present water supply
        of 385 mld. In addition, there are large number of private bore wells in
        residential and industrial areas which are unaccounted.

        The present status of water supply source and capacity of KJS is given in
        table 9.1.
                           Table 9.1 Source and Supply of Water
     1. Source of Raw      Installed       Actual Supply     Remarks
     Water                 Capacity        in mld.
                           (mld)
     Ganga Channel at           310              210         Contaminated;
     Bhaironghat                                             needs treatment.
     Lower Ganga canal          130                45        Contaminated;
                                                             needs treatment.

     2. Other Sources
     Tube-wells – 135             110                 80          Good for use
     Hand pumps – 9830             50                 50          Good for use

     Total                   600 mld.           385 mld.
   Source: Data collected from U.P. Jal Nigam

9.2.4.3 House connections
        As mentioned earlier, there are 2.84 lakh assesses and 4.2 lakh properties in
        Kanpur city. However, the coverage of KJS is only 1.8 lakh connections. This
        is woefully inadequate, specially considering that the distribution network
        covers 80% of the city area. The total metered residential connections are
        1,77,009 whereas un-metered residential/commercial/ industrial connections
        are 1500.

9.2.4.4 Existing Distribution and Storage Capacities
        The supply of surface water from different intakes is being treated at the
        Benajhabar Treatment Works from where it is supplied to 28 zonal pumping
        stations. From these Zonal Pumping Stations water is further distributed to the
        different localities of the town. Benajhabar facility has been augmented by
        two new intake units. Ganga Barrage, main unit was commissioned in 2005.
        Thus there is an installed treatment capacity/ storage capacity (OHT) of 540
        mld of surface water, besides the tube wells and hand pumps. However,
        against installed capacity of 540 mld, presently only 255 mld of water is
        treated and supplied.

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                            Table 9.2 Treatment Capacity
    Location                          Installed capacity       Running capacity
    Benajhaber                        310 mld.                 210 mld.
    Gujaini (established in 2005 )    30 mld.                  20 mld.
    Ganga Barrage (established in 200 mld.                     25 mld.
    2005 )
    Total                             540 mld.                 255 mld.
   Source: Data collected from U.P. Jal Nigam

         The water treatment plant at Barrage unit is presently operated and
         maintained by U.P. Jal Nigam. Its capacity utilization will increase when
         more households and industries falling within its supply zone will take
         connections.

         At the site of Barrage, 1600 mld raw water is available whereas present
         installed capacity is 200 mld of water treatment. For the next five years, this
         provides sufficient intake and treatment capacity. Keeping the potential for
         increasing the capacity up to 1600 mld, another 7 units of 200 mld can be
         added.

9.2.4.5 Service Levels (Unaccounted – for – water (UFW)
        The supply per capita is 92 litres per capita per day (lpcd) with an estimated
        current population of 27 la khs. This is less than the prescribed per capita
        consumption of 150 lpcd.

        The leakage (UFW - unaccounted-for water) from Benajhaber works is
        estimated to be 30 percent due to old and leaky pipelines. The most
        significant drawback of Kanpur water supply is the huge amount of water
        wastage and negligible revenue collection from public utilities (for example
        parks and fire fighting etc.) and sta nd posts which takes away about 10
        percent of water.

                    Table 9.3 Future Requirement and strategies
        Year                     2006         2016              2031
        Estimated               27.00         34.00             50.00
        Population in
        Lakhs
        Demand for Water          464          585               860
        Supply mld

9.2.5   Stakeholder’s Consultations
        Our discussions with stakeholders reveal that the water supply in inner core
        area may be much less than the 92 lpcd, as the pipes there are leaky and often
        supply contaminated water. It is not unusual to find water supply in these
        areas being augmented by local community b    ased tubewells or hand pumps.
        Many MLA and corporators have spent their discretionary funds to set up
        such localized schemes.


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        Secondly there is unequal distribution of available water in the city. The
        assessment of consumers as assessed by KNN and KJS is 2.84 Lakhs of
        which only 1.8 lakhs are currently connected. Water meters are either not
        installed or not working. Hence the total water supply cannot be measured at
        user's point.

        Thirdly, the water pressure is not maintained adequately all over the city. This
        is both because of old and leaky pipes and due to ad hoc style of working in
        giving connections from water main lines without first checking feasibility
        and availability of water.

        The existing three water treatment plant locations are not inter-connected and
        as such, there is disparity in supply/demand position in various localities.

        The clear water reservoirs at Benajhaber have storage capacity of 35 ml
        (million litres) and this water is pumped to 28 zonal pumping stations spread
        all over the city. The water supply is provided for 4 to 5 hours per day, which
        is not adequate as compared to the requirement of water supply round the
        clock.

        The citizens also complain of unreliability of supply hours, which often
        become erratic because of erratic wate r supply. This forces consumers to
        depend on their own sources of water i.e. tube wells or hand pumps. The tube
        wells and Hand pumps also cater to those areas, which are not covered by
        water distribution lines from water works.

9.2.6   Key issues
         • The service level in the city is around 90 lpcd. The water supply
             indicators suggest that the service level is well below the minimum
             prescribed norm of 172 lpcd (150 +15% waste). This is so, even though
             there is sufficient intake and treatment capacity in the city.

         •   The water supply system in inner core area is very old. This has resulted
             in water scarcity in core areas such as Chamanganj, Baeongamjek etc.
             from where KJS is facing complaints quite often. It is estimated that 30
             percent of water is lost in the distribution due to old system. This needs
             to be rehabilitated in inner core areas.

         •   There are frequent complaints of consumers getting dirty water and
             contaminated water. As a result many do not consider this water safe for
             drinking.

         •   The gross per capita supply is 135 lpcd; however equitable distribution is
             an issue to be examined and corrective measures need to be taken to
             rectify the situation.

         •   If the installed capacity of 540 mld is fully utilized, the supply from
             water works alone could give service level of 199 lcpd, which is well

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             above the minimum prescribed level.

         •   It is observed that the supply is limited to 5 hours per day due to in-
             adequate storage and pressure.

         •   In earlier years, there used to shortage of water at intake at Bhaironghat
             and dredging was carried out to bring flow of Ganges towards city. Now
             with the construction of Barrage, the priorities have changed and to
             maintain water level at Barrage, down flow of river gets reduced, thereby
             all pumps do not work at Bhaironghat.

         •   The shortage of water at Bha ironghat will reduce the water supply at
             Behajhaber water works, which needs to be supplemented from Lower
             Ganges Canal, which can supply up to 130 mld.

         •   In order to get better quality raw water, pipe line of proper size is
             suggested to be laid for drawing water from lower Ganga Canal at
             Armapore estate. Bejahaber water works will keep on functioning if
             proper provisions are made to draw raw water from both Bhaironghat
             pumping station as well as lower Ganga Canal. Laying raw water pipe
             will also stop pollution of raw water, which flows in open canal through
             city area, wherein rubbish is thrown in the incoming water stream.


9.2.7   Strategy F or Improving Water Supply

9.2.7.1 Intake and treatment
        • Additional units of 200 mld may need to constructed and commissioned
           with enhancement in water supply to meet the demand after 2016.
        • The 200 mld treatment plant at Ganga Barrage is under utilised to the
          extent of 175 mld. On the other hand the core area of Kanpur inner city is
          experiencing shortage of water. To meet this shortage, water mains need to
          be laid from Barrage site to Benajhaber. An estimate for laying the conduit
          pipe line with a pumping station at Armapore estate needs to be drawn.

9.2.7.2 Transmission and distribution
        • The three water treatment units should be connected, so that shortage in
           one system can be made up from surplus of the other system. Such a plan
           for interconnection has been prepared.
        • The old and leaky pipes, especially in the old inner city which have
          outlived their useful life need to be replaced. This will improve pressure,
          reduce losses and hence reduce pumping costs and most importantly
          reduce contamination
        • The reliability of water supply needs to be improved by either arranging
          direct electricity connections to the zonal pumping stations or by
          providing standby diesel generating sets.

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        • There is a need for KJS to improve its image by being more responsive to
          complaints and by setting up an efficient grievance handling cell. Such
          image makeover will help it in getting more consumers to opt for water
          connections.
        • KJS should experiment with introduction of metering of water. With the
          availability of new smart meters, their reliability and life has gone up
          many fold, and they provide a viable method of metering even where the
          supply is intermittent. Other cities like Hyderabad, Bangalore etc. have
          switched to metering
        • Since billing by metering differentiates between a heavy and lighter user,
          experience in other cities have shown that it encourages poor and slum
          dwellers to take to piped water supply, thereby improving both the basic
          services to the poor as also improving the viability of the service provider.

9.2.7.3 Improving viability of KJS
        • One of the problems of KJS is overstaffing. It has more staff than other
          comparable cities like Allahabad etc. As the system has inertia, drastic
          changes are not possible due to resistance from staff and unions. Private
          participation can be experimented by giving O & M for certain zones
          initially and then if found successful, it could be extended to the entire
          area.
        • KJS has an advantage of possessing prime land in the heart of city. The
          existing slow sand filters are out of use and it is not economically viable to
          renovate and rejuvenate them. As such, this land can be better utilised in
          view of the fact that no further treatment plants are likely to be constructed
          in Benajhaber area. KJS can have a good source of by leveraging this land
          or could even use it as an incentive for P -P -P.


9.3    SEWERAGE SYSTEM OF KANPUR CITY
       Sewerage network was laid in the year 1904 by providing the facility in a
       limited area. In 1920, it was extended to cover more areas by providing trunk,
       main and branch sewers. In 1952, Kanpur development Board implemented
       complete reorganization of sewerage system for a population of 9.5 lakh which
       was designed to carry sewer at the rate of 180 lpcd.

       At present, total length of main and trunk sewers is 74 kms whereas branch
       sewer lines are 875 kms. Only 60 percent of town is covered with sewerage
       system. The sewerage system is being administered under five different zones.
       There are total 13 sewage pumping stations and 30,000 manholes. Sewer lines
       are presently cleaned by sewer jetting machines, sewer clearing machines and
       also manually as per requirement. Total numbers of regular employees are 517
       whereas 178 are on daily wages basis.

       The central zone of Kanpur city has the oldest brick sewers. Brick sewers,
       being quite old, have lived out and are in worn out state. They have also
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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


        become under size due to increase in population. In dense ly populated area, it
        has become too difficult to repair these lines. Such areas are chamanganj,
        Beconganj, Talak Mahal, Pech Bagh, Rizvi Road, Fahimabad, Cooli Bazar,
        Dhankutti, Ram Narayan Bazar, Moti Mahal, Gadariyan Purwa, Circular Road,
        Sisamau, Nawabganj, Khalasi Line, Kalyanpur etc.

        Beside South of Kanpur Town, other newly developed areas such as
        Kalyanpur, Indra Nagar, Vikas Nagar are also facing sewer problems. In these
        areas, the system is not up to the mark and proper arrangements for out fall are
        not there.

9.3.1 Source of Sewerage
      The source of sewer is mostly from domestic households but the waste
      generated from industries also flow into sewers. The present arrangements
      segregate industrial effluents from domestic sewerage for sewerage treatment
      plants. The industrial units in Panki and Dada Nagar industrial area also
      discharge industrial effluents, which finally flows in River Pandu through three
      Nalas, flowing north to South in South of Kanpur city. In Jajmau area, cluster
      of tanneries are discharging effluents, which has been tapped for treatment
      under Ganga Action Plan Phase -I. Except for primary treatment plants, which
      the industries in the Jajmau areas claim to have installed, the sewage flowing in
      three Nalas (Ganda Nala, Halwa Khanda Nala and COD Nala) gets discharged
      in Pandu River without any treatment, whatsoever.

        Average BOD load in domestic sewerage has increased manifold from 1993 to
        2006. This is due to growth in population density and adoption of more and
        more chemicals/ deterge nts due to a changed life style.

9.3.2 Sewerage Generation
      In 1997, total amount of waste water measured in drains and at the STPs was
      about 360 mld of which 160 mld was intercepted under GAP-1. At present
      inflow of treatment plants is 63 mld and only 17 percent of the total waste
      water generated.

        The major zone i.e. City Drainage District with its underground sewerage
        system covers around 15 lakh population and generates 260 mld of waste water
        with its outfall into river Ganga at Jajmau. In the ‘South Drainage District’
        only some pockets are covered under the sewerage system and rest is disposed
        into open drains. The industrial effluent from Panki area meets the river Pandu
        separately through industrial drains. The West Drainage District has no
        sewerage facilities and the waste water flows in to Pandu River through open
        drains. The ‘East Drainage District’ which is primarily comprises of
        developing areas has no sewerage network.


9.3.3    Sewerage Treatment Plants and their Capacity
         Three sewerage treatments (STP) are in operation in Kanpur. All three plants
         are located in area near Jajmau, on the eastern side of the city. In Jajmau,

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        main sewage pumping station and treatment plants for 171 mld capacity have
                                                            l
        been commissioned in the last decade. The detai s of treatment plants at
        Jajmau are as below:-
        Ø 5 MLD UASB Se werage Treatment Plant (STP)
           A pilot STP based on new technology “Upflow Anaerobic Sludge
           Blanket” was constructed and commissioned in 1989. This plant was
           designed for treatment of 5m ld of domestic wastewater. The plant
           functions at full capacity but in the past it has received tannery effluent
           which has to be discontinued since it has adverse effects on the UASB
           process and on the quality of the sludge which is used in agriculture. The
           dried sludge is sold to farmers and final effluent flows into a nala and
           subsequently into the Ganga.

        Ø 36 MILD UASB Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP)
          The 36 mld wastewater treatment plant for the treatment of waste from
          175 tanneries (presently 354 tanneries) was constructed and commissioned
          in 1994 after evaluating the performance of pilot plant. For further
          treatment of tannery wastewater after UASB reactors, a conventional
          treatment plant was constructed in 1996. The plant is designed for
          treatment of 36mld mixed tannery and domestic wastewater.

        Ø 130 MLD ASP Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP)
          This plant, based on activated sludge process, was constructed and
          commissioned in January 1999. This planned is designed for treatment of
          130 mld of domestic wastewater. Since its commission, illegal discharge
          from tanneries and industrial wastewater from various industries situated
          in city areas is being discharged regularly to 90 outfall sewers reaching the
          main pumping station from where sewerage is pumped to this plant. The
          tannery waste water and industrial wastewater contains leather flushing,
          chromium sulphides and other toxic elements for which the STP has not
          been designed. Consequently the components of the equipment are
          corroded. The plant is now running at 1/3rd of its capacity.

           The treated effluent from two STPs (36 MLD and 130 MLD) is pumped
           into a channel that transports water to the sewerage farm with a total area
           of about 2,200 hectare. From the channel, irrigation water is fed to the
           farm lands.

           With even 100 percent efficiency in system, there is surplus sewage,
           which gets discharged in Pandu or Ganges River without treatment.

9.3.4   Financial Situation
        The financial resources of KJS are based on receipts from water tax, sewer
        tax, water and sewer user charges levied on properties and on users. At per
        present tariff, rates of domestic and non-domestic water supply are Rs. 2.90
        and Rs. 4.00 to Rs. 5.90 per KL respectively depending on the nature and
        quantity of use.


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        The cost of operation and maintenance of water supply and sewerage is met
        through revenue generated from Water Tax, Sewer Tax, Minimum charges &
        user charges of water. The Water Tax & Sewer Tax is levied on the basis of
        Annual Rental Value (ARV) (assessed by KNN) of properties @ 12.5% & 4%
        respectively.

        The main revision of Tariff was carried out in the year 1994 on the basis of
        MV & size of water connection with a provision of annual enhancement of
        rate @ 7.5%. The revision of tariff resulted in revenue enhancement as shown
        in table 9.4.

     Table 9.4 Collection of Water and Sewerage Tax by KJS (in Lakhs)
                                          Year
   Particulars
                2001–02      2002–03    2003–04   2004–05      2005–06
   Water Tax           697.21        744.29       898.78        814.95       1005.16
   Sewer Tax           270.92        301.27       289.78        258.38        270.81
   Minimum            1209.04       1222.48      1240.63       1647.41       1735.66
   Charges of
   Water /Sewer
   Others               83.45        88.18       101.12         100.08         67.17
   Total              2260.62      2356.22      2530.45        2820.82       3078.80
   Source: Data collected from Kanpur Jal Sansthan 2006

        The maintenance of water supply and sewerage system is carried out by self
        generated income. However, 70 percent of the income is utilized to meet the
        establishment cost. The establishment expenditure, post retirement benefit of
        employees, procurement of chemical, maintenance expenditure has to be paid
        regularly. This leaves very little sur plus to undertake any capital works.
        Under such circumstances, it is only possible to carry out expenditure related
        to break down maintenance or emergency works such as replacement of
        pumping set, sewer lines, pipe-lines, machine etc.

9.3.5   Issues
         • The effluent quality of 5 mld UASB STP is not meeting the standard
            parameters for land application due to present characteristics of sewerage
            reaching to treatment plat and also due to illegal discharge of tannery
            waste water into domestic sewers. The tannery waste water contains high
            sulphide contents in the range of 30 to 50 mg/l which affects the
            performance of the STP.
         •   The 36 mld UASB STP was designed for 175 tanneries whereas now 354
             tanneries are in operation. Most of the tanneries have adopted chrome
             tanning process due to which the concentration of chrome and sulphides
             has increased which affects the process of UASB reactors. Secondly,
             discharge at intermediate pumping stations has increased due to increase
             in number of tanneries whereas their pumping capa city is inadequate.



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         •   The industrial effluents from tanneries have a high BOD level of 3000 to
             4000 mg/1 under Ganga Action, this effluent from tannery has been
             tapped and is being taken to sewerage treatment plant at Jajmau. But still
             most of primary treatment plants, though installed by tanneries, are not
             functional and effluents from tanneries go to STP without any primary
             treatment plant.
         •   Because of improper outfall arrangements and lack of treatment of all
             effluents, the sewer and industrial wastewater, flowing and discharging
             into Pandu River is highly polluted and the pollution levels are high.
         •   With the growing Industrialization and Urbanization the pollution load
             on the river Ganga at Kanpur is increasing day by day. Pollution is
             observed here both at the source due to the discharge of industrial
             effluents and sewage as well as the distribution system through cross
             contamination.
         •   The old sewers are choked and broken and are a cause of contamination
             of ground water and also of contamination of drinking water. These are a
             serious health hazard and urgent repairs are required.
         •   At several places the choked or overflowing sewers have been broken
             and connected to the drains resulting in serious contamination in the
             drains as well.
         •   In several new colonies, the sewer branch lines are not connected to the
             trunk sewer lines and the sewer is either flowing into open fields or into
             drains. This is once again a serious health hazard.

9.3.6   Remedies and Future Strategies
         •   The capacity of existing sewerage treatment plants should be increased as
             well as new STPs should be constructed. With the construction and
             commissioning of 200 mld STP at the bank of Pandu river and diversion
             of Sisamau Nala from discharge in Ganga to discharge in Pandu river,
             the treatment capacity will be increased to 371 mld against the present
             recorded discharge of 360 mld. With the increase in water supply in
             years to come, the generation of sewerage and waste water will also
             increase (estimated at 70 percent of the water supply). Hence there is
             sufficient capacity as of now but there is a need to plan for additional
             treatment plants in the period 2012 onwards.
         •   As U.P. Housing Board has planned to have provision for smaller
             capacity 25 to 40 mld STP for each new colony, the same can be adopted
             by KDA or even big builders like Sahara and others. The treated water
             can even be given to nearby farmers for agriculture purposes, on payment
             basis.
         •   UP Jal Nigam has a plan to spend considerable money on sewerage in the
             next 25 years (nearly Rs 3500 cr). It is suggested that money for
             providing branch connections to the houses be recovered from the house
             owners as a connection charge. Similarly instead of laying long trunk

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             lines, it is better to design small decentralized units like those planned by
             UP Housing Board. This will reduce both operating and maintenance
             costs.
         •   The renovation of sewers in the inner core areas should be done using
             latest trench less technologies, as the inner core area is very congested
             and it is not practical to dig up the narrow roads for renovation or for
             laying new sewers
         •   Similarly, other new technologies such as lining of old sewers, filling of
             joints with modern jointing material etc. can also be resorted to as at
             times it may be more economical and practical to rehabilitate existing
             sewers than to lay new sewers.

        The immediate need is to cover the following works under the JNNURM
        scheme:-
        Ø Renovation/replacement of existing drains, which are old and in lived out
           stage.
        Ø Renovation / repair / supplement of existing and old pumpin g stations
           including Mechanical and Electrical items like motors, starters and
           switchgear.
        Ø Regular sewer cleaning by adopting suitable methodology, depending
           location and condition of Nalas and drains.
        Ø In densely populated areas, nalas need to be replaced by RCC conduit
           pipes for the purpose of security, hygiene and pollution control.
        Ø Proper solid waste disposal is required otherwise this will find its way into
           drains, especially in rainy season.
        Ø Operation and maintenance of existing STP’s at Jajmau is not proper and
           other STP plants are also not functioning properly due to shortage of
           power and finance. This situation can be improved through Public Private
           Participation (PPP) which can be more effective by way of giving annual
           operation and maintenance contracts.

9.4     STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM
        Kanpur city is habituated between two rivers Ganges on north and Pandu
        River on south. Out of 17 nalas, 14 are discharging wastewater in Ganga over
        a stretch of 20 KM from Bithoor downstream to Jajmau. Out of all Nala,
        Sisamau Nala has the biggest catchments area of 1985 hectares. The details of
        various Nalas discharging waste in Ganga towards North are as under:-

                   Table 9.5 Discharge and length of different drains
       S.NO Name of Nala               Quantity (mld)        Length KM
       A) Nala’s Discharging in Ganga River towards North
       1      Sisamau Nala             138.33                16.30
       2      Nawabganj Nala           1.66                  2.22
       3      Guptar ghat Nala         2.29                  1.30
       4      Jageshwar Nala           0.92                  0.70
       5      Jewra Nala               0.79                  1.50
       6      Ranighat Nala            0.32                  1.40

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        7      Parmat ghat Nala         0.43                 2.18
        8      Muir Mill Nala           4.91                 2.00
        9      Police Line Nala         0.79                 0.12
        10     Jail Nala/ Sarsaiya Nala 1.22                 0.80
        11     Golf Nala I & II         1.66                 2.50
        12     Kesa Colony Nala         0.16
        13     Roadways Colony Nala 0.40                     0.60
        14     Parmiya      Purwa     & 0.14                 2.00
               Kheora Nala
               Sub Total (A)            154.02               34.82
        B) Nala’s discharging in Pandu river towards South:-
        1      Ganda Nala               55.09                13.50
        2      Halwa Kheda Nala         11.44                6.70
        3      C.O.D. Nala              8.81                 6.20
               Sub Total (B)            75.34                26.40
        C) Drainage from sewerage channel
               Sub Total (C)            129.50
               Total                    358.86
        Source: GPCU Kanpur

        All the Nalas, discharging in Ganga River have been tapped except Sisamau.
        Under the GAP (Ganga Action Plan) Phase-II, Sisamau nala, the largest nala
        in Kanpur City, presently carrying a flow of around 138 mld will be diverted
        for treatment. Out of 138 mld, 80-100 mld will be tapped upstream and
        diverted to Binagawan STP. The remaining 30-50 mld will be tapped down
        stream at Parmat pumping station and diverted to Jajmau STP. Thus this flow
        from Sisamau nala has to be considered while finalising the capacity of the
        Parmat pumping station. It is also proposed to change the course of Sisamau
        Nala to South (discharging in Pandu River) instead of present flow towards
        north in Ganges.

        With diversion of Sisamau Nala and three Nalas already discharging into
        Pandu river, 200 mld sewage treatment pant is being proposed. With 171 mld
        treatment capacity STP at Jajmau and 200 mld STP at the bank of Pandu
        river, water will be served to the Jajmau farms with a total area of about 2,200
        Hectares.

9.5     SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

9.5.1   Solid Waste Generation
        The quantity of solid waste generated in a city depends on the following
        factors:-
        i. Population
        ii. Socio-status of population
        iii. Number of commercial, industrial and institutional establishments
        According to KNN officials , at present waste generation in the city is around
        1500 MT presently.

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9.5.2   Composition of Waste
        For Kanpur, organic waste constitutes largest component followed by inert
        material such as building material and debris etc. in overall composition of
        waste i.e. waste generated from households, commercial establishme nts and
        institutions in Kanpur (Table 9.6).

                  Table 9.6 Waste Composition in Kanpur (in %)
         Waste Components                         ICDP                   NEERI
         Organic                                  47.27                  56.67
         Paper                                    3.58                   3.18
         Rubber, Leather and Synthetics           2.72                   0.48
         Plastics                                 4.5                    -
         Rags                                     3.97                   -
         Glass                                    -                      0.48
         Metal                                    0.24                   0.59
         Inert Material                           38.82                  40.07
         Source: Studies conducted by ICDP and NEERI

        Apart from solid waste generated by Households, commercial establishments
        and institutions, Kanpur also has a number of industries and other businesses
                                                                -
        that generate different type of waste as mentioned below:

        • Bio-medical waste generated by Hospitals and Nursing Homes
        • Sludge, buffing and other waste produced by tanneries in Jajmau area
        • Industrial waste produced by textile, rubber and other industries operating
          in the city
        • Dung, waste straw and other waste from dairies (Parag)
        • Silt from Nalas and drains
        • Coal ash and fly ash from Panki Thermal Power Station.

9.5.3   Waste Generated from Industries
        Some of the major industries located w ithin the Nagar Nigam Limits are LML
        Industries, Cerulin Chemicals, Rajendra Steel &A, Kanpur Pesticides &
        Chemical Tube, Hindustan Aeronautics, Hindustan vegetable Oil and ICI-
        Nickel and Small Arms Factory (cyanide)/Chromium. As informed by
        officials from KNN, total hazardous waste generated from the Industries is
        about 18 tons per day. Out of total industrial waste, the generation of
        hazardous waste containing chromium is bout 10-15 MT per day. The site for
        disposal of the hazardous waste has been identified at Rooma, about 12-15
        km away from the sewage treatment plants and the work is under progress.
        The site has been scientifically designed with liners etc. to avoid any leaching
        and contamination of ground water.




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9.5.4   Waste Generated from Hospital and nursing-home
        At present, Kanpur city has about 9 Government, 33 private Hospitals and
        about 600 clinics. Some of the major hospitals are LLR Medical College
        Hospital, ESI Hospital, Hallet Hospital, R.K. Devi Hospital, Swaroop Nagar
        etc.

        The estimated quantity of bio-medical waste generated in Kanpur is about
        6750 Kg per day. To manage the bio-medical waste generated from these
        hospitals & clinics, a Central Bio Medical Waste Treatment Plan Facility has
        been established at Kanpur. The facility is being operated by an NGO, named
        Medical Pollution Control Committee (MPCC). The facility has an
        incinerator, Thermoclave, Shredder, Destructor, Chemical treatment Plant and
        Laboratory. The facility was installed in year 2001 and the incinerator has the
        capacity to incinerate about 1000 kg of waste.

        The bio-medical waste is to be managed according to the Bio-medical Waste
        (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998. Though as per these rules, it is the
        responsibility of the respective health care establishment & Uttar Pradesh
        Pollution Control Board to see that the bio-medical wastes are managed
        property, its poor implementation affects KNN as these wastes get mixed with
        the Municipal solid waste posing serious threat to sanitary workers as well as
        general public. Hence measures need to be taken to prevent the mixing of bio-
        medical wastes with municipal solid waste.

        Out of total bio -waste generated, only 1350 Kg (about 20 %) is sent to the
        centralized bio-medical waste management facility. Some estimate that about
        30 percent of bio-medical waste is getting mixed up with other type of waste.

9.5.5   Hotel and Restaurants Wastes
        Kanpur is a commercial town and therefore has hundreds of small and
        medium size hotels and restaurants. Some of the important hotels are: Land
        Mark Hotel, Hotel Gee, Hotel Gaurav, Hotel Akash, Delhi darbar and Data
        Restaurant etc. In most of the hotels, the wastes generated are collected in
        drums (300 litre) within the premises and as the drum gets filled it is taken to
        the nearest waste storage depot and emptied.
        The floating population in the city is about 75,000 to 1,00,000 and
        considering waste generation rate of a modest 0.2 kg/ capita/ day), total waste
        generation from floating population can be estimated to be 15-20 T / day.

9.5.6   Present System for Solid Waste Disposal
         • Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN) is responsible for collection, transportation
            and disposal of municipal solid waste.
         • The handling and treatment of bio-medical waste is governed by the
            Bio-medical waste (Management and Handling) Rules1998.
         • The responsibility of safe disposal of bio-medical waste is on individual
            hospitals and nursing homes.
         • The industrial waste should be treated and disposed according to

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             guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board and State Pollution Control
             Board. It is the responsibility of the concerned industry to ensure safe
             treatment and disposal of industrial effluents as per norms and standards.
         •   KNN has already given a contract for developing a facility at Rooma for
             safe disposal of 22,000 MT of hazardous waste from tanneries at Jajmau.
         •   KNN has signed MOU with IL & FS (Infrastructure Leasing & Financial
             Services Ltd) for Waste to Energy Project Plant at Jajmau wherein the
             transport of solid waste to the site will be provided by KNN and KNN
             will receive 5 percent of the revenues / power generated.

        The primary responsibility for solid waste management is with KNN. The
        various stages involved in the disposal of solid waste are as under:-


     Primary                   Secondary                  Transportation of          Disposal at
     Collection                Collection                 waste of waste in          Landfill
                                                          bins of waste              site


        It has been noticed from the discussion with KNN officials that the waste
        collected by the sweepers is deposited in the following type of rubbish
        dumps/depots:

                           Table 9.7 Type of Waste Storage Depots
      S.NO                 Type of waste storage Depot                        No. of
                                                                              Depots
      A. Open points where waste is dumped
        1    Open points-existing                                              126
        2    Open points-not meant as disposal points                           36
        3    Disputed land                                                      01
        4    Built –up CC & Brickwork                                           01
        5    Under shifting                                                     01
                                                                               265
      B. Modern waste depots in place lode ones:
        1    Solid waste depots, built already                                  73
        2    Existing depots, wherein adequate space is not                     14
             available
        3    Disputed locations                                                 02
        4    Modern waste depot, built already                                  02
        5    Modern waste depot under constructions                             03
        6    Proposed under Infrastructure fund                                 03
        7    Proposed modern waste depots                                       49
        8    Waste depots 12m x 6 m x 4.3m size                                 22
        9    Waste depots 8m x 4m x size                                        27
                                                                               195
    Source: Data received from Solid Waste Department, Kanpur Nagar Nigam



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9.5.7    Future Waste Generation
         The total quantity of solid waste generated in a city is estimated by taking an
         average quantity generated per capita per day (pcpd). According to the 2001
         census, the population of Kanpur was 25.51 lakhs. The estimates given by
         NEERI i.e. 350 gms pcpd the quantum of waste generated in Kanpur will go
         up as shown in the Table no. 9.8.

                          Table 9.8 Projected Waste Generation
    Year             2006    2011        2016         2021                  2031
    Population
                     25.51      29.00        32.97          37.49          48.46
    in Lakh
    Waste
    generated as      893        1015         1155           1315           1696
    day in MT

9.5.8   Issues
        The issues confronting primary and secondary collection of garbage at
        Kanpur are as under:-
        Ø The dumping grounds, by roadside and elsewhere, are unhygienic and
            have deplorable look.
        Ø Disposal of waste into drains leads to choking of drains
        Ø Rains washed out part of garbage from these depots into drains and Nalas
            which leads to silting.
        Ø Mixing of Bio-medical and other forms of waste with municipal waste is a
            serious health hazard.
        Ø Lack of segregation of bio-degradable and non-degradable waste at source
        Ø Large scale public littering leading to inattentiveness of street sweeping
            and cleaning activities.
        Ø Shortage of staff and lack of motivation amongst the existing staff.
        Ø Presently there is no waste processing plant at Kanpur and the total waste
            is taken to disposal size.

9.5.9   Strategies
        Ø Door to door collection is being experimented and with implementation of
            source segregation the processing of waste could also be undertaken.
        Ø It is necessary to modernize and replace the ageing solid waste equipment
            being used by KNN for Solid Waste Management (SWM). A study has
            already been conducted by NPC suggesting a three tier waste handling
            system with transfer stations. Such a system will not only improve the
            SWM but will also reduce the running of the transport vehicles and
            thereby reduce the cost of operation of SW Management. It is suggested
            that this change to a modern SW handling system should also be included
            in JNNURM proposals by KNN.
        Ø SWM is an area amenable for P-P -P and introduction of user charge.
            KNN should experiment outsourcing in a few wards together with
            responsibility for user charge collection by the private operator. However,
            this can be successful only if it is combined with a strong and vigorous
            community mobilization effort which is best undertaken by

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          commissioning a good NGO for the purpose.
        Ø The P-P-P experiment in a few areas can also be given to the CDS formed
          in slum areas. This will provide employment and also strengthen the CDS
          to undertake other community oriented works.
        Ø Public sector participation (PSP) should be invited for establishing
          suitable waste processing plant that could be either composting or waste
          to energy.
        Ø The waste generated from the processing plant and non-recyclable and
          other waste should be disposed off in sanitary landfill facility. Immediate
          steps need to be taken for developing such sanitary landfill facility.
        Ø KNN has been allotted the Transport Nagar site which is 46 Hectares for
          development as a sanitary landfill site. It is estimated that this area will
          last for 10 years. The entire area has been allotted along the bank of river
          Pandu and leaving a safe distance of 200 m along 1500 m long bank
          nearly 30 Hectare will fall under safe distance area. KNN should try to get
          more land allotted in the same area. This site should be developed after
          carrying out the environment impact assessment.
        Ø It is further recommended that Panki Thermal Power Station should make
          its own arrangement to collect and slurry before discharging in Pandu
          River. The downstream of the river is black with fly ash slurry. The usual
          sewerage treatment plants do not treat this type of effluent and as such,
          this job should be undertaken by Panki Thermal Power Station itself.

9.6     STREET LIGHTING
        The operation and maintenance of City Street Lighting is being done by
        Kanpur Nagar Nigam and Mechanical Engineer (Street Lighting) is
        responsible for installation, replacement, repairs, operation and maintenance
        of street lights in the city. The budgeted amount for purchase of items for
        street lighting needs to be enhanced by at least 10-15% over and above
        Rs.3.67 cr.

9.6.1   Electricity Charges
        During the year 2005-06, KESCO raised monthly bill of Rs.54.22 la kh i.e. an
        annual bill of Rs.6.5 cr. This is a large amount being spent on street lighting.

        The bills are raised on fixed charges per light point as no metered supply is
        being given. For un-metered supply, KNN is being charged @Rs.850.00 per
        KW or part thereof per month. The monthly bills are raised on the basis of
        verified number of points at the beginning of the year and additions, if any
        during the month as intimated above.

9.6.2   Key Issues
        • There is provision of improvement of G.T. road between Rama Devi and
           Kalyanpur to 4 lane and provision of street lighting needs to be made
           accordingly. A budgetary provision needs to be included for augmenting
           street lighting.



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        •     The entire city area is not covered by lighting system and developing
              areas have no street lighting. Once the lamps and tubes get fused, it takes
              months for replacement and streets and roads remain dark. A system has
              to be developed for timely replacement.

        •     There is an expenditure of almost 11-12 crores in this sector and st udies
              need to be conducted on how to reduce this huge cost.

9.6.3       Strategies
            • The payment to electricity board should be based on metering. KNN
               should experiment with light operated sensors, which will automatically
               switch on and switch off the lights with daylight. This will save
               electricity.
            • The maintenance of electric connections and fittings should be improved
               to reduce the burn out rate.
            • It is suggested to explore public participation by giving annual operation
               and maintenance contracts to reputed manufacturers like Bajaj, Philips or
               G.E., etc. KNN may succeed to strike on lesser cost and the surplus staff
               may be utilized somewhere else.
            • Solar system may be tried and a study is required to find viability of
               higher initial investment vis-à-vis electricity bills of KESCO.


9.7     SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

9.7.1   Medical Facilities
        In Kanpur metropolis, abundant medical facilities are available. It has large
        concentration of doctors and nurses and exclusive assembly of medical
        specialists and consultants. At present, Kanpur city has about 9 Government,
        33 private Hospitals and about 600 clinics. Some of the major hospitals are
        LLR Medical College Hospital, ESI Hospital, Hallet Hospital, R.K. Devi
        Hospital, Swaroop Nagar etc. Apart from hospitals, numerous dispensaries are
        also functioning in Kanpur city and some of them deal with specialised
        treatments. These hospitals and dispensaries are heavily strained due to lack
        of health facilities in nearby areas. The out-patient departments are very
        congested. The patients have to wait for long hours for their turn

        In Kanpur, unhygienic conditions prevail throughout the city. This has an
        impact on contamination of the drinking water which leads to water borne
        diseases.

                                                                il
        The occurrence of water borne epidemics have been n in the last 3-5 years,
        however, there have been occurrence of water borne diseases in the past few
        years (table 9.9). The areas that are prone to water borne diseases are Sakera,
        Juhi Puram Purwa and Juhi Garha, Babu Purwa, Colonel ganj, Talak Mahal,
        Begum ganj, Rail bazaar.



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                       Table 9.9 Trend of Water Borne Diseases in Kanpur
        Description                    1996 1997 1998        1999     2000
        No. of Gastro cases               315 230       350       250     127
        No. of deaths of gastro cases       5    2         2        3       1
        No. of jaundice cases             106   63       44        53      39
        No. of deaths of jaundice          29   19       22        20      11
        cases
    Source: CMO, Kanpur

           Malaria is prevalent in Kanpur from July to October every year corresponding
           to rainy season and the subsequent period of water retention and stagnation.
           Concentration of P. vivax cases occurs along the Ganga with a high frequency
           in Jajmau and Nawabganj areas. The entire river bed area poses serious health
           hazard for vector borne diseases due to stagnation of clear and dirty water in
           pools. Although malaria cases are seen on a rise in the last 4 years, there have
           been no major outbreaks of any water borne diseases or epidemics in the last
           3-5 years. During 2000-04, cases of malaria registered with Chief Medical
           Officer (CMO) is given in table 9.10.

                           Table 9.10 Trend Analysis of Malaria Cases
        Species                        2000-01 2001-02      2002-03 2003-04
        P. falciparum                         2           3         -      4
        P. vivax                            370         355      400     571
    Source: Chief Medical Officer , Kanpur

9.7.2     Education Facilities
          Kanpur city has gradually emerged as a dynamic educational centre due to
          availability of every kind of academic and professional institutions. Kanpur is
          host of several institutes of repute such as Indian Institute of Technology
          Kanpur, two universities, viz. Kanpur University and Chandra Sekhar Azad
          University of Agriculture and Technology, a Medical College and technical
          institutions such as the National Sugar Institute, the Central Textile Institute
          and the Leather Institute etc.

           At present (2006), 2 lakh students are enrolled in the 432 primary schools and
           69,198 students have been listed in the 39 junior high schools.

           Some of the problems faced by education department are: poor turn out in the
           primary and junior high schools despite several schemes launched by the state
           government. Secondly, there is an acute shortage of teaching staff. According
           to officials, no teacher has been recruited for the primary and junior high
           school since 1972. Most of the schools either lack of teacher or are working
           with the support of Shiksha Mitra. Thirdly, student’s strength has decreased
           due to mushrooming of private schools in city areas. Fourthly, parents have
           lost hope in government education centres and for the better education they
           are sending their children to private centres.



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9.7.3    Lake and Water Bodies
         The main river of Kanpur is river Ganga and Pandu. Since 1921, Ganga
         course has shifted from the right bank to the left bank. Therefore, a channel
         from the river course to Bhaironghat was made for the main water supply
         intake of Kanpur. Another river, Pandu is meandering river and it flows into
         Ganga at a point of 25 km of downstream of Kanpur. The highest water level
         in the river is 119.6m above MSL and the mean water level is 114.5 MSL.

         The naturally existing water bodies in the city are water pool near Allen
         Forest and water ponds in the rail yard area along GT road near tatmill
         (CPCB). The two tanks at Motijheel were used as freshwater reservoirs for
         drinking water supply to the city but now abandoned due to excess silting and
         damage of the feeder canal. Other fresh water bodies in the city are the upper
         Ganga canal network flowing in the south city.

         Under U.P. Housing Board Yojana No. 1, 2 and 3 total 5 water bodies falls
         whose area is approx. 20 acre. There is also a hundred year old water body,
         whose capacity is 5000 square meter, near atik bhawan in the campus of
         Chandrasekhar Ajad Agriculture and Industrial College. Earlier rain water
         from nearby area used to be collected in this water body and used for
         irrigation purposes. Later on due to construction of buildings and roads, the
         natural flow got obstructed.

9.7.4     Development of Park s
         In Kanpur, there are total 281 parks. Out of total parks, 94 are developed park
                          -
         whereas 49 semi developed park and 138 are un-developed park. Maximum
                                           th
         developed park are in 6th and 5 zone and semi-developed park are in 5th
         zone.
                             Table 9.11 Parks Developed by KNN
   Zone No.       Develop        Semi-develop        Un-developed             Total
                  Park            Park               Park
         1             16                 07                 19                  42
         2             10                 07                 08                  25
         3             11                 06                 22                  39
         4             15                 10                 17                  42
         5             20                 12                 54                  86
         6             22                 07                 18                  47
        Total          94                 49                138                 281
  Source: Information received from Kanpur Nagar Nigam, 2006

         Kanpur Nagar Nigam is planning to develop few parks with the help of
         Resident Welfare Associations.




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                                    Urban Infrastructure




                                       Ganga Barrage




                                     Panki Power House




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                          SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT




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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)




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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)

                        BIO-MEDICAL WASTE TREATMENT




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
         CHAPTER 10:
HERITAGE AND TOURISM
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


                       10. HERITAGE AND TOURISM


10.1   INTRODUCTION
       Kanpur stands on the banks of the Ganga and is North India’s major industrial
       centres with its own historical, religious and commercial importance. It was
       founded by king Hindu Singh of the erstwhile state of Sachendi and was
       known as ‘Kanhpur’.

       Upto the 1st half of the 18th century Kanpur was an insignificant village. In
       May, 1765, Shuja-ud-daula the Nawab Wazir of Awadh was defeated by the
       British near Jajmau. The strategic importance of the site was realized by
       British during this time. European businessmen had gradually started
       establishing in Kanpur. In order to ensure protection to their lives and property
       the ‘Awadh local forces’ were shifted in 1778. Kanpur passed into British
       hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. This
       was a turning point in the history of Kanpur as it soon became one of the most
       important military stations of British India. It was declared a district on 24th
       March 1803.

       Kanpur became the epicenter of the outbreak of 1857, as some of the leading
       luminaries i.e. Nana Sahib, Tantiya Tope, Azimoolah Khan & Brigadier Jwala
       Prasad- of the War of independence hailed from here. The three strategic
       events of the 1857 war at Kanpur were the fight at ‘wheeler’s entrenchment’
       where British under Commander Hugh Wheeler retreated into a shallow earth
       entrenchment; the ‘massacre at Sati Chaura Ghat’ where fighting broke out
       between English garrison and Indians and most of the men were killed and
       survivors i.e. women and children were rescued and imprisoned into the Savad
       Kothi and later shifted to Bibighar where they were also massacred and their
       dismembered bodies buried in the well and this episode came to known as
       ‘Bibighar massacre’. The Bibighar was dismantled by the British on
       reoccupation of Kanpur and a ‘memorial railing and a cross’ raised at the site
       of the well. The well is now bricked over and remains of a circular ridge
       survive which can still be seen at the Nana Rao Park. The Kanpur Memorial
       Church was raised in honor of the fallen at the north-east corner of Wheeler’s
       entrenchment in 1862 by the British.

       After 1857, the development of Kanpur was phenomenal. Government
       Harness and Saddler Factory was started for supplying leather material for the
       army in 1860, followed by Cooper Allen & Co. in 1880. The first cotton
       textile mill, the Elgin Mills were started in 1862 and Muir Mills in 1882.
       Today besides being the most industrialized region of the state, Kanpur is also
       an important educational centre and birth place of great Hindi litterateurs.




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10.2    TOURIST ARRIVALS
        Since 2001, number of tourists visiting Kanpur city has increased yearly.
        Kanpur has received 2.6 lakh tourists in the year 2005. Out of total tourist
        arrived in 2005, about 94 percent were Indians whereas only 6 percent were
        foreigners. Since 2001 to 2005, 40 percent growth has occurred in total tourist
        arrivals in Kanpur.

                              Table 10.1 Tourist Arrivals
        Sl.                                   Tourists
                      Year                                                  Total
        No.                            Indian         Foreigner
         1     2001                       1,81,922          4,602           1,86,524
         2     2002                       1,85,678          6,287           1,91,965
         3     2003                       2,13,647          4,534           2,18,181
         4     2004                       2,28,411          5,987           2,34,398
         5     2005                       2,45,524          6,359           2,61,883
       Source: Department of Tourism, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Kanpur

10.3    PLACES OF INTEREST IN KANPUR CITY

10.3.1 Historical Places

        Jajmau
        The mount of Jajmau on the eastern end of the city occupies a high place
        among ancient sites of the region. During 1957-58, excavations were carried
        out on mound which unearthed antiquities ranging from 600 BC to 1600 AD.
        In ancient times, Jajmau was known as Siddhapuri and was the kingdom of
        Yayati, the Puranic king. The high mound overhanging the Ganga is known as
        the site of his fort. Today Jajmau houses the Siddhnath and Siddha Devi
        temples and the mausoleum of Makhdum Shah Ala -ul-Haq, the famous Sufi
        saint, built by Firoz Shah Tughlaq in 1358. A mosque build by Kulich Khan in
        1679 is also situated here.

        Bithoor
        Bithoor is situated 27 km away from Kanpur on the Kannauj Road. Situated
        on the banks of the Ganga, this spot is of considerable historical and religious
        importance. According to Hindu scriptures Lord Brahma came to Utpalaranya,
        as it was known then, for the creation of mankind. The place which first
        witnessed the creation of mankind came to be known as Brahmavarta or the
        seat of Brahma. Later Brahma installed a Shivalinga which is still worshipped
        as Brahmeshwar Mahadeva at the principal ghat of Bithoor, the Brahmavarta
        Ghat.

        A nail of the Horse shoe embedded in the steps of the ghat is an object of
        special reverence for devotees as it’s considered to be of Brahma’s horse
        which he used while going for Ashwamedha Yajna. On the completion of the
        yajna, the forests of Utpalaranya came to be known as Brahmavarta, from
        which Bithoor name is derived. In later centuries, Uttanpad ruled the
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       Brahmavarta and his son Dhruva penanced here in order to please Brahma and
       place is known as Dhruva Teela.

       There is a small pool inside Valmiki Ashram , famous as Sita-kund. Sita
       ‘Rasoi’ is still preserved, near which stands ‘Swarga Naseinee’ or Deep
       Malika Stambha, studded with niches all around for illumination.

       During 1753-75 under the rule of Nawab Shuja -ud-daula, the administration of
       Bithoor was entrusted to Almas Ali Khan, who erected a mosque near
       Lakshman Ghat on the right-bank of Ganga.

       Town of Ghats
       The hist oric town of Bithoor, once famous by the name of ‘Bavan Ghaton ki
       Nagari’, (city of 52 Ghats) is left with only 29 Gahts. The chief among them
       being the Tuta Ghat, Patkapur Ghat, Khanderao Ghat, Rishikul Ghat, Kalvari
       Ghat, Hanuman Ghat, Chhappar Ghat, Bramhavarta Ghat, Pandav Ghat, Jhansi
       Rani Ghat, Mahapatra Ghat, Chhatta Ghat, Maharaj Peshwa Ghat etc. Out of
       29 Ghats, most beautiful is the Patthar Ghat built by the Raja Tikaitrai. The
       other important ghat of Bithoor is the Kalvari Ghat, where a large Gan    esh
       Temple built by the Peshwas exists. Other notable sites at Bithoor are the
       Tripura Sundri temple, Shivananda Ashram, Gyaneshwar Mahadev temple,
       Janki temple, Pantha Devi temple and Sri Gayatri Dham.

       Kos Minar
       During the Mughal Period, Sher shah Suri had constructed a road and built a
       pillar to earmark the distance called as Kos minar. The distance between two
       pillars was 1 kos (3.2 km). Generally the kos minar is of 3m height and area
       (paridhi) with the top shaped like a shankh. This minar is construc ted with old
       bricks and lime plaster.

       Nimbia Khera - Brick Temple
       This ancient temple seems to be
       constructed in 11th or 12th century. The
       main hall entrance has a sub-temple
       situated at each of its four corners due to
       which this temple is called of
       ‘Panchayatan shelly’. It has been
       constructed with old home-made bricks
       and lime and is decorated with
       ornaments. The main door of the garbh
       greh is made of Balua stone with the
       statues of Brahma Vishnu Mahesh
       adorning at the top. Shiva’s statue in the
       centre professes it to be a Shiv temple.




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       Kacheri
       The Kacheri Cemetery dates back to the time when the first European troops
       Marched into the District in response to a treaty Negotiated in 1765 with the
       Nawab of Oude. The earliest epitaph of Lt CoI John Stainforth dated 1781
       coincides with the first ecclesiastic returns of births, marriages and deaths to
       reach Calcutta from Kanpur – Known as Cawnpore. Firstly, it was chiefly the
       military officers of the East India Company and their Wives and children who
       were buried here and private soldiers were buried in another cemetery at
       Hiramun-Ka-Purwa. In 1814, a Bishop of Calcutta was appointed after 50
       Years of consecration of cemetery. Upto 1846, Kacheri Cemetery was known
       as the Officers’ Burial Ground but after the mutiny (1857), when the flag Staff
       Barracks were replaced by the Kacheri Law Courts, it came to be known as
       Kacheri Cemetery.

       The Kanpur Memorial Church-All soul’s cathedral
        The Kanpur Memorial Church was built in 1875 in honour of the British who
       lost their lives in the war of 1857. The Church was designed by Walter
       Granville, architect of east Bengal Railway. The complete church in
       Lombardic Gothic style is attractively executed in bright red brick with
       polychrome dressings. In east of the church is Memorial Garden which can be
       approached through two gateways. It has handsome carved gothic screen
       designed by Henry Yule. Its centre is occupied by the beautiful carved figure
       of an angle by Baron Carlo Marochetti, with crossed arms, holding palons i.e.
       symbol of peace. The king Edward VII memorial hall and Christ Church
       building are other noteworthy buildings built in 1840.

10.3.2 Religious Places – Important Temples

       Shri Radhakrishna Temple (J.K. Temple )
        J.K. Temple, built by J.K. Trust, is a unique blend of ancient architecture with
       the modern. Among the five shrines, central one is consecrated to Shri
       Radhakrishna and the others are adorned with idols of Shri Laxminarayan,
       Shri Aradhanarishwar, Shri Narmadeshwar and Shri Hanuman.

       Jain Glass Temple
       It is situated in Maheshwari Mahal behind the Kamla
       Tower. It is a beautiful temple highly decorated with glass
       and enamel works.

       Among other temples, Hanuman temple at Panki,
       Anandeshwar temple, Jageshwar temple, Dwarikadhish
       temple, Prayagnarayan temple, Kailash temple, Buddhadevi
       temple, Kherepati temple, Varahidevi temple, Bhairav
       temple are important.




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10.3.3 Places of Fun and Frolic
       Kanpur Zoo, Allen Forest Zoo, was opened in 1971 and ranks among one of
       the best zoos of the country. Kamla Retreat lies next to the Allen Forest. It has
       a swimming tank with equipment for producing artificial waves and
       arrangement for lighting. Besides parks and a canal with boating facilities, a
       zoo and museum, which has a good collection of historical and archaeological
       artifacts is also there. Phool Bagh is another beautiful park in the heart of the
       city on the Mall Road. In the centre of the park, Ganesh Shanker Vidyarthi
       Memorial building, where an Orthopedic Rehabilitation Hospital was run after
       the first World War, is located. Nana Rao Park is located to the west of Phool
       Bagh. It is the site of the ‘Bibighar Massacre’ of 1857.

10.3.4 Excursions

       Bhitargaon
       The large Temple of Bhitargaon is a unique specimen of the brick architecture
       of the early Gupta period. It is built of large-sized bricks and decorated with
       well modeled terra-cotta panel. The temple is the oldest roofed Hindu shrine
       extant with a high Sikhara. The interior of the temple is plain but on the
       outside it is decorated with carved brickwork and numerous terracotta panels.
       Inside the temple only the sanctum or garbhagriha and the porch exist. The
       upper chamber above sanctum was damaged in the 18th century. The most
       marked feature of the temple is its recessed plan. The temple is the sole
       surviving record of this early phase of temple architecture in India.

10.3.5 Archeological Sites
       Notable archaeological sites around Kanpur are the ‘Shiv temple’ at Nimbia
       Khera, the Jagannath temple at Behta Buzurg and the Lala Bhagat Pillar. In
       Nimbia Khera, 9th-10th Century old Shiva temple is located at Behta Buzurg. It
       is Lala Bhagat houses the famous Kukkutadwaj, known as Lala Bhagat Pillar
       standing in the middle of a modern temple. This red sandstone, six and a half
       feet high octagonally carved pillar with a small inscription was once
       surmounted by a cock capital, which dates back to 1st century and is of unique
       antiquity value. It is broken from the pillar shaft and lies nearby.

       Musanagar
       The ancient temple of Muktadevi built in Treta-Yug by Raja Bali is located at
       ancient site of Musanagar. A large fair is held at Muktadevi temple on the
       occasion of Kartik Poornima. Musanagar is also a rich archaeological site and
       has yielded a large number of artifacts and specimens of the post Harrapan,
       Shunga, Maurya and Kushana periods.

       Angira Ashram
       Maharshi Angira, one of the saptarishis, has penanced at Angira Ashram. The
       ancient Jagannath temple houses the original wooden idol of Lord Jagannath
       which is identical with that of the famous Jagannath temple.


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       Kannauj
       Kannauj was the capital of King Harshavardhana’s empire. Today it is famous
       for the Indian essence (ittar) industry.

10.4   RELIGIOUS FAIRS AND ACTIVITIES
       The city attracts tourists and pilgrims throughout the city. The religious fairs
       are organized during festivals. The important fairs organized at city level are
       Shivratri mela at Sidhant temple and Anandeshwar temple; Navratri Mela at
       Usmanda Devi temple, chat pujan in the month of November at Ganga river
       and Dashera mela in the month of October at Ganga.

10.5   STEPS TAKEN TO PROMOTE TOURISM

       Beautification of ghats
       The construction of benches, bathing cubicles, electrification of ghats,
       provision of drinking water at various ghats i.e. Dhruv ghat, Ram ghat,
       Hanuman Ghat, Laxman Ghat, Chappar Ghat, Kaurav Ghat, Shra van Ghat,
       Sita ghat and Bhairav Ghat. Further it is proposed to divert the drainage pipe
       carrying sewerage water towards bhramvat ghat towards Ganga upstream. The
       estimated cost of this is Rs. 743.5 lakh. .

       About 1.5 km above Bhairon Ghat, Ganga barrage has been constructed and
       the flow of the Holy Ganges water has been reverted towards Kanpur city so
       that it passes through each Ghat. Keeping the requirement of religious minded
       people coming from various parts of U.P. to Kanpur in mind, the protection
       and beautification of Bhairon Ghat ,Hospital ghat, Sarsaya Ghat,Gola Ghat
       ,Bhaskar ghat has been proposed and an estimated cost is Rs.362.2 lakh which
       has been put up for sanction.

       The renovation of important religious places were proposed at the cost of Rs. 6
       crore 22 lakh. It is proposed to provide benches, constructing water tank,
       toilets, providing night shelters at sarsaiya ghat, ganesh udyan, tapeshwari
       devi temple, vaibhav lakshmi, shri chindmastika devi temple, J.K. temple,
       ganesh temple, hanuman te mple at Panki, Manju shah majar at Jajmau etc.

       It has been proposed to construct the UP Samaj Kalyan Nirman Nigam Ltd
       near Gautam Buddha Park, Indira Nagar Road Kalyanpur, Kanpur. The
       modification & up keeping of Nana Rao Park at Mall district , Kanpur has
       been proposed & an expenditure estimate of Rs 493.66 lakhs has been worked
       out.

       The future vision to make the city a centre of historical importance and of
       tourist interest encompasses the improvement of the condition of roads with
       proper car and two-wheeler parking, proper traffic management, effective law
       and order situation, political support, provision of good hotels, water resorts
       and better conveyance or transportation system.


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10.6   ISSUES & CONCERNS
       • Non availability of public transport to visit places of historical and
          religious interest
       • Lack of public conveniences at historical and religious places
       • No proper enforcement of rules regarding prohibited area
       • No strict regulation to stop encroachment on the protected areas and lack
          of stringent action against those who damage the protected monuments and
          encroach upon it
       • Long hour power cuts affects tourist stay at Kanpur
       • Poor Law and Order Situation

10.7   STRATEGIES
       • Steps should be taken to promote Kanpur as a tourist destination through
         proper advertisement on television, internet, radio and billboards on
         airports, trains and stations.
       • Steps should be taken to improve the rail, road and air connectivity to
         Kanpur city, provision for better civic amenities at important historical and
         religious places and market places within the city.
       • In Kanpur, two tourist circuits i.e. historical and religious should be
         identified and developed by interlinking various tourist spots so that
         floating population can be increased which will give boost to the economy.
         All the basic facilities should be provided at identified spots in the circuit.
       • Need is to have a Tourist Information Centre at railway station which will
         have all the information related to tourist spots; hotels and restaurants;
         trains, bus and air booking and can arrange for the same.
       • Travel Tours needs to be conducted for tourists covering important tourist
         places
       • The haat should be built on the model of Delhi haat where artisans,
         craftsmen can display their things and some stalls can be fixed for Kanpur
         industrialists and traders to display their goods.
       • The feasibility study should be conducted for developing the new places of
         tourist interest such as amusement parks, artificial lakes etc.
       • Proper enforcement of law to stop encroachment and damage to prohibited
         area.
       • The river front of both Ganga and Pandu river should be developed by tree
         plantation, opening hotels and restaurants, organizing water sports, boating
         etc. to provide boost to economy.
       • Better traffic management so that travel time taken between two tourist
         places can be reduced.
       • Construction of footpaths, road signs and removal of encroachment on
         roads so that tourists can have space to walk in specialized markets
       • Law and Order situation should be improved so that tourist wouldn’t feel
         hesita nt to move around different places in the city.




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                                         TOURISM




                                 Fairs organised at Bithoor


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)




                                  Gurudwara –Gumti No. 5




                                    Panki Hanuman Mandir




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
                      CHAPTER 11:
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR
                     K ANPUR CITY
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


   11. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR KANPUR CITY



11.1   INTRODUCTION
       The chapter aims at developing a comprehensive environmental management
       strategy for the Kanpur city based on baseline information with regard to
       urban environment quality and services. The chapter takes a closer look at the
       existing framework of the state’s policy on various components of
       environment; identify the processes and causes, which are leading to
       deterioration and decline of the environment in and around Kanpur. The report
       after detailing the threats to environment has made an attempt for future action
       plans aimed at ensuring compliance with the proposed city development plan.

       Over the years, the city has faced huge changes not only in terms of pollution
       load increase, but also the infrastructure requirement (road network, water
       supply, solid waste management). As a result, the ambient air quality, surface
       water quality, ground water quality has deteriorated considerably.

       Urban environment is an important component for the sustainable
       development of a city. While taking up developmental activities, the
       assimilative capacities of the environmental components i.e. air, water and
       land to various pollutants are rarely considered. Presently, the environmental
       aspects are not usually considered while preparing master plan or budget plan
       and the process is skewed towards developmental needs. For all
       developmental activities, a crucial input is land and depending on the activity
       a specific land use is decided. The environmentally relate d land use are trade
       and commerce, housing, transport, hazardous waste disposal facilities,
       quarrying and mining, power generation, forestry, recreation and tourism etc.
       In this back ground it is highly imperative to assess the existing status of urban
       environment, identify problems and issues and finally develop an
       environmental management strategy.

11.2   WATER POLLUTION
       Kanpur is the most populated town along the river Ganga in UP. Officially the
       population of the city is enumerated to be 25, 51337 (2001 census) with
       current unofficial estimate putting it over 4 million. The decadal growth rate
       of population has increased from 26.5% in 1981-1991 to 35% in 1991-2001.
       In terms of population, Kanpur is the second largest city of North India, the
       largest being Delhi. 60% of the water requirements of the city are met from
       the river Ganga, which is badly polluted from various point and non-point
       pollution sources. Kanpur generates approximately 400 million litres per day
       (MLD) of sewage that is discharged through dozens of drains that finally
       opens in to the river. The stretch of Ganga near Kanpur is especially
       vulnerable because of inadequate discharge and flow. The Ganga in Kanpur is
       always strewn with human corpses and animal carcasses in addition to non-
       biodegradable polybags. Further a number of Dhobi Ghats (5) operating
       permanently in the river bank contributes substantially to water pollution.

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       Kanpur has roughly 5500 industries with 75 medium and large industries such
       as those of fertilizers, detergents, chemicals and paint industries. Another
       potential danger to environment (water and air) is from 367 strong leather
       industries located in one area called Jajmau along the river Ganga out of
       which 70 are reportedly closed (PCB 2006). These highly polluting leather
       industries pose a major threat to water quality, ecology of the river particularly
       to aquatic life (fish and turtles). The population of fishes and turtles has
       declined dramatically and even those survive are not fit for human
       consumption as they carry toxic elements. This in turn has severe health
       hazards in the form of incurable diseases.

       The State Pollution Control Board which periodically monitors the water
       quality of the city at various points studied the water quality at designated sites
       (table 11.1) in March 2006 with specific parameters as indicated in the table.
       Water temperature and pH in all the sampling stations were with in the
       tolerance limit, whereas Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen
       Demand (BOD) and Chloride content were exce eded the standard at sites
       marked with asterisk∗ . However the presence of coliform bacteria is
       alarmingly high at all sampling station, which clearly indicates that the water
       is not potable. From the table it is evident that although the situation is not
       alarming at all sites, but it can not be denied that the quality of water in the
       stretch of Ganga passing along Kanpur is not fit for consumption.

       Actions
       The stretch of river Ganga passing along Kanpur (south bank) and Unnao
       (north bank) is getting polluted from both sides. Although pollutants/sewerage
       released from Kanpur side is getting treated, no pollution control efforts are
       being made from Unnao side. Installation of STP’s is urgently required to
       prevent pollution of Ganga water from north bank side.

11.3   AIR POLLUTION
       The air pollution problems in Kanpur are due to traffic and transportation,
       burning of solid waste, use of coal and cow -dung for cooking purposes, lack
       of green belt/buffer zones etc. In addition following factors also contribute
       largely to the problem.

       1.   Increase in the number of vehicular traffic
       2.   Poor(damaged) road condition
       3.   Under construction buildings
       4.   Smoke emitted from factory chimneys

       City encounters severe dust and smoke problems and the prescribed limit of
       500 mg/m3 is often exceeded in various locations. Due to impact of vehicular
       pollution, air quality at major road crossings exceeds the norms of the
       Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and lead. Respirable dust concentrations
       are also alarmingly high in many locations in the city.


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                                      Table 11.1 Water Quality at Various Sampling Points
                                Kannauj      Kanauj                    Ganga
                                                                                 Rani Ghat                                    Kanpur(
                       Ghatiya W/S (near     D/S (at     Bithoor      Barrage                        Sarsia         Buria
 Sampling Points                                                                   (intake                                     Jana
                         Ghat   Mariyam     Mariyam        (ghat)     (Kanpur                        Ghat           Ghat
                                                                                    point)                                     Vill.)
                                Bridge)      Bridge)                     u/s)
         Date          09/03/2 09/03/2006 09/03/2006 09/03/2006 09/03/2006 09/03/2006             09/03/2006      09/03/20    09/03/20
Parameters             006                                                                                        06          06
Temperature            24.5    25.5        26.0         25.5         25.0        25.5             26.0            26.0        26.0

PH                     8.1        7.5            7.9             8.4          8.2         8.2     7.8             7.8         8.4

Alkalinity(mg/l)       138.0      172.0          186.0           194.0        200.0       192.0   212.0           188.0       210.0

Conductivity           33.7       53.6           50.7            47.2         51.3        51.1    58.4            54.6        56.8

Dissolved Oxygen       7.7        7.0            8.9             8.2          7.1         6.9     4.1             4.1         3.5

BOD (mg/l)             1.5        2.7∗           2.8∗            2.2          2.3         3.1∗    5.4 ∗           3.8∗        4.7∗

Chloride (mg/l)        16.0       24.0           22.0            24.0         24.0        20.0    30.0∗           26.0∗       30.0∗

Total   Coliform 4300             9300           9300            7500         4300        9300    46000           21000       46000
(MPN/100ml.)

Source: Data collected from State Pollution Control Board 2006




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       The major age nts currently responsible for the air pollution in the city are the
       life style of people and the number of vehicular traffic and industries in
       commercial areas. Generator and exhaust fans at factories are the other
       contributors of air pollution. There are 196 brick kilns in and around Kanpur
       which to a great extent are responsible for releasing huge amount of smoke to
       air. It is estimated that 25% of city’s population mostly constitute labour class
       who use cooking fuel (coal and firewood) and in turn cause air pollution.
       There are 5 cremations grounds which contribute both for the air and water
       pollution.

11.3.1 Emissions from Vehicular Traffic
       The vehicular emissions are one of the major sources of air pollution affecting
       the urban population in Kanpur. U nlike industrial emissions, vehicular
       pollutants are released at ground level and hence the impact on recipient
       population will be more. As of April 2002, there were a total of 3,87,697
       vehicles in the city (300 sq km area). Two-wheelers constituted 83 per cent of
       the registered vehicles. Badly maintained roads, heterogeneous nature of
       traffic aggravates the nature of vehicular pollution.

       According to the state pollution control board, vehicular traffic contributes to
       80 per cent of the pollution load, while domestic sources add another 14 per
       cent and industrial 6 per cent. Tempos alone contribute 60% of the total air
       pollution load. However according to a study by NEERI in 2002, auto exhaust
       and diesel generator sets contributed 30-40 per cent of the total respirable
       particulate matter, while resuspended dust contributed between 20-30 per cent
       and other sources, including garbage burning made up the rest. A study
       undertaken in 2002 to monitor the air quality in three sites covering one each
       at residential, commercial and Industrial location showed that in the
       monitored sites the air quality consisting all pollutants exceeded the national
       standard by 3 to 3.5 times. This trend continued in 2003 even though Euro II
       vehicles and fuel became mandatory in the city in April 2003.

11.3.2 Emissions from Domestic Sources
       Fuel used for the purpose of cooking in domestic sector principally consists of
       the following:

       Coal/Wood       :    100t/day
       Kerosene        :    105kl/day (71 t/day)
       LPG            :     91 t/ day
       Cow -dung       :    not accounted

       Kerosene and LPG are the major sources of fuel used in the city followed by
       coal and wood. Coal is predominantly used in slum areas, road side tea stalls,
       restaurants etc. Use of coal for the domestic purposes is a major source of
       pollution in terms of carbon monoxide, SO 2 and particulate matter




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              Table 11.2 Emission Loads from Domestic Source
     Domestic Emission Sources               Emission Rate (kg/day)
Types of Fuel      Consumption/day     PM      SO2        NOx                   CO
Coal               70 t                350     532        104                   3132
Kerosene           105 kl              213     357        163                   21
LPG                91 t                38      0.04       164                   40
Wood               30 t                205     15         150                   30
Source: State Pollution Control Board, 2006

         Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Nitrous Oxide are the two major air pollutants in
         addition to Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). NOx and SO2 concentration
         in the city are well within national standards i. e 80mg/cu.m. However the city
         is facing severe dust and smoke problems that often exceeds the prescribed
         limit of 500 mg/cu.m in many locations.
         For the purpose of monitoring air pollution, the state pollution control board
         has set up three stations in residential areas and one each in industrial and
         commercial areas.

                                Table 11.3 Air Pollution
                                  Upper Limit              Present Status
       RSPM                       100mg/m3                 196mg/m3
       TSPM                       200mg/m3                 464mg/m3
       Sulphur Dioxide            80mg/m3                  80mg/m3
       Nitrogen Oxide             80mg/m3                  80mg/m3
     Source: TOI (May 16, 2006)

       Year             Kidwai Nagar           Depty Parao       Fazal Ganj
                        RSPM(Av) SPM           RSPM SPM          RSPM SPM
       2003             173.84     410.49      172.82 397.38     191.49 439.73
       2005             177.00     426.00      177.00 380.00     213.00 470.00
       March 2006       148.15     328.25      144.21 330.72     216.83 292.15
     Source: State Pollution Control Board, 2006

11.3.3 Emissions from Industrial Area
       The air pollution from industrial area can be quantified from the amount of
       fossil fuel burnt in boilers. Data on location of industrial clusters in different
       areas in the city, quantity of fuel used in each area and the height of release of
       emissions from stacks are vital for estimating the air pollution potential. Fuel
       consumption in each of the industrial area and prominent point source
       emissions in the city is provided in the table below.

                       Table 11.4 Point Source Emissions (in kg/hr)
Source                          Emission Rate of various pollutants
                                SO2             NO2             SPM
Fazalganj Industrial Area       71              28              585
Dadanagar Industrial Area       134             101             180
Panki Industrial Area           254             112             2600



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Jajmau Ind. Area                   55               50             607
Industrial Estate                  21               9              195
Fertiliser Unit                    91               62             162
Panki Power Plant                  1090             751            3900
Textile Mills                      63               44             682
Lal Imli                           5                697
Sarvodaya Nagar Ind. Area          3                2              65
Source: State Pollution Control Board, 2006

       A perusal of the of the above figures indicate that air quality (RSPM &SPM)
       both in residential and commercial areas are much above the standards fixed
       by the State Pollution Control Board (SP CB). The level of respirable
       suspended particulate matter has exceeded the upper limit in many locations.
       As against the upper limit of 100 microgram (µ) for cubic meter, the level of
       RSPM in the city has been measured at 196 micrograms per cubic meter. And
       the total particulate suspended material (TSPM) at the densely populated
       Kidwainagar was recorded at a high of 464 micrograms per cubic meter,
       which is twice the upper limit. In last one decade there has been a spurt in the
       number of cases of asthma, bronchial asthma and allergy etc. in the industrial
       hub of Kanpur due to declining air quality.

11.4   NOISE POLLUTION
       The factors/agents such as generators, loud speakers, automobile horns and
       fireworks/ crackers are responsible for noise pollution in the city.
       Indiscriminate use of the above is leading to several complications such as
       stress, psychological problems and loss of hearing. In spite of the Noise
       (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 2000 in place, the authorities have
       found it tough to bring the noise level with in the permissible limits. Some
       commercial areas like Ghantaghar has noise level as high as 78.2 dB and
       industrial area like Dada Nagar’s noise level is 75.1 Db against a permissible
       limit of 65 dB during day time. Corresponding to that the permissible noise
       pollution level during night time fixed at 55 dB for the above two localities
       have recorded 71.8 dB and 69.5 dB respectively. The large number of tempos,
       which ply all over the city, contributes greatly to noise pollution because of
       poor maintenance.

                  Table 11.5 Noise Level at Selected Locations
Monitoring      Category        Average           Ambient               Monitoring
Station                         Sound      level Standard               month
                                recorded(dB)
                                Day      Night Day       Night
Kidwai Nagar    Residential     63.07 60.79 55           45             March   2006
Ghantaghar      Commercial      78.02 71.80 65           55             March   2006
Dada Nagar      Industrial      75.07 69.49 75           70             March   2006
Hallet Hospital Sensitive       63.02 59.16 50           40             March   2006
Source: State pollution Control Board, 2006




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                             Table 11.6 Sound Pollution
ZONES                      UPPER LIMIT                  PRESENT STATUS
                    DAY             NIGHT          DAY          NIGHT
COMMERCIAL          65db            55db           82db         78db
RESIDENTIAL         55db            45db           70db         63db
SILENCE             50db            40db           69db         69db
INDUSTRIAL          75db            70db           74db         68db
Source: TOI (16th May 2006)

                                                                      ay
       From the table it is evident that the noise level both during d and night are
       on higher side for residential, commercial and sensitive zones for which
       monitoring was done, where as it is almost stable for the industrial site.

       Actions
       • Creation of green belt along the major roads, which would help in the
          reduction of noise level since the plants are best known to mitigate the
          sound effect
       • Provision for flying squad to deal with the problem agent
       • Awareness among the public on the adverse impact of noise pollution on
          human health

11.5   ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES OF KANPUR:
       The environmental resource areas of Kanpur broadly consists of the following
       • Natural forests
       • Plantation forests
       • Open lands
       • Agricultural lands
       • Rivers/Wetlands
       • Play grounds
       • Parks/recreational areas

11.5.1 Natural and Plantation Forests
       Kanpur city and Dehat has 5400 hectares of forest area. Consequently, much
       of the natural flora and fauna has disappeared over the years due to various
       anthropogenic pressure. However, the city currently has negligible area under
       forest. The Allan Forest which originally ha d 200 hectares now reduced to 50
       hectares only. Interestingly this natural forest patch harbours the Kanpur
       Zoological Garden (Allen Forest Zoo). The other area called Sanjay Van
       Banglia has 20 hectares. Currently these two forest patches, serves as the
       green lungs for the city. Other than this under the social forestry scheme, road
       side plantations have been taken up by the forest department. The species
       which are recommended for plantation are Neem, Kadamb, Gulmohar, Chilbil,
       Kaneer, Biganwalia and Chitwan




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       Action plan
       • Afforestation measures in degraded ravine areas along the river Ganga and
          Pandu will help to meet local needs, enhance biodiversity and lead to
          improved environmental condition
       • Strip plantations along the major city and arterial roads, railway lines and
          canals are important strategies for increasing the forest cover of the city

       •   The concept of Tree Outside Forest (TOF) should be inculcated on public,
           private and farmlands.
       •   The existing forest areas should be managed through assisted na tural
           regeneration, enrichment plantations and soil and water conservation
           measures.

11.6   ISSUES RELATING TO KANPUR CITY ENVIRONMENT
       • Horizontal growth of the city and defective land use planning (Refer Table
          5.1 & 5.2 in Chapter -5 for details on existing and proposed land use in
          Kanpur) are the two most inevitable factors that attribute to poor city
          environment.
       • The rapid increase in population together with industrialization over the
          years has substantial impact over the city environment.
       • Haphazard de velopmental activities contribute significantly to the
          environmental pollution thus posing risk to city residents in the form of
          overcrowding, unhygienic living conditions and air, water and noise
          pollution.
       • The estimated pollution loads in Kanpur is 5500 kg/d from domestic
          sources, 2250 kg/h (142 t/d) from vehicular sources and 12,000 kg/h from
          industrial sources
       • Extent of pollution in the stretch of river Ganga and Pandu adjoining
          Kanpur is highest. The river in Kanpur is presently being used as a natural
          sewer, garbage dump and morgue.
       • Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) levels in Kanpur are
          alarming.
       • Large number of leather industries besides fertilizers, detergent, chemicals
          and paint factories contribute significantly for polluting air, water and
          noise.
       • Dhobi Ghats, cremation grounds, brick kilns also responsible for polluting
          the city environment.
       • Large number of drains empties their sewage daily to river Ganga and
          other city ponds.
       • Noise levels are alarmingly high in commercial areas, far e    xceeding the
          prescribed limit.




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11.7   INDICATIVE          STRATEGIES            TO     IMPROVE           THE        CITY
       ENVIRONMENT
       • A master plan for the city needs to be in place with clear cut guidelines for
          different type of land use for commercial, industrial and residential
          purpose
       • The city planners and policy makers must not allow heavy and medium
          size industries with in the city limit
       • Environmental resource map showing distribution of natural forests,
          plantations, water bodies, agricultural land and open lands would help in
          the planning process
       • Drainage and sewerage network map showing drains/nallas, sewer lines,
          pumping stations, disposal points and location of sewage treatment plant
          would guide in the preparation of environment management strategy.
       • Vehicles responsible for air and noise pollutions should be phased out and
          in no case they should be allowed to ply on the road after 15 years
       • Strict regulation to be made for not allowing poorly maintained tempos
          who are the main culprit for causing noise pollution. They must be banned
          from plying on the city roads.
       • The city should take up the concept of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) -
          run vehicles in phased manner.
       • Phasing out of tempos must be initiated since they are mainly responsible
          for the air and sound pollution exceeding the set limits in the city
       • Efforts should be made to identify the environmental hot spots such as
          poor air quality area, ground water contaminated area, u        nsewered area,
          waterlogged area, slums, polluted river stretches etc. so that remedial
          measures can be put in place.
       • Decision makers in top policy making bodies like UP Jal Nigam,
          Pollution Control Board and Kanpur Development Authority should work
          in tandem for implementing development projects without delay
       • There is a need for a centralized waste disposal facilit y for the city so that
          wastes after disinfection and incineration can be disposed to a separate
          dedicated facility. In addition waste collection, storage and transportation
          network need to be strengthened.
       • Development of integrated waste management planning, inter-agency
          coordination and institutional capacity building measures to improve the
          efficiency and effectiveness of solid waste management at each stage of
          collection, transportation, treatment and disposal should be in place.
       • Relocation of polluting industries from non-confirming areas should be
          made with proper supporting infrastructure.
       • Projects that are earmarked for execution under GAP, Phase-II should be
          taken up as per the timeline and remaining drains should be tapped to
          bring it under STP
       • KESCO, KDA and Police should not comprise on issues relating to
          granting of licenses for installation of industries with in the city limit.
       • Some senior officers of the SPCB are of the view that a quasi-judicial
          body such as Pollution Control Commission with sweeping powers should
          be in place to deal with matters for ensuring a clean city environment.


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11.8   ACTIONS REQUIRED
       • To ease the traffic congestion and related environmental problems, new
         roads with improved width should be laid, pedestrian facilities and parking
         facilities provided.
       • Regulation of traffic is essential in the core area of the city. Mixed nature
         of traffic should be provided on these roads and certain slow moving
         traffic like bullock cart and hand carts should be banned during day time.
       • All vehicles moving on the road should meet the stipulated emission
         norms.
       • Two wheelers are responsible for 70% of the vehicular pollution. An
         organised mass transport system may reduce the use of two wheelers.

       Conventionally, the environmental problems are solved by introducing
       environmental management technique such as control of pollution at source,
       providing sewage treatment facilities etc. However in large urban
       conglomeration like Kanpur city, the problems can not merely be solved by
       pollution control measures. The environmental aspects are to be induced into
       each of the developmental activities at the planning stage itself and are to be
       well coordinated and balanced

       An analysis of the various environmental attributes such as air, water and land
       use indicate that the city is currently not geared to attain environmental
       sustainability unless remedial measures are in place. Critical assessments of
       the existing situation indicate that demographic structure, economic condition
       of the people and land use largely determine the state of the environment in
       Kanpur. Therefore it is the planners and policy makers who have to decide on
       various parameters that needs to be in place for a sustainable environmental
       plan for the city




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                                         PARKS




                                        Mothijheel Park




                                        Japanese Garden

Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM
              CHAPTER 12:
STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS
                                                                         KANPUR
                                                                  City Development Plan (CDP)


                         12 STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS


      12.1   INTRODUCTION
             The objective of the stakeholder’s consultation carried out for preparation of
             City Development Plan of Kanpur City was to ensure that the CDP reflects the
             ground realities and vision, strategies as articulated by stakeholders are
             incorporated in the CDP. For this purpose after identification of stakeholders,
             the consultation process was formulated to target stakeholders at various
             levels. For the discussions, two groups’ i.e. primary and secondary
             stakeholders were identified. The primary stakeholders were the beneficiaries
             of the project i.e. the poor and the marginalized section of society, members of
             Community Development Societies (CDS), builders, trade associations,
             hotelier associations etc. While the secondary stakeholders were, those who
             were indirectly affected by the project, viz. officials from state government,
             urban local government, the parastatal agencies and line departments etc.

      12.2   METHODOLOGY ADOPTED
             The Stakeholder consultations were held mainly to devise city vision,
             prioritize development issues and formulate strategy options. The
             methodology for the consultation included:
             Ø Identification of Key Stakeholders
             Ø Conducting Consultations
             Ø Documentation and recording of consultations
             Ø Integrating c onsultation findings into project related decision making.

             Consultations with a varied section of stakeholders were held in April, May,
             June and July 2006. The details of the consultation program are as follows:

                        Table 12.1         Details of Consultations Held
  S.           Stakeholder group                     No. of            Dates of consultations
 No.                                         consultations held
1.       Elected Representatives                       1            3/6/06 and 5/6/06
2.       Govt. Organisations                           23           19/4/06 to 14/6/06
3.       Non-Governmental                              4            10/5/2006, 17/5/2006 8/6/06
         Organizations
4.       Traders Associations                         11           1/5/06, 6/6/06
5.       Industry Associations                        8            7/6/06 to 8/6/06
6.       Hotelier Associations                        4            6/6/06 to 7/6/06
7.       Property dealers & associations              4            8/6/06
8.       Slum & Bastis                                20           1/5/06 to 5/5/06,31/5/06 to
                                                                   1/6/06, 7/6/06 to 8/6/06
9.       Community Development                        19           2/5/06, 31/5/06 to 1/6/06,
         Societies                                                 7/6/06 to 8/6/06
10.      Resource persons                              3           20/4/06, 3/6/06, 5/6/06
         Total                                        97


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12.3     STAKEHOLDER’S VIEW POINTS
         The views of both primary and secondary stakeholders were sought and in-
         depth discussions were held to know about their views on current scenario of
         Kanpur, their concerns vis-à-vis development of the city and priority area
         which require more focus.

12.3.1 Consultation with Primary Stakeholder

          Non-Government Organisations
          Three non-government organizations were consulted in the city. Table 12.2
          lists the name of NGO s consulted.
                               Table 12.2: NGOs consulted
       S. No. Name of NGO               Date of Consultations No.            of
                                                              participants
       1          Eco Friends           17/5/06                       1
       2          Lok Vikas Mandal      10/5/06, 8/6/06               2
       3          Pandit Deen Dayal 8/6/06                            1
                  Jan Kalyan and Vikas
                  Samiti

         The NGOs seemed unsatisfied with the provision of cleanliness. They were of
         the view that no provision has been made to provide primary education and
         health facilities at slum level. The community toilets, constructed under
         community toilets scheme , are poorly maintained. In many areas, sewerage
         mixing of sewerage with storm water drains causes severe problem.
         Responsibility of managing solid waste management and community toilets
         should be given to community development societies. One of the NGO asked
         for alternate accommodation and title rights before demolishing any slum.
         Community participation should be an integral part of all the projects. On
         institutional aspects, the need was felt to strengthen the institutions like KNN,
         KJS and KDA by having specialized staff, giving option of VRS to elderly
         staff, introducing e-governance to maintain transparency and increasing
         efficiency and adequate money allocation for operation and maintenance
         should be taken.

         Community Development Society and Slums
         Consulta tions were held with the members of different Community
         Development societies i.e. Basti Vikas Samiti, Sahyog samiti, Drishti Vikas
         Samiti, Nayi Disha Vikas Samiti, Samuh Vikas samiti etc. The Community
         Development Societies were formed under DUDA in the above mentioned
         slum. They were of the view that training should be linked with the means of
         employment. Their major concerns were provision of water, electricity,
         sanitation, health facilities and employment generating activities for slum
         dwellers. According to them, present sanitation condition and health services
         are in poor shape. The maintenance of community toilets, which have been
         constructed at their slum with the collaboration of slum dwellers, KNN and
                                                            o
         energy development authority, should be given t CDS. The liberal loan

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        should be provided for constructing the house and to start income generating
        activities. More houses should be provided for slum dwellers and their
        location, type of construction should be with due consultation with slum
        dwellers.

                  Table 12.3 Details of consultation held with CDS
  S. No.     Name      of    Community Date of Consultations No.              of
             Development Societies                                 participants
  1          Arunodya Vikas Samiti                  8/6/06               1
  2          Antodya Vikas Samiti                   8/6/06               1
  3          Basti Vikas Samiti                     8/6/06               1
  4          Drishti Vikas Samiti                   8/6/06               3
  5          Divya Samudayik Vikas                  8/6/06               1
             Samiti
  6          Kalyan Vikas Samiti                    8/6/06               1
  7          Mahila Vikas Samiti                    8/6/06               1
  8          Mahan Vikas Samiti                     8/6/06               1
  9          Nai Disha Vikas Samiti                 8/6/06               1
  10         Pragati Vikas Samiti                   8/6/06               1
  11         Sahyog Vikas Samiti                    8/6/06               1
  12         Samuh Vikas Samiti                     8/6/06               1
  13         Srijan Vikas Samiti                    8/6/06               1
  14         Samagra Vikas Samiti                   8/6/06               1
  15         Utkarsh Vikas Samiti                   8/6/06               1
  16         Ujjawal Vikas Samiti                   8/6/06               1
  17         Utthan Vikas Samiti                    8/6/06               1

        Industry Associations
        Two industry associations were consulted.         Table 12.4 gives details of
        consultation with industry associations.

           Table 12.4 Details of Consultations held with Industries Associations
      S. No. Name of Association              Date            of No.         of
                                              Consultations        participants
      1      Indian Industries Association          7/6/06               3
      2      Kanpur                Industrial       7/6/06               5
             Development        Co-operative
             Estate Ltd.

        The industrialists were of the view that most of the policies are meant for
        heavy and medium industries. Out of total tax collected from industrial estates
        and industries, 70 percent should be spent on operation and maintenance.
        There is no co-ordination between KNN and KDA which affects in overall
        development and maintenance of the area. They want that transparency should

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       be there between the tax collection and utilization in industria l areas.
       Government adopts dual policy. There should be special assistance from state
       or central government. They were of the view that tax benefits and subsidy
       should be given to industries. According to them, electricity and lack of airport
       is the biggest hurdle in the industrial growth.

       Traders Association
       Traders associations were of the view that airport is must for the city. Kanpur
       and Lucknow should be developed on twin city basis. Public facilities such as
                                               e
       public conveniences, footpaths should b constructed. At present, there exists
       no traffic regulation. They asked for removal of on-road parking and
       encroachment on roads. The steps should be taken to stop the entrepreneurs
       from moving out of Kanpur as many of them are shifting their industries in
       other state like Rajasthan and Uttaranchal due to favorable government policy
       of those states.

            Table 12.5 Details of Consultations held with Trade Associations
 S. No.    Name of Association            Date            of No.             of
                                          Consultations      participants
 1         Merchant     Chamber      of         6/6/06                9
           Commerce
 2         Chauk    Sharafa     Vayapar         8/6/06                2
           Mandal

       Property Dealers and Builders Associations
       Property dealer and builder associations were consulted. In their view, Master
       plan revision on time and infrastructure development should be given due
       importance. The overall development of the city in terms of identification of
       areas under different land uses should be addressed time to time. Since long
       time new master plan has not come out and already commercialized places
       have been given the court n  otices on the basis of thirty years old master plan.
       On the traffic problems in the city they were of the view that over bridges and
       under passes should be built, existing railway track which passes through the
       city and leads to traffic jam diverting the existing railway track which falls
       within the city area, creating under ground parking lots and removing the
       unauthorized occupation of the existing under ground parking lots. For
       example, Navin market under ground parking which is used as commercial
       place and parking of vehicles on road in front of the same market place leads
       to road blocks and traffic congestion. The regular power supply for industries
       should be maintained. In order to create new employment opportunities, the
       Special Economic zones should be developed soon.




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           Table 12.6 Details of Consultations with Property Dealers & Builders
                                    Associations
         S. No. Name of Association           Date           of No.             of
                                              Consultations      participants
         1        Property    Dealers    and        6/6/06               2
                  Builders Association
         2        Kanpur Promoters and              1/5/06               2
                  Builders Association

       Hotelier Association
       Hotel associations were consulted to get their views related to facilities
       available in the cities for people visiting Kanpur city as Kanpur is a big
       industrial town. Table 12.7 provides the details of consultations held with
       hoteliers.

            Table 12.7 Details of Consultations with hotel Associations
         S.    Name of Association          Date            of No.                   of
         No.                                Consultations       participants
         1     U.P. Hotel and Restaurant          6/6/06                 1
               Association
         2     Northern     Hotel     and         6/6/06                 2
               Restaurant Association
         3     Hotel and Restaurant               7/6/06                 1
               Association

12.3.2 Secondary Stake holder consultation findings

       Govt. organizations
       More than 35 officials from various government departments, local
       government officials and parastatal agencies have been consulted in the city.
       The major concerns raised by officials were lack of plantation on road sides,
       decrease in underground water level, contamination of underground water,
       conservation of water, irregular electricity supply, chaotic road traffic and
       managerial problems.

       The details of discussions carried out with different stakeholders (primary and
       secondary) are given in annexure 1.

12.4   Workshops /Meetings Organised at Kanpur

12.4.1 City Level Workshop – Inception Report
       First meeting cum workshop was held at Kanpur Nagar Nigam on 19th April
       06. The officials from various departments such as Kanpur Nagar Nigam,
       Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur Jal Nigam (KJN), Kanpur Jal
       Sansthan (KJS), Kanpur Jal Nigam, Pollution Control Board, U.P. Housing
       Board, District Urban Development Authority (DUDA), Public Works

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       Department (PWD), Irrigation Department and Archeology Survey of India
       attended the meeting. The list of participants, who attended the meeting, is
       enclosed in Annexure 2. The meeting was organized to brief the government
       officials about the overall JNNURM Concept, the process involved in the
       preparation of City Development Plan, to know their vision about the city and
       current state of various infrastructure facilities etc.

       In the meeting, the consultant team has briefed the government department
       officials about the JNNURM concept, meaning of City Development Plan
       (CDP), constituents of city development plan, process which consultants will
       adopt for preparation of CDP.


12.4.2 Stakeholder Workshop – Rapid Assessment Report
       Extensive consultations with various stakeholders i.e. hoteliers, industrialists,
       trade associations and property dealers have been conducted during
       preparation of rapid assessment report.

       Workshop with Officials
                                                           nd
       To discuss the current status of city assessment a to build consensus on
       priority issues, workshop/meeting was held on 9th July 2006 with various local
       government, Kanpur Nagar Nigam and other parastatal agencies, govt.
       department’s officials at Kanpur to present the findings of the rapid
       assessment report and to obtain their feedback.

       Workshop with Trade Associations
       The workshop with members of Merchant Chambers of Commerce was held
       on 6th June 2006. The city vision, current problems, city economy, industry
       and trade related specific issues and their solutions have been discussed. Their
       views have already been explained above and in annexure 1.

       Workshop with Slum Dwellers and Community Development Societies
       The workshop with slum dwellers and community development socie ties were
       held on 8th June 2006. The city level problems, their solutions, slum specific
       issues such as type of slum, tenure status, basic infrastructure facilities, in-situ
       development and resettlement colonies, condition of housing developed for
       EWS/ LIG has been discussed.


12.4.3 Stakeholder Workshop – Draft Final Report
       The presentation of draft final report has been made at both the state and city
       level.

       The draft final report was presented on 25th July 2006 before the Principal
       Secretary and Special Secretary MoUD, GoUP; D irector, Joint Director and
       consultant from Regional Centre for Urban and Environmenta l Studies,
       Lucknow; senior government officials from Kanpur and Lucknow , officials



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       from Kanpur Nagar Nigam and parastatal agencies and comments/suggestions
       received from them have been incorporated in this report.

       A stakeholder workshop was organized on 26th July 2006 in Kanpur to present
       the findings of draft city development plan to various stakeholders i.e.
       industrialists, merchant chamber of commerce, hoteliers, property dealers,
       market associations and community etc. and to receive their
       comments/suggestions on the Draft City Development Report. The city
       vision, strategy and action plan has been discussed with the stakeholders. The
       prioritization of projects as well as financial investment plan has also been
       presented before the stakeholders. The suggestions received in the workshop
       have been incorporated in this report. The comments/ suggestions received on
       the draft final report in the workshop has been incorporated in this report.




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 Consultation with Slum Dwellers and Community Development
                           Society




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  Consultation held with Officials & Workshops held at Kanpur
                         and Lucknow




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Final Report: Kanpur City Develop ment Plan Under JNNURM
                      CHAPTER 13:
    INSTITUTIONAL FRAME WORK AND
INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS FOR KANPUR
                                                               KANPUR
                                                          CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

  13. INSTITUTIONAL FRAME WORK AND INSTITUTIONAL
                REFORMS FOR KANPUR


13.1   INTRODUCTION
        Urban Areas are the engines of economic growth. The quality of civic
        infrastructure and civic services has a critical bearing on economic
        development of the city and Sta te as a whole.

        The 74th amendment to the constitution devolved the role of management and
        development of the city to the elected representatives of the city through the
        city’s Urban Local Body (ULBs). Hence the ULBs are both the custodians of
        civil infrastructure and providers of civic services. Thus, ULBs are catalysts
        of economic growth of a city.

        However, the management of a large city like Kanpur is a complex task and
        several institutions are involved in it, as shown below.

        This chapter examines the institutional reforms and improvements that need
        to be made to these institutions.


        13.2 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN PROVIDING URBAN SERVICES
        IN KANPUR

         Government Departments
         − Department of Urban Development GOUP
         − Director of Local Bodies, GOUP
         − Public Works Department
         − State Pollution Control Board, Kanpur
         − UP Tourism Department
         − Superintendent of Police, (Traffic) Kanpur
         − Archaeological Survey of India, Govt. of India’s, Kanpur

         Urban Local Bodies
         − Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN)
         − Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS)

         Parastatal bodies
         − UP JAL Nigam, Kanpur
         − Kanpur Development Authority (KDA)
         − UP Housing Board, Kanpur
         − District Urban Development Agency (DUDA)




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13.3     FUNCTIONS OF THE LOCAL BODIES
         The UP Municipal Corporation Adhiniyam, 1959 as amended from time to
         time provides for majority of the function listed in the 12th schedule of the
         Constitution. These are:
          § Urban planning including town Planning
          § Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings
          § Planning for economic and social development
          § Roads and bridges
          § Water Supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes
          § Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management
          § Fire services
          § Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of
             ecological aspects
          § Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of the society, including the
             handicapped and mentally retarded
          § Slum improvement and up gradation
          § Provision of Urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens,
             playgrounds
          § Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetics aspects
          § Burials, burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds and electric
             crematoriums
          § Cattle Ponds; Prevention of cruelty to animals
          § Vital Statistics including registration of births and deaths
          § Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and
             Public Conveniences
          § Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries


13.4     KANPUR NAGAR NIGAM (KNN)

13.4.1    Functions of Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN)
          The corporation is administered under the Uttar Pradesh Municipal
          Corporation Adhiniyam, 1959. The Act has been amended in 1994 by UP
          Act 12 of 1994 (w.e.f. 30 May, 1994), UP Act 26 of 1995 (w.e.f. 30 May
          1995) and incorporates the amendments made in 74th CAA, 1992 including
          the functions given in 12th schedule of the constitution.

          The duties and powers of the Corporation and Corporation authorities are
          detailed in Sections 114 of the said Act. The major functions being
          performed by Kanpur Nagar Nigam currently are:

          §   Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management
          §   Urban poverty alleviation
          §   Provision and maintenance of urban amenities and facilities such as
              parks, gardens, playgrounds.
          §   Provide and maintain the lighting of the public streets, corporation
              markets, and public buildings and other places vested in the corporation
          §   Maintenance of ambulance services
          §   Registration of vital statistics including births and deaths.


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         §   Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries
         §   Operation and Maintenance of burial grounds, cremation grounds, etc.

         Though Water Supply and sewerage are also obligatory functions of
         Municipal Corpora tion as per the 12th schedule of 74th Constitutional
         Amendment Act (CAA), in the case of Kanpur they are looked after by
         Kanpur Jal Nigam and Jal Sansthan.

13.4.2   Organizational Structure:
         The corporation is divided into two wings, viz. elected wing and the
         administrative wing. The corporation has an elected Mayor-in-Council
         System. The strength of the council is 110 in addition to the Mayor. The
         inner core area of Kanpur comprises of 67 wards out of total of 110 wards.

         The previous Municipal Council which was headed by an elected mayor has
         completed its full term and as per provisions of the Act, the process of
         election has to be completed within six months.

         The administrative wing of the corporation is headed by a Municipal
         Commissioner appointed by state government and supported by two Add.
         Commissioners also appointed by the state government.

         The corporation is divided into six zones and each zone is headed by an
         Assistant Commissioner.

13.4.3   Revenue and Expenditure
         The main sources of revenue of KNN are taxes (mainly property), license
         fees, rent of the municipal properties, interest, etc. The total receipt on
         revenue account including grants-in-aid has been estimated by KNN at
         Rs.193.25 crores and capital receipts are expected to be Rs.6.90 crores fo r
         the year 2006-07.

         Against this the expenditure on revenue a/c is estimated at Rs.189.78 crores
         and outgo on capital account is estimated at Rs.958 crores. The opening cash
         balance as on 1.04.06 has been estimated Rs.5.68 crores which is expected to
         go up and close at Rs.6.47 crores at the end of the year i.e., as on 31.3.2007.

         However, since the accounting is carried out on cash basis, the budget does
         not show payments not made. Thus KNN has outstanding liabilities of Rs
         89.12 crores which include statutory payments like provident fund payment
         of the employees, pension to the employees for more them 14 months etc. the
         detail of these liabilities are attached at annexure

         Hence, it may be concluded that the KNN is facing a serious liquidity
         problems and this has a cascading effect on morale, efficiency and in the
         ability of KNN to efficiently discharge its functions.




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13.4.4   Property Tax
         The property tax is one of the main items of internal revenue generation. It
         forms about 20% of total revenue of KNN and 50% of its internal revenue.

         There are a total of 4.24 lakh properties in Kanpur, of which nearly 80% are
         residential properties as per details given below. In addition, there are
         another 10000-15000 new properties being added every year due to
         expansion of the city.

               Details of Properties in Kanpur as on 31st June 2006
                1.         Residential                    3, 38, 114
                2.         Commercial                      77, 462
                3.         Public Buildings                 5, 810
                4.         Industries                       2,748
                           Total                          4,24,134

         The number of assesses in Kanpur are however only 2.76 lakhs. This is
         explained by the fact that many institutional assesses hold several properties
         e.g. the labour commissioner holds about 29000 labour quarters, similarly
         Railways, HAL, IIT etc. Each hold multiple properties but are counted as a
         single assesses.

13.4.5   Reforms in Property Tax
         Kanpur city introduced reforms in property tax in 1999-2000. It changed
         over from the earlier system based on ‘Assessment of Rateable Value’
         (ARV) to a more transparent system based on the ‘Unit Area based system’
         of tax assessment. This system not only does away with the subjectivity in
         assessment but is also amenable to self assessment.

         However, despite best efforts in the last six years, it has not been possible to
         cover all properties under the ‘Unit Area Assessment System’. Considerable
         time and energy of the officials of KNN has been directed towards improving
         the administration of the new property tax system.

         In particular, the Nagar Nigam has been trying to tackle the following issues:

         •   To bring all properties under the ambit of property tax. This requires a
             proper inventory of all properties.
         •   To reassess the older properties on the new unit area based system in
             order to bring them in line with others and also increase the property tax
             collections. Since many of the older properties have been valued very
             low, their owners are loath to change to the new system which will
             increase their property tax.
         •   To update the Nigam’s records for properties that have been rebuilt and
             in which considerable additional floor areas has been added and reassess
             the tax e.g. old bungalows giving way to multi storey flats.



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         The status of covering all assesses under the new unit area system is as
         follows:

             •   Total number of estimated assesses                 2.82   lakhs
             •   Total number of assesses covered by property tax   2.74   lakhs
             •   Assesses covered under the unit area system        1.11   lakhs
             •   Assesses covered under the old system              1.63   lakhs
             •   Assesses still to be covered                       0.08   lakhs

13.4.6   Actions plan to improve property tax administration
         The following steps are being taken or proposed:
         • Commission a fresh survey of all properties in the municipal boundaries,
            to have an up to date data base
         • The survey is to cover not only location and type of property, but also a
            physical survey of the built area, date of construction, amenities
            available, whether rented or owner occupied etc.
         • To update the GIS maps which were partly completed in 2000-01, but
            did not cover the entire city? To also load the survey data regarding
            properties on GIS, so that accurate and spatial data of properties is
            available. Some work in this direction has already started.
         • To revise the rates of property tax by 10%, as provided in the Act. Public
            notices have been given and public comments/objections have been
            invited.

13.4.7   Likely impact of improving property tax administration
         Based on experience of other cities which have undertaken steps to tighten
         property tax administration, it is expected that property tax receipts may
         double i.e. an increase of about Rs. 30 crore p.a. in 2-3 yrs time.

         The improvement will be on account of:
         • Change of old low ARV properties to unit area system
         • Verification of self assessment by a survey
         • Including properties hitherto not covered under the tax net
         • Addition of new assesses as a result of new properties being added every
            year.

13.4.8 Improving management of the city
        Several areas for improving urban management have been identified and
        these are detailed below:

13.4.9   Introduction of accrual accounting
         Although the accounts of KNN are computerized and they are us ing the Tally
         software, accrual accounting is not being followed. We understand it is
         awaiting a notification from the GoUP.
         Introduction of accrual accounting is one of the mandatory reforms and the
         MoUD, GoI has already issued a ‘Municipal Accounting Manual’. Since the



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         basics for introduction of accrual accounting already exist in Kanpur, we
         suggest the following measures;

         •   The manual issued by MoUD should be adapted for needs of Kanpur
         •   Accrual accounting should be introduced with immediate effect after
             providing handholding support and training to the staff.
         •   The task of converting existing accounts of last two years into accrual
             accounting system should be outsourced to facilitate quick switch over.

                                                              e
         This could be best done by commissioning an appropriat consultant.

13.4.10 Use of GIS based Urban Information System to improve management
        GIS is a very powerful tool in improving city management and for getting
        spatial information about trouble spots, frequent breakdown points, analysis
        of outstanding against various bills, etc.
        GIS also provides ready information about the city e.g. for asset
        management, about capital expenditure, about municipal property
        management etc.
        Although the beginnings of a GIS system were made in Kanpur about five
                        s
        years ago, it i yet to be completed and widely adopted. We suggest the
        following measures:
        • The construction and updating of the entire GIS system should be
            outsourced to an expert agency
        • The GIS should be based on ground verification and all data about
            properties, roads , street lighting etc. should be inputted. This is a detailed
            and painstaking task and sufficient time and money should be allocated
            for it.
        • Arrangements should be made to regularly update the GIS on a yearly
            basis.
        • Various applications should be developed and users trained in using this
            very powerful management tool.
        • The MIS system should be integrated with the GIS system.

13.4.11 Introduction of e -governance on a city wide basis
        E-governance would improve management efficiencies of KNN and also
        improve service levels to the citizens, both in terms of availability of
        information as also in terms of better grievance handling. Areas for e-
        governance, besides accrual accounting and GIS which have already been
        mentioned above are:
        • Computerization of bill payment section. Payments to be received on line
        • MIS on collection efficiency and outstanding to be available on GIS
        • Property details, area and year of construction to be computerized to
            facilitate calculation of property tax
        • Administration and issue of trade licences to be on line, including
            payment and reconciliation of licence fee
        • Computerization of registration details and land records




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         •   Computerization of birth and death certificates and on line issue of
             certificates
         •   Computerization of public grievances and redressal mechanism
         •   Introduction of file tracking system to track movement and of files and
             their efficient disposal
         •   Introduction of asset management system to track O&M of assets and
             their replacement
         •   Computerized management of O&M of street lights, transformers, traffic
             signals etc.

13.4.12 Non-Tax Revenues
        Besides property tax, the other main source of own revenues comprises of a
        number of items of non-tax revenues. Total revenues form rentals and fees
        amounts to nearly Rs 24 crores in 2005-06. Some of the important ones are
        ‘Rent from Municipal Properties’ and ‘Licence Fees’.

13.4.13 Rent from Municipal Properties
        KNN owns several properties in the city, which have been rented out as
        shops, schools and for other trade purposes. Since majority of these
        properties have been rented out long ago, the rents received are very low.
        The increase in rentals is currently pegged to 12.5% every 5 years by a
        circular of GoUP. With a low base, this provision for increase is thoroughly
        inadequate to bring the rentals inline with the market value.

         Hence on the one hand, the KNN is financially strapped while on the other
         hand old tenants continue to pay unrealistically low rents.

13.4.14 Reforms in rental laws
        • The GO limiting the increase in rent to 12.5% every five years should be
           rescinded and KNN permitted to find ways of bringing up the rentals to
           market value
         •   The rent laws should be modified to bring about a balance between the
             interests of the landlords and tenants. Those who are paying below the
             declared circle rates should not be provided protection under the Rent
             Control Act. It may be noted that the circle rates are generally lower than
             the market value thereby providing a cushion in favour of the tenant.
         •   Similarly properties beyond a certain size should not be covered by the
             rent control Act. That is to say that instead of the value of rent being the
             determining factor for coverage under the Act, the criterion should be
             changed to one of Area (separate for commercial use and for residential
             use)
         •   Those who have sub-let their premises to someone else in order to gain
             financially from the low rent being paid by them, should be permitted to
             be evicted or asked to pay market rent.




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         •   To cushion the impact of increase in rentals, the tenants may be
             permitted to increase the rentals in stages over five years, so that
             sufficient time is provided to adjust to the increased rentals
         •   Those who refuse to pay the revised rents should be evicted, and
             properties re-rented at market rates

        KNN can also consider that in future, market complex are built on self
        financing basis with an escalation clause and the allottee has to pay the actual
        cost worked out after completion as per laid down principles.

13.4.15 Licence Fees
        Currently KNN rules provide for levy of licence fees to carry on businesses
        (trade) of various kinds. While many of them have obtained a stay order from
        the court, there are many others who haven’t. However, the inventory of
        those who need to pay licence fees and an estimation of the licence fees has
        not been carried out for quite some time.
        Some of the activities which require licensing include taxis, tempos,
        rickshaws, shops, trading activities etc. These could be an additional source
        of increasing revenue for KNN.

13.4.16 Actions required to improve Licence Fees
        • Make an assessment of current coverage of licence fees and action
           required to reach full coverage
        • Examine the possibility of introducing an amnesty scheme to hasten
           coverage by self declaration
        • Make a task force to increase coverage of licence fee. If necessary,
           outsource the survey and increasing coverage. Incentive could be
           provided to the revenue collection staff as well.

13.4.17 Introducing Public Private Partnership to improve efficiency and
        reduction of cost
        There are several areas of operation which are amenable to privatization,
        with the KNN taking on the role of the regulator. With this, the costs can be
        reduced, efficiency increased and KNN in the role of a regulator can ensure
        that the citizens of the city are getting a good quality service. Some of the
        areas amenable for Public Private Partnership are given below:




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13.4.18 Door to door collection service for solid waste and introduction of user
        charge
        Solid Waste Management is one of the major areas of costs of KNN and also
        accounts for maximum number of staff of the corporation. The following is
        suggested:
        • Introduce door to door collection and levy of user charge
        • Shift SWM on P -P -P basis, experiment with at least 4-6 contractors.
        • The entrepreneur should be responsible for both providing the se rvice
            and for collection of user charge. Community mobilization should be
            done by involving NGOs.
        • The equipment for SWM may be provided by the KNN. This will ensure
            that the charges remain reasonable and in case of failure of a contractor
            to perform, starting with new contractors will be easier.

13.4.19 Improving parking and parking lots thru P-P-P
        In order to streamline parking, introduction of parking lots has been included
        in the chapter on transport. The following is suggested:
        • In order to maintain the parking lots and to provide proper parking
            service, parking is to be outsourced on P-P-P basis.
        • Contractors can also be asked to pay certain royalty to KNN, which will
            be source of revenue
        • If big, professional contractors can be made interested, construc tion of
            underground parking or multistorey parking may also be considered.

13.4.20 Outsourcing O&M of street lighting
        The expenditure of KNN on street lighting is Rs 11 crore, of which about Rs
        8 crore is on account of electricity charges and balance on O&M.
        Considerable savings are possible by P-P-P and outsourcing this function to
        some reputed contractor. Savings may be expected by way of:
        • Savings in electricity by metering and exercising control on hours of
           lighting (currently electricity is charged on flat rate basis of Rs 850 p.m.
           per KWH)
        • Savings in O&M by way of reduced repairs and replacement of burnt
           bulbs and light fixtures

13.4.21 Outsourcing of bill collection
        Currently about 150 staff members are employed for property tax and other
        bill collection.
        • There is a possibility of reducing this staff by outsourcing bill collection
             to a professional agency, who can issue bills, collect payments as also
             reconcile.
        • The same agency can collect other bills as well e.g. telephone, electricity,
             water etc. Overall savings could be very substantial if we compute bill
             collection cost of each agency.
        • In some cities, outsourcing the collection to cable operators has been
             very successful while in some other cities introduction of professional
             bill collectors has been successful.



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             •   Bill collection could also be done through credit cards and banks.

13.4.22 Delegation of responsibility and power
        Currently there are no clearly laid out rules/notification on responsibility and
        authority of different positions in KNN. An authority schedule has yet to be
        issued, laying out the authorities, both financial and administrative.

         At present all executive powers vests in Municipal Commissioner. There are
         two Add. Municipal Commissioners but they have no administrative or
         financial powers delegated to them under the Municipal Corporation Act.,
         1959.

         KNN has divided the city in six zones. Each zone is headed by a Dy.
         Commissioner. Though the functions have been allotted to them but no
         powers have been delegated. At present all the zonal offices are functioning
         from the KNN’S main building. These need to be shifted to the respective
         zones as soon as possible.

13.4.23 Action required

         The state govt. may make by-laws under UP Municipal Corporation Act for
         delegation of both administrative and financial power to officers. This would
         not only give these officers a suitable status but also increase responsibility
         and accountability.

         The major functions of central office shall be policy formulation, Planning,
         Direction, control and coordination of the activities of the zones.

13.4.24 Reduction of overheads
        KNN employs nearly 4500 employees and nearly 50% of their expenses area
        accounted by the wage bill. Not only is the organization bloated and
        unwieldy, the large number adds to b   ureaucratic delays and feedback from
        various stakholder’s suggests that KNN is viewed by them as an inefficient
        and corrupt organization. Much of this can change with many of the
        initiatives described above, including




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                                          SWOT ANALYSIS FOR KANPUR NAGAR NIGAM


        Strengths                            Weakness                                    Opportunity                                  Threats

§   Long experience      of §     Paucity of funds                       §   Growth opportunities by updating records     §   Since no new recruitment is
    maintaining drains                                                       by continuous survey/ GIS particularly in        taking place, most of the
                              §   All the zonal offices are centrally
                                                                             new colonies. This is already in process.        staff is old and thus lack
§   Motivated Staff               located and hence addressing
                                                                                                                              vision for development
                                  complains take time                 §      Nagar Nigam will be looked as an important
§   Willingness to adapt
                                                                             service oriented organization when new §         No proper mechanism may
    advance technology   §        Communication     facilities  are
                                                                             additions in the city infrastructure take        be in place to maintain the
                                  inadequate in the main office and
§   Adequate          space                                                  place.                                           new facilities
                                  ward offices
    available
                                                                         §   With institutional strengthing and capacity §    Hiring of new staff /
                              §   Inadequate mechanical equipments
                                                                             building in earnest, the organization can        posting      of     technical
                              §   Due to day to day public                   become an efficient organization in service      manpower        under     the
                                  engagements, sufficient time not           delivery.                                        control of state government
                                  devoted for future developments
                                                                         §   With e-governance, the process of which is §     No core group of engineers
                              §   Repair/ cleaning of drains is mostly       already commenced, it will proceed modern        trained in operation and
                                  done only in case of breakdown             and transparent way of managing finances,        maintenance
                              §   Latest updated maps not available          execute urban planning and governance in
                                                                             time with established frame work, become
                              §   Data       base          management,       more responsive, cost and time efficient
                                  computerization    and    networking       through integrating technology in their
                                  inadequate                                 governance and service delivery process.
                              §   Absence of planning techniques         §   Scope of considerable revenue growth is
                                                                             available




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                  U.P State Government                                                          Executive Authority                                                              Ward Committees
             Department of Urban Development                                                  Nagar Pramukh (Mayor)                                                 Constituency based committees headed
              § Appointment of Chief officer                              Sabhasads (between 60 and 110) (including Upa Nagar Pramukh)                                       by elected Sabhasads
              § Appointment of professional staff                                Nam Nirditsha Sadasyas (5 to 10) State nominated                                             Executive Committee
              § Establishes senior staff salaries            Paden Sadasyad from State Legislative Assembly & House of the People representing City                   Main internal municipal committee
              § Approves creation of post, grants,           constituencies Paden Sdasyas from State Legislative Council & Council of States who are                         Development Committee
               loan, accounts, and budgets.                          registered City electors Chairperson of Committees if not already members                           Internal municipal committee
                       State Finance Commission

                                                                                                       Mukhya Nagar Adhikari
                                                                                                       Chief Executing Officer

                                                                                                  Uppar Mukhya Nagar Adhikari



      Health Education                   Engineeering                        City Cleansing                             Finance                             Health                   Health –Medical
     UP Nagar Adhikari          Mukhya Abhiytanta Chief Engineer          Director- City Cleansing         Mukhya Nagar Lekha Parikshak Chief      Varishtha Nagar Swasthya          Nagar Swasthya
                                                                                                                   Financial Officer               Adhikari (Health Officer)         Adhikari Health Officer
                                                                                                                                                                                     (Medical)

                                                                   Assistant Director- Rubbish                                                     Nagar Swasthya Adhikari
                                                                   Assistant Director- Workshop
                                                                   Assistant Director- Compost Plant
                                                                                                                                                 Zonal Health Officers (4)

                                                                        Inspectors, foremen &
                                                                        Junior Engineers                                                         Chief Sanitary Inspectors


                                                                   OVERALL FUNCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
                                                        Created under the Uttar Pradesh Municipal Corporations Adhiniyam Act.1959
                                            Urban town Planning (Drafting Development Plans), slum improvement and urban poverty alleviation
              Roads, bridge, water supply, public health, sanitation, solid waste, fire services, urban forestry, street lighting, parking lots, bus stop, parks, burials and cremations
                                              Protection of the environment, promotion of cultural, educational aesthetic and ecological aspects
                                                                Regulation of land uses, building, slaughter houses and tanneries
                           Safeguard the interests of weaker sections of the community (physical and mentally handicapped), and prevention of cruelty to animals
                                                                        Provision of vital statistics (eg. Births and deaths)
                                                              DEPARTMENTAL FUNCTIONAL RESPONSINILITIES

    Health Education               Local roads            Solid waste secondary collection                 Accounting & budgeting property         Solid waste primary collection          Health and Medicare
                               (Major roads-PWD)          and disposal                                     assessment revenue collection           -Roads sweeping                        -Disinfections
                                Area development          -Transport from collection point ton             -Property tax and other taxes fees,     -Drain cleaning                        -Epidemic control
                                    sanitation            disposal/dumping site                            charges, levies and fines.              -Local transport to collection         -Food sampling
                                                          -Landfill disposal management                                                            points                                 -Primary health care

                                                                                     KANPUR NAGAR NIGAM
                                                             Figure A-1, Current organizational Structure and Functional Responsibilities
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                                                          CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN



13.5     KANPUR DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY
         The State Government established the Kanpur Development Authority
         (KDA) in 1974. It’s the largest body of its kind in Uttar Pradesh (UP). It has
         been responsible since its inception for providing infrastructure related
         development to Kanpur City as the city expands. It operates primarily at the
         outskirts of the KNN area i.e. 8 km stretch beyond the KNN boundary.
         Today the organization has jurisdiction over an area as large as 300 sq. km,
         which includes 312 villages. As much as 12,000 hectares of land was
         obtained virtually free of cost as these belonged to the Gram Samaj.

        The major functions of KDA are:
         § Overall development of city
         § Making & implementation of Master Plan
         § Planning for infrastructure for KDA colonie s and its construction
         § Zoning of the city
         § Maintenance of KDA colonies till its handing over to Kanpur Nagar
            Nigam

13.6    KANPUR JAL NIGAM
        This organization was formed in 1927 to undertake responsibility for the
        water supply and sewage disposal of the State. Later in 1975 this department
        was transformed into Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam under the Uttar Pradesh Water
        Supply and Sewerage Act, 1975.

        As per the order of the central government, Kanpur Jal Nigam is currently in
        the process of transferring the operation and maintenance of the assets created
        under Ganga Pollution Control Unit to Kanpur Nagar Nigam.

        The Ganga Pollution Control Unit in Kanpur was formed to undertake the
        construction and execution of the assets that were created under the Ganga
        action plan phase I. Three sewerage treatment plants and different sewerage
        pumping stations were constructed to take care of the effluent flowing into the
        river Ganga.

        Under the Uttar Pradesh Water Supply and Sewerage Act, 1975, UP Jal
        Nigam has to carry out the func tions of preparation, execution, and promotion
        of water supply and sewerage schemes, state plans for water supply, sewerage
        and drainage and to establish standards for water supply and sewerage in the
        state.

         The Ganga Pollution Control Unit of UP Jal Nigam in Kanpur currently has
         total staff strength of 269. Out of these, 200 employees are working for
         Ganga Pollution Control Unit, whereas the remaining 69 staff employees are
         contracted out. The grant provided by the state government is the main
         sources of funds for Kanpur Jal Nigam.




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                                          SWOT ANALYSIS FOR KANPUR JAL NIGAM

    Organization                  Strengths                        Weakness                   Opportunities                  Threats

Ganga        Pollution §    Sufficient       manpower §      Paucity of funds which §        Under GAP Phase II §      Reluctance on the part of
Control Unit, UP Jal        available for O & M              regularly hinders proper        execution work is being   local body to take over O
Nigam, Kanpur               activities of assets created     operation and maintenance       carried out by UP Jal     & M of assets may force
                            under GAP Phase I                and also creates industrial     Nigam and this system     UP Jal Nigam to go on
                                                             relation problem                may continue in case of   maintaining these assets
                        §   Enough expertise and
                                                                                             further    development    which is not their primary
                            technical know how §             Updates        in      latest
                                                                                             activities                function
                            amongst the staff to             technological innovations is
                            construct and maintain           not given to staff                                    §   Surplus staff and side by
                            big     size     sewerage                                                                  side paucity of funds
                                                      §      Lack of networking and
                            treatment plants                                                                           results in most of the
                                                             data base management
                                                                                                                       funds being diverted for
                                                         §   Appropriate        training                               salaries and creating
                                                             modules are not constituted                               industrial        relation
                                                             for enhancing the talent of                               problems
                                                             staff
                                                         §   Laboratory             needs
                                                             strengthening




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                                                          CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN




13.7     KANPUR JAL SANSTHAN
         Kanpur Jal Sansthan was established in the year 1976 under UP Water
         Supply and Sewerage Act, 1975 to provide a specialized organization to
         focus on operating and maintaining water supply and sewerage services. It
         worked under Kanpur Nagar Nigam till 1979 as its part.

         In 1979, water supply and sewerage works were taken out from the activities
         of the Nagar Nigam and entrusted to a local authority duly constituted under
         the above Act.

         In order that the Jal Sansthan responded to the aspirations and requirements
         of citizens, it had the Mayor of the KNN as the Chairman of Jal Sansthan
         Committee. The committee comprised of following members besides the
         Mayor/ Chairman;

         •   General Manager,
         •   Jal Sansthan;
         •   Municipal Commissioner, Kanpur Nagar Nigam;
         •   Superintending Engineer, Jal Nigam Kanpur;
         •   Senior Accounts Officer, nominated by Jal Nigam;
         •   Joint Director, Medical and Health; Director, Local Bodies, UP
             Government Lucknow.

         In the year 2003, Jal Sansthan was merged with Nagar Nigam with the
         condition that Chairman and General Manager will have same powers as
         before. At present they are working independently.

13.7.1   Financial Performance of Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS)
         KJS has at pre sent total of 1,77,009 water connections -both domestic and
         commercial. The total revenue from water tax, water user charges, sewerage
         tax, sewerage user charges and miscellaneous income for the last financial
         year i.e. 2005 - 2006 has been estimated at Rs. 3078.80 Lakhs. Against this,
         the expenditure of KJS is Rs. 2774.29 lakhs. However, KJS has not made
         provision for a liability of Rs. 845.25 lakhs on account of power and
         electricity charges for the year. This means that there is in fact an excess of
         expenditure over revenue of Rs. 540.74 lakhs

         Analysis of the expenditure of Rs.2774.29 lakhs for the year 2005-06 clearly
         shows that more than 70% of the expenditure is on establishment. After
         meeting the essential cost of procurement of chemicals, chlorine and
         bleaching powder etc., there is hardly any amount left for prevent in
         maintenance or development works. Only break-down maintenance and
         emergency works on complaints are done to keep the system going. KJS in
         fact is doing crisis management and slowly m   aking the organisation sick.
         The sewage system is very old. Hardly any capital expenditure has been
         incurred on improvement of system, replacement of worn out pipes in the


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         last 10 year due to paucity of funds. The system in the inner core areas is
         more tha n 100 year old. UPJN has now made the estimate for the
         replacement of the old system in inner core area of the city and included in
         the infrastructure improvement under JNNURM.

13.7.2   Suggestions for Improvement of Financial Position
         1) The properties assessed by KNN for property tax are 2, 74,205.
            However KJS has levied water tax and sewage tax on 1,58,955
            properties only there is, therefore a scope for KJS to improve its water
            and sewage taxes. Hence KJS needs to reconcile its data with KNN and
            bring the left over assessed properties into its tax to shore up its
            revenues.
         2) With the completion of GIS by KNN annual Rateable value of the
            properties shall go up manifold, KJS should therefore, keep a close
            liaison with KNN to get the required information for wo     rking out the
            revised water and sewerage taxes. This will give a big boost to KJS
         3) As per KJS own admission, water losses due to leakage are30% after
            accounting for stand post supply and other emergency sources which
            account for another 20%. There are no metering arrangements and it is
            very difficult to assess areas of high losses. With the proposed
            renovations and replacement of leaky old pipes under JNNURM the
            effort should be made to take special care that the losses are reduced to
            the minimum, thereby increasing the profitability.
         4) There is a general feeling that water supply of KJS is not consistent and
            its quality of water is not good. The citizens do not take connections
            even though system exists in their areas because of these factors. KJS is
            therefore, required to take measures to improve their acceptability and
            creditability in the eyes of general public.
         5) KJS should persuade and educate the people to take house connections
            and try to reduce the stand posts supply. KJS need to expand its
            distribution system in Municipal area to improve its revenues since
            availability of water has increased due to commissioning of 200 mld
            WTP from Ganga Baggage.
         6) At present the cost of water is Rs. 5.26/1000L while recovery is only Rs.
            4.13/1000L. KJS is maintaining the hand pumps while there is no
            generation of Revenue. System needs to be strengthened to reduce
            leakage and it needs to be expanded particularly in areas where
            distribution system has not reached.

13.7.3   Strategies to improve performance of KJS
          • Since power is one of the major operating costs of KJS, it should take
             steps to make efficient use of power by (i) improving the condition of
             the pumps in operation or by introducing variable frequency drives (ii)
                                                            h
             reduce transmission and distribution losses in t e system which cause
             wastage of power
          • Reduce the non-technical staff to a minimal. Computerization of
             operations, introduction of e-governance, outsourcing of bill collection
             etc. will help reduce non-technical staff



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          •   Similarly assess the requirement of te chnical staff and recruit or
              contract the requisite manpower to improve the service levels
          •   Increase efficiency of staff by devising on the job training program
          •   Create a data abase of the water and sewerage net work and integrate it
              with the property GIS with a view to widen the tax net
          •   Carry out a study and implement a system of metering throughout the
              city. New improvements in water meters have made them very reliable
              and accurate, such smart meters should be used, as is being done in
              other cities like Hyderabad and Bangalore.
          •   Experiment with outsourcing O&M in a few zones with a view to
              improve reliability and reduce costs. The private party could also be
              responsible for collection of bills.
          •   Increase the coverage of water connections by (i) improving the
              pressure in the supply lines and (ii) by improving reliability of supply
              by installing standby generators to pump water on time and stick to
              supply timings
          •   Improve quality of water supplied by repair and replacement of old
              pipes, with a view to reduce contamination.




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                                                                                                          CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP)


                                       SWOT ANALYSIS FOR KANPUR JAL SANSTHAN


               Strengths                                   Weakness                             Opportunity                        Threats

§    Long experience of maintaining §         Inadequate technical staff              §   Laying of new trunk sewers §        No proper mechanism
     sewer and small sewer pumping                                                        and rehabilitation of old           may be in place to
                                    §         Paucity of funds
     stations                                                                             network will give better            maintain   the  new
                                    §         Inadequate      mechanical   cleaning       service to public which will        facilities
§    Motivated Staff
                                              equipments                                  lead to better revenue
                                                                                                                       §      Hiring of new staff /
§    Willingness   to   adapt   advance                                                   collection
                                          §   Due to day to day public                                                        posting of technical
     technology
                                              engagements, sufficient time not §          Growth opportunities by             manpower under the
§    Adequate space available                 devoted for future developments             increasing    new      sewer        control    of   state
                                                                                          connections particularly in         government
                                          §   Repair/ cleaning of sewers is mostly
                                                                                          new colonies.
                                              done only in case of breakdown                                              §   No core group of
                                          §   Maintenance of sewer being a tough      §   With institutional strength         engineers trained in
                                              job, skilled manpower is inadequate         erring and capacity building        operation         and
                                                                                          particularly in operation and       maintenance of sewer
                                          §   Latest updated map of sewer system          maintenance of large STP’s,         treatment        plant
                                              not available                               the organization can built          identified.
                                          §   Data       base           management,       itself into an efficient
                                              computerization     and    networking       organization in water supply
                                              inadequate                                  and sewerage operation and
                                                                                          maintenance.




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                                                                                                                                                              CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
                                                                                                                                                                 City Development Plan

                                                                      KANPURJALSANSTHAN, KANPUR

                                                                          NAME OF OFFICERS
                                                                                   I
                                                                               CHAIRMAN
                                                                      MAYOR / NAGAR AYUKT (M.N.A.)
                                                                                   I
                                                                          GENERAL MANAGER
                                                                                                    I

Executive Engineer Executive Engineer Executive Engineer Executive Engineer Executive Engineer Executive Engineer Executive Engineer Executive Engineer                        Executive Engineer
    Zone – I                                                                                                                                                                  (Raw Water Pumping
                         Zone – II          Zone – II – A            Zone – III          Zone – IV                 Zone – V            Zone – VI              (H.Q.)                Station)
        I                    I                    I                      I                    I                       I                     I                    I                      I
Assistant Engineer   Assistant Engineer Assistant Engineer I/C   Assistant Engineer   Assistant Engineer      Assistant Engineer    Assistant Engineer   Assistant Engineer     Assistant Engineer

                                                                                                                                                                                        I

                                                                                                                                                             C.W.A.                   PHS

                                                                 Accounts Officer                 Finance Officer                  Assistant Manager         Chemist          Assistant Chemist
                                                                                                                                         Billing



                                                                  Accountants                      Audit Officer                     Accountants


                                                                                                        Auditors




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13.8     U.P. HOUSING AND DEVELOPMENT BOARD
         U.P. Housing and Development Board have been set up under the Act of
         1965 in April 1966. It has been established to implement the various housing
         and development schemes in a planned way and to bring harmony by
         keeping in mind the state level and national level residential policy and
         programmes.

         The main objectives of U.P. Housing and Development Board are to:

         §   Make the plan for all residence related activities in the urban areas and to
             get them implemented fast and in effective way;
         §   Receive grant and loan from central and state government, commercial
             bank, financial organizations, public bodies etc.
         §   Acquire the land and construct roads, electricity, water supply, and other
             urban facilities and to arrange and distribute the land and constructed
             houses according to the demand from registered people
         §   Make special arrangement for the houses for the backward class and
             scheduled caste and tribe, security workers and freedom fighters.

13.9     OVERLAP OF INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIE S
         The multiplicity of organizations involved in providing urban services makes
         the management of affairs of the city highly complex. It becomes essential
         to define the roles and responsibilities of each of the Agencies very clearly.
         The inter-relationships of various departments play an important role in
         making available good quality of services to the community /citizens of the
         city. More-over overlapping of some of the functions requires a high level of
         coordination.

         The following table indicates the service-wise planning, implementation and
         operation and maintenance function being carried out by various agencies
         involved in providing services in Kanpur Urban Area. It will be seen that
         many services are being provided by more than one agency resulting in
         avoidable delays at the time of handing over the assets who has to ultimately
         maintain them.




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                          Table 13.1 Institutional Responsibility Matrix
                                    Institution’s Responsibility
           Sector              Planing              Implementation               Operation   and
                                                                                 Maintenance
Land use/ Master               K.D.A.                  K.D.A.                    K.D.A.
Plan/Building Byelaws
Water Supply                   UPJN/KDA/UPHB for       KJS/UPJN/DUDA for         KJS/UPJN
                               colonies developed by   Slum
                               them/DUDA for slum
                               area.
Sewerage                                               KJS/UPJN                  KJS/UPJN
Roads / Bridges / Flyovers /   PWD, KDA, KNN           KNN/KDA/PWD/              KNN/KDA/PWD
RoB / Multilevel Parking                               Housing Board/ UPSIDC     UPSIDC/Housing
                                                                                 Board
Traffic Control and            SP Traffic, RTA, KNN    KNN/Traffic Police        KNN/ Traffic Police /
Management Systems City                                                          RTO
Public Transportation
Street Lighting                KNN                     KNN                       KNN
Storm Water Drainage           KNN, UPJN               KNN / KDA                 KNN
Solid Waste Management         KNN                     KNN                       KNN
Parks/Playground/Golf          KNN, Forest, KDA,       KNN/KDA/ Housing          KNN/KDA/ Housing
Course / Beautification of     UPHB,                   Board/ Forest             Board / Forest
Road Intersections / Urban
Forest
Air, Water and Noise           SPCB                    Pollution Control Board   Pollution Control
Pollution Control                                                                Board
Slum Development               CDO,KNN, DUDA           DUDA/ KDA                 DUDA
Urban Poverty Programme        KNN, DUDA               DUDA / DIC                DUDA / DIC
Housing for EWS                                        KDA/ Housing Board/       KDA/ Housing Board/
                                                       DUDA                      DUDA

Public Conveyance                                      R.T.O.                    R.T.O.
Heritage Building              KNN, Archaeological     Archaeological            Archaeological
Conservation                   Department              Department/ KNN           Department/ KNN


   13.10 KEY ISSUES
         The critical issues that emerge from the existence of multiple Agencies
         include:
         § Spatial and functional fragmentation
         § Overlapping functions
         § Multiple accountability lines
         § High service delivery gaps and
         § Increasing Urban poverty

   13.10.1 Lack of clarity in local functions
           The Constitution 74th Amendment Act, 1992 envisages that the functions
           listed in 12th schedule of the Constitution is entrusted to elected
           municipalities. This is with a view to minimize ambiguities and overlapping
           functions between local bodies and other authorities. However, in practice,
           several agencies are responsible for the functions and in some cases local
           bodies have no role.



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13.10.2 Inter-institutional conflicts
        The large number of departments, institutions, agencies and officers
        undertaking similar, related and overlapping functions or the functions not
        clearly defined lead to conflicts in operation. Moreover the various agencies
        over the same or overlapping jurisdiction and are not in a position to
        understand and evaluate the backward and forward linkages associated with
        these functions.

13.10.3 Municipal-Parastatal Coordination
        There is a lack of coordination between urban local bodies and parastatals in
        areas such as inter-municipal, inter district and inter-state roads, Storm water
        drainage and sewerage, common amenities like whole -sale markets, truck
        terminals, bus stations, garbage dumping yards, landfill sites. The real
        problem is noticed in plan implementation. No clearly defined mechanism
        exists to take up such works in an integrated manner taking into account the
        geographical factors.

13.10.4 Managerial Coordination Issues
        There are many managers connected with metropolitan service delivery and
        infrastructure management. All these make the task of metropolitan
        management highly complex and difficult.              In addition to general
        coordination between urban and rural local authorities, there are several
        inter -departmental and inter institutional coordination issues, which arise in
        day to day administration of the metropolitan area.

13.10.5 Jurisdictional Issues
        It is very difficult to arrive at a common boundary for all services. The
        geographical Area required for internalizing the costs and benefits of a
        service like urban transport, water supply, storm water drainage etc.

         If such matching is not ensured, there will be perennial problems of service
         revenues falling short of service costs, mounting inter -institutional conflicts,
         increased cost of public administration, lack of integrated development and
         imposition of high social cost on the public.

         Thus it is important that the jurisdictional issues are sorted out carefully.
         While it is important to keep the costs of metropolitan administration low,
         exploitation of development potential of the metro area and its contribution
         to national wealth and income should be the primary consideration for
         metropolitan spatial organization.

13.10.6 Grievance Redressal
        The Grievance Redressal mechanism in the city is weak and the people are
                                                                             i
        made to run from pillar to post for grievance redressal. There s also no
        proper platform to provide information to the citizens on all services. Lack of
        awareness and information is affecting the citizen’s access to grievance
        redressal mechanisms. Though citizen’s charters are established for the



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         service providing agencies, majority of the public is not aware of the duties
         and rights under the same.

13.11    INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES
         There is a need to address the institutional and other challenges to provide
         good governance to the city. Unless the roadblocks are removed, economic
         development is hampered and efficient service delivery becomes difficult.
         This adversely affects the community particular the ‘poor’.

         There is need, therefore, to restructure the governance framework, remove
         the roadblocks and streamline the lines of accountability. The governance
         reforms become all the more critical in the context of Kanpur, which has got
         the dying city reputation to become more competitive and to become an
         investment destination. The city should offer high quality services and
         promote inclusiveness and citizen friendly governance institution. Only
         when it is environment friendly and is well governed, the vision of the city
         can be realized. The institutional strategies required include:
         •   Spatial integration of KNN surrounding m   unicipalities and their service
             providing agencies for better planning and delivery of services. (Kanpur
             Metropolitan Area).
         •   Establishing clear lines of accountability of service delivery agencies
             Constituting autonomous service delivery agencies in different structures
             like water supply, sanitation, sewerage, transport, roads, solid waste
             management etc. with KNN playing the role of a regulator.
         •   Performance based memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the
             Municipal Corporation (KNN) and various service delivery agencies,
             focusing on targets and outcomes.

13.11.1 Institutional Implementation Mechanisms
        Within the overall framework, institutional and implementation mechanisms
        need to be worked out. These include:

         •   Establishing a Reform monitoring Unit as an ‘Overseeing Body’ to
             monitor the reforms under way and being proposed.
         •   Strengthening local Government capacities by outsourcing project
             management and M & E function
         •   Establishing appraisal mechanism for institutions and processes.

13.11.2 The Institutional and Governance Reform Strategies
        § Strengthening decentralization – 74th CAA, 1992
        § Evolving inclusive governance mechanisms
        § Institutional integration
        § Evolving partnerships for service delivery
        § Evolving coordination mechanisms to overcome spatial and functional
           fragmentation.



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13.12    A POSSIBLE AGENDA FOR STATE LEVEL INSTITUTIONAL
         REFORMS

13.12.1 General
        § Implement the devolution of power to citizens of the city as prescribed in
           74th CAA, 1992
        § Development of a State Urban Development and Poverty Reduction
           Strategy.

13.12.2 Governance
        The strategy performance cell should be established and its main job should
        be to keep track of new technology, best practices, and innovations in
        relation to improvement of municipal services in India and abroad. It m  ay
        carry out experiments with the help of the local bodies in big cities like
        Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi etc and develop new ideas for
        improvement in municipal services.

         •   Development of a model citizen charter
         •   Guidelines for E -Governance
         •   Guidelines for out sourcing of services
         •   Developing partnerships in service delivery
         •   Simplification of planning regulations
         •   Develop framework for solid waste management
         •   Rationalization of stamp duty

13.12.3 Pro-Poor Strategies
        • Preparation of Municipal action Plans for poverty reduction by ULBs
        • Making available affordable water supply connection to below poverty
           line families
        • New people friendly street vendor policy
        • Notification of slums

13.13    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
         • Due to involvement of multiple agencies in providing urban services,
           there is a clear overlap of institutional responsibilities causing various
           problems. In view of the circumstances GOUP may consider issuing
           clear directions that Kanpur Nagar Nigam is the prime agency in
           providing urban services within the municipal area and any other agency
           that needs to take up urban development work within the KNN area shall
           obtain written permission of KNN before commencement of the work.
           These directions shall be in line with the constitution 74th Amendment
           which envisages that the functions listed in 12th Schedule of the
           constitution be entrusted to elected municipalities.
         •   While framing unit area rates for assessment of ARV of the properties,
                                                                    n
             the market value of such properties needs to be kept i view but in



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             practice circle rates notified by District Magistrate which are much lower
             as compared to market rate are used. It is true that the property tax may
             work out much higher as compared to existing tax amount and it may not
             be possible to bridge the difference and implement the same. However,
             KNN needs to calculate the Unit Area rates as per provisions of the Act
             and bring to the notice of the government the true amount of tax and
             existing amount of tax for their guidance in the matter as to how to
             bridge the difference in amounts. Similar will be position regarding user
             charges levied with no relation to the cost of services.
             In our view , true values need to be brought to the notice of the public and
             put for open debate. The matter needs to be discussed with various
             citizens’ forum for their full participation in finding the solutions to these
             problems for improving the financial position of the service provider so
             that quality service is available to the citizens as most of the services
             have direct impact on the health of citizens.
             The other alternative could be to constitute a statutory Regulatory
             Authority who shall mediate between service providers and beneficiaries
             and whose decision shall be binding on both the parties. Such type of
             regulatory bodies in the case of electricity, telecom, etc. already exists.
         •   Various suggestions for improvement of financial position of KNN and
             KJS need to be considered by them and immediate necessary action
             needs to be initiated for early results.
         •   KNN needs to ensure that the GIS is got completed within the time
             allowed to the GIS company and implementation part should start as a
             parallel activity as soon as property data starts pouring in.
         •   Various task force/ service delivery agencies needs to be constituted
             along with reform monitoring unit. Performance based MoU between
             KNN and various service delivery agencies focusing on target and
             outcome need to be entered into as early as possible.
         •   KNN has initiated to introduce e-governance in their day-to-day
             activities. It should be ensured that it is awarded and implementation is
             expedited and completed within time allowed to the contractor.




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              CHAPTER 14:
K ANPUR CANTONMENT BOARD
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


                  14. KANPUR CANTONMENT BOARD


       Kanpur Cantonment is situated on the right bank of Ganga River. It has a
       predominant position among the various cantonments due to its huge
       population, large number of important defence installations and units and
       strategic location within the highly industrialized Kanpur City. It was
       established in 1811 and admeasures a total of 4243 acres out of which
       bungalow area is 3899.18 acres and civil area is 334.83 acres. It has played an
       important role in the freedom struggle of 1857 under the leadership of Nana
       Saheb and Tantya Tope. This chapter will deal with the demographic analysis,
       current status of various infrastructure facilities, financial analysis and issues
       which require immediate actions.


14.1   DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
       There was a steep increase in the population growth rate from 1941-61 due to
       declaration of Second World War, partition of the country and rapid
       industrialization. Since 1961, civil population of the cantonment has increased
       with a steady rate from 61,223 in 1971 to 95,021 in 1991. From 1991 to 2001,
       there was a marginal increase in population. In 2001, out of total population
       (1,00,796), 55 percent was male.

       In Kanpur Cantonment, schedule caste population is 9.3 percent whereas 0.1
       percent is schedule tribes. The total households are 16,900 and household size
       is 6. The total literates are 64.7 percent and literacy rate is 73.9 percent. The
       sex ratio in Kanpur Cantonment is 802.

       As per 2001 census, total workers in KCB are 30,822. Out of total workers,
       26.1 percent (26,353) are main workers whereas 4.4 percent are marginal
       workers. Out of total main workers, 2.9 percent are cultivators, 0.7 percent is
       agriculture labourers, 5.4 percent is household industries and other workers are
       91 percent.


14.2   PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

14.2.1 Water Supply
       Prior to 1962, the water requirement was met through open shallow well
       except for few areas where it’s provided by MES and the ordinance factories.
       The underground reservoir, pumping station and distribution network was
       provided by Kanpur Development Board in 1962. The water was received in
       bulk from Kanpur Jal Sansthan into this underground reservoir and is pumped
       throughout the cantonment. Since then, no further extension/ augmentation
       were undertaken by KJS to meet the demand of additional population. The
       problems faced were frequent breakdowns of the old worn-out pump sets at


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       the only pumping station. Mainly bungalow area, small bazaar areas of
       Golaghat and Satti Chaura suffered from severe water shortage.

       In 1989, first phase of water supply reorganization project consisting of
       construction of one overhead tank, 6 new pumps at ZPS for the replacement of
       6 wornout old pumpsets of and 12.5 km of new pipelines to augment/
       reorganize water supply for entire cantonment area including the small bazaar
       area was undertaken. Due to this, problem of acute shortage of water have
       reduced.

       At present, there are 3722 private water connections and 350 public stand
       posts besides the 70 Indian mark II handpumps to augment and boost the
       water supply. The provision was also made to supply 6000 litres water through
       the board’s tankers.

14.2.1.1 Issues
       The water supply project received a setback due to non-payment of service
       charges by the Ordinance Equipment Factory and Ordinance Parachute
       Factory since long time.

14.2.1.2 Strategies
       The need is felt to reduce the number of existing public water stansposts and
       replacing them by India Mark – II handpumps. This will help in two ways: one
       to meet the demand in the interior areas of civil are and secondly to reduce the
       wastage of water due to public standposts.


14.2.2 Sewerage
       The underground sewerage system is non-existent in the civil area. At present,
       there exists only 10 km length of old sewer lines of diameter 9” to 15” which
       are acting as ma ins and sub-mains. These lines cover only a scant proportion
       of the civil area.

14.2.2.1 Issues
          Ø Non-existence of sewerage infrastructure has led to wide spread
             insanitation throughout the civil area.
          Ø Due to increase in population, sewerage lines are chocked, ineffective
             and outdated.

14.2.2.2 Strategies
         Ø The existing sewerage lines need to be cleaned properly through
             machines.
         Ø The provision for well designed sewerage infrastructure should be made
             to remove the problems related to sewerage blockage.

14.2.3 Storm Water Drainage
       The infrastructure (waste water and storm water) drainage system was laid in
       1940s. It consists of 4km length of large rectangular main drains besides

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       smaller intercepting and service drains. There are total four drains i.e. tobbe
       nallah and nalas around Azad Park, Tank Road and Jaipuria road in civil lines
       area. The waste water in the main drains or nallahs is disposed off at various
       points into trunk sewers of Municipal Corporation passing through
       cantonment area.

14.2.3.1 Issues
         Ø Many streets and lanes of civil and small bazaar areas are devoid of
             drains.
         Ø Three drains are in extremely bad state of repairs due to which they have
             become quite un-functional and ineffective.
         Ø All these open drains are located within the densely populated areas and
             have become serious health hazards.
         Ø During periods of concentrated heavy rainfall, streets and lanes got
             flooded. This lead to increase in disease and pollution through spreading
             of faecal material in the streets and lanes. In this period, effects of
             ineffective drainage become more visible.
         Ø Besides main drains, large number of service drains is also in poor state
             of maintenance.

14.2.4 Solid Waste Management
       In Cantonment Board, total rubbish collection points are 195. Out of total,
       close dustbins re 124 whereas open dustbins are 71. Out of total close
       dustbins (124), 88.7 percent (110) are in bungalow area. The conservancy
       services are rendered with the help of fleet consisting of 2 rubbish loaders, 6
       trucks and 1 night soil tanker besides hand cart.

       At present, there are 35 blocks of public group latrines and 48 urinals. Other
       than 12 sulabh complexes and 4 NEDA Complexes, remaining 19 public
       latrines are cleaned and maintained by Board’s conservancy staff.

14.2.4.1 Issues
       Ø The conservancy services should be mechanized to reduce the physical
          burden on the conservancy staff and result in reduction in establishment
          cost.

14.2.4.2 Strategies
       Ø The locations of dustbins in the civil area should be reviewed and refixed
         with proper intervals at proper places so that efficiency can be increased.
       Ø Proper sewerage infrastructure should be laid so that open main drains can
         be eliminated.
       Ø The maintenance of public group latrines should be given to voluntary
         organizations such as Sulabh International, Suvidha and NEDA etc.

14.2.5 Street Lighting
       Street lighting is maintained by Board’s staff with the help of Hydraulic ladder
       truck. The cantonment board is maintaining 270 number 250 Watt sodium
       vapour lamps (SVLs) and about 4000 tube lights of BOW each. All the roads

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       in the bungalow and civil areas are lit up by tube lights. In the bungalow areas,
       other than a few roads such as Tagore road, portion of M.G. and Nathu Singh
       road, old Allahabad road, New Cemetery road and canal road, all remaining
       roads have been provided with SVLs.

14.2.5.1 Issues
       Ø In civil area, SVLs have been provided on very few roads and road
            crossing only.
       Ø Most of the roads lack adequate street lighting.
       Ø The tube lights lighting on the most busy jaipuria road, where central
            railway station is located, is very inadequate in view of high traffic
            movement throughout the night.
       Ø The Station road and Elliot road also need SVLs as it links the civil areas
            directly to the railway station.
       Ø The lighting on some of the important roads i.e. Faulkner road, hospital
            road, Biscoe road, tank road etc. are inadequate.
       Ø Some narrow lanes in cantonment area are totally devoid of lighting.
       Ø The remaining roads, which bear high volume of nocturnal traffic, need to
            be provided with SVLs for safe movement of traffic and security view
            point.

14.3   SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE

14.3.1 Medical Facilities
       In Cantonment, there is one general hospital, one O.E.F. combined hospital, 7
       air force hospitals, 2 state government dispensaries (E.S.I.), 3 private nursing
       homes and 18 private clinics. The 36 bedded cantonment board hospital is
       consist of 12 bedded male ward, 12 bedded female ward, two maternity wards
       of 6 bed each, one operation theatre and a OPD.

14.3.1.1 Issues
        Ø Facilities such as X-ray, ECG and major pathological investigations are
          not provided in the hospital.
        Ø Due to lack of specialized doctors and equipments, people from weaker
          section have to refer some other hospital.
        Ø There are always long queues of patients in the OPD who are not able to
          receive adequate medical attention.
        Ø Though the condition of the hospital build ing is quite satisfactory, the
          roof requires repair work and water proofing treatment.

14.3.2 Education Facilities
       The cantonment board has provided only 9 primary schools. These schools
       were established by the board during the 1930-1950. Out of these 9 schools , 4
       are located in the distant small bazaar areas of B.I.bazar, Kakori, Golaghat and
       remaining 5 are located in the civil areas of Faithful ganj, Mirpur, Khapra
       Mahal and Harrisganj. The literacy level in Kanpur cantonment is 73.9 percent
       as per 2001 census. The board is having a staff of 9 headmasters and 31
       assistant teachers.

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       The main educational effort in the cantonment is provided by the voluntary
       and philanthropic organizations. Most of the top-rated convent and public
       schools of the district are loc ated in the bungalow area of the cantonment.

14.3.2.1    Issues
           Ø The condition of the school building provided by Cantonment Board is
              very unsatisfactory. Other than Mirpur and Muir Road schools, which
              were renovated by the board in 1987 and 1988, remaining are in poor
              state of maintenance.
           Ø In KCB area some of the top-rated convent and public schools are
              located; however, the weaker section has virtually nil access to these
              middle and rich class schools.
           Ø The existing education facilities in cantonment are not only
              quantitatively insufficient but their distribution is very uneven.
           Ø The primary schools provided by Kanpur Nagar Nigam are quite far of
              from cantonment area and are mostly dilapidated and overcrowded. Due
              to which they are not used by residents of cantonment.

14.4   FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
       The main source of income is from taxes such as house tax, water tax,
       conservancy tax (sewer/solid waste) and non-tax such as hoardings, lease rent
       etc. The total revenue collection in 2005-06 was 13.53 crore out of which
       reve nue from tax and non-tax was 3.67 crore, octroi compensation from State
       Finance Commission is 1.86 crore and income from realisation under special
       acts is 54 thousand, revenue derived from property and powers apart from
       taxes and miscellaneous is 93 lakh, extraordinary and debt is 1.8 lakh.

       The total expenditure of Kanpur Cantonment Board in 2005-06 was 13.5 crore
       out of which 3.74 crore was spent on medical services and sanitation, 1.58
       crore on public works, 70 lakh on public safety and convenience, 29 lakh on
       general administration, 17 lakh on collection of revenue, 67 thousand on
       public institutions, 1.1 crore on pension gratuity and annuities, 43 lakh on
       proceeds from water tax and rest was spent on payment to sinking fund and
       other miscellaneous expenses.

14.5   KEY ISSUES
       Some of the issues, which need immediate attention, are:
       a) Acute Shortage of Water Supply
       b) Old and dilapidated dry type public group latrines
       c) Non-existence of sewerage infrastructure
       d) Damaged and congested roads
       e) Unpaved streets and lanes
       f) Broken service and large open main drains
       g) Lack of adequate education and medical facilities

       All this has resulted into unhealthy and degraded environment in the densely
       populated civil areas.


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          CHAPTER 15:
VISION AND STRATEGIES
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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


                     15.      VISION AND STRATEGIES


       The vision of a ‘Resurgent Kanpur’ is to build on its twin strengths of
       industrial base and knowledge base. This base combined with plans to build
       new world class townships around the old city, would act as a magnet to
       attract fresh investments and spur economic development.

       The alumnus of IIT Kanpur and the students from the innumerable coaching
       classes who enter several competitive institutes including IAS are the
       intellectual wealth of our city which we should leverage. The leveraging of
       emotional ties is only possible if it is combined with good and healthy living
       conditions and an environment that is conducive to economic growth. The
       overall vision is

       To make Kanpur a clean and healthy city with high quality infrastructur e such
       as better roads, airport, and basic services so that it is recognized as a premier
       city of U.P. and an environment which attracts people and develops business.
       The government machinery should be efficient, effective, accountable and
       transparent by adopting customer oriented approach to improve confidence of
       entrepreneurs and encourage them to come forward for P -P -P schemes.

       Kanpur will have a level of economic development wherein its people will
       have sufficient opportunities for growth and all have access to high quality
       infrastructure. Kanpur will be able to leverage on its proximity to the State’s
       capital (Lucknow) and other advantages to attract new business opportunities
       in the city. Kanpur would also have a responsive and proactive city
       administration set-up that would provide effective redressal to citizens’
       problems and involve citizens in finding sustainable solutions to city’s issues.
       The main objective is to enhance the current infrastructure status as
       infrastructure development leads to significant impetus for investment
       decision taken by an investor and inturn leads to sustainable economic growth.

       The main focus is on two aspects.
       • One, taking the maximum benefit of current positive factors such as
          locational advantage, availability of manpower, and proximity to markets/
          raw materia, support of state government for the city’s development i.e. its
          decision to setup an integrated Special Economic Zone (SEZ) that will act
          as a magnate to fuel growth in the city, entrepreneurial spirit of large
          number of population, large pool of cost effective labour, various technical
          and research institutions, presence of a healthy working class, poorer
          sections of society (very active community development society groups)
          and administration/officials dialogue that serves as a platform to find
          sustainable solutions to city’s problems and
       • Secondly, removing the current bottlenecks which are leading to
          deterioration in the city management, by way of infrastructure


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           improvements and bringing reforms in urban management by making
           policy level changes.

               15.1 STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLAN
Sl. Area               Strategies                Plan of Action
No
1   Demographic Issues Ø Provision            of Ø Faster development of
                           additional housing to   proposed     townships
                           meet the demand of      and housing colonies to
                           growing population      meet the additional
                       Ø Decongesting        the   demand of housing and
                           inner core city by      to decongest the inner
                           growth on out skirts    city

2     Economic                  Ø Bringing                Ø Filling vacancies in
      Development                 improvement in law        Police Dept. at earliest
                                  and order situation       and      proper   police
                                                            patrolling so that law
                                Ø Improved
                                                            and order situation can
                                  infrastructure      for
                                  industrie s               be improved.
                                                          Ø    Increasing the Power
                                Ø Giving incentives to
                                                               Supply and decreasing
                                  entrepreneurs       for
                                  establishing         an      line losses in Power
                                  industry or carrying         Distribution
                                  out trading activities Ø     Provision of incentives
                                                               such as rebate in sales
                                Ø Improving          power
                                  supply                       and excise tax, cheap
                                                               land, 24 hours power
                                Ø State government’s           supply etc.
                                  aggressive        and
                                  promotional
                                  industrial policy and
                                  ensure             its
                                  implementation

3     Land Use                  Ø Provision          for Ø Funding to be arranged
      Development                 improved services and    for new infrastructure
                                  facilities such as       projects
                                  water supply, roads Ø Parking lots identified
                                  etc.                     and tendering process
                                Ø Identification      of   started
                                  parking      lots and Ø widening of roads and
                                  developing it on PPP     provision of ROBs and
                                  basis
                                                           flyovers during first
                                Ø Making arrangement       phase

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                                    for     loading   and
                                    unloading platforms
                                    in most of the
                                    commercial        and
                                    industrial areas.
                                Ø Provision of more
                                  open spaces in high
                                  density built up areas
                                Ø Strict enforcement of
                                  rules         regarding
                                  carrying             out
                                  commercial activities
                                  and     small      scale
                                  industries         from
                                  residential areas
                                Ø Increasing the area
                                  covered under road
                                  vis-à-vis      traffic
                                  volume by widening
                                  of roads, removal of
                                  encroachment etc.
                                Ø Shifting of industries
                                  from non-confirming
                                  area to confirming
                                  area.
                                Ø Reduction in time
                                  taken in preparing the
                                  master plan and its
                                  Speedily approval
                                Ø Better connectivity to
                                  new markets and
                                  terminals to ensure its
                                  success.

4     Housing                   Ø Better linkage of new       Ø Speedy       land   &
                                  housing                       infrastructure
                                  colonies/townships            development        for
                                  with old city                 townships and housing
                                                                colonies
                                Ø Motivating residents
                                                              Ø Arranging the fund for
                                  of inner core city to
                                                                off-site development
                                  shift    to    newly
                                  developed colonies.

                                Ø differential      pricing

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                                    policies for plots/
                                    plotted houses used
                                    by H.I.G. /M.I.G.
                                    /L.I.G. for residential-
                                    cum-work purpose
                                Ø Adoption of methods
                                  such      as      single
                                  window        clearance,
                                  online facility
                                Ø Matching supply of
                                  EWS housing vis-à-
                                  vis demand
                                Ø Better connectivity of
                                  EWS/LIG area with
                                  main city

5     Slum Improvement
A)    Physical and Social       Ø Improvement of roads,        Ø CDS       should      be
      Infrastructure              water           supply,        actively involved in
                                  sanitation & street            the       infrastructure
                                  lighting etc. in those         projects     such     as
                                  slums which are not            construction of brick
                                  covered           under        roads,      community
                                  U.B.S.P. and N.S.D.P           toilet           blocks,
                                                                 collection of solid
                                Ø Those slums which              waste etc.
                                  will be cleared for
                                  development    work          Ø community toilets as
                                  should be properly             per community need,
                                  protected.                     proper design
                                Ø Rehabilitation of slum       Ø O&M should be laid
                                  dwellers only in the           in the hands of the
                                  nearest vacant area            Community
                                                               Ø Water facility should
                                                                 be positively provided
                                                                 round the clock
                                                               Ø If the land which slum
                                                                 dwellers            are
                                                                 occupying is required
                                                                 for the development
                                                                 project, they will be
                                                                 removed and provided
                                                                 housing on alternate
                                                                 sites
                                                               Ø Relocation of slums
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                                                                will be in a planned
                                                                manner keeping in
                                                                mind their holistic
                                                                development and by
                                                                adopting consultative
                                                                process.


B)    Housing for EWS           Ø multi-storey              Ø in-situ development
                                  construction at selected    for     ensuring   the
                                  slums                       planned development
                                                              of those slums and
                                Ø house allotment on
                                                              low income areas
                                  hire and purchase basis
                                                              which are not required
                                  i.e. re-sale not allowed
                                                              urgently for public
                                  for 10 years                purpose
                                Ø liberal              loan
                                                            Ø loans to improve their
                                  advancement                 shelters, should be
                                                                provided to improve
                                                                quality of life.
                                                              Ø Five slums such as
                                                                vijay nagar, kalwa
                                                                mandi, dabouli west,
                                                                juhi ambedkar nagar
                                                                and ravidas vihar at
                                                                jajmau will be taken
                                                                up     for     model
                                                                development on Pune
                                                                model
6     Road and Trans port       Ø Introducing      CNG        Ø Cycle      rickshaws
                                  buses and taxes for           should be banned on
                                  public transport              the main roads and
                                                                highways
                                Ø Restriction of trucks
                                  and     slow    goods       Ø Development     of
                                  vehicle on main roads         parking lot on PPP
                                  during peak hours             basis
                                Ø Proper regulation of
                                  slow traffic system.
                                Ø Road         surface
                                  improvements      to
                                  improve the traffic
                                  movement         and
                                  minimize         the
                                  congestion.
                                Ø Private            sector

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                                    participation for road
                                    improvement
                                Ø Discouraging private
                                  vehicles usage by
                                  imposing parking fees
                                  and declaring busy
                                  areas and old city
                                  markets as vehicle
                                  free zone
                                Ø Removing
                                  encroachments       over
                                  the roads
                                Ø Implement
                                  computerized
                                  signalling
                                Ø Involvement of CDS,
                                  community         for
                                  awareness generation
                                  about traffic rules,
                                  safety rules etc.

7     City Environment         Ø Heavy and medium Ø Preparation             of
                                 size industries will not Environment Resource
                                 be allowed with in the   Map     to   help in
                                 city limit.              Planning Process
                               Ø CNG based transport Ø No polluting vehicle
                                 vehicle    should    be   would be allowed to
                                 introduced in phased      ply on the road
                                 manner.
                                                         Ø Projects     that are
                               Ø vehicles    responsible   earmarked         for
                                 for air and noise         execution under GAP
                                 pollutions will be        Phase-II should be
                                 phased out                taken up as per the
                               Ø Strict regulation for     timeline
                                   not allowing poorly
                                   maintained tempos
                               Ø Identification      of
                                 environmental      hot
                                 spots such as poor air
                                 quality area etc.
                               Ø Decision makers in top
                                 policy making bodies
                                 like UP Jal Nigam and
                                 Pollution      Control
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                                     Board and Kanpur
                                     Development
                                     Authority should work
                                     in     tandem      for
                                     implementing
                                     development projects
                               Ø KESCO, KDA and
                                 Police should not issue
                                 licenses to industries
                                 with in the city limit.



8     Basic Services
A     Water Supply              •    Reducing transmission      •   Carry out a study on
                                     and distribution losses        sample basis and
                                     with identification of         establish actual T&D
                                     illegal           water        losses, with steps to
                                     connection          and        reduce losses
                                     discourage       public
                                                                •   The leaky and old
                                     stand posts
                                                                    pipes in inner core
                                •    Refurbish     the   old        area,   which     have
                                     distribution system and        outlived their life
                                     leak detection study           should be replaced
                                     and UFW
                                                                •   Inter -connect the three
                                •    upgrading the storage           treatment plants so
                                     capacity of drinking            that surplus capacity
                                     water                           of one can balance the
                                •    providing 100% house            shortfall in another
                                     service    connections          system
                                     and metered supply to      •   Improve reliability of
                                     all houses                      supply by providing
                                                                     larger storage at zonal
                                                                     pumping stations
B     Sewerage                 •    Industries should be        •   Improve surveillance
                                    instructed strictly to           and compliance with
                                    treat their wastewater           pollution norms by
                               •    Remedial       measures          industry
                                    such as trapping of the     •   Renovate the sewers in
                                    source,         effective       the inner core area
                                    treatment and care of           using    trench   less
                                    the piping system needs         technology
                                    to be adopted
                                                                •   Segregate sewers from
                               •    Renovation/replacement          the drains to avoid

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                                   of    existing   drains,       contamination         of
                                   which are old and in           drains
                                   lived out stage.           •   Improve solid waste
                               •   Renovation / repair /           collection       and
                                   supplement of existing          removal,    specially
                                   and      old pumping            plastics to reduce
                                   stations                        choking and blockage
                               •   Regular sewer cleaning          of sewers
                                   by adopting suitable       •   Study feasibility of
                                   methodology depending          decentralized   sewer
                                   location and condition         treatment plants to
                                   of Nalas and drains.           provide treatment in
                                                                  remote colonies
                               •   In densely populated
                                   areas, nalas need to be
                                   replaced     by    RCC
                                   conduit pipes for the
                                   purpose of security,
                                   hygiene and pollution
                                   control.
C.    Solid Waste              •   Proper solid waste         •   Introduce     bin less
      Management                   disposal arrangement            collection   in inner
                                                                   core area
                               •   Introduce door to door
                                   collection         and     •   Introduce       transfer
                                   introduction of ‘user           stations for improving
                                   charge’.                        efficiency         and
                                                                   reducing      operating
                               •   Outsource         SWM
                                                                   costs
                                   including collection of
                                   user charge                •   Outsource to RWAs
                                                                  and/or CDPs besides
                               •   Proper processing of           private contractors
                                   waste by implementing
                                   source segregation         •   Introduce segregation
                                                                   at composting plant
                               •   Public            sector
                                   participation (PSP) for
                                   establishing    suitable
                                   waste processing plant




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9.    Institutional            •   Decentralization   of • Shift zonal offices to
      Framework and                authority to improve    the respective zones
      Reforms                      efficiency and reduce
                                                         • Revise          authority
                                   response     time  to
                                                           schedule and give
                                   citizens
                                                           sufficient authority to
                                                           zonal officers to solve
                                                           problems on the spot
                                                            •       Reduce manpower in
                                                                    non-technical areas by
                                                                    computerization,    e-
                                                                    governance, and by
                                                                    outsourcing        bill
                                                                    collection.
                                                            •       Reduce           surplus
                                                                    manpower              by
                                                                    introduction of VRS
                               •   Stimulate the land and       •   KDA to prepare a time
                                   housing market to make           bound     plan     for
                                   housing    sector   an           development of new
                                   economic driver                  townships
                                                                •   Employ best town
                                                                    planners and architects
                                                                    to     design      new
                                                                    townships as model
                                                                    townships
                                                                •   Stimulate the market
                                                                    by involving private
                                                                    developers on the
                                                                    lines of Shara or
                                                                    ELDECO etc.




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                                •   Improve transparency        •   Set up an active
                                    and accoutablity of             complaints          and
                                    KNN/KJS etc.                    grievance      handling
                                                                    centre, under charge
                                                                    of a senior officer
                                                                •   Computerize       most
                                                                    interfaces with the
                                                                    citizens such as bill
                                                                    payments, enquiries,
                                                                    submission of returns
                                                                    etc. to provide speedy
                                                                    service
                                                                •   Implement provision
                                                                     of RTI bill faithfully
                                                                •   Put up rules and
                                                                    procedures on web site
                                                                    and advertise the same
                                                                    to citizens


                                • Strengthen                •       Involve citizens in a
                                     Government-                    forum of “Resurgent
                                     community interface            Kanpur’       with     ex
                                     by greater community           IITians,          leading
                                     participation                  industrialists, NRIs of
                                                                    Kanpur       region    to
                                                                    partake in development
                                                                    schemes
                                                            •        Form a Stakeholder
                                                                    advisory    body      of
                                                                    experts and city leaders
                                                                    to advice KNN and
                                                                    GoUP on directions of
                                                                    development
                                                            •       Form and support
                                                                    active RWAs in all
                                                                    areas to assist in
                                                                    management of urban
                                                                    services
                                                            •       KNN to present its
                                                                    annual      plans  in
                                                                    workshops of citizens
                                                                    for suggestions


                                           15-
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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)




                               • Budgetting for the poor • Cull out a subsidiary
                                                                budget from the main
                                                                KNN budget, to
                                                                highlight the
                                                                expenditure on
                                                                provision of basic
                                                                services to the poor
10    Strengthening of         • Property tax reform        •   Modernization        of
      Municipal Finance                                         property tax system by
                                                                linking    GIS     and
                                                                property data base
                                                            •   Reassessment of all
                                                                properties on unit area
                                                                basis
                                                            •   Improving rentals of
                                                                municipal properties by
                                                                amendment of Rent
                                                                control Act and GoUP
                                                                GOs
                                                            •   Introduce ‘user charge’
                                                                and outsource solid
                                                                waste collection system
                                                                Examine P-P-P in
                                                                O&M of street lighting
                                                                system.




                                           15-
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                               • Improving    Financial • Change to             accrual
                                   management Systems     accounting
                                                            •   Account for fixed and
                                                                immovable assets to
                                                                strengthen the balance
                                                                sheet
                                                            •   Put in place an asset
                                                                management system to
                                                                keep track of assets,
                                                                their maintenance etc.
                                                                Set up a strong MIS
                                                                system              with
                                                                quantifiable targets set
                                                                for each management
                                                                level. Set up a monthly,
                                                                quarterly and yearly
                                                                review system
                                                            •   Introduce management
                                                                by objectives




                                           15-
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                     CHAPTER 16:
FINANCIAL STATUS OF URBAN LOCAL
        BODIES (ULBS) IN KANPUR
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


16.     FINANCIAL STATUS OF URBAN LOCAL BODIES (ULBs)
                       IN KANPUR


16.1   INTRODUCTION
       In the development and smooth functioning of any city, there is, generally,
       more than one player, which plays the important role in the provision of
       efficient service delivery. The first and most important aspect is the
       identification of these major bodies of the urban centre. The second step is to
       make an evaluation and analysis of financial position of these agencies. This
       would help in assessing the sustainability in the development of the city.

       In the case of Kanpur city, there are three important bodies who responsible
       for the overall development and smooth running of the city. These are:

       1. Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN);
       2. Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS); and
       3. Kanpur Development Authorit y (KDA)

       The KNN and KJS and mainly responsible for the provision of basic services
       to the city dwellers whereas the responsibility of KDA helping in the
       development of the city. In the era of decentralization, community
       participation has also assumed important role. However, here, we are focusing
       on the major responsibilities and financial status of these bodies above-
       mentioned bodies.

16.2   KANPUR NAGAR NIGAM
       Under the provision of Uttar Pradesh Nagar Nigam Adhiniyam, (UP
       Municipal Corporations Law) the Municipal Corporations are responsible for
       the provision of basic needs and maintenance core services in the city. To
       meet the requirement for the provision of these services, these bodies are
       empowered to levy certain municipal taxes and fees. Similarly, the KNN is
       responsible for upkeep and maintenance of basic minimum civic services the
       city. It provides the basic municipal services to the city dwellers residing in
       the municipal limit. The KNN meets it financial requirements by generating
       the resources through taxation, rental income from the municipal properties
       (own income) and the transfers from the centre and the state (which are
       constitutional obligations of these higher level of governments).

       The KNN is mainly responsible for the provision of basic services and not for
       the developmental activities (barring a few) in the city. The important services
       provided by the KNN includes: provision (maintenance) of good roads in the
       city, maintenance of streetlights, drainage and sewers, solid waste
       management, parks, gardens and the play grounds, basic educational and
       medical needs, provision of markets, cremation grounds, slaughter houses, and
       controlling the advertisement agencies.




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              For the purpose of analysis of financial status of KNN the basic data on
              income and expenditure are obtained from KNN through basic and revised
              budget documents for various years. The financial analysis of the KNN carried
              out in three accounts. On the income side, under the revenue account, the
              resources are generated through le vying of various taxes and the rental income
              from municipal properties. The other two sources of income are capital and
              suspense accounts, which deals with the transfers (grants and contribution)
              from higher level of governments. Similarly, the expenditure is also divided
              into three major heads of revenue expenditure, capital expenditure and
              suspense account expenditure. The details of income -expenditure of Kanpur
              Nagar Nigam are indicated in Table 16.1 below.

     Table 1 6.1: Revenue Composition of Kanpur Municipal Corporation (Rs lakh)
              Income          1998-99   1999-     2000-01    2001-02    2002-03    2003-04     2004-05
                                        2000
A     Revenue Account
 1    General Tax              880.12   1225.97    1700.00    1690.00    1605.68    2573.09     2800.00
 2    Advertisement Tax         69.87     66.76     100.00      83.47     105.47     119.39      125.00
 3    Tax on Cinema Hall         8.08      7.17      10.00       2.91       7.12       9.72       10.00
 4    Total Tax Revenue        975.62   1358.56    1870.00    1776.38    1718.27    2702.20     2935.00
      Income from
      Municipal Properties
 5    & other sources          391.88    347.44    2254.30    1129.67    1057.71    1207.72     2384.30
      Water treatment
 6    drainage sanitation        9.83      3.75      26.50       6.27       5.98       5.39        6.50
      Income under special
 7    Acts                       5.09      7.13       8.50       5.08       4.94       8.33        8.50
      Income from Interest
 8    on Investment              1.19     25.60      10.00       0.00       0.38     195.88        2.00
      Grant s and
 9    Contribution            5537.92   6166.25    8752.44    7183.63    7944.12    7127.39     9725.00
10    Miscellaneous Income      78.37     69.10     100.00     159.85     169.38     179.14      150.00
A     Revenue Account         6024.30   7977.85   13022.74   10260.88   10900.79   11426.05    15212.35
B     Total Capital Account      0.00     48.70    2000.00       0.00       0.00       0.00        0.00
      Total Other Account
C     Income (suspense)        586.87    684.37     170.00     384.37     221.59     188.08      190.00
Source Budget Documents of 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04, 2004-05 (Original and
Revised), Kanpur Nagar Nigam.

              The income of KNN is presented under three heads of accounts, such as
              revenue account, capital account and other (suspense) account

     16.2.1    Revenue account
              Under the revenue account, the own revenue comprises of tax and not-tax
              sources. The major taxes levied by KNN are property tax (general tax),
              advertisement tax and tax on entertainment places (cinema halls etc).

     16.2.1.1 Tax Revenue
              The share of tax revenue in total income increased from 16% to 24% for the
              years from 1998-99 to 2003-04. However, the share has declined in 2004-05



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         to 19%. In absolute term, the tax income has gone up from Rs 98 million to
         Rs 294 million.

         Property Tax
         Amongst the important taxes, the major share comes from property tax. It
         contributes more than 95% in the total tax revenue. The share of property tax
         in total income of KNN was 15% in 1998-99 which has gone up to 23% by
         2003-04, but declined to 18% in 2004-05. In absolute term, the revenue
         from property tax has increased from Rs 88 million to Rs 280 million. With
         the reforms package, such as shifting of assessment method from Annual
         Ratable Value (ARV) to Unit Area Method, reviewing of properties under
         exemption, Rent Controlled Properties, survey of all properties in the city,
         computerization of data base in various zones, as carried out by the KNN,
         the revenue from this source is expected to increase in future.

         Other Taxes
         The share of other taxes (advertisement tax and entertainment tax) was less
         than 10%. The contribution of tax on advertisement has declined from 7% to
         4% during the period from 1998-99 to 2004-05. In rupee term the revenue
         from this source has increased from Rs 6 million to Rs 13 million. The tax
         on entertainment places (cinema halls) has increased marginally from less
         than one million to one million from 1998-99 to 2004-05.

16.2.1.2 Non- Tax Revenue
         The non-tax revenue comprises of rental income from municipal properties,
         rent from Nazul land, interest and miscellaneous receipts. Amongst them,
         most important source is rental income from municipal properties. The
         contribution from this source in the non-tax revenue accounts for more than
         96%. Its share in the total income was 7% in 1998-99, which has reached to
         16% in 2004-05. The earnings from this source were Rs 39 million, which
         increased to Rs 238 million during 1998-99 to 2004-05. Assuming that the
         growth in population would lead to increase in demand for houses,
         considering such demand of real estate in view, the non-tax income expected
         to grow more in the coming years.

16.2.1.3 Transfers (Grants and Contributions)
         In the post decentralization reform period and introduction of 74th
         Amendment, the transfers from the higher level of governments, both centre
         and state, has increased substantially. However, in the case of KNN, the
         transfers under the head of grants and contribution, accounted for 92%, but
         declined to 64% during 1998-99 to 2004-05. The amount transferred under
         this head was Rs 554 million, which further increased to Rs 973 million for
         the same period.

         The total income under the revenue account was Rs 602 million in 1998-99,
         which have gone up to Rs 1521million in 2004-05. On the basis of
         assumption that the KNN would introduce the reforms in property tax and



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                 other taxes, that the income under revenue head would likely to increase in
                 the coming years.

       16.2.2 Expenditure Account

       16.2.2.1 Revenue Expenditure
              Similar to income pattern, the expenditure is also accounted under three heads
              of revenue, capital and suspense. In total expenditure of KNN, the major share
              was spent on revenue account only, its share was 97% during 1998-99, which
              increased to 99% in 2003-04, but slightly declined to 94% in 2004-05. In
              absolute term the expenditure incurred under the revenue account in 1998-99
              was Rs 715 million. In 2004-05, it has increased to the tune of Rs 1293 million
              (see Table16.2). On the assumption that the expenditure may grow initially,
              but would come down because of many expenditure compression package
              (such as VRS, right sizing of staff strength, public- private partnership and the
              partially or wholly privatization of some the services) of KNN, which it would
              be introducing in the near future.

               As the KNN has to provide various services related to education, medical and
               public health, O & M of street lighting, water supply and sewerage, parks and
               gardens, public works, roads, it has to incur a substantial amount of its
               earnings on the provision/maintenance of these basic needs. A large work
               force is also engaged for the purpose of revenue collection and the provision
               of these services.

               Table 16.2: Expenditure Pattern of Kanpur Municipal Corporation (Rs lakh)
     Expenditure            1998-99    1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04                 2004-05
A    Revenue Account
     Expenditure
1    General                  221.23       267.62    282.13    292.88    299.35     351.19        340.00
     Administration
2    Revenue Collection       288.99       327.24    383.50    367.07    376.71     409.26        405.00
3    Total Gen eral           510.22       594.87    665.63    659.95    676.06     760.45        745.00
     Administration &
     Revenue .Collection
4     Sanitation             3306.20      3572.94 3922.00 3676.82 3883.67 4222.07                4506.00
5    Medical and Public       372.74       469.95    486.55    505.53    521.84     681.54        640.70
     Health
6    Public Safety/Public     533.36       777.22    996.09    876.47    949.94     970.62       1847.75
     convenience:-
7    Public Works             669.81      1469.09 1485.50 1815.71 1720.14 1237.90                2410.00
     (construction)
8    Higher                   453.35       551.61    578.50    704.83    659.66     796.13        710.50
     Education/Other
     Education
     Grants &
 9   Contribution               0.00         0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00 1282.15          1700.00
10   Total Refund               0.00         0.00      0.20      0.00     59.50      26.62        100.00
11   Other Expenditure       1080.96      1494.92 4421.36 2011.55 1155.23 2321.46                1732.70



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A   Total Revenue         7147.87      9198.23 12837.76 10543.74        9865.89 11341.36 12932.65
    Expenditure
B   Capital Account           2.95      648.26     302.00       1.99     337.35        0.75 552.00
    Expenditure
C   Other Account          228.21        91.98     141.00      96.12     127.60       78.38 206.00
    (Suspense)
    Expenditure
    Total (A+B+C)         7379.02      9938.48 13280.76 10641.86 10330.84 11420.50 13690.65
    Expenditur e
       Source Budget Documents of 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04, 2004-05 (Original and
       Revised), Kanpur Nagar Nigam

             General Administration and Revenue Collection
             In the total revenue expenditure, about 6% goes on General Administration
             and Revenue Collection. In that the share of General administration is slightly
             more than 2%, and about 3% is on revenue collection. The cost of property tax
             collection is high. On an average more than 3% of revenue expenditure is
             being spent on property collection. It is expected that after implementation of
             property tax reform package (such as out sourcing tax collection) by KNN, the
             cost of collection would decline in future.

             Sanitation
             For the clean and healthy atmosphere in the city, the upkeep and maintenance
             of cleanliness is very important. The KNN is responsible for the efficient
             delivery of this service to its citizens. In 1998-99, as percentage of total
             revenue expenditure, the maximum share (about 46%) was incurred in the
             provision of this service, which declined to 35% during 2004-05. The KNN is
             incurring more than 25% of revenue expenditure for the provision of wages
             and salaries to sanitation staff. Similarly, it is spending, on an average, more
             than 4% on petrol and diesel. It is expected that the under the JNNURM, the
             improvement in roads and addition of new roads would increase the fuel
             efficiency, and the expenditure under this head may reduce in the future.

             Medical and Public Health
             Amongst the major heads of expenditure about 5% of the revenue expenditure
             is being incurred for the provision of medical facilities. Of this, about 4% is
             incurred by way of wages and salaries/establishment. The absolute figures
             were Rs 32 million, Rs 64 million for the years 1998-99 and 2004-05
             respectively.

             Public Safety and Public Convenience
             The expenditure on public safety and public convenience accounted for 7% in
             1998-99, has gone up to 14% by 2004-05. Of this, the share of wages and
             salaries (establishment) is more than 2 % for the entire period. The
             maintenance of parks is one of the important components of this service. The
             KNN is spending more than 1 % of total revenue expenditure on this service.
             As practiced in some of the Municipal corporations such as Ludhiana
             Municipal Corporation and Udaipur Municipal Council, it is expected that
             KNN would involve business houses/industrial groups for the maintenance of


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       parks in the city. The supervision of maintenance parks can be done through
       community participation in the wards/mohllas etc. If this were implemented
       effectively, it would help in reduction of expenditure under this head.

       Public Works (construction)
       Though the KNN is not directly involved in the development and expansion of
       the city, still it undertakes the work of repair and maintenance of roads,
       government building etc. In 1998-99, its share in total revenue expenditure
       was a little less than 10%, which was continuously increasing and reached to
       19% in 2004-05, except in 2003-04 when it has declined to 11 %.

       Higher Education and Other Education
       Of the total expenditure incurred (about 6%) on this service, almost all of it
       goes for the payment of wages and salaries (establishment). Under this head,
       the amount in 1998-99 was Rs 45 million that increased to Rs 71 million in
       2004-05.

       Other Expenditure
       The share of other expenditure, comprising of miscellaneous expenditure for
       the development of councilors’, nominated members’ areas, expenditure on
       computer and stationery etc. accounted for 15% in 1998-99 and reached to
       20% in 2003-04, but declined to 13% in the following year.

16.2.2.2 Capital and Suspense Account
         As per the budget definition, the capital expenditure is generally meant for
         the capital (development) works in the city. As disc ussed earlier, the KNN is
         not directly involved in large capital works. For KNN, the capital works are
         the works carried out under water treatment, World Bank project, Ganga
         Action Plan, UPUDP, Indo-Dutch, Low cost sanitation and equipment for
         solid waste management. The works related to MPLADS are also accounted
         under Suspense account. On an average, the KNN is incurring expenditure to
         the tune of 4% of the total expenditure on capital and other works.

16.2.3 Surplus/Deficit of Kanpur Nagar Nigam (Exiting Scenario)
       Based on the budget figures provided by the KNN, there was deficit under the
       revenue account for the years 1998-99, 1999-2000 and 2001-02. It was of the
       order of Rs 112 million, Rs 122 million and Rs 28 million respectively. For
       the year 2000-01 there was revenue surplus of Rs 18 million, which has
       increased to Rs 103 million and further to Rs 228 million for the years, 2002-
       03, 2003-04 and 2004-5 respectively. Except 2003-04, whe n there was a
       surplus of Rs 8 million only (see Table 16.3).




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    Table 16.3 Resource Gap of KNN (1998-2005)              (Rs lakh)
Income            1998-    1999-   2000- 2001-     2002- 2003-       2004-
                      99    2000      01      02      03     04         05
Revenue                -        -              -
Surplus/Deficit 1123.56 1220.38 184.98 282.87 1034.90 84.69 2279.70
Capital
Surplus/Deficit    -2.95 -599.56 1698.00   -1.99 -337.35  -0.75 -552.00
Suspense
Account
Surplus/Deficit  358.66   592.38   29.00 288.25    93.99 109.69     -16.00
Total                           -
Surplus/Deficit -767.85 1227.56 1911.98     3.39  791.54 193.63 1711.70

       On the Capital account, there were deficits in all the years except 2000-01,
       which has witnessed a surplus of Rs 170 million. On the other hand, in the
       suspense account, except 2004-05 when there was a deficit of Rs 1.6 million,
       for the remaining period, this account was in surplus and varied in the range of
       minimum of Rs 3 million in 2000-01 to maximum of Rs 29 million in 2001-
       02.

       In all, except for the beginning of two years, when there were deficits of Rs 77
       million and Rs 123 million, for rest of the period, it has incurred surplus of
       highest of Rs 191 million in 2000-01 and the lowest just 0.3 million in 2001-
       02.

16.2.4 Important Issues of Kanpur Nagar Nigam
       In addition to the analysis, the other important issues emerged during the
       discussions held with the officials of the Kanpur Nagar Nigam are as follows:

       •   Kanpur Nagar Nigam has an outstanding liability of approximately
           Rs.920.00million comprising of salaries, pension, Provident Fund
           Payments to the tune of Rs.800.00million (Provident Fund amounts
           deducted from the account of employees, have not been deposited since
           1990. The amount outstanding as of date is Rs.250.00million; this amount
           is included in Rs.800.00 million).
       •   Outstanding payments against development works done is
           Rs.120.00million.
       •   Pension has not been paid for last 14 month and the amount against this
           works out to Rs.210 million.
       •   The monthly expenditure on Diesel and Petrol is around Rs.7.00 million
           which needs examination.
       •   As per the provisions of the 74th Constitution Amendment, giving
           clearance is a function of the Nagar Nigam, but in Kanpur , the Kanpur
           Development Authority is discharging this responsibility. Hence, the
           revenue from source has also goes to KDA.




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16.2.5 Suggestion for Revenue Enhancement
       • Reforms in Property Tax, i.e. completely shifting from ARV to unit area
          method;
       • Assessment of all the propertie s of KNN;
       • Reviewing of exemption under the property tax;
       • Out sourcing the collection of Property tax;
       • Effective Enforcement of property tax laws;
       • Computerization of data base at all the Zones;
       • Community participation in maintenance of service (such as parks etc.)
       • Expenditure compression through VRS, right sizing of staff strength;
       • Introduction of Public-Private -Partnership programmes in selected
          services;
       • Wholly/partially privatization of selected services (such as
          cleaning/sweeping of roads etc)

16.3   UTTA R PRADESH JAL NIGAM
       Though the provision of water supply and sewerage service is the main
       responsibility of the local government (Municipal Corporation), but in Uttar
       Pradesh, this responsibility is assigned to Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam and Jal
       Sansthan. The Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam is a State Level organization and is
       responsible for setting up water supply and sewerage infrastructure in various
       cities of Uttar Pradesh. After setting up the infrastructure the same is handed
       over to the city level Water supply & Sewerage Organization for Operations
       and Maintenance. In case of Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam after setting up
       the water and sewerage system hands over the same to Kanpur Jal Sansthan
       for Operations and Maintenance.

       Since the Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam is a state level organization it will be
       difficult to analyze its financial status for the city of Kanpur separately. The
       UP Jal Nigam as such does not generate any revenue of its own. The
       operational and maintenance (O&M) of water supply and sewerage system is
       carried out by the Kanpur Jal Sansthan and it collects water tax, sewer tax,
       water charges and sewer charges. Therefore, it would be more meaningful to
       analyze the financial position of Kanpur Jal Sansthan than the UP Jal Nigam.

16.4   KANPUR JAL SANSTHAN (KJS)
       In Kanpur, as mentioned above the Kanpur Jal Sansthan is responsible for the
       supply of water and provision of sewerage services to the city dwellers.

16.4.1 Financial Position of Kanpur Jal Sansthan
       The main taxes/charges imposed by the KJS are: (a) water tax; (b) Sewer tax;
       (c) Water charge and (d) Sewer charge.

       The basis of charging Water Tax, Water Charge, Sewer Tax and Sewer Charge
       is that both tax and charge are calculated and the higher of the two is charged
       from the consumer.




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       Water and Sewer Tax
       The Water Tax and Sewer Tax are charged based on Annual Rental
       Value/Annual Ratable Value of the properties , as assessed by the Kanpur
       Nagar Nigam. The current maximum rate of tax is 12.5% for water and 4% for
                                     een
       sewer. The water tax rate has b dropped from 14 % to 12.5% with effect
       from 1-4-2003.

       Water Charges
       The Water Charge on the other hand was fixed at a base price Rs.3.00 per
       kiloliter in December 1999 and the same is increased by 7.5% every year as
       per the Government order. The consumers are charged on the basis of water
       consumed as per meter reading. In case the meter is not working then the
       consumer is charged on the basis of minimum average consumption (It was
       informed that most of the water supply is not metered in residential areas.
       Only non-residential areas are connected through water meter.

       Sewer Charges
       The Sewer charge is fixed at 25% of the water charge or Rs.435/= per seat per
       year which ever is higher.

16.4.2 Revenue of Kanpur Jal Sansthan
       Amongst the major sources of revenue for the KJS the water charge is very
       important. The share of water charge in total income in 1999-2000 was 53%,
       which declined to 51% during 2006-07. In absolute amount, it has gone up
       from Rs 76 million in 1999-2000 to Rs 181 million in 2006-07 (see Table
       16.4).

       The next important source is water tax. The revenue yield under this head has
       also become double from Rs 52 million to Rs 107 million. The percent share
       in total income declined from 37% to 30% for the same period.

       The income from sewer charges has also gone down from 1.58 % to 1.34%,
       from 2003-04 to 2006-07. In rupee term it has increased to Rs 7 million in
       2004-05 against Rs 4 million in previous year. However, it has declined to Rs
       4 million in next year.

       The other income is the compensation received against the electricity charges
       payment from the state government. It has increased from 1.95% in 1999-2000
       to 4% in 2003-04, but gone down to 1.34 % in 2006-07. In rupee term, the
       compensation increased to Rs 10 million in 2003-04 against Rs 3 million in
       1999-2000, but decreased to Rs 5 million in 2006-07.




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             Table 16.4 Finances of Kanpur Jal Sansthan         (Million Rupees)
 Description      1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07
Income
Water tax            52.20    58.55     69.72     74.43  89.88   85.50    100.51 106.50
(% to total)         36.64    30.05     30.84     31.59  35.52   28.55     32.65  29.69
Water charge         75.66 110.45 120.90 122.25 124.06         154.86     173.56 181.28
(% to total)         53.11    56.68     53.48     51.88  49.03   51.71     56.37  50.54
Sewer tax            11.83    21.63     27.09     30.12  28.99   50.16     27.08  61.30
(% to total)          8.30    11.10     11.98     12.78  11.46   16.75      8.80  17.09
Sewer charge          -        -         -         -    4.00      6.96      3.95   4.80
(% to total)                                              1.58    2.32      1.28   1.34
Other Income          2.78     4.24      8.35      8.82  10.11    8.94      6.72   4.80
(% to total)          1.95     2.18      3.69      3.74   4.00    2.99      2.18   1.34
Total Income        142.47 194.87 226.06 235.62 253.04 299.46             307.87 358.68
Expenditure
Establishment       132.63 161.18 170.94 182.22 175.73         191.04      217.8 230.80
(% to total)         87.74    86.95     81.64     82.00  78.96   53.64     59.18  55.47
Electricity           3.47     3.77     15.08     15.77   8.12 108.00     110.00 114.00
(% to total)          2.30     2.03      7.20      7.10   3.65   30.32     29.89  27.40
Consumables           6.35    12.04     11.89     11.94  14.58   19.42     23.95  25.00
(% to total)          4.20     6.50      5.68      5.37   6.55    5.45      6.51   6.01
Maintenance           7.63     6.85      9.89     10.64  22.36   34.70      39.1  42.40
(% to total)          5.05     3.70      4.72      4.79  10.05    9.74     10.62  10.19
Others                1.09     1.53      1.58      1.66   1.76    3.00      3.84   3.90
(% to total)          0.72     0.83      0.75      0.75   0.79    0.84      1.04   0.94
Total
Expenditures        151.17 185.37 209.38 222.23 222.55 356.16             368.03 416.10
Surplus/Deficit      -8.70     9.50     16.68    13.39  30.49  -56.70     -60.16 -57.42
(Note) Expenditure for Establishment includes salary and wages.
Source: Kanpur Jal Sansthan .

       16.4.2.1 Demand and Collection of Water and Sewerage (Collection Rate) Charges
                As expressed in Table 16.5, collection rate for the two main items of revenue
                i.e. water tax /water charge and Sewer Tax/ Charge for the period 2003-04 to
                2005-06 has been in the range of 85% to 94%. The rate has shown
                fluctuating pattern. From 2002-03 to 2003-04 it has declined whereas it has
                gone up in 2004-05 but later declined in 2005-06. The ideal recovery rate
                should be more than 95%.




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       Table 16.5 Demand and Collection of Water Charges (Rs Million)
    Item                     2002/03 2003/04        2004/05      2005/06
    Demand for Water &        270.33      294.53     299.48        332.66
    Sewerage
    Actual Collection         235.62      253.05     282.08        307.88
    % Recovery                 87.16       85.92      94.10         92.55
   Source: Kanpur Jal Sansthan

16.4.2.2 Water Tariff
         The Table 16.6 given below shows the Water Tariff per kiloliter for last five
         years. The high tariffs are levied on Industrial and commercial categories
         whereas on consumption it was lowest amongst all the categories of
         consumers. The increase in rates was mor e in Special Industry category. For
         the efficient delivery of this service, there is need to increase tariff on non-
         commercial consumers also.

          Table 1 6.6 Tariff Rates of Water Consumption (in Rs /Lakh)
         Year       Dome Specia Commer Mixed Govt. Cantonm Municip
                    stic     l        cial             &        ent      al
                             Industr                   Semi
                             y                         Govt.
         2002-03       3.45    18.40       11.04  6.67    6.67      5.52    3.68
         2003-04       3.68    19.60       11.76  7.11    7.11      5.88    3.92
         2004-05       3.90    20.80       12.48  7.54    7.54      6.24    4.16
         2005-06       4.12    22.00       13.20  7.97    7.97      6.60    4.40
         2006-07       4.35    23.20       13.92  8.40    8.40      6.96    4.64
       Source: Kanpur Jal Sansthan

       Special Industrial category includes Star Hotels, Other Hotels, Nursing
       Homes, Cold Storages, Ice and Ice cream factories, Bottling plants, Petrol
       pumps and Service stations.

       However, as per the information provided by officials of the Kanpur Jal
       Sansthan the consumers of the Special Industry are not connected to Jal
       Sansthan water supply.

16.4.3 Expenditure Pattern of Kanpur Jal Sansthan

16.4.3 .1 Establishment Charges
        Similar to KNN, amongst the major heads of expenditure of KJS, the most
        important is the establishment. More than half of the expenditure goes in
        payment of the wages and salaries. In the beginning of period, from 1999-
        2000 to 2003-04, it was near 80% but declined to 54% in 2004-05, which
        again marginally increased in the following two years.

16.4.3.2 Expenditure on Maintenance and Consumables
       The second important head of expenditure is the maintenance followed by
       consumables. The percent share of maintenance increased from 5% to 10% for


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       the entire period under consideration. The proportion of expenditure on
       consumables has gone up to 5% in 2004-05 against the figure of 4% in 1999-
       2000.

16.4.3.3 Electricity Expenditure
       Electricity is the next major head of expenditure having a share of around
       28%. The estimated expenditure is around Rs.114.00 million for the year
       2006-07. It is clear that the Jal Sansthan is unable to pay its own electricity bill
       hence the same is paid directly by the State Government.

16.4.3 .4 Other Expenditure
        The expenditure on other head was less than one percent for the whole period.

16.4.4 Issues of Kanpur Jal Sansthan
       • The increase in revenue is mainly due to the increase in tariff every year
           by 7.5% and as well as due to increase in number of connections
       • Annual increase in tariff is having a negative impact on the revenue and
           connections.
       • As per the survey conducted by the Jal Sansthan, there is not even a single
           Special Category consumer connected to the Jal Sansthan water supply.
           The rate under this category is approximately Rs.23/= per kilo liter.

       It was also observed during the discussion with the official of Jal Sansthan that
       there is a lack of coordination between Kanpur Development Authority and
       Kanpur Jal Sansthan. The KDA does not inform KJS about the new projects,
       and by the time, KJS is informed about the development the demand for water
       and sewer is met out of a different source. Hence there is no gain in number of
       consumers.

       There should be coordination between the departments in general and KNN,
       KDA and KJS in particular. This would not only enhance the efficiency in
       service delivery but also increase revenue collection.

       Assumptions:
       KJS is expected to mobilize more resources due to:
       (a) Improvement in water quality
       (b) Increase in water supply
       (c) With the renewed system and reduction in water leakage
       (d) Coverage of water connection would go up and also the water tax and
            water charges

       Expenditure
       (e) As a result of improved system consumption of electricity would drop
           and accordingly its electricity charges would go down in the future




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16.5   KANPUR DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (KDA)
       As discussed in previous sections, the KDA is an important organization
       playing the crucial role in the overall development of city and its expansion.
       Therefore, it would be more useful to evaluate and analyse its financial
       position in detail. This would help in assessment of the financial support the
       KDA is expected to provide for JNNURM.

16.5.1 Revenue Account of KDA
       The major source of revenue of KDA comprises of rent from le ase and free
       hold, rent from the buildings, income from stamp duty, interest receipts,
       income from the building department against the regulation and approval of
       maps for the construction of building, shops and commercial complexes, from
       sale of different Forms (Application Forms etc), deduction from the deposits
       of allottees not taking the possession of land, and other sources such as,
       surcharge/fee on non-construction on the allotted land, registration of sale of
       various land and buildings etc. (see Table 16.7).

16.5.1.1 Revenue Receipts
       Out of total income of KDA, the revenue receipts contributed about 46 percent
       in 1999-2000 but dropped over the period to 38% in 2004-05. In absolute
       term, it was Rs 359 million in 1999-2000, which increased over the period
       gone up to Rs 453 million in 2004-05.

       Under revenue receipts, the major share of income comes from registration. Its
       contribution in total income has increased from 48% to 49 % from 1999-2000
       to 2004-05.

       The income from building department and infras tructure development fund
       contributed more than 10% in total income. The share of income from this
       source (building department) varied from 11 % (2003-04) to 17% (2000-01).
       On the other hand, the receipts under the infrastructure development fund
       fluctuate d during the entire period. Its minimum share was 9% in 2003-04
       whereas highest amount was 26% in 2002-03.

       In the revenue receipts of KDA, the income from interest and fine on interest
       has also made substantial contribution. Its share varied in the range of 7% to
       18% during 1999-2000 to 2004-05. The KDA is also earning from the other
       sources (sale of various Forms/Application/Tender Forms etc). In the total
       revenue receipts, its share fluctuated in the range of 10% (2001-02) to 19% in
       2000-01.




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                  Table 16.7 Financial Status of Kanpur Development Authority      (Rs lakh)
I       Revenue Receipts         1999-00 2000 -01 2001-02 2002-03 2003 -04 2004-05 2005-06 BE
    1    Rent                      131.24      125.91    97.78   171.24     106.43    99.18    163.00
    2   Income from Stamp             0.00       0.00    41.79    39.96       0.00    19.76     30.00
        Duty (10%)
    3   From Interest and fine     266.01      281.76   317.64   394.09     476.78   441.01    482.00
        on interest
    4   Income from Building       484.10      301.13   268.45   449.08     296.17   482.79    476.00
        Dept
    5   From sale of                 10.62       3.47     7.55      8.78     12.45    26.22     10.00
        Forms/Documents
    6   Income from                   8.24       5.76     2.29      4.71      7.12      4.46    10.00
        Deduction from
        Instalments
    7   Income from other          391.61      342.84   245.01   394.96     396.59   536.51    455.00
        sources
    8   Income from               1740.64      477.21 1014.94    886.71     938.45 2233.54    1500.00
        Registration
 9      Recovery of Loans             0.06       0.03     0.00      0.00      1.27      1.03     1.00
10      Miscellaneous Income       126.96       54.08    46.08   107.31     146.38    81.36    120.00
11      Infrastructure             432.85      211.28   525.17   853.81     230.94   609.02    707.00
        Development Fund
        Total Revenue             3592.33 1803.47 2566.70 3310.65 2612.58 4534.88             3954.00
        Receipts
II      Capital Receipts
12      Sale of Land (Plots)      1629.25 1993.92 1665.41 1274.34 2463.84 3629.21            18948.00
13      Income from Sale of       2149.94 2434.05 2847.51 4013.40 3425.29 3137.60             5810.00
        Buildings
14      Deductions from            133.30        2.39    17.75   539.62       8.18      0.44    10.00
        Temporary Advance
15      Income from                   0.00       0.00     0.00      0.00     42.25      9.07    15.00
        sale/auctions of old
        machinery
16      Loans                        62.32 2533.09        0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00 12320.00
17      Grants                        0.00       0.00     0.00    62.31      75.14   171.12      1.00
18      Income from Deposits         23.63     585.98   280.00   235.28      10.40    12.50    341.00
19      Recovery of advances         24.97      35.55    33.15    34.96      34.07    33.21     40.00
        from staff
20      Infrastructure             203.43      235.09   165.17   146.03      80.75   331.49    450.00
        Development Fund
        Total Capital Receipts    4226.84 7820.07 5008.99 6305.94 6139.92 7324.64            37935.00
        Total (Revenue+           7819.17 9623.54 7575.69 9616.59 8752.50 11859.52           41889.00
        Capital) Receipts
        Opening Balance           3176.23 3629.67 6708.76 5167.77 7159.38 8716.51            11634.00
        Grand Total              10995.40 13253.21 14284.45 14784.36 15911.88 20576.03       53523.00
Source: Budget Documents of KDA for various years



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16.5.1.2 Capital Receipts
        In the total income of KDA, the contribution from capital receipts has
       increased over the period. The highest earning under this head was 81% in
       2000-01, whereas the lowest income 54% received during 1999-2000. In
       absolute term the capital receipts contributed in the total income, Rs 423
       million to Rs 732 million for the years from 1999-2000 to 2004-05.

       Under capital receipts, the major sour ce of income comes from sale of land
       and sale of buildings. Both put together accounted for 91% in 2004-05 against
       26% in 2000-01. The earning from the sale of plots was Rs 162 million (1999-
       2000) which has gone up to Rs 363 million (2004-05).

       The total income of KDA increased from Rs 782 million to Rs 1186 million
       from 1999-2000 to 2004-05.

16.5.2 Expenditure pattern
       In the total expenditure of KDA, the expenditure under revenue head
       accounted for about one third whereas under capital head it varied from 65%
       to 74%.

16.5.2.1 Revenue Expenditure
       Similar to KNN and KJS, the major head of revenue expenditure is ‘wages and
       salaries’ paid to its employees. It accounted for more than fifty percent. The
       other important heads of expenditure are refund of deposits and miscellaneous
       expenditure. These both put together contribute d about 50% in the revenue
       expenditure. In absolute amount, it was Rs 124 million increased to Rs 145
       million for the wages and salaries.

16.5.2.2 Capital Expenditure
       In the capital expenditure, the major heads were development works,
       construction works, repayment of loans and interest payments. The share of
       development works declined from 58% to 35%. Similarly, on construction
       works, it has decreased from 6% to 3% for the period under consideration
       (1999-2000 to 2004-05). The expenditure on repayments of loans has
       increased from 13% to 22%. The expenditure on infrastructure development
       works undertaken under the World Bank project has gone up from merely less
       than one percent to 8% durin g the entire period.

16.5.3 Surplus/Deficit of KDA finances
       Under the revenue head, it has generated surplus for all the years, except
       2000-01, whe n the deficit was to the tune of Rs 50 million. The surplus
       amount varied from minimum of Rs 11 million in 2003-04 to highest figure of
       Rs 172 million in the following year of 2004-05.

       On capital account, there was deficit for the years 1999-2000, Rs 67 million
       and Rs 177 million in 2001-02. The surplus generated under this account


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       varied in the range of Rs 120 million in 2004-05 against the highest amount of
       Rs 358 million for the year 2000-01.

       In overall, the KDA has generated surplus of Rs 45 million in 1999-2000, to
       Rs 308 million in next year. The deficit year was 2001-02 when it has incurred
       a deficit of Rs 154 million.

16.6   OVERALL ISSUES AND THE STRATEGIES

       Issues
       • Efficient service delivery to the existing and future population;
       • Resource mobilization by all the stakeholders for meeting financial
           requirements

       Strategies
       • Reforms in existing taxation system (property tax and other taxes)
       • Expenditure compression
       • Public-private partnership
       • Privatization of selected services
       • Community participation
       • Good governance

16.7   REFORMS AND ITS IMPACT ON FINANCES OF ULBS
       In the above sections, the financial positions of KNN, KJS and KDA have
       been analyzed. As proposed, the KNN and KJS would improve their
       efficiency and enhance their fiscal health by adoption of certain measures
       related to the reforms in resource mobilization and expenditure compression.
       The following assumptions, as suggested, would help in overall improvement
       in the finances of KNN and KJS.

16.7.1 Assumptions related to KNN
       The KNN would mobilize its income by introducing certain reforms measures.
       In doing so, it would consider the above-mentioned assumptions (Table 16.8).
       The major amongst them for resource mobilizations are: reforms in property
       tax, its coverage and reviewing of assessment. It would also introduce new
       levy, such as betterment levy and user charges. On the expenditure side, the
       KNN would increase its efficiency by reduction in fuel cost and maintenance
       cost. The introduction of e-governance would save on account of surplus
       manpower.

       The following assumptions would be adopted by the KNN, which would help
       in the overall improvement of its financial position.




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              Table 16.8: Assumptions for Revenue Mobilization of KNN.
    Revenue Mobilization
    1 By improved            By converting 2 lakh properties from ARV to Unit Area
       coverage of           System
       Property tax
    2 By new properties      New properties @ 12,000 properties p.a., each at average
       constructed every yr of Rs 800 p.a.
    3 By review of area      This review will result in an increase of property tax @
       wise rates to align   10% p.a.
       them in line with
       changing scenario
    4 By introduction of     By door to door collection. user charge @ Rs 30 p.m.,
       user charge in        50,000 households added p.a.
       SWM
    5 By Reviewing of        By reassessment of 20,000 exempted properties having
       Exempted              ARV below Rs 360/-
       Properties
    6 By introduction of     A betterment tax @ 5% of property tax is proposed for
       betterment tax        benefits from improved infrastructure
    Reduction in expenditure of KNN
    7 Reduction of fuel      The Kms run will be reduced by 20%, fuel efficiency
       cost in SWM by trf. will improve 25% (4 km/l instead 3 km/l)
       Stations and new
       fuel efficient
       vehicles
    8 Reduction in maint. Ageing fleet to be replaced by new, will reduce
       cost by replacement maintenance costs 30%
       of SWM fleet
    9 Savings in             Metering, shutting lights on time and better maintenance
       electricity costs by  by P-P-P
       P-P-P of street
       lights
    10 Savings in            Reduction of non-technical staff by computerization &
       manpower costs by     VRS by 10%
       e-governance
    11 Savings by            Reduction of bill collectors and costs by outsourcing and
       outsourcing bill      VRS of 25%
       collection
    12 By abolishing         A reduction of 340 numbers has been identified
       surplus posts in
       technical and
       unskilled labour




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16.7.1.1 Impact on Fiscal Health of KNN
       With the introduction of certain reforms measures with respect to resource
       mobilization and expenditure compression, financial status of KNN would
       likely to improve in the future. The monetary impact based on the above-
       mentioned assumptions would enhance the finances of KNN, which is
       expressed in the Table 16.9 below.

       Table 16.9: Impact of reforms on KNN -(Ph-I)                (Rs Crore)
       S. Item                Improvement 2006- 2007 - 2008- 2009- 2010-
       No                                    07      08      09      10       11
            Improvement in various
         1 property tax                         8.09  12.00   16.30 21.03 26.24
            User charges      Rs 30 pm
         2 for SWM                              1.80    3.60    7.20 10.80 14.40
            Reduction of      20%
         3 SWM costs                            0.16    1.46    1.93    2.40     2.81
            PPP in            15%
         4 streetlights                         0.08    0.15    0.30    0.36     0.45
            Savings by e-     10%
         5 governance                              0    0.19    0.37    0.56     0.75
            Abolition of      340 no
         6 surplus posts                        0.61    0.92    1.22    1.22     1.22
            P-P-P in bill     25%
         7 collection                           0.20    0.40    0.61    0.81     1.01
            Total                             10.94   18.72   27.93 37.18 46.88

       As indicated in the table above, on revenue account, the KNN would be likely
       to earn revenue from improvement in property tax to the tune of Rs 26.24
       crore by end of Phase-I. It expected to raise another Rs 14.40 crore from
       introduction of user charges for Solid Waste Management. On expenditure
       compression, there would be likely saving of Rs 2.81 crore on account of
       reduction of SWM costs. It further, expected to save of the order of Rs 0.45
       crore and Rs 0.75 crore on account of Public Private Partnership in street
       lights and savings by e-governance. The abolition of surplus posts would save
       an amount of Rs 1.22 crore. And lastly, PPP in bill collection would yield Rs
       1.01 crore to the KNN. In total, it is expected that the KNN would raise Rs
       46.88 crore by way of revenue mobilization and cost savings by during 2010-
       11.

16.7.2 Assumptions related to KJS
       The followings assumptions proposed to be adopted by KJS to enhance
       resources on account of resource mobilization and expenditure compression.
       The assumptions detail is presented in Table 16.10.




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             Table 16.10: Assumptions for Resource Mobilization of KJS
        S.N. Item                            Assumptions
           1 By improved coverage of         Water and sewerage tax is linked to
             properties                      property tax, property revaluation
                                             by KNN will improve water tax
           2 By increased number of          With improved pressure and
             connections                     reliability, more households will
                                             take connections
           3 By introduction of metering     Metering will charge heavy users
                                             on consumption basis
           4 By savings in power due to      Losses will be reduced by
             reduced losses                  renovation of leaky pipes in the
                                             inner core area
           5 Savings in manpower due to      Maintenance cost will come down
             renovation of sewers            with renovation
           6 Savings in repairs costs due to Maintenance cost will come down
             renovation of leaky pipes       with renovation

       The KJS is likely to yield more income by way of improvement in water tax.
       As the water and sewerage tax are linked to property tax and the revaluation of
       property tax would enhance the revenue from water tax. Another source of
       revenue increase is due to increase in number of water connections. The
       consumption of water by the heavy users would be caught by metering of
       water connections. In term of cost savings, it is likely to come down with the
       renovations of leaky pipes etc.

16.7.2.1 Impact on Income Generations of KJS
       The major impact on the finances of KJS would be due to reduction in
       leakage, introduction of user charges, increase in number of water connections
       and the improvement in water and sewer tax. The yearly details are given
       below in Table 16.11.

          Table: 16.11 Impact of Reforms on KJS Finances       (Rs Crore)
      S.N. Item                       2006- 2007 - 2008 - 2009- 2010-
                                      07      08      09      10       11
          1 Increased income by          0.00    2.04    4.59    8.68 10.21
            reduced leakages in inner
            core area
          2 Introduction of user         1.00    3.32    9.72 18.36 21.60
            charge for treating waste
            water
          3 Additional revenue by        1.20    1.20    1.20    1.20     1.20
            increasing connections
          4 Improvement in water &       4.05    6.00    8.15 10.52 13.12
            sewer tax
            Total improvement            6.25 12.56 23.67 38.75 46.13




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       At the end of Phase-I (by 2010-11), the KJS is expected to raise its resources,
       by total improvement, to the tune of Rs 46.13 crore. The major chunk is likely
       to come from user charges, Rs 21.60 crore. The reduction of leakage and
       increase in number of connections would earn about Rs 10.21 crore and Rs
       1.20 crore respectively.

       The strategies proposed to be adopted by all the stakeholders for the
       implementation of various selected projects under JNNURM is discussed in
       the next chapter on ‘Financing of Investment Plan and Project Phasing’.




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                     CHAPTER 17:
FINANCING OF INVESTMENT PLAN AND
                 PROJECT PHASING
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


   17.         FINANCING OF INVESTMENT PLAN AND PROJECT
                              PHASING


17.1     INTRODUCTION
         For the development of any city, huge investment is required to undertake
         many multiyear projects. There would be different sectors needs to be
         expanded. The most important aspect is to prioritize the development of sector
         and accordingly the investment. The many stakeholders do the identification
         of these priorities. The next step after identification is the scheduling or
         phasing of development and investment plan. This would be mainly dependent
         on the availability of fiscal resources with the stakeholders. In the total
         investment, in addition to the new investment for any project the cost of
         operational and maintenance (O&M) is very important. Therefore, while
         planning for the new inves tment, the O&M cost should also be included in the
         total project cost. This would enhance the sustainability of the project and
         would add to fiscal resources availability for the development project. After
         fiscal availability, the technical capacity for the development of old areas as
         well as new expansions needs to be looked into. The scheduling to total plan
         and its investment should be done very carefully. The scheduling or phasing of
         development plan required as per the JNNURM period.

         For scheduling of CDP of Kanpur, the main stakeholder, the Kanpur Nagar
         Nigam (KNN) has initiated the following steps:

         1. It has discussed with many stakeholders the norms and standard of
            infrastructure presently existing and the availability of resources for
            renewal, replacement and improvement of old system as well as for
            development of new infrastructure for the added population in the long
            term requirement of the city and newly expanded areas of the city.
         2. The identification of the priority sectors has also been discussed with all
            the stakeholders.

         For the long-term financial strategy the KNN along with its stakeholders plans
         to mobilize resources through various sources such as:

         (A).    Availability of resources in the present financial position of all the
                 stakeholders;
         (B).    Funds provided by State government in the form of grants to its line
                 departments, are also important for the stakeholders;
         (C)     Reform package to be under taken by the KNN for resource
                 mobilization and expenditure compression. These include:
                 (i.) reform in existing system of property taxation, by completely
                       shifting from the present ARV method of assessment to the new
                       unit area method;
                 (ii.) complete assessment of all the properties;


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               (iii.) reviewing the exiting exemptions granted to the property
                      owners;
               (iv) computerization of data base at zonal offices and head office of
                      KNN;
               (v.) right sizing of the staff and redeployment of surplus staff;
               (vi.) introduction of public-private partnership programmes;
               (vii.) introduction of community participation in maintenance of parks
                      etc.;
       (D)     Fund devolved by State Finance Commission to the KNN;
       (E)     Fund transferred by the Central Finance Commission;
       (F)     Revision of water and sewerage charges at specific interval by Kanpur
               Jal Sansthan;
       (G)     Improvement in the collection performance of local taxes and charges;
       (H)     Saving on the front of terminal benefits and liabilities of the out going
               employees based on VRS;

17.1.1 Scheduling or Phasing Principles
       The old developed areas (inner old city of Kanpur ) receiving priority over the
       new development area in long term;

       Forward and backward (inter-linkages) linkages between inter and intra-
       service (for instance, investments on water supply shall be complemented by
       improvement in the existing sewerage/sanita tion programmes;

       Linkages between the supply and demand of services and the revenue
       generation;

       Under the JNNURM, the capital investment plan and identification of public
       capital facilities is done to cater the demand of increasing population of city in
       the years 2011 and 2031. The investment plan would be scheduled / phased as
       per the requirement under these two periods.

       In the city’s management process and its sustainability of provision of the
       basic services, the capital investment plan is most important and crucial
       element.

       The capital investment is required because of:
       (a)    Five yearly phasing of assessment of city’ s growth and the requirement
              of infrastructure need of the increased population;
       (b)    For new projects the Detailed Project Reports would be pre pared;
       (c)    Rescheduling of investment on old projects due to overrun of project
              cost/time factors;
       (d)    Assigning of priority within the financial constraints of the available
              resources;

       Therefore, the basic objectives of the capital plan would be:



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                     Mobilization of capital resource that sustain the present population and added
                     population of the city.

                     Since in the development of city, the community participation has assumed
                     great importance, hence capital facilities of the city should be considered as
                     community assets.

           17.2      CAPITAL INVESTMENT PLAN AND FUTURE STRATEGIES

           17.2.1 Identification of Priority Projects
                  The projects have been identified with the help of all the stakeholders and
                  after many rounds of detailed discussion on availability of resources; phasing
                  of investment plans; and the role and involvement of each stakeholder in the
                  development plan for the present and future added population of Kanpur. The
                  KNN has identified the projects based on efficient and optimal use of existing
                  infrastructure facilitie s and the modernization of core and prioritized sector.

           17.2.2 Priority Sector

                     1         Improving transport infrastructure including improving trunk Roads
                     2         Improving solid waste management both in the inner core and outer city
                     2         Redevelopment of inner core city including shifting of industries to
                               conforming areas
                     3         Renovating old/broken water pipelines resulting in contaminated water
                     4         Repair / rehabilitation of broken sewerage / sewerage connected to
                               drains
                     5         Redevelopment of slums according to Bombay Model
                     6         Improving basic services in Slums
                     7         Housing for the EWS

                     The projects-wise/sectors-wise investment plan prepared by the KNN with all
                     the stakeholders is present in the Table 17.1.

                                 Table 17.1: Project-wise Investment Plan (2006 -31)

                                                                                                                    (Rs crore)

S.    Name of the Work in        Name of the   2006-    2007-    2008-    2009-      2010-11   Total     Balanc     Total
No    Plan                       Planning      07       08       09       10                   Propose   e          (2006-
.                                Department                                                    d cost    Phase-     2031)
                                                                                               Ph-I      II
                                                                                                         (2011-
                                                                                                         2031)
      Sub-Mission-I: Urban Infrastructure
1     Renewal of inner (old)
      city
1a.   Widening of roads,
      including               KNN                  50       55       61       59          77       303          0         303
      drains and footpaths
1b.   Industrial/ Commercial
      confirming


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      Establishment of non
      area to convert
      Confirming area          UPSIDC            70     86    100     100       70       426      193     619
1c.   Old water supply pipe
      line / low in
       Capacity pipe line to
      convert into high
      capacity pipe line       JAL Nigam         77     69     61      62       51       319      225     544
1d.    Modernization in
      Sewerage line            Jal Nigam         44     79     60      39       39       262      207     469
1e.   Modernization in
      Drainage                 Jal Nigam          1      2      2       1        0         6          0     6
1f.   Solid waste
      Management
      Construction of modern
      dustbins & equipment     KNN                9      4      1       1        1        15          0     15
      Inner City Sub Total                      251    295    286     262      238      1332      625     1957

2     Water supply             Jal Nigam          0      0      0       0        0         0      469     469
3a.   Sewerage                 Aawas Vikas        6     11      5       5        0        27        0       27
3b.   Sewerage                 Jal Nigam          1      2      1       0        0         4     3593     3597
4     Solid Waste              Nagar Nigam
      Management               Aawas Vikas       11     13     11       6        2        43      562     605
5     Construction and         Jal Nigam
      Repair Drains/ raining   Aawas Vikas
      drains                                     34     35     35      34       34       172          0   172
6     Urban Transport          UP Parivahan
                               Nigam              4      7      3       0        0        14          0     14
7a.   Improvement of roads     KNN
      under KNN                                  31     43     43      25       34       175          0   175
7b.   Widening and             KDA
      improvement of main
      corridor roads of city                    110    150    156     201      152       768      492     1260
7c.   Construction of ring     KDA
      road and expressway                        22     26     34      10       31       123          0   123
      Construction of bridge
7d.   over ganga               KDA                5     20     25      25       25       100          0   100
      Construction of ring     KDA
      road and
7e.    Express highways                           0      0      0       0        0         0      469     469
8a.   Development of           KNN
      Parking Areas                             0.84   0.46   0.46    0.46     0.46     2.68              2.68
8b.   Parking space /plot      KDA
      (PPP basis)                                 4      4      4       2        1        14          0     14
9     Development of social    KNN/Touris
      infrastructure           m/
                               Archeology         0      4      7       4        0        15          0     15
9a.   Preservation of water    Irrigation/Bar
      Bodies                   rage const         2      4      5       2        3        15          0     15
9b.   Improving environment    CSA                1      2      2       2        1         8          0     8
      Lake and green belt
      Sub-total (KNN)            Sub Total-I    481    609    607     575      521      2793     5740     8538
      Kanpur Cantonment
      Board (KCB)
      Improving road
1     infrastructure           KCB                1      1      1       2        2         8          0     8
      Reducing traffic         Bridge
2     congestion by Rail       Corporation        0      5     10       5        0        20          0     20
      Modernization of Solid
3     waste                    KCB                0      0      0       0        0         1          0     1


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      Renovation of sewerage
4     system                     KJN                  0        1      1     2           0        4            0       4
      Development of social
5     infrastructure             KCB                  1        1      1     0           0        3            0       3
      Sub- Total-KCB                                  2        9     13     9           2       35            0      35
    Sub- Total KNN and           Sub-total
    KCB                                              483      618   621   584         523      2828       5740     8573
Submission-II                    Basic Services for Urban Poor
     a) Development of           DUDA
    infrastructure as well as
    construction of EWS
    Housing in existing
    malin bastis.                                    15       17     14    18          12       77         173      250
    b) construction of EWS
    houses for the poor in
    new colonies

      i) in new colonies by      UP housing
      DUDA                       Board
      or KDA/UPHB on
      behalf on DUDA                                  1        1      5     8           9       24         250      274
      ii) by KDA
                                                     65      100    174   174         127      640            0     640
        iii)in new colonies by
      U.P.H.B and
      infrastructure
      development 6480 in
      1st phase and 43,200 in
      2nd                                             2        7     74    71          66      220        2835     3055
       Sub- Total (Sub-            Sub Total-II
      Mission-II)                                    83      125    267   271         213      960        3258     4218
       Grand Total (I+II)          Grand total      566      743    888   855         736      3789       8998    12791

            As per the information provided by KNN and all the stakeholders for the provision of
            basic infrastructure/services to the existing city population and the future estimated
            population of KNN by the year 2031, the total capital investment requirement
            estimated at Rs 12791 crore. This is proposed to be phased in two phases, i.e. in Phase
            I, the requirement would be of Rs 3789 crore at the constant prices and the balance
            investment of Rs 8998 crore in Phase II.

            The summary of sector-wise tentative investment requirements and sector-wise
            tentative investment for next 25 yrs is depicted in Tables 17.2. Some part of this
            investment is earmarked for the development of inner city revitalization, restoration of
            heritage structures relocation of industries and markets.

                              Table 17.2 - Sector-wise Tentative Investments (2006-2031)

             S.      Description                                                (Rs crore)     (%)
             No
             1       Re-Development of inner city                                       1957          15.29
             2       Augmenting water supply                                             469           3.66
             3       Extending sewerage                                                 3624          28.33
             4       Improving solid waste management                                    605           4.73
             5       Construction/improvement of drains                                  172           1.34

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6     Improving roads, RoBs, Flyovers, Urban Transport              1671       13.06
7     Development of parking lots                                     17        0.01
8     Water bodies/Ganga barrage                                      15        0.01
9     Development of social infrastructure                            22        0.02
10    Basic Services for Urban Poor                                 4218       32.98
11    Kanpur Cantonment Board Dev.                                    35        0.27
      Total                                                        12791      100.00

       In the total identified projects the about 28.33% is proposed for extension of
       sewerage works. Another 3. 66% is for augmenting water supplies. It includes
       conversion of old and low capacity water supply pipelines to new high
       capacity pipelines.

       The second important sector is Re-development of inner city. About 15.29%
       of the total investment is proposed for this sector. The widening of narrow
       roads drains and pavement would be undertaken in the inner (old) city areas.

       The next identified sector is about the improvement of roads, RoBs, Fly-overs,
       and the Urban Transport. On this sector it proposed to invest nearly 13.06 %
       of the total investment.

       The improvement in municipal solid waste management has assumed
       significant importance, particular after the Supreme Court Judgment, which
       directs all the ULBs for improvement in solid waste management, about 4.96
       % of the total investment is proposed for the improvement in his sector.

       For the urban poor, the proposed amount works out to 32.98% of the total
       investment.

       A very small proportion (0.27%), has also been earmarked for the proposed
       developmental activities in the area of the KCB.

       Considering the priorities and the immediate requirements, the KNN along
       with its stakeholders, has worked out the phasing of capital investment. The
       sector -wise detailed investment total (for centre, state and local) and local
       share for each sector for the five years, i.e. 2006-07 to 2010-11 is presented in
       Tables 17.3 (a) and 17.3(b). The investment on these prioritized sectors
       would be able to meet the requirements of the estimated population up-to the
       year 2010-11.




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Table 17.3(a) : Project -wise Investment Plan (2006-11) Summary
                                                                                                                        (Rs
                                                                                                                        crore)
S.        Name of the Work in Plan          Name of the           2006-07   2007-08     2008 -09   2009 -10   2010-11   Total
No.                                         Planning                                                                    Proposed
                                            Department                                                                  cost Ph-I



                                                                                                                                     %
                                                                                                                                    share
          Sub-Mission-I: Urban Infrastructure
      1   Renewal of inner (old) city
1a.       Widening of roads, including      KNN                        50        55           61         59        77        303     8.00
          drains and footpaths
1b.       Industrial/ Commercial
          confirming
          Establishment of non area to      UPSIDC
          convert Confirming area                                      70        86         100         100        70        426    11.25
1c.       Old water supply pipe line /
          low in
           Capacity pipe line to convert    JAL Nigam
          into high capacity pipe line                                 77        69           61         62        51        319     8.42
1d.        Modernization in Sewerage        Jal Nigam
          line                                                         44        79           60         39        39        262     6.92
1e.       Modernization in Drainage         Jal Nigam                   1         2            2          1         0           6    0.16
1f.       Solid waste Management
          Construction of modern
          dustbins                                                      9         4            1          1         1          15    0.40
          Inner City Sub Total
                                                                      251       295         286         262       238       1332    35.16

      2   Water supply                      Jal Nigam                   0         0            0          0         0           0    0.00
3a.       Sewerage                          Aawas Vikas                 6        11            5          5         0          27    0.71
3b.       Sewerage                          Jal Nigam                   1         2            1          0         0           4    0.11
      4   Solid Waste Management            Nagar Nigam
                                            Aawas Vikas                11        13           11          6         2          43    1.14
      5   Construction and Repair           Jal Nigam Aawas
          Drains/ raining drains            Vikas                      34        35           35         34        34        172     4.53
      6   Urban Transport                   UP Parivahan
                                            Nigam                       4         7            3          0         0          14    0.37
7a.       Improvement of roads under        KNN
          KNN                                                          31        43           43         25        34        175     4.61
7b.       Widening and improvement of       KDA
          main corridor roads of city                                 110       150         156         201       152        768    20.28
7c.       Construction of fly overs and     KDA
          ROBs                                                         22        26           34         10        31        123     3.24
          Construction of bridge over
7d.       ganga                             KDA                         5        20           25         25        25        100     2.64
          Construction of ring road and     NHAI
7e.        Express highways
8a.       Development of Parking Areas      KNN                         1         0            0          0         0         3      0.07
8b.       Parking space /plot (PPP basis)   KDA                         4         4            4          2         1         14     0.38
9         Development of Social             KNN, Tourism,
          Infrastructure                    Arch.                       0         4            7          4         0         15     0.40
9a.       Preservation of water Bodies      Irrigation/Barrage,
                                            CSA                         2         4            5          2         3         15     0.39
9b.       Improving environment and         KNN
          development of                                                1         2            2          2         1         8      0.21
          lake and green belts
          Sub-total (KNN)                          Sub Total-I
                                                                      481       609         607         575       521       2793    73.72
          Kanpur Cantonment Board
          (KCB)


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                                                                            City Development Plan (CDP)


   1   Improving road infrastructure    KCB                         1      1            1            2          2               8      0.20
       Reducing traffic congestion by   Bridge
   2   Rail                             Corporation                 0      5        10               5          0               20     0.53
   3   Modernization of Solid waste     KCB                         0      0            0            0          0               1      0.03
   4   Renovation of sewerage system    KJN                         0      1            1            2          0               4      0.09
       Development of social
   5   infrastructure                   KCB                        1       1            1            0          0               3      0.08
       Sub-Total-KCB
                                                                    2      9        13               9          2               35     0.93
       Sub-Total KNN and KCB            Sub-total
                                                                483      618       621              584        523         2828       74.65
 Submission-II                          Basic Services
                                        for Urban Poor



        a) Development of               DUDA
       infrastructure as well as
       construction of EWS Housing
       in existing malin bastis.                                   15     17        14               18        12               77     2.04
       b) construction of EWS houses
       for the poor in new colonies
       i) in new colonies by DUDA       DUDA
       or KDA/UPHB on behalf on
       DUDA                                                         1      1            5            8          9         24          0.63
       ii) by KDA                       KDA                        65    100       174              174        127             640    16.88
        iii)in new colonies by          UP Housing
       U.P.H.B and infrastructure       Board
       development 6480 in 1st phase
       and 43,200 in 2nd phase                                      2      7        74               71        66              220     5.81
        Sub-Total (Sub-Mission-II)            Sub Total-II
                                                                   83    125       267              271        213             960    25.35
        Grand Total (I+II)                    Grand total
                                                                566      743       888              855        736         3789      100.00




Table 17.3 (b) : Sector-wise Cost of Project Allocation- City Share
Sub-mission: I Urban Infrastructure                                                                             (Rs Crores)
Scheme                                                 Department       2006-   2007-       2008-     2009-    2010-     Total       (%)
                                                                        07      08          09        10       11
1.Urban Renewal Redevelopment of Inner (Old)
city
(a) Widening of Roads (Roads, Drainage,                KNN
Pavement)                                                                 15      17          18          18         23         91     7.98
(b) Shifting of Industries from non-confirming to      UPSIDC
confirming areas                                                          21      26          30          30         21        128    11.21
(C) Replacement of Old Pipe and low capacity           Jal Nigam
pipe line to new and more capacity pipe line
                                                                          23      21          18          19         15         96     8.39
(d) Renewal of Sewer lines
                                                                          19      24          18          12         12         84     7.36
(e) Renewal of Drainage                                Jal Nigam
                                                                            0      1           1           0          0          2     0.16
(f) Solid Waste Disposal System                        KNN
                                                                            3      1           0           0          0          5     0.40
2. Water Supply                                        Jal Nigam
                                                                                                                                       0.00
3.(a) Sewerage                                         Awas vikas
                                                                            2      3           2           2          0          8     0.71
3(b) Sewerage                                          Jal Nigam
                                                                            0      1           0           0          0          1     0.11
4 Solid Waste Management                               KNN&HB
                                                                            3      4           3           2          1         13     1.14


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5 Repair & Improvement of Storm water drainage       JN&HB
                                                                     10    11     10    10      10      52     4.52
6 Urban Transport                                    UPSRTC
                                                                      1     2      1     0       0       4     0.37
7 (a) Road Construction (I)strengthening of roads    KNN
                                                                      9    13     13     8      10      52     4.59
(b) Renewal of City corridor                         KDA
                                                                     33    45     47    60      46     231    20.21
(c) 3 flyovers, big crossing etc.                    KDA
                                                                      7     8     10     3       9      37     3.23
(d) Construction of Over Bridge on River Ganges      KDA
                                                                      2     6      8     8       8      30     2.63
(e) construction of ring road and expressway         NHAI
                                                                      0     0      0     0       0       0     0.00
8 (a) Development of (a)Parking Areas                KNN
                                                                      0     0      0     0       0       1     0.07
(b) Parking Lot/Space Based on PPP                   KDA
                                                                      1     1      1     1       0       4     0.37
9. Development of Heritage area                      KNN, Tou,Ar
                                                                      0     1      2     1       0       5     0.40
9 (a) Preservation of water Bodies                   Dept of Arch
                                                                      1     1      1     1       1       3     0.26
(b) Development of a water Bodies                    Dept of
                                                     Irrigation       0     0      1     1       0       2     0.20
Sub- Total (KNN)                                     Total
                                                                    150   183    182   172     156     842    73.81

Kanpur Cantonment Board (KCB)

1. Improving road infrastructure                     KCB              0     0      0     1       1       2     0.20
                                                     Bridge
2. Reducing traffic congestion by Rail               Corporation      0     2      3     2       0       6     0.53

3. Modernization of Solid waste                      KCB              0     0      0     0       0       0     0.03

4. Renovation of sewerage system                     KJN              0     0      0     0       0       1     0.09

5. Development of social infrastructure              KCB              0     0      0     0       0       1     0.08
                                                     Sub- Total
Sub-Total (KCB)                                                       1     3      4     3       1      11     0.93
                                                     Sub- Total
Sub-Total (KNN and KCB)                                             150   185    186   175     157     852    74.74
Sub –Mission :II Basic Services for Urban Poor

 a) Development of infrastructure as well as
construction of EWS Housing in existing malin
bastis.                                              DUDA             5     5      4     5       4      23     2.03
b) construction of EWS houses for the poor in
new colonies

i) in new colonies by DUDA                           DUDA             0     0      2     2       3       7     0.63
or KDA/UPHB on behalf on DUDA
ii) by KDA
                                                                     20    30     52    52      38     192    16.82

                                                     KDA

                                                                      1     2     22    21      20      66     5.78
 iii)in new colonies by U.P.H.B and infrastructure   UP housing
development 6480 in 1st phase and 43,200 in 2nd      Board
 Sub- Total (Sub-Mission-II)
                                                                     25    38     80    81      64     288    25.26
Grand Total (Sub-mission-I & II)
                                                                    175   223    266   257     221    1141   100.00



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17.3   URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

       Sub-mission -I
       1. Urban Renewal Redevelopment of Inner (Old) city

       Under Sub-mission-I, the followings works are proposed to be undertaken by
       various stakeholders

       (a) Widening of Roads (Roads, Drainage, Pavement/Footpaths)
       Under this head it is proposed that the KNN would undertake the widening of
       about 338.44 km roads. The construction of K.C drains and deep drains and
       footpath in the inner city areas would also be carried out by KNN. It is also
       proposed to add streetlights wherever not present. The total investment for
       these works is estimated at Rs 303 crore.

       (b) Shifting of Industries from non-confirming to confirming areas
       This scheme would be carried out by UPSIDC. Under this scheme shifting of
       industrial and commercial establishment from non-confirming area to
       confirming areas is proposed. For this purpose, the UPSIDC would construct
       the industrial areas at Chakeri-1, Chakeri-2 and at Bhauti-Mandhana bypass.
       On this project, an investment of Rs 426.18 crore is proposed.

       (c) Replacement of old and low capacity pipeline to new and more capacity
       pipe line
       For the completion of this scheme, an investment of Rs 319.10 crore is
       estimated. The UP Jal Nigam would undertake the work of raw water pump
       house raising; main water treatment plan; renovation of C.W.R. reservoir;
       distribution system of 530 km; renovation of Benajhawar water works; and
       Bhairav Ghat intake well.

       (d) Renewal of Sewer lines
       Under this project Jal Nigam would carry out the renovation work of sewerage
       pumping station and sewer lines, and construction of new sewage pumping
       station at Bhawatdas Ghat. An investment of Rs 262 crore is estimated for this
       work.

       (e) Renewal of Drainage
       Jal Nigam would also undertake the renewal of drainage in the inner areas of
       city. It would require an investment of Rs.6.22 crore.

       (f) Solid Waste Disposal System
       For the solid waste disposal system, an investment Rs. 16 crore is identified.
       The KNN would take the responsibility of scheme of solid waste disposal
       system. Under the proposed work the construction of modern garbage stations
       (Bins), 152 modern dustbins would be constructed to replace the old dustbins.

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       For the maintenance of cleanliness, it would purchase special container,
       dumper placer and material handling equipment etc.

       2. Water Supply

       The scheme of water supply is plan to be carried out by Jal Nigam. The capital
       cost of the project in phase is identified as nil. The capital investment plan for
       water supply is estimated on the basis of requirement and demand for the
       JNNURM period. The main thrust will be to improve the distribution in the
       inner area, and the balance works will be taken up in Phase-II only.

       Issues
       • With the new scheme in the inner area, the availability of the safe,
           equitable, reliable and adequate water supply would be assured;
       • Reduction in transmission and distribution losses;
       • Illegal water connection would be identified;
       • Increase in revenue from collection charges

       3. (a) Sewerage

       As per the project feasibility report for sewerage work of inner old city areas,
       most of the exiting trunk sewers and branch sewers are overloaded and the
       existing carrying capacities are not sufficient to cater the future demand of
       increased population. These sewers need to be replaced by the larger pipelines
       in the congested areas. Therefore, it is proposed for new trunk sewers,
       replacement of existing ones, and construction of pumping station, rising of
       main and branch sewers, renovation of exiting branch sewers, treatment plant,
       and house connections. A capital investment of Rs 27 crore is identified for
       the project. The Jal Nigam and UP Housing and Development Council would
       jointly take the responsibility of this project. Similarly sewers in Cantonment
       Board Area laid as far back as 1940, will also be renovated and extended. A
       cost of Rs 3.5 crore has been provided for it. Laying of trunk sewer near COD
       will be carried out under GAP-II at a cost of Rs 4 crore.

       3. (b) Solid Waste Management

       For this project also, the Jal Nigam and UP Housing and Development
       Council would carry out responsibility. It is proposed to purchase cleaning
       equipments such as 13 dumper placers, 43 special waste containers, back hold
       loaders, 31730 tri-cycles, 40 auto rickshaws for the project. To improve
       disposal of plastic, a plant for converting plastics into hydrocarbons is
       proposed at a cost of Rs 12.5 crore. This will be done on PPP basis with 50%
       investment coming from private party. For the financial capital requirement, a
       total investment of Rs 42 crore is estimated. Solid waste equipment in the
       Kanpur Cantonment Board areas will also be modernized by spending Rs 1.05
       crore.



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       Issues
       • Recycling in SWM is suggested
       • Decentralization of Solid waste disposal and treatment needed
       • Plant for conversion of plastic waste into hydrocarbons on PPP basis
       • Enhancing of Segregation by involvement of community participation
       • Involvement of NGO for awareness

       4. Repair and Improvement of Storm water drainage

       The existing system of storm water drainage comprises 23 nalas, which carry
       most of the storm water to river Ganga and Pandu. These drains have also add
       to the pollution level in the city when the solid waste flushed away with the
       rainwater. The FPR suggested that the existing system of drainage is lacking
       in its utility because most of the dirt, debris, dung and are thrown in these
       drains, which blocks the drainage system in the city. For this project the
       responsibilities are assigned to Jal Nigam and Awas Vikas and KNN for repair
       and improvement in the drainage system. The capital investment of the order
       of Rs 172 crore is estimated to meet the financial requirement of the project.


       5. Improving transport system

       5. (a) Improving Urban Transport

       The UP Parivahan Nigam is made responsible for the improvement of existing
       insufficient urban transport system in the city. It would carry out the
       construction of Central Bus Station, Jhakarkati and Chunniganj Bus station in
       Phase-I. The renewal of Azadnagar Bus Terminal is also proposed under the
       project. An amount of Rs 14.00 crore is estimated for the investment under
       this project.

       UP road transport is also planning to induct CNG buses in the city bus routes
       to reduce pollution. 108 CNG buses are already on order and more will be
       ordered after gaining some experience.

       Issues
       • Promotion of public transport
       • Replacement of shared auto rickshaws by good buses
       • Private participation needs to be explored
       • Usage of private cars to be discouraged to reduce congestion
       • Computerization of traffic signaling for efficient traffic management

       5. (b) Improving traffic management

       Because of narrow trunk roads and heavy traffic, there is severe congestion
       and traffic speed is very slow. It is proposed to improve the road area by
       widening and modernizing the trunk roads including road furniture, footpaths
       and intersection design.

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                                                            City Development Plan (CDP)



       5. (c) Metro Rail (Mass Rapid Transport System-MRTS)

       In every city and growing urban centers, the traffic become a major problem.
       In the city of Delhi Metro has gained popularity. After seeing its success, it
       was felt that metro rail facility should also be started in other large cities of the
       country. Considering that by 2031 Kanpur Metropolitan Area will cross a
       population of 50 lakhs and the pressure it will put on the existing transport
       system in the city, it is proposed to carry out a study and if feasible, introduce
       Metro Rail facility under JNNURM in phase –II. This would ease out the
                                                              ed
       traffic problems of the present and future overload pressure of traffic on the
       roads of Kanpur city. However, in the absence of any feasibility study, no
       money has been earmarked in Phase -II for this activity.

       The KNN, KDA and other departments are assigned the duty of carrying out
       the following works under this project.

       (i)     Widening and improving of roads in inner city (KNN); investment Rs
               293.39 crore;
       (ii)    Renewal of City corridor 116.45 Kms- KDA; investment Rs 768.30
               crore;
       (iii)   3 flyovers at Bada Chauraha, Vijay Nagar Chauraha and at G.T.Road
                                                    i
               near Railway Station. In addition f ve Rail Over Bridges are also
               proposed at Kalyanpur (crossing No. 13), Dadanagar (Crossing No.
               240A), Zarib Chauki (Crossing No. 2), at Shyam Nagar (Crossing No.
               77B) and at Gobindpuri. This work will be carried out by KDA/UP
               Bridge Corporation; investment Rs 123 crore; One Rail Over Bridge
               will also be constructed at Allahabad crossing (Murray & Co) in the
               Cantonment Board Area at a cost of Rs 20 crores.
       (iv)    Construction of Over Bridge on River Ganges–KDA; investment Rs
               100 crore by UP Bridge Corporation

       (vi)     Development of –
               (a) Parking Areas- by interlocking of tiles; KNN investment Rs
                     2.68crore
                (b) Parking Lot/Space with automated, multi level parking, based on
                     PPP- parking for 750 cars-KDA An expenditure of Rs 14 crore
                     has been provided as 50% share of KDA.
       (vii) Improvement of social infrastructure is also planned in the city. This
               comprises of a working women’s hostel of 60 rooms, six community
               halls, Rain Baseras (night shelter) at ten ghats, development of Ganesh
               Udyan in Phoolbagh area and development of the old British Cemetry
               as a heritage site. A total investment of Rs 15 crores is envisaged.
        (viii) Preservation of Water Bodies and development of Ghats, providing
               night shelters, lighting etc. including Bithoor Ghats. Development of 5
               water bodies in UPHB colonies and development of water body by
               CSA is also envisaged.-Irrigation Dept; investment Rs 16 crore


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       (ix)    To improve environment, greening and development of lakes and
               green belts including development of 95 parks, development of nauka
               vihar with boating etc. a sum of Rs 8 crores has been earmarked.

       The total investment for sub-mission-I is estimated at Rs 2828 crore.

       Sub -Mission: II Basic Services for Urban Poor

       Under the JNNURM the improvement of slums is most important aspect of
       development for the urban poor. There is a need to improve the economic
       conditions of slum dwellers in the city of Kanpur. Under this mission, the
       following projects are proposed to be undertaken by the stakeholders (DUDA
       and UP Housing Development Council).

       For improving basic services to the urban poor, an investment of Rs 77.10
       crore is identified for improving water supply, sewerage, sanitation and paving
       of roads. Improving of houses in slums will also be undertaken .

       Five slums have also been selected for in-sit u development on the
       Pune/Bombay model, where new multistory development will be done and the
       layout and amenities of the slums will be substantially improved, at the same
       time releasing about 50% land area for other developments, thus making this a
       financ ially feasible proposition. If the experiment is successful, more slums
       will be selected for such development in phase-II.

       For resettlement and improving the living conditions, it is proposed to carry
       out extensive construction of EWS housing. KDA will construct 25450 houses
       and develop the connectivity of the area for urban poor including
       infrastructure development. An investment of Rs 639.50 crore estimated.

       The construction of 6480 EWS houses by UPHB in new colonies would
       require an investment of Rs 219.93 crore.

       For the sub-mission II, a total investment of Rs 960.41 crore has been
       estimated in Phase-I.

       The details of investments at all the three levels (centre, state and local) along
       with the work plan, proposed work and the present status of all the projects are
       given in detail in Table 17.4.



17.4   KANPUR CDP - FINANCIAL OPERATING PLAN (FOP)
       Financing of any project is a crucial task. As the phasing of project work is
       done, accordingly, there is need to have plan for financial requirement for
       completion of the project. Financial Operating Plan is a multi year concept. It
       has to be phased out as per the availability of fiscal resources with the local
       governments (stakeholders). Accordingly, the Financial Operating Plan for the

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                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


       city of Kanpur scheduled/phased out for the period of five years, from 2006-
       07 to 2010-11, in phase-1. The remaining period of JNNURM would be
       covered under phased 2.

       The main objective of the FOP is to generate the resources for the assessment
       of investment sustainability or sustaining capacity of the KNN (and the
       stakeholders). The total project cost would be financed by three sources. (I)
       The GoI would be contributing 50% of the JNNURM cost. (II) The state share
       would be 20%. (III) The remaining 30% share of the project cost required to
       be generated by the KNN and the various stakeholders. Therefore, the KNN is
       required to generate 30% of the project cost through internal resources (see
       Table 17.4 for more details of the project and work plan). The summary of the
       total fund (Centre, State and Local) requirement is depicted in Table 17.4 (a)
       and the department-wise details are expressed in Table 17.4(b).

17.4.1 Assumptions for the generation of Funds by KNN, KJS and KDA
       As mentioned, the stakeholders (KNN, KJS and KDA) have to generate the
       resource to contribute their share in the total contribution by the stakeholders.
       The assumptions for the generation of resources of fund are presented in
       Table 17.5. The KNN would generate surpluses through reforms in property
       tax, and the cost savings by way of reduction in fuel cost, savings in electricity
       cost by P-P -P of streetlights, and the manpower costs by good governance (e-
       governance).

        The KJS would generate its surpluses by introducing the improvement in its
       coverage, metering, savings in power and work force because of renovation of
       sewers etc. The KJS and KDA would also contribute by way of providing the
       subsidized land for the houses for the urban poor. Many line departments,
       which are also play the role of stakeholders, would get budgetary support from
       their head quarters (GoUP)

17.4.2 Sources of Funds for 30% contribution of City
       Based on the above -mentioned assumptions these stakeholders would generate
       their 30% contribution by way of generating the surpluses. The Table 17.6
       gives the details of sources of funds for 30% contribution of city amounting to
       Rs 1168.91 crore. This comprises of (a) Surpluses generated by the institutions
       such as KNN and KJS and (b) contribution from the departmental budgets of
       Kanpur city for capital works.

       The KNN would be able to generate the surplus amounting to Rs 373.77 crore.
       The surplus contribution from the KJS would be of the order of Rs 142.36
       crore. The KCB contribution works out to Rs 10.57 crore. Additional yield
       from introduction of a ‘Betterment Tax’ would be around RS 11.93 crore. In
       all the total institutional contribution works out to RS 538.63 crore.

       The contribution from departmental budgets is expected to be 630.18 crores,
       mainly from the UPSIDC for relocation of industrie s from non-conforming
       areas into new industrial estates, from PWD department for improvement of

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                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       their portion of roads in the city and from UPSRTC for construction of bus
       stations/terminals.

17.4.3 Surplus generation by KNN for contribution to JNNURM
       The generation of surplus contribution by KNN as provided by its officials is
       shown in Table 17.7. It indicates that the KNN would be mobilizing
       additional revenues amounting to Rs 353.58 crore. It would generate its major
       surplus from SFC grants, increase in property tax, and introduction of user
       charges.

       On cost saving side, it is likely to initiate certain measures through which it
       would be able to reduce the cost on various accounts. These include reduction
       of fuel cost, improvement in fuel efficiency, reduction in maintenance cost,
       savings in work force cost etc. It would be able to save an amount of Rs 20.18
       crore. In total, it would generate a surplus amount of RS 373.77 crore.

17.4.4 Generation of surplus by the Kanpur Cantonment Board for its
       contribution to JNNURM
       It is proposed that Kanpur Cantonment Board would contribute Rs 10.45
       crores over the five years of Phase -I from its development funds.

17.4.5 Surplus generation by KJS for contribution to JNNURM
       The Table 17.8 gives details about the surplus generation by KJS. As shown
       in table, it indicates that the reduction in leakage by 10% would generate an
       amount of Rs 25.52 crore. The KJS would be generating by way of own
       revenue to the tune of Rs 7.50 crore. The imposition of user charges by KJS
       would yield an amount of Rs 54 crore. Additional revenue from new water
       connection would be contributing Rs 6 crore. In total, the KJS would be able
       to contribute surplus revenue of Rs 93.02 crore.

17.4.6 Generation of Resources for meeting the O&M cost of new assets cre ated
       under JNNURM
       It is suggested that a revolving fund for meeting the O&M cost of new assets
       should be created. Every stakeholder should contribute in the corpus fund. The
       year-w ise percentage contribution from various stakeholders for the period of
       six yeas is shown in Table 17.9. The interest earned on this fund would be
       able to meet the cost of operation and maintenance on the newly created
       assets.

Table 17.9: Generation of resources for meeting O&M cost for the new assets to
                          be created under JNNURM
     (Year-wise % to be contributed by the Institutions in the revolving fund)
  S.N.        Institution        Yr1     Yr2      Yr3       Yr4     Yr5     Yr6
    1 Roads-KNN                   0        1        2       2.5       4       5
    2 Roads-PWD                   0        1        2        4        5       5
    3 SWM                         3        3        3        3        5       7
    4 Water                       1        1        2        2        3       4
    5 Sewerage                    0        1        1        2        2       3
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                                                            City Development Plan (CDP)


15.4.7 Capacity Building under JNNURM
       In the development of any city, the role of all the stakeholders is very
       significant. The administrative machinery, which is responsible for the
       execution of the projects, has to be sensitized with the dynamics of
       development and the expectations of the citizens. Capacity building through
       intensive and comprehensive training programmes at all the levels of officers
       would help in enhancement of the performance. It would add to the knowledge
       and skills of the staff engaged in the mission. The capacity building through
       effective training programmes would help in achieving the objectives of
       modernization of through process and the re-orientation of administrative
       system. This would help in enhancement of skills for the better performance
       and understating of professional requirements. In sum, the capacity building is
       considered as the most effective tool for the achievement of goals of the
       mission. The Centre and State governments need to ensure for the adequate
       provision of such requirements of capacity building.
        It is proposed that 5% of the project costs mentioned above would be used for
        training, capacity building and systems development. Such capacity building
        details will form a part of the DPRs to be prepared for each project.

15.4.8 Highlights of Phase-I
       In Phase -I, it is proposed to undertake the works amounting to Rs 3896.03
       crore. Out of this , about Rs 1168.81 crore would be contributed the KNN (city
       share), which is 30% share. The GoI’s share of 50% works out to Rs 1948.01
       crore. The remaining balance of 20% of the total investment of Phase-I would
       be supported by GoUP, which is about Rs 779.21 crore. The total investment
       proposed and projects to be undertaken in phase-I work out Rs 3896.03 crore.

15.4.9 Highlights of Phase-II
       The total in vestment in phase-II is proposed to the tune of Rs 8592.93 crore.
       Of this the 50% share of GoI works out to Rs 4296.47 crore. The state
       contribution estimated at Rs 1718.59 crore (20% share). The KNN (city share
       30%) is estimated at Rs 2577.88 crore.

15.4.1 0 Concluding Summary
        The FOP as discussed above is indicative of the near sustainability of the
        projects under JNNURM framework. The presence of fifty percent share in the
        form of JNNURM grants by the Centre and twenty percent from the State and
        the remaining balance of local contribution would support in successful
        completion of the task under JNNURM by various stakeholders of the City of
        Kanpur.

        Table 17.10 Source of funds for funding of the JNNURM program
                         Total Proposed cost under JNNURM       (Rs crore)
 S.N.   Contribution             Phase -I                 Phase -II          Total
  1     Centre                     1948                     4499             6395
  2     State                       779                     1800             2558
  3     KNN(city)                  1169                     2699             3837
        Total                      3896                     8998             12791

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          CHAPTER18:
STATUS URBAN REFORMS
                                                                           KANPUR
                                                                    City Development Plan (CDP)

                          18.     STATUS OF URBAN REFORMS


A.         Mandatory Reforms
   1.      Urban Local Body Reforms (at ULB level)
i.         Adoption of modern, accrual-based    i.             To maintain transparency in finance
           double entry system of accounting in                department, double entry system has
           Urban Local Bodies                                  been adopted due to which making of
                                                               income/ expenditure statement and
                                                               balance sheet preparation has become
                                                               easy. But rules to introduce accrual
                                                               based double entry system have not
                                                               changed. Currently software being used
                                                               is “Tally”. At present KNN is only
                                                               doing cash accounting. KNN has the
                                                               system in place only need is to switch
                                                               over to accrual based accounting. It is
                                                               suggested that KNN should prepare
                                                               itself to shift over to accrual based
                                                               accounting from the next financial year
                                                               i.e. from 01.04.2007.
ii.        Introduction of system of e-governance       ii.    KNN has initiated action to have own
           using IT applications like GIS and MIS              website shortly. Under URIF Yojana
           for various services provided by ULBs               computer works have been proposed.
iii.       Reform of property ta x with GIS, so that    iii.   Under GIS, marking of left over houses
           it becomes major source of revenue for              and including them under zonal
           Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and                       regulation has already started. Under
           arrangements for its effective                      URIF scheme, adding covered area and
           implementation so that collection                   up-gradation in existing G.I.S. map has
           efficiency reaches at least 85% within              been proposed. KNN has already
           the mission period.                                 initiated action for complete GIS with
                                                               collection of required data of all the
                                                               properties. Selection of competent firm
                                                               for this work has been done and
                                                               recommendations have been sent to
                                                               competent authority for approval.
       iv. Levy of reasonable user charges by           iv.    To use the nagar nigam facilities,
           ULBs/ Parastatals with the objective                process has started for fixing the user
           that full cost of operation and                     charges under section 541 (42) and has
           maintenance is collected within the                 been sent for gazette notification. The
           mission period. However, cities/ towns              heads are: parking, green belt land use,
           in North East and other special category            picking up of garbage in residential and
           states may recover at least 50% of                  non-residential     areas,    community
           operation and maintenance charges                   toilets of higher category, using the
           initially. These cities / towns should              land for generators, usage of recreation/
           graduate to full O&M cost recovery in a             green areas, other type of land uses etc.
           phased manner.


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    v. Internal earmarking within local body        v.     With the help of DUDA, KNN will
        budgets for basic services to the urban            earmark such provision in revised
        poor.                                              budget for 2006-07.
   vi. Provision of basic services to urban poor    vi.    With the support of KDA and DUDA,
        including security of tenure at                    necessary arrangements will be made
        affordable prices, improved housing,               during 2006-07 financial year
        water supply, sanitation and ensuring
        delivery of other already existing
        universal services of the government for
        education, health and social security.
 2.     State Level Reforms
     i. Implementation of decentralization          i.     This is under consideration of the State
        measures as envisaged in Seventy                   Government
        Fourth Constitutional Amendment.
        States should ensure meaningful
        association / engagement of ULBs in
        planning function of Parastatals as well
        as delivery of services to the citizens.
    ii. Rationalization of Stamp Duty to bring      ii.    This is under consideration of the State
        it down to no more than 5% within the              Government
        mission period
   iii. Enactment of Public Disclosure law to              This is under consideration of the State
        ensure preparation of medium -term                 Government
        fiscal plan of ULBs release of quarterly
        performance information to all
        stakeholders.
   iv. Enactment of community participation         iii.   This is under consideration of the State
        law to institutionalize citizen                    Government
        participation and introducing the
        concept of the Area Sabha in urban
        areas
    v. Assigning or associating elected ULBs        iv.    This is under consideration of the State
        into “city planning function” over a               Government
        period of five years; transferring all
        special agencies that deliver civic
        services in urban areas and creating
        accountability platforms for all urban
        civic service providers in transition.
B.      Optional Reforms
     i. Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and            i.     GOUP has adopted the Urba n Land
        Regulation Act.                                    (ceiling and regulation) Repeal Act,
                                                           1999 on 18.3.1999 vide GO No. 502/9-
                                                           No. BHU 099/216 UC / 90 TC dated 31
                                                           March, 1999.




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 ii. Amendment of Rent Control Laws               ii.    Necessary reform for balancing the
     balancing the interest of landlords and             interests of landlords and tenants was
     tenants.                                            made in Uttar Pradesh Urban Building
                                                         (Regulation of letting, Rent and
                                                         Eviction) Act, 1972 by UP Act 17 of
                                                         1999
 iii. Revision of bye -laws to streamline the     iii.   This has to be done by Kanpur
      approval process for construction of               Development Authority at the city
      buildings, development of sites, etc.              level.
 iv. Simplification of legal and procedural       iv.    This is under consideration of Kanpur
      frameworks for conversion of                       Development Authority.
      agricultural land for non-agricultural
      purposes.
  v. Introduction of Property Title               v.     This is under consideration of the State
      Certification System in ULBs.                      Government
 vi. Earmarking at least 20-25% of                vi.    This is under consideration of Kanpur
      developed land in all housing projects             Development Authority
      (both Public and Private Agencies) for
      EWS/LIG category with a system of
      cross subsidization.
vii. Introduction of computerized process of      vii.  This is under consideration of the
      registration of land and property.                Kanpur Development Authority
viii. Revision of bye -laws to make rain water    viii. This has to be done by different
      harvesting mandatory in all buildings to          departments.
      come up in future and for adoption of
      water conservation measures.
 ix. Bye-laws on reuse of recycled water.         ix.    This is under consideration of the State
                                                         Government
  x. Administrative reforms, i.e., reduction      x.     This is under consideration of the State
     in establishment by bringing out                    Government
     voluntary retirement schemes, non-
     filling up of posts falling vacant due to
     retirement, etc., and achieving specified
     milestones in this regard.
 xi. Structural reforms                           xi.    This is under consideration of the State
                                                         Government
xii. Encouraging Public-Private partnership       xii.   This is under consideration of the State
                                                         Gover nment




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ANNEXURES
              ANNEXURE I:
STAKEHOLDER CONSULTATIONS
                                                                         KANPUR
                                                                  City Development Plan (CDP)


                                                                                Annexure 1

                      Details of Consultations held with Stakeholders
 S.              Name                   Designation                   Department
No.
1.    Ms. Anita Bhatnagar Jain       Divisional Commissioner                 Kanpur
2.    Mr. Anurag Srivastava          District Magistrate                     Kanpur
3.    Mr. Badal Chatterjee           Municipal Commissioner       Kanpur Nagar Nigam
4.    Mr. Deepak Kumar               Vice Chairman                Kanpur Development Authority
5.    Mr. Rakesh Singh               Suptd. of Police (Traffic)              Kanpur
6.    Mr. U.N. Tiwari                Addl. Municipal              Kanpur Nagar Nigam
                                     Commissioner
7.    Mr. Lalta Prasad Yadav         Chief Engineer               Kanpur Nagar Nigam
8.    Mr. D.S. Tripathi              Nodal Officer,               Kanpur Nagar Nigam
9.    Mr. S.A. Royal                 Assistant Engineer           Kanpur Nagar Nigam
10.   Mr. Mukesh Agnihotri           Drawing Suptd. Maps          Kanpur Nagar Nigam
11.   Mr. V.P Jaiswal                Junior Engineer              Kanpur Nagar Nigam
12.   Mr. R.K. Singh                 Assistant Engineer, Zone I   Kanpur Nagar Nigam
13.   Mr. R. M. Asthana              Chief Engineer               Kanpur Nagar Nigam
                                     (Mechanical)
14.   Ajay Kumar                     Executive Engineer           Kanpur Nagar Nigam
15.   M. D. Girdhani                 Director                     Kanpur Nagar Nigam
16.   Mrs. Shobha Kapur              Secretary                    Kanpur Cantonment Board
17.   Mr. Anil Kumar Garg            Chief Engineer               Kanpur Development Authority
18.   Mr. Shivpuri                   Assist. Town Planner         Kanpur Development Authority
19.   Mr. M.P. Srivastava            Suptd. Engineer              U.P. Hosing Development Board
20.   Mr. M.C. Tiwari                General Manager              Ganga pollution Control Board,
                                                                  UP Jal Nigam
21.   Mr. Avni Kumar                 District Forest Officer      Forest Office, Allen Forest
                                                                  ,Nawab Ganj, Kanpur
22.   Mr. S. K. Rajput               General Manager              KESCO
23.   Mr. S.M. Aggarwal              Chief General Manager        KESCO
24.   Mr. S. R. Sachen               Regional officer,            U.P. Pollution Control Board
25.   Mr. B.K. Gupta                 Regional Transport Officer   Regional Transport Office
26.   Mr. Manoj Kumar Verma          Conservation Assistant       Dept. of Archeology
27.   Mr. Anoop Bajpai               Project Officer,             District Urban Development
                                                                  Authority
28.   Mr. K.C. Vishwanathan          Chief Executive Officer      U.P. Trade Promotion Authority

29.   Shri Tirth Raj                 Addl. Commissioner,          Trade Tax Dept.
30.   Mr. Vijay Kapoor & A.S.        Chairman                     Kanpur Industrial Dev. Co-
      Kotwal                         General Secretary            operative Estate Ltd.
31.   Mr. Sunil Vaishya              General Secretary            Indian Industries Association
32.   Mr. Anup Asthana               Secretary                    Kanpur Builders and Promoters
                                                                  Association
33.   Mr. B.K.Bharatiya and          President                    Property Dealers and Builders
      Rajiv Bharatiya                                             Association

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34.   Mr. Vijay Pande                Mahamantri                 U.P. Hotel and Restaurant
                                                                Association
35.   Mr. Mohanlal Chandani          President                  Hotel and Restaurant
                                                                Association
36.   Dr. I.C. Gupta                 President                  Merchant Chamber of
      A.K. Sinha (11)                Secretary                  Commerce
37.   Mr. Mahesh Jain                President                  Chauk Sharafa Vayapar Mandal
38.   Shri Prakash Jaiswal           Minister of State          Home Affairs , Govt. of India
39.   Surinder Mohan Aggarwal        Chairman                   U.P.D.E.S.C.O
40.   Mr. Jagender Swarup            MLC
41.   Mr. Anil Kumar Sharma          Ex. Mayor                  Kanpur Nagar Nigam
42.   Mr. Yogendra Mohan             Director                   Jagran Group
43.   Mr. Jagdish Yadav              Chairman,                  Lok Vikas Mandal, Kanpur

44.   Mr. Rakesh R. Jaiswal          CEO                         ECO Frie nds Ngo, Kanpur
45.   Girish Bajpai                  Chairman                    Pandit Deen Dayal Jan Kalyan
                                                                 and Vikas Samiti
46.   Ms. Bimlawati (Bindu)        Leader, CDS society           Raja Pura slum,Kanpur
47.   CDS Members (19)*            Leader                        Community Development
                                                                 Societies
         * Figure in bracket shows the number of participants in the workshop organized at
         city level




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                                                                 City Development Plan (CDP)


                 Discussions carried out with Various Stakeholders

Name of the Stake Holder:                  Ms. Anita Bhatnagar Jain
Contact No.:                               09415117891, 0512-2546100, 2525441
Date of Discussion                         15/05/2006, 9/06/06, 4/7/06, 10/7/06
Discussion Team                            Mr. D.C. Awasthi, Mr. S.K.Relan and Mr. Pritam
                                           Kapur and Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus on?
    • What are areas of concern in her view ?
Focus Areas
    • Roads and Traffic Management
    • Improving infrastructure
    • Inner Core area development

Summary of Discussion
   • As a coordinator of various agencies, which are involved in the management of the
     city, her vision has guided and shaped the mega strategy of transforming the city of
     Kanpur by fully leveraging the opportunity provided by JNNURM.
   • According to her, industries of yesteryears are no longer the leading industries, in fact
     most of them are sick and lying closed. On the other hand new age industries have not
     come to Kanpur as yet
   • Kanpur City needs to improve its infrastructure if it has to gain its pre-eminent
     economic position. JNNURM is an opportunity for the city to get its act right
   • The prioritization of work should be such that we take up projects which will show an
     impact in a short time. Improving roads and transport is one such priority area.
   • Efforts are being made to introduce P-P-P in various areas, but it is difficult to attract
     many private entrepreneurs for infrastructure projects as they are not convinced of the
     viability of such projects.
   • Kanpur suffers from lack of air connectivity. One lone flight that touches Kanpur is
     inconvenient and hence not popular. The need is to have air connection between
     major trading cities. Earlier there was an air connection between Gujarat and Kanpur.
   • Though Kanpur city has sufficient supply of water, many people are not taking water
     connections as they dig tube wells or hand pumps and use that water. This is
     depleting the ground water levels and is untreated. Rules should be made to restrict
     extraction of ground water
   • The problems of old and broken water pipes and damaged sewer lines in inner city
     need urgent attention.
   • Past efforts at slums development and rehabilitation have not been entirely successful.
     The reasons for such failure in the past needs to be understood and strategies, which
     are demand driven and acceptable to slum dwellers, should be devised.
   • It is possible that there may be some overlap between var ious institutions in Kanpur,
     but as administrators we have to get the work done, and if one institution is weak, we
     may try and get the work done by another institution.
   • The administration is also keen to tackle the problem of pollution in Kanpur city. For
     this purpose, we are shortly planning to introduce CNG buses.
   • The new master plan which is under consideration of the government of UP has
     provided for expansion of the city and development of new townships like Gangotri

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       have been planned
   •   The river front and various ghats should be developed as thousands of people use
       these ghats. The facility such as bathing facility, lighting should be provided.
   •   The special focus should be on reforms to make Kanpur Nagar Nigam financially
       viable.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Mr. Anurag Srivastava
Designation                                     District Magistrate
Contact No.                                     0512-2306577 (0), 094155224608
Date of Discussion                              20/4/2006
Discussion Team                                 Mr. P. Kapur, Mr. S.K. Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav & Mr.
                                                D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus on?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas
• Roads and Traffic Management
• Underground water depletion
• Water Supply situation
• Ground water recharging
• Improving infrastructure
• Better Governance

Summary of Discussion
• Priority should be given to restore the underground water level which is continuously depleting.
• Due to water usage from down stream of Ganga, water availability for city is less. Keeping this in
   mind, schemes for water recharge such as water harvesting should be introduced.
• Priority should be given to stop the contamination of ground water
• Managerial problems should be solved through better governance i.e. accountable, efficiency,
   effective, transparency, participation and usage of e-governance
• There should not be a complete mismatch between electricity demand, its generation and supply
• Efforts should be taken to stop/decrease the increase in population both natural increase as well as
   migration.
• Road widening, wherever possible, should be on priority.
• Priority should be given to introduce the effective city bus system so that the Tempos related traffic
   and pollution problems can be minimized.
• Double entry accounting system should be introduced.
• There should be time to time updation of land records.
• While introducing user’s charge, interest of people should be taken care and subsidy, if required,
   should be provided
• The bureaucratic system should have minimum babus.
• In development related dep artments, minimum one month training should be given to officers.
• Reports submission should be made online
• Fresh recruitment should be such that qualified, experienced and trained staff should be appointed.
   Some posts should be declared sick and no new recruitment should be held against those posts.
• Different ways should be adopted to augment the financial resources of corporation




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Name of the Stake Holder:                         Mr. Badal Chatterjee
Designation                                       Municipal Commissioner
Contact No.:                                      09415247879, 0512-2546194 (O), 2531215 (R)
Date of Discussion                                15/05/2006
Discussion Team                                   Pritam Kapur, D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda :
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus on?
• What are areas of concern in his view ?
Focus Areas
• Roads and Traffic Management
• Inner core Area Development
• Improving infrastructure
• Solid Waste Management

Summary of Discussion
• There is a need for allotment and development of cattle colonies in the outskirts to keep the city clean
   and hygienic.
• South city should be connected properly with the main city
• Door to door domestic waste should be collected in polythene bags and to be transferred/ transported to
   final disposal point. There is no need of intermediate dumping grounds.
• Sewerage, which have been broken and mixed with the drains, should be separated to reduce pollution.
• The renovation of sewerage in the inner city should be done using trench less technology.
• Due to encroachments, manholes of sewers and banks of Nalas are not accessible while cleaning nalas
   by machinery, making the de-silting extremely difficult. Such encroachments must be removed.
• Restoration of financial health of K.N.N. must be top priority as only then K.N.N can discharge its
   functions properly.
• The staff of K    .N.N needs to be disciplined so that adhoc or informal permissions given on various
   accounts are stopped.
• K.D.A must take NOC from K.N.N before sanctioning any new building plans specially in case of
   construction of high rise buildings.
• Pigs are another nuisance in the city. Earlier there have been quite a few Abhiyans (Campaign) to catch
   loitering pigs and imposing penalty on owners during Ex Mayor time. But still the city is not free of
   this nuisance. Certain area needs to be allotted to those who are in the profession of pig farming.
• New modern slaughter houses need to be developed outside residential and commercial areas to cater
   requirement of meat and chicken as old slaughter houses such as one in Bakarmandi contribute to city
   mess and unhygienic conditions.
• Immediate need is being felt to re-assess all multi-storey complexes, residential cum commercial, ships
   and other establishments, which have come up in place of old residential bunglows in Civil Lines, Tilak
   Nagar, Swaroop Nagar, Nawab Ganj and Tax charges need to be managed and imposed on owners of
   flats, shops, offices, restaurants, hotels, clinics, private hospitals, nursing homes etc.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                        Mr. Deepak Kumar
Designation                                      Vice Chairman, Kanpur Dev. Authority
Contact No.:                                     09415037001, 0512- 2546026 (O), 2526477 (
                                                 R)
Date of Discussion                               7/06/06
Discussion Team                                  Pritam Kapur, D.C.Awasthi, Dr. Vinita
                                                 Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important and what it should focus on?
    • What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas
    • Roads and Traffic Management
    • Old Area Development
    • Improving infrastructure
Summary of Discussion
    • KDA was conceived as a specialized agency for development of the city and to plan
       for its order ly growth. Since KNN has its own focus of providing services to the
       citizens, it is better to have a development authority different from the city
       corporation
    • At present, 3 modes of public-private partnership arrangements are followed by
       KDA. In first model, government decide the players, land acquisition is done by KDA
       and given to private builders to develop the land as in the case of HI-tech city where
       Sahara has got a huge chunk of land. In the second model, KDA do land acquisition,
       development and disposal by way of selling the plots and constructing EWS housing
       and in the third model, private builders acquire the land, develop it and dispose it off.
       In the 3rd model, KDA is encouraging smaller builders, who own 25-50 acre, 50-100
       acre and 100-500 acre land, to come in and develop housing projects and for them
       KDA plays the role of a regulator. However, it is not easy to attract quality builders
       to come to Kanpur in a big way because of their doubts about viability of their
       projects.
    • In the land acquis ition and development done by KDA, differential prices can’t be
       given by KDA that’s why too many litigation cases happen whereas private builders
       purchase the land directly at market price and hence no litigation takes place. The
       price of land acquisition should be fixed with growth rate of land cost
    • For decongesting the inner core area, counter magnet area development, expansion of
       city towards Bithur and development by Sahara will be major steps.
    • The houses which are constructed faraway from the city have remained vacant due to
       bad planning. The reasons for non-selling of these properties should be assessed and
       plans to sell them should be made.
    • The huge chunk of gram samaj land is lying vacant in the city periphery. The housing
       for EWS should be built on these lands as EWS merges well with villagers. For this
       purpose, EWS people should be consulted to decide the area and plan to build
       housing.
    • Government subsidy should be given to EWS people for purchasing the houses and
       land development.
    • KDA has plans to develop new townships and also to develop the belt of 8 kms
       around the boundary of Nagar Nigam. However, by the time KDA start the land
       acquisition process, people acquire land in areas earmarked for development and later

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       it become an obstacle in orderly and speedy development
   •   Increasingly the attention of KDA is towards land development and it plans to reduce
       its involvement in construction of houses except for EWS and LIG




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Name of the Stake Holder:                                Mr. Rakesh Singh
Designation                                              S.P. (Traffic)
Contact No.                                              09415042700
Date of Discussion                                       14-6-2006
Discussion Team                                          D.C. Awasthi, Mr. Sanjeev Shukla
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • What are areas of concern in their view

Focus Areas
• Traffic related issues
• Improvement in the functioning of transport system
• Better infrastructure Facility

Summary of Discussion
• Railway Line between Kanpur and Farrukhabad divides the city in north and south city and movement of
   traffic is restricted on railway crossings right from Jarib Chwoki to Kalyanpur on G.T. Road. The ROB’s
   are non-existent and traffic jam is frequently seen at railway crossings all along GT road.
• The tempos and vikrams are plying unabated but these vehicles stop at any place for boarding and alighting
   the commuters without any check and control which causes traffic nuisance.
• The main trading centres like Naya Ganj, Bansmandi, Hatia etc. need to be shifted to the outskirts
   minimizing movement of slow moving carts between these trading centres and Transport Nagar.
• The railway godown in city between Jhakarkati ROB and Kanpur Central should be shifted to Panki
   Railway Yard in the outskirt so that congestion of traffic can be avoided.
• There is need to develop public transport system using CNG buses (108 buses procured by UPSRTC) for
   deployment in first phase. All old buses (more than 10 years) need to be phased out as these contribute to
   air pollution and traffic disorder.
• All the tempos and loaders need to be phased out within next two to three years.
• Parking for cars, two-wheelers etc. at 158 identified spots need to be developed by KNN and KDA so that
   congestion on roads can be removed.
• Parking lots have been spotted at places and need to be developed.
• Presently slow moving animal and manual carting vehicles i.e. 500 Kharkharas, 200 Bhainsa Thela, 350
   Hanth Thela, 400 trolleys and 5000 Rickshaws are plying in the city. These needs to be phased out
   gradually paving way for fast moving vehicles to avoid traffic jams and should be replaced by CNG buses
   and three wheelers for public transport.
• The staff in Traffic Police Cell is inadequate. Present requirement is of 600 constables whereas sanctioned
   staff is 400 constables. Out of which only 200 are available for traffic duty. The sanctioned posts need to be
   filled so that adequate constables could be posted at all strategic points.
• There is requirement of at least 6 ROB’s between Jarib Chowki and Kalyanpur and also at Shyam Nagar,
   Dada Nagar, Govind Nagar and also one running parallel to Govind Puri Railway Bridge.
• NGO’s/Community Development Societies need to be involved for creating better traffic sense among the
   commuters.
• All main Crossings and Tri-sections need to be equipped with traffic lights and glow signs to regulate the
   movement of traffic. Presently this all is controlled manually.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Mr. U.N. Tiwari
Designation                                     Add. Commissioner
Contact No.                                     0512 – 2525792 (R), 2551416 (O )
Date of Discussion                              22/4/2006, 15/5/2006
Discussion Team                                 Mr. S.K. Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav, D.C.
                                                Awasthi, Mr. Pritam Kapur
Discussion Agenda:
• Status of various items of Reforms Agenda of Govt. of India
• Role and focus of KNN
• What are areas of concern in their view
Focus Areas
• Organizational set up of KNN.
• Update on GIS
• Views on E-Governance
• Steps taken to introduce E-Governance in KNN.
• Activities of KNN
• Improvement in the functioning of KNN
• Exchange of views on various activities of KNN for over all improvement of working of
    KNN.
• Improving infrastructure

Summary of Discussion
• 74th CAA has not been implemented fully. Only State Finance Commissions have been
   constituted regularly and their recommendations have been more or less accepted.
• City management is a specialized field. Specialized urban management person should be
   employed at KNN. Municipal Commissioner and Add. Municipal commissioner should
   be imparted training to manage the municipal affairs. The top officials should be given
   appropriate time to study the city problems and take corrective steps.
• The following shortcomings are observed in the recruitment system:
   − 20 percent people who are less qualified are getting employed in KNN on the post
       vacated after their father/mother death. Due to this quality of staff gets deteriorated.
   − No training (for usage of computer as well as for better functioning) has been
       provided to the Middle level positions and their overall exposure is quite poor.
       Computerization may be introduced and all officers may be provided with computers
       with inter -connectivity, thereby reducing the babu system to minimum.
   − staff is not self motivated and no decentralization of powers at medium or lower
       level. For this those officers, who are working with dedication and professionally may
       be honored periodically to keep them motivated.
   − surplus staff in one activity should be shifted to other to make better use of available
       manpower
   − VRS may be introduced and no fresh appointment to be made
   − recruitment of middle level positions (tax suptd., J.E., A.E. Revenue Inspector)
       should be through state service commission
• The status of Municipal Commissioner has been diluted in the last few years which had
   adversely affected the working of the organization
• Overlapping of different functions carried out by organization takes place.
• Need for updating different type of properties and introduction of user charges
• GIS and MIS needs to be updated for better governance.


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Name of the Stake Holder:                   Mr. Lalta Prasad Yadav
Contact No.:                                09336274223
Date of Discussion                          20/4/2006
Discussion Team                             Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view
Focus Areas
    • Roads and Traffic Management
    • Old Area Development
    • Improving infrastructure

Summary of Discussion
   • Maintenance of roads and sewerage should be proper
   • Existing roads should be properly maintained as it’s not possible to build a new road.
   • Development in old area should be carried out keeping in mind the heritage as
     dismantling is not possible in few areas




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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Mr. D.S. Tripathi
Contact No.:                              0512-2306577 (0), 094155224608
Date of Discussion                        21/4/2006
Discussion Team                           Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view
Focus Areas
• Inter-Institutional Relationships
• Underground sewerage system
• Drainage System

Summary of Discussion
• Sewerage Disposal system should be proper. Direct Sewerage Disposal in rivers i.e.
   Ganga and Pandu river should be stopped
• Sewerage and Drains should be separated from each other. Mixing of sewerage with
   drains creates problem for the city specially during rainy season
• Priority should be given to connect the drainage with big drains in old area rather than
   connecting it with sewerage
• Sewerage Treatment Plant should be functional in proper way.
• Houses should not be allowed to build on low land so that water overflow can be avoided.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. S.A. Royal
Contact No.:                                  09336106521
Date of Discussion                            21/4/2006
Discussion Team                               Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view
Focus Areas
    • Finance availability for infrastructure
    • Inter-Institutional Relationships
    • Efficient Service Delivery
    • Sewerage System

Summary of Discussion
   • Contractors’ payment should be done on time.
   • There should be appropriate fund availability for different infrastructure fac ilities
   • Jal Sansthan should stop connecting the sewerage system to drains and rather improve
     the sewerage connections
   • Before accepting the transfer of different services of newly developed colonies, KNN
     (roads and drains) and KJS (water and sewerage) should check that they should be
     properly linked with the main lines.
   • Proper monitoring should be there at the time of transfer of new developed colonies.
   • Other than higher officials, training should also be provided to the lower level
     officials as they are the one who execute the orders.
   • There should be a proper promotion policy. Otherwise the work efficiency gets
     reduced.
   • Inter divisional transfers should be avoided to the extent possible. Person’s expertise
     should be kept in mind before transferring him to any particular department




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Name of the Stake Holder:                   Mr. Mukesh Agnihotri
Contact No.:                                09415477022
Date of Discussion                          21/4/2006
Discussion Team                             Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view
Focus Areas
    • Urban Planning Issues
    • Inter-Institutional Co-ordination

Summary of Discussion
   • Multiplicity of institutions involved in city planning.
   • There should be clear cut demarcation betweens functions and financial
     responsibilities of different organizations involved in planning. Currently, Town and
     Country Planning Organisation (TCPO) prepare Master Plan whereas zonal plans are
     prepared by KDA.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                    Mr. V.P Jaiswal
Designation:                                 J.E., Kanpur Nagar Nigam
Contact No.:                                 0935969217
Date of Discussion                           21/ 4/2006
Discussion Team                              Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus?
    • What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas
    • Smooth Traffic management
    • Well planned Parking areas
    • Education on Traffic Rules

Summary of Discussion
   • Signals should function through solar system
   • Proper parking arrangement needs to be made
   • Over bridge should be built up.
   • Proper flood management plan should be prepared for the city
   • People should be made aware about traffic system through television, city cable,
     hoardings on major crossings
   • Schools should have Awareness programs on Traffic rules with school children
   • Special funds should be provided for educating people on traffic management.
   • Position of Traffic Planner should be created to have specialized staff
   • Training about traffic system to various segment of population should be provided
   • The staff should be provided incentive such as promotion, increment in pay and
     recognition in terms of prizes or certification.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                    Mr. R.K. Singh
Designation:                                 Assistant Engineer, Kanpur Nagar Nigam
Contact No.:                                 -
Date of Discussion                           21/04/06
Discussion Team                              Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view
Focus Areas
    • Existing Sewerage system
    • Co-ordination between different agencies

Summary of Discussion
   • Existing sewerage system is quite old and even locating the sewerage lines in old city
     area is a problem.
   • There is a lack of co-ordination between departments.
   • Other organizations don’t take NOC from KNN while working within their
     jurisdiction.
   • Drains, which are already identified, can be maintained properly.
   • The agency, which developed residential colony should take care that level of newly
     laid sewerage lines should match with the existing lines laid by other organization
     outside the boundary. For example, sewerage lines lay under GAP and in Usmanpur
     area.
   • No proper maintenance of back lanes
   • encroachment found as well as filthy back lanes
   • In V.I.P roads, side lanes are 6 feet higher than the main roads. This creates problem
     in cleaning of drains and joining the trunk lines to the main lines
   • Difference in ranks of higher officials of different organizations lead to the inter-
     departmental co-ordination prob lem.
   • Overlapping of functional jurisdiction. There is a separate department called District
     Rural Engineering Dept. which undertakes/ executes the work allocated under
     M.P.L.A.D and M.L.A fund scheme.
   • Different organizations jurisdiction both area as well as functions should be well
     defined.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. R. M. Asthana
Designation:                                  Chief Engineer (Mechanical) , Kanpur Nagar
                                              Nigam
Contact No.:                                  09839945241
Date of Discussion                            05/05/2006
Discussion Team                               Dr. Vinita Yadav & D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus on?
    • What are areas of concern in his view ?

Focus Areas :
   • Health & Sanitation
   • Solid waste management
   • Housing problems

Summary of Discussion
   • Modern type Solid Waste Collection centers has been proposed in place of existing
     old centers.
   • Mobile bins should be provided at the place where depots are not possible
   • Future demand for Bio -medical incinerators should be assessed on the basis of total
     as well as per capita bio-medical waste generation and as per demand they needs to
     be installed
   • Proper landfill sites needs to be developed.
   • Door-to-door waste collection services need to be initiated and their coverage should
     be increased in phased manner.
   • Instead of slums relocation, they need to be removed and multi-storey structure needs
     to be developed at the same site and slum dwellers should be allocated the same area
     which they were occupying. Housing problems–slums should be demolished & 4
     storey houses constructed to be provided to the slum dwellers.
   • Widening of roads, provision of ample parking places and smooth flow of traffic
     should be brought about.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                   Mr. Ajay Singh
Designation:                                Executive Engineer, Kanpur Nagar Nigam
Contact No.:                                09839025897
Date of Discussion                          05/05/2006
Discussion Team                             Dr. Vinita Yadav & D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
   • Cleanliness
   • Transport
   • Sanitation
Summary of Discussion
   • Open drains should be covered & footpath needs to be defined
   • A user friendly system to be introduced for cleanliness of the city
   • Develop MRTS & evolve an efficient parking strategy.
   • Greenery should be enhanced in the city




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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Dr. M.D. Girdhani
Designation:                              Director, SWM, Kanpur Nagar Nigam
Contact No.:                              09935318400
Date of Discussion                        20/07/2006
Discussion Team                           D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
• Solid Waste Management
• Transport
• Sanitation
Summary of Discussion
• The two tier system should be adopted for collecting the garbage by way of primary
   collection i.e. sweeping or surface cleaning the roads, cleaning of KC drains and
   collection of rubbish by hand cart into rubbish depot.
• The secondary collection will be done by tippers and loaders into close rubbish depot. All
   depots are to be closed by supreme court order as open to sky depots pollute atmospheric
   air.
• The final disposal should be by way of sanitary land-fill. For the disposal, n land fill
                                                                                 ew
   has been arranged at Transport Nagar near Bhunti (46 Hectares) arranged from KDA.
• The solid waste should be treated by any of the following methods such as composting,
   Vermi Culture Composting, Waste to Energy or any other suitable process. KNN has sing
   a MoU with IL & FS (Infrastructure leasing and Finance services) for generating energy
   from solid waste and 15 acre has been allotted near Jajmau Pumping Station. A No-
   objection certificate is awaited from Airport Authority of India for installation of
   chimney.
• Bio-medical waste is being treated by two firms namely MPCC (Medical Pollution
   Control Committee) at Bhauti near Bhimsen Station and at Bithoor. It is estimated that 60
   percent of bio-medical will be treated by these two firms and balance 40 percent will be
   left out but not mixed with domestic waste. The U.P. Pollution Control Board has to act
   upon this matter.
• The following strategy would be adopted for solid waste disposal:
   Ø Door to door collection and MoU is being prepared to be signed with Lucknow based
         NGO for collection of garbage from 2,000 houses in the beginning
   Ø Waste to Energy will produce RDF (Refuse Derived Pallets) from solid waste. This
         will give 800-1000 calories when burnt alone. If mixed with residue from tanneries,
         its caloric value with petroleum waste will gen erate much more heat to generate
         electricity. Under this scheme, garbage will be given free of cost and demolition
         waste @ Rs. 800/- per truck. The demolition material and residue from pallets will
         go to land fill. By adopting this method, volume of garbage will be substantially
         reduced thereby land fill can be used for longer period without being filled
         completely. This will be implemented in two years.
• In the past decade, there have been water born diseases Gastroenteritis etc. in the city but
   there was no epidemic. Other common diseases are Hepatitis, Jaundice, Malaria and
   Dengue.

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   Ø




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mrs. Shobha Kapur
Designation:                                  Executive Engineer, Kanpur Nagar Nigam
Contact No.:                                  0512 – 2381285, 2383600
Date of Discussion                            29/07/2006
Discussion Team                               D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus on?
    • What are areas of concern in her view ?

Focus Areas :
   • Cantonment Board Act
   • Role of Elective members
   • Source of Revenue and Expenditure
   • Sanitation

Summary of Discussion
   • According to her, Cantonment Board Act, 1924 (amended in 1983) is again under
     amendment wherein the powers of elected members are likely to be withdrawn.
   • Board has income from taxes such as house tax, water tax, conservancy tax etc. and
     non tax such as hoardings, lease rent, registration charge etc.
   • Lot of works needs to be done to keep the area clean and to provide basic amenities to
     its habitants.
   • Cantonment Board is in a position to contribute its share of 30 percent from their
     revenues and also to arrange O&M subsequently.
   • Cantonment Board is also in a position to save some amount varying from 1 to 7
     crore per year and same goes to reserves to be utilized as per need.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                        Mr. Anil Kumar Garg
Contact No.:                                     09415309898
Date of Discussion                               19/4/2006, 18/5/2006
Discussion Team                                  Dr. Vinita Yadav & Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Inform the Stakeholders on JNNURM Concept
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in their view
Focus Areas
    • Roads and Traffic Management
    • Housing Sector
    • Improving infrastructure
    • Water- Equitable distribution
    • Improving infrastructure in inner city
Summary of Discussion
    • Road widening should be on priority basis.
    • Priority should be given to provide additional housing for different Income Groups
    • Housing should be provided for Economically Weaker Section and 5 years stay
        should be made compulsory.
    • Proper housing arrangements for Migrant labours should be made
    • Priority should be given to River Front Development so that it can be used as tourist
        and housing place
    • Cross sections, intersections, cycle tracks should be developed
    • Plantation should be done along with inner roads
    • Industries should be shifted outside municipal limits to the area earmarked under
        Metropolitan Region
    • In most commercialized zones, proper traffic management is required
    • Tempo should not be allowed in the commercial areas and small buses should be
        introduced. Bus stands should also be provided
    • Steps should be taken to minimize the accidents by removing the bottlenecks at
        identified 70 black spots
    • At Bawana road, only vehicles of shopkeepers and buyer’s should be allowed
    • Proper parking arrangements should be made
    • Traffic signal light should be installed
    • Identification of parties to whom identified parking lots can be given for management
    • Un-declared slums to be regularized and provide sites and services for poor
    • Public transport services to be improved
    • To develop the 225 kms of roads including re-surfacing of service roads, street
        furniture, cross section, removal of encroachments.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Shivpuri
Designation:                                    Assistant Town Planner, KDA
Contact No.:                                    -
Date of Discussion                              7/6/2006
Discussion Team                                 Pritam Kapur, D.C. Awasthi, Dr. Vinita
                                                Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are the planning related issues for the city43 in his view?

Focus Areas :
• Infrastructure Provision
• Land Development by K.D.A
• Budgetary provisions in K.D.A

Summary of Discussion
• K.D.A can increase its resources by charging compounding fee from illegal construction,
   sanctioning of map and through levying of betterment charges.
• Special budgetary powers should be given to K.D.A.
• There should be speedy approval of master plan.
• There is no senior planner posted at Town and Country Planning Dept. (T.C.P.D). The
   town planner has only one Assist. Town Planner to assist her.
• Mati’s master plan has been sanctioned in fifteen days time whereas Kanpur’s master plan
   has been lying with government since March 2003. This reflec ts that Kanpur is politically
   neglected city.
• No promotion policy exists at the city level which leads to disappointment among staff.
• There are frequent transfers of top officials which lead to procedural delays in getting the
   approvals. It should be made mandatory that for 3 years an officer will not be transferred.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                      M.P. Srivastava
Designation:                                   Suptd. Engineer
Contact No.:                                   09415005679
Date of Discussion                             2/5/2006
Discussion Team                                Mr. S.K Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav and D.C.
                                               Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
• Infrastructure Provision
• Housing Development by U.P. Housing Board
• Inter- departmental co-ordination

Summary of Discussion
• Better Inter departmental co-ordination is required for speedy delivery of urban services.
• At the time of handing over of colonies to KNN for maintenance, they should ensure the
   provision of urban services as per the requirement.
• Time taken in taking NOC from KDA is quite high.
• There should be nodal agency to govern different institutes for faster service delivery.
• Better Road connectivity from Kanpur to Lucknow should be made through Ganga
   Barrage
• Better Planned Service is required.
• The mechanism to make better provision for water to low income group area and poor
   areas should be worked out.
• Solid Waste disposal system should be re-designed.
• Better environment management plan for slum bastis.
• Timely preparation and implementation of Master Plans should be give primary
   importance.
• Clear cut division of KDA and Housing Board jurisdiction
• Strict vigilance to stop encroachment
• Administration needs to be strengthened.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. M.C.Tiwari
Designation:                                  General Manager, Ganga pollution Control
                                              Board, UP Jal Nigam
Contact No.:                                  0512-2545598(o), 09415067456
Date of Discussion                            16/5/2006
Discussion Team                               Mr. D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNURM objectives and visio n for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas
• Sewage treatment Plants
• Ganga Action Plan Phase-II
• Rain water Harvesting

Summary of Discussion
• U.P. Jal Nigam handed over the STP 130 MLD and 5 MLD and 36 MLD UASB plants at
   Jajmau to Kanpur Nagar Nigam. Hence forth, KNN will be responsible for running these
   plants.
• Ganga Action Plan Phase –II for South Kanpur is being revived by G.O. for Rs. 36.00
   crore from State Govt. Initially the sanc tioned estimate for south city (200 MLD UASB
   sewage treatment plant at Pandu River, diversion of Sisamau Nala presently flowing to
   Ganga river, to pandu river; other three Nalas) COD, Ganda Nala and one more Nala,
   Intermediate pumping stations at Rakhi Man di and Munshi Purwa etc. was Rs. 105.00
   crores in 1996 and this budget got enhanced to Rs.250.00 crores approx. in 2006.
• The funds are likely to flow from centre also with input of Rs. 36.00 crore by State Govt,
   Sewage Line from Munshi Purwa is 2200 mm dia. The project for south city is being
   handled by Ganga pollution Control Unit under Ganga Action Plan and is likely to kick
   off after gap of two years.
• The ground water level and water strata have gone down by 7 M in Kanpur city. As such,
   certain provisions need to be made for rain water harvesting.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                        Mr. Avni Kumar
Designation:                                     DFO, Forest Office, Allen Forest Nawab
                                                 Ganj, Kanpur
Contact No.:                                     09415017227
Date of Discussion                               16/05/2006
Discussion Team                                  Mr. D.C.Awasthi,Dr.Vanita
Discussion Agenda:

    •   Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
    •   Why Kanpur is Important?
    •   What Kanpur should focus
    •   What are areas of concern in his view


Focus Areas
• Plantation on Road sides
• Conservation of water
• Master Plan

Summary of Discussion

•   In the absence of approved master plan of Kanpur, it is difficult to tell where plantation is
    required and also proposed green belt in the city is not known. This is the biggest hurdle
    in planning the plantation network in the city. Generally road side plantation is done 6
    meter centre to centre in two or three rows depending on the available width.

•                                            n
    There is a sudden fall in water strata i Kanpur. This is cause for worry as further drop
    will lead to dry up of existing plantation. To avoid this, recharge of ground water through
    rain water harvesting is strongly recommended.

•   Kanpur City and Dehat has 5400 Hectares which cannot be acquired by any department
    without express permission of the forest department.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. S. K. Rajput
Designation:                                  General Manager, KESCO
Contact No.:                                  09839108319
Date of Discussion                            03/05/2006
Discussion Team                               Mr. S.K Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav and
                                              D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
   • Provision of Electricity

Summary of Discussion
   • To improve the power sector generation & distribution
   • The 70-75 years old under ground cable network is under capacity & worn out. Hence
     it needs to be replaced.
   • Alternative source of supply through alternate breakdown system
   • Electricity cable should be in ring form
   • Transform should be provided to meet the demand.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                      Mr. S.M.Agarwal
Designation:                                   Chief General Manager, KESCO
Contact No.:                                   9839104005
Date of Discussion                             03/05/2006
Discussion Team                                Mr. S.K Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav,
                                               D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
   • Power supply
   • Cleanliness of the city
   • Transport upgradation

Summary of Discussion
   • Solid waste disposal system for the city should be designed & implemented.
   • Fine should be imposed on people for dirtying the city.
   • Law & Order situation of the city should be improved.
   • Metro should be introduced in the city.
   • Chamanganj, Begumganj – Electricity system should be improved.
   • Current power supply status needs to be improved.
   • Only single point supply should be provided.
   • Shortage is due to local area infrastructure & losses in transmission & local area theft
     of power.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Mr. S. R. Sachen
Designation:                                    Regional officer, U.P. Pollution Control
                                                Board
Contact No.:                                    09415405907
Date of Discussion                              3/05/2006
Discussion Team                                 Dr. Vinita Yadav & D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
   • Environmental Pollution

Summary of Discussion
   • City has to be planned keeping separate place for all type of land-use.
   • Industries not to be permitted within the city.
   • Road length is much less per capita.
   • Direct discharge of city waste into nallahs should be stopped. It needs to be directed to
     a STP for treatment.
   • Strategic plan should be made for flow of rivers continuously. Minimum flow of water
     to be maintained.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Mr. B.K. Gupta
Designation:                              Regional Transport officer, R.T.O.
Contact No.:                              09336246790
Date of Discussion                        6/06/2006
Discussion Team                           Dr. Vinita Yadav & D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus on?
• What are areas of concern in his view?

Focus Areas :
• Traffic related problems

Summary of Discussion
• Roads are in very bad condition. Road width has decreased due to encroachment.
• There is no parking area earmarked in busy markets.
• The number of registered vehicles has increased steeply in last 5 years. There should be
   different ways to control private vehicles registration. Old and slow moving vehicles
   should be phased out. After 15 years, vehicle renewal for another 5 years should be
   banned. One vehicle per family system should be introduced.
• In all the congested pockets, four wheeler entries should be banned and proper parking
   places should be provided in the vicinity.
• In all the multi-storey buildings, parking arrangement should be made compulsory.
   Otherwise NOC shouldn’t be given.
• Proper signal system should be in place.
• Transport Nagar should be developed with all the basic infrastructure facilities
• The order for 108 CNG buses has been placed and eighteen routes for plying these buses
   have already been finalized. Thousand new CNG taxi permits have already been given.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Manoj Kumar Verma
Designation:                                  Conservation Assistant Archeology
Contact No.:                                  9415092529
Date of Discussion                            2/5/2006
Discussion Team                               Mr. S.K Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav and
                                              D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
   • Important protected monument, religious places and fairs
   • Restoration of monuments
   • Availability of funds for restoration work
   • Better Planning Mechanism
   • Traffic Management
   • Planning for development
   • Financial budget

Summary of Discussion
   • Religious fairs viz. Shivratri at Anandeshwar Temple, Navratri at Usmanda Devi
     Temple, Dussehra mela and Chat Pujan on the bank of Ganga river etc. are organised
     every year. This lead to the additional burden on the city hence the provision for
     improved infrastructure and public convenience facilities need to be organised.
   • Some restoration work has already taken place on ancient monuments like four
     temples at Nimbya kheda, compound wall at Bhitargaon Temple, setting of platform,
     leveling, repair of compound wall at ancient temple of Mahadev, Temple of
     Phoolwati devi and 50 % work at Katchery cemetery. Still more fund is required to
     further improve the area
   • Steps should be taken to stop encroachment on 100 m prohibited area and 100-200
     metre regulated area ar ound the protected monument.
   • The protected monument should be strictly monitored to avoid the damage to them.
   • Proper planning should be done for Heritage conservation and promotion.
   • Better Traffic Management is required as traffic system is quite unsystem atic, no
     traffic signal is functioning and time taken in travel is quite high.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                      Mr. Anoop Bajpai
Designation:                                   Project Officer, DUDA
Contact No.:                                   0512 – 2555284, 09450023939
Date of Discussion                             01/5/2006
Discussion Team                                Mr. S.K Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav
                                               &D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
• Urban poverty
• Programmes for Slums Improvement
• Sanitation issues
• Traffic system
• Roads & transport
• Employment issues

Summary of Discussion
• During National Slum Development Programme (1997-98), many slums have been
   developed in a short period. Under the scheme, Drainage, roads, lighting has been
   provided but now as that scheme has been closed it’s very difficult to fund the physical
   infrastructure development in slums.
• At present, only urban self employment training programmes were organized. For men,
   training for electrician, repairing of radio, T.V., Refrigerator, computer training, motor
   driving, Mobile Repairing and for female, stitching, parlor, fashion designing etc. is
   provided.
• Low cost sanitation programme should be adopted in slum areas.
• Roads should be improved.
• Traffic system should be improved. For example – there should be complete ban on
   tempos and rickshaws on main roads and CNG run bus service should be introduced.
• 6-7 railway over bridge needs to be constructed
• Criminal activities in unauthorized colonies need to be checked.
• Existing sewerage lines are quite old. There is no proper leveling and cleanliness of
   sewerage lines.
• Sewerage lines should be cleaned from time to time and wherever possible should be
   widened keeping in mind the increased pressure of increase in number of households.
   Unauthorized occupation of existing sewerage lines, open drains and railway land should
   be stopped. For example – Katchi Basti Gobind Nagar
• The measures should be adopted to provide better education and mechanism to generate
   more employment. In slum areas, education and employment level is less. Only 25-30
   percent people are educated in slums.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                      Mr. K.C. Vishwanathan
Designation:                                   Chief Executive Officer,
                                               U.P. Trade Promotion Authority
Contact No.:                                   09839101670
Date of Discussion                             10/05/2006
Discussion Team                                Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view?

Focus Areas :
• Industries and their growth
• Power Scenario
• Schemes for Industrial Growth

Summary of Discussion
• Closure of many textile and woolen industries
• Some of the major industries are either closing down or growth is very less whereas small
   scale industries are prospering.
• Need to bring improvement in the overall power availability as currently power scenario
   is poor in Kanpur with rostering from 8 to 12 hours per day.
• Poor law and order situation
• There is a need to bring attitudinal change of Govt. Officials for industrial growth.
• Transparent system required while sanctioning loans by financial institutions
• Various schemes, which are introduced by the government for growth of small scale
   industries, are not implemented in letter and spirit.
• The projects costs are deliberately inflated to reduce the entrepreneur’s contribution and
   also cover hidden costs. The repayment in most of the cases is very difficult.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                      Shri Tirth Raj
Designation:                                   Addl. Commissioner, Trade T ax Dept.,
                                               Avadh Puri
Contact No.:                                   0512-2581041
Date of Discussion                             22-5-2006
Discussion Team                                Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern in his view?

Focus Areas :
• Industries and their growth
• Power Scenario
• Schemes for Industrial Growth

Summary of Discussion
• Presently there is no medium and heavy industry operating in Kanpur Nagar and most of
   the industries are small scale.
• Unlike history of Kanpur as a Manchester of India, it has a low profile of industrial
   business and this will remain so in the near future.
• Power scenario in city is poor and long hours of roistering takes place.
• Poor law and order condition (Kidnappings and abduction for ransom)
• There is no air connectivity between Kanpur and Delhi and other major towns.
• Only one five star hotel has been developed.
• Public transport for industrialist such as air conditioned taxis etc is not developed.
• Current state of infrastructure is not congenial for foreign investments and big industrial
   houses.
• For taxation, more and more tax payers are coming for registration. The department is
   taking different steps for bringing more traders and commercial establishment in the
   taxation net.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. Vijay Kapoor
Designation:                                  Chairman, Kanpur Industrial Development
                                              Co-operative Estate Ltd.
Contact No.:                                  09336104555
Date of Discussion                            7/6/2006
Discussion Team                               Pritam Kapur, D.C. Awasthi, Dr. Vinita
                                              Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern for industrialists in his view?

Focus Areas :
• Industries and their growth
• Power Scenario
• Schemes for Industrial Growth

Summary of Discussion
• Kanpur Industrial Development Co-operative is one of the biggest industrial estates in
   U.P. and only a few exists in India. Kanpur is the biggest industrial district in Uttar
   Pradesh and it has industrial atmosphere.
• There is no assistanc e from state or central government for small and medium scale
   industries.
• Most of the government policies are meant for heavy and medium scale industries.
• Now a day’s margin has decreased at a faster pace. Due to lack of investment and reduced
   margins, they are not able to compete with other industries.
• The government policies such as charging excise on MRP from medicines etc. are
   unfavorable.
• Marketing people want to take maximum benefits whereas manufacturer gets very little
   margin.
• Out of total tax collected from industrial estate, 60 percent should be spent on the
   operation and maintenance in the industrial estate itself.
• There exists no co-ordination between KDA, who develop the land and KNN who
   maintains the services.
• Government adopts dual policy for industries.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Mr. Sunil Vaishya
Designation:                                    U.P. General Secretary, Indian Industries
                                                Association
Contact No.                                     09415040829
Date of Discussion
Discussion Team                                 Pritam Kapur, D.C. Awasthi, Dr. Vinita
                                                Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus
• What are areas of concern for industrialists in his view?
Focus Areas :
• Industries and their growth
• Power Scenario
• Schemes for Industrial Growth

Summary of Discussion
• Kanpur is old industrial city and is known for its leather (tanneries, saddleries) and plastic
   industries.
• Kanpur has many industrial estates such as Panki site I to V, Dada Nagar 6 industrial
   estate, co-operative industries, govt. industrial estate at Panki etc.
• Govt. of U.P. has adopted single table system to issue the licenses for industries.
• The government has to take initiatives to invite big industrialists to set up large scale
   industries as Kanpur has the locational advantage, resource base and entrepreneurship.
• U.P.S.I.D.C top person should be appointed and posted for minimum 3 years at a
   particular position and place.
• Industries should receive excise and income tax exemption and rebate on electricity etc.
• There should be air connectivity between Kanpur and other major places and if that is not
   possible, name of Lucknow airport should be changed as “Lucknow -Kanpur Airport” so
   that Kanpur can be placed on World Map.
• Air cargo facility should be introduced in Kanpur.
• Out of total industries, 30 percent are in non-confirming areas.
• In Kanpur, different areas are specialized for cloth, machineries, spices, food grains, steel,
   electric items etc.
• Mainly migration is from Bundelkhand region and eastern U.P.
• More than 7 hours electricity cut is observed in Kanpur city.
• Flyovers are required at C.O.D, Coca cola crossing etc.
• Special drives should be organized to remove encroachments on public roads. Special
   powers to officers should be given and flying squads should be created to penalize the
   people with heavy penalty.
   Railway line passing through the city should be diverted so that chaos on roads and traffic
   jams can be averted.




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Name of the Stake Holder:             Anup Asthana
Designation:                          Secretary, Kanpur Builders & Promoters Association
Contact No.:                          09935556632
Date of Discussion                    01/05/2006
Discussion Team                       Mr. S.K Relan, Dr. Vinita Yadav and D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• Revision & Notification of Master Plan
• Traffic Management
• Housing Development
• Increased power supply
• Public conveniences
Summary of Discussion
• Time taken in preparation of development plans is quite high and Exiting Master plan is
    quite old. On the basis of old master plan, KDA has issued notices to 42,000 people for
    land violation as they were not obeying the master plan of 1968. We have put a P.I.L for
    getting the Master Plan notified immediately.
• The area designated as residential, commercial and industries should be known to the
    public to stop further violation.
• Total railway crossing between Kalyanpur to Central Railway Station is 17 and frequent
    passage of train and closing of crossings lead to traffic congestion which can be avoided
    by shifting railway from Kalyanpur and to Panki. For example only 2-3 trains passes
    through the Farrukhabad line whereas stoppage is of two hours. This will reduce the
    existing traffic problem and over bridge requirement would be minimized.
• Need to identify new areas to be developed for housing purpose. The existing housing
    colonies are not linked with the city by good roads, street light and drains.
• Haphazard development is creating chaos.
• Regularization of colonies, which have come up on government land, after charging the
    regulation fee.
• Single Window system needs to be adopted as in current system a builder has to take
    approval from 14 departments to get his plan sanctioned. Due to cumbersome approval
    process, in last 6 month no building plan is passed.
• Under ground parking lots should be created.
• Power generation & its supply for industries should be at subsidized rates.
• Special Economic Zones should be development as it will create new employment
    opportunities.
• Parks & Amusement Parks should be given on lease to private entrepreneurs for better
    management.
• National/ international Airport should be provided at Kanpur.




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Name of the Stake Holder:        Mr. B.K. Bharatiya and Rajiv Bharatiya
Designation:                     President, Property Dealers and Builders Association
Contact No.:                     09839104726, 0512-2304895
Date of Discussion               06/06/2006
Discussion Team                  Mr. D.C. Awasthi & Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
• What are the problems/ issues faced by property associations and industry?
Focus Areas :
• Revision & Notification of Master Plan
• Property Dealers specific problems
• Infrastructure Facilities

Summary of Discussion
• Law and order situation in Kanpur is bad. The steps should be taken to provide clean and
   safe environment for industrialists and traders.
• Airport is must for the city. Lucknow and Kanpur can be developed on a twin city
   concept.
• Bridge on Ganga is quite old. It should be rebuilt.
• Out of total tax collected from traders, a percentage should be spent on improving the
   infrastructure.
• Lack of traffic management and poor regulation of traffic
• Encroachment on public land due to construction of temples and
• Auto rickshaws should be metered.
• Public toilets at market places need to be constructed.
• Cleanliness drive should be organized in various parts of the city.
• Private sector should be involved in the collection of taxes, road development etc.




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Name of the Stake Holder:        Mr. Vijay Pande
Designation:                     Mahamantri, U.P. Hotel and Restaurant Association
Contact No.:                     09415043592, 0512-2381072, 2381430
Date of Discussion               06/06/2006
Discussion Team                  Mr. D.C. Awasthi & Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
• What are the problems/ issues faced by hotel industry?
Focus Areas :
• Revision & Notification of Master Plan
• Traffic Management
• Hotel specific problems
• Increased power supply
• Public conveniences

Summary of Discussion
• In master plan, sites for hotel are not earmarked.
• No development authority has taken interest in proper site identification for hotels taking
   into consideration its approachability, proximity to hotels, industries, railway station etc.
• KDA has submit ted its master plan long time ago but it has not been passed by the state
   government.
• The law and order situation is deteriorating day by day. Security is the major problem for
   tourists and industrialists visiting Kanpur city.
• In the inner core area, sewerage pipelines are 100 years old. Till now no investment has
   been made in inner city though authority receive tax.
• There are no fixed timings for electricity cut. For long hours (10-12 hours) electricity cuts
   are observed.
• Hotel has been declared an industry but no additional benefits have been given to them.
   That’s why our business is not flourishing.
• There is no proper mechanism for solid waste collection and disposal from hotels. Proper
   dumping sites have not been identified. The segregation of solid waste does not take
   place.
• Even if no piped water is supplied and an hotelier is getting the water through boring,
   they have to pay for the piped water supply which is going within 100 meter of their
   premises.
• The taxes charged from hotels are too many wh      ereas taxes vis-à-vis benefits are too less.
   For example- The generator license fee, registration fee, water testing fee, weight and
   measurement fees, luxury tax, music system fee and T.V. fee etc. are imposed on hotels.
   There should only be one tax and it should be fixed after due consultation with hoteliers
   so that unnecessary harassment can be stopped.
• Roads should be widened so that traffic can move smoothly. In all the roads, divider
   should be built.
• Old railway station should me made functional so that city can be less congested.
• Proper enforcement of laws should be there.
• Taxation system should be simplified and some percentage of taxes should be reserved
   for the benefit of hotel industry.




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Name of the Stake Holder:        Shri Mohanlal Chandani
Designation:                     President, Hotel and Restaurant Association
Contact No.:                     09839900401, 0512-2314776
Date of Discussion               07/06/2006
Discussion Team                  Mr. D.C. Awasthi & Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
• What are the problems/ issues faced by hotel industry?
Focus Areas :
• Revision & Notification of Master Plan
• Traffic Management
• Hotel specific problems
• Increased power supply
• Public conveniences

Summary of Discussion
• Major problem of Kanpur city is electricity. In Kanpur, 12 to 18 hours electricity cut is
   imposed which is a great problem for industries especially for hoteliers. Due to this
   industrialists prefer to stay in Lucknow rather than in Kanpur.
• There is no proper traffic control system in place.
• Too many taxes (13) are imposed on hotels. There should only be single tax imposed on
   hotels.
• U.P.F.C. has imposed so many restrictions on disbursing the loan. The interest charges
   have increased manifolds.
• There is no proper pro vision for train and no airport facility is available.
• Without basic infrastructure, it is very difficult to develop SEZ.




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Name of the Stake Holder:        Dr. I.C.Gupta & Shri A.K.Sinha
Designation:                     President & Secretary Merchant Chamber of Commerce
Contact No.:                     0512-2531306
Date of Discussion               06/06/2006
Discussion Team                  Mr. D.C. Awasthi & Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
• What are the problems/ issues faced by merchants?
Focus Areas :
• Trade and Commerce activities
• Industry specific problems
• Quality of Infrastructure
• Involvement of Private Sector

Summary of Discussion
• From Kanpur, total export of leather is 3500 crore, detergent is 700 crore and other items
   of export are machines, plastics and textiles.
• Loading and unloading of containers is a problem. They have to pass through the main
   city.
• Farrukhabad train line has started functioning which has added woes of citizens.
• There are total seventeen railway crossings from Kalyanpur to Panki.
• Private sector should be involved in the provision of infrastructure.
• There are problems in the preparation of map by K.D.A. K.D.A charges compounding fee
   from those structures who has either encroached upon the public land or using their
   premises for residential cum work purpose.
• Coaching industries are mushrooming in the city.
• Entrepreneurs are going out of Kanpur to establish their industries due to lack of
   opportunities.
• Steps should be taken to develop the food and processing industries i.e. spices, masala,
   floor mills etc. and service industry.
• In 1991, chungi has been abolished but alternate grant doesn’t match with the revenue
   required.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Mr. Mahesh Jain
Designation:                              U.P. Sharafa Va yapar Mandal
Contact No.:                              0522- 2360445
Date of Discussion                        08/05/2006
Discussion Team                           Mr. Pritam Kapur and Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• Revision & Notification of Master Plan
• Traffic Management
• Housing Development
• Increased power supply
• Public conveniences

Summary of Discussion
• Major problem of the city is polluted water, electricity, transport and law and order
   situation.
• A committee consisting of retd. Engineers, business men, public should be formed to put
   a check on funds utilized by government departments.
• Law and Order situation is really bad. The goons are troubling traders by harassing them,
   too many chain snatching cases have come into picture.
• Main problem is due to unauthorized occupation of spaces in busy markets such as
   Birhana road etc.
• In tempos, 10 to 20 persons sit whereas its capacity is for seven people. Police people
   charge money that’s why they law is not enforced.
• Main problem is of electricity. They do not supply enough electricity and if people use
   generator, the officials say that it pollutes the environment.
• All the industries should get special electricity lines and water facilities. Why should we
   be pay electricity sub-charges and load money when the service is not provided
   satisfactorily?
• Many of the big industries have closed down in recent times due to trade unions.
• No rent control exists. In Birhana road, people are paying very less rent.
• In the first phase, employed class would like to shift from inner core area.
• Some of the areas are badly developed due to outdated master plan.
• Only a few officials are honest. KDA officials receive money from co-operative society
   and in return, they are allowed to sell the flats at price which they want




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. Shri Prakash Jaiswal
Designation:                                  Minister of State, Home Affairs, Govt. of
                                              India
Contact No.:                                  0512 -2450685 /2450686, 09935157479
Date of Discussion                            11/06/2006
Discussion Team                               Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus on?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• Roads
• Property Assessment
• Traffic Situation
• Role of Public Representative in the C ity

Summary of Discussion
• He is the former Mayor of Kanpur Nagar and well acquitted with city.
• He has informed about the following developme nts taking place in city:
  Ø road from Rama Devi to Kalyanpur has been given to State Highway Division
      of PWD and the bridge at COD crossing has been taken for construction.
  Ø National Highway Authority of India will also build Rail over Bridge at
      Jhakarkatti.
  Ø Kanpur has been selected to be one of 42 National Airports and arrangements
      are being made to provide CIF security at Kanpur. The funds are being made
      available to up-grade present airport to national airport and very soon
      domestic airlines will start ope rating.
  Ø NHAI is going to build ring road around Kanpur Metro and will provide two
      bridges at Ganges River.
• Flyover right from Sunder Talkies to Colonelganj Police Station (Chunniganj
  Xing) is required to ease traffic load. This fly-over is to get bifurcate d at
  Chunniganj Xing towards Bakarmandi and Company Bagh Crossing.
• Senior Bureaucrat or Elected Member (Mayor or Nagar Pramukh) should be head
  of all three institutions viz KNN, KJS and KDA for smooth and effective
  functioning.
• KNN should immediately under take task of assessment of those properties, which
  remain un-assessed even now and do sample checking of properties, covered
  under self assessment scheme.
• Old bungalows, which have been converted in to multi-storey flats and
  complexes, schools, nursing homes, private h  ospitals , should be re-assessed for
  house and property tax.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Mr. Surinder Mohan Aggarwal
Designation:                              Chairman, UPDESCO
Contact No.:                              09415043964
Date of Discussion                        24/07/2006
Discussion Team                           Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• City Contribution
• Power Scenario
• Institutional Reform

Summary of Discussion
• 30% share of the local bodies (KNN and KJS) can be best met by disposal of one or two
   premium properties in the city. The reforms, suggested by the consultants, may take a
   year or two before the start of any financial improvement.
• On power sector, he as sured the co-operation of state government by way of giving
   guarantee to NTPC Ltd. on behalf of KESCO so that MoU could be signed




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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Mr. Jagendra Swarup,
Designation:                              MLC
Contact No.:                              0512-2303138/39/40, 9839085577
Date of Discussion                        11/06/2006
Discussion Team                           Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• City Contribution
• Power Scenario
• Institutional Reform

Summary of Discussion
• On poor traffic management, he suggested that Rail-over-Bridge should be constructed at
   Shyam Nagar x’ing (on Delhi-Howrah Rail line) from G.T. Road to Shyam Nagar in
   addition to other ROBs on GT Road.
• On Education line, he agrees that seats available in Degree College are much less than the
   actual demand. There has been no increase in fees for quiet some time in Govt. aided
   Intermediate and Degree College in the city.
• From 1st April 1975, 80 percent of the fees collected from the students go to Government
   and only 20 percent comes to Management. Out of this 20 percent, no infrastructure
   development is possible.
• From 1980 onwards, all the appointments of teachers are made by the Govt.
• As per latest Supreme Court Judgment, the power to appoint rest with the management.
   The fee should have reasonable structure. In case of dispute, the Tribunal will decide the
   matter.
• In private sector, the role of Govt. should be minimum to promote quality education and
   also to develop necessary infrastructure for enhancement of seats with time.




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Name of the Stake Holder:           Mr Anil Kumar Sharma
Designation:                        Ex. Mayor
Contact No.:                        9839085565
Date of Discussion                  03-06-2006 & 05-06-2006.
Discussion Te  am                   D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• Taxation System
• Traffic Management
Summary of Discussion
• There should be different policy to fix a reasonable tax for 70-75 percent from ESW
    ownership, who could be brought under tax net, which they can afford and pay
    assessment.
• The property tax rate for old Bungalow and Kothis in posh areas, which have been
                          -
    converted into multi storey Complex but house tax, is still being paid at the rate of old
    bungalow needs to be revised.
• There should be a check on the conversion of residential areas into commercial centers as
    there is rapid growth of commercial activities in Swaroop Nagar, Arya Nagar, Kaka Deo,
    and Civil Lines.
• Health Club, Beauty Parlors, Hi-fi Schools, Guest Houses, Marriage Halls, Bars and
    restaurants etc. need to be brought in Tax Net.
• By Saral Kar Yojna, the number of assesses have gone up, but to increase revenues,
    systematic approach is needed. At present, there are only two categories i.e. residential
    and non-residential for assessment of municipal tax. These categories need to be
    increased to five categories i.e. industrial, institutional, commercial, residential and
    residential cum commercial land use. The rate of taxation should be reasonable and fair.
• Institutional reforms are required for bringing three institutions under one net. Presently
    Mayor is chairman of KNN and KJS, but not of KDA. One head should cover all three
    organisation KJS, KDA and KNN.
• Under the present system, overlapping of functions take place e.g. roads which are built
    by PWD, KDA and KNN in the city.
• The policy for recruiting class IV employee should be decided by Nagar level and not
    directed by state govt.
• The numbers of vehicles, plying on roads, have increased manifolds in last 5 years. The
    public transport system needs to be put in place like one in Mumbai.
• The ROBs/flyovers are required at COD, Tat mill, Coca Cola, Sharda Nagar, Kalayan Pur
    and Jarib Chowki railway crossings; Lal Imli crossing to avoid traffic jams and easy
    movement between main city and south city.
• The existing Railway bridges at Govind Nagar and Dada Nagar need to be widened to
    avoid traffic jams in the city.
• There are 350 parks in the city, managed by 90 Malis (Gardeners) and there is ban on
    further appointments, consequently some parks have become defunct and have been
    encroached by public.
• The condition of roads in south city i.e. Yashoda Nagar, entire Barra, Naubasta,
    Machharia and Shyam Nagar in East is in poor condition. This needs to be improved.
• The inner core city needs to be checked from further loading by way of multi-complexes
    and commercial land use etc. The water supply, sanitation, sewerage system and traffic
    get over-loaded with this trend. KDA is sanctioning map for change over from old
    Bungalow to new complexes without caring NOC from KNN.
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Name of the Stake Holder:                 Mr. Yogendra Mohan
Designation:                              Director, Jagran Group
Contact No.:                              09336816820
Date of Discussion                        19/07/2006
Discussion Team                           Mr. D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
• Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
• Why Kanpur is Important?
• What Kanpur should focus?
• What are areas of concern in his view?
Focus Areas :
• Revision & Notification of Master Plan
• Traffic Management
• Housing Development
• Increased power supply
• Public conveniences

Summary of Discussion
• Kanpur is an educational hub but quality of education needs to be improved.
• Non-aided schools are doing better and are better disciplined than aided schools.
• Teachers are better paid in government aided schools still there is no accountability.
• There should not be any interference of state Govt. in running of aided schools.
• For starting such institutions, Government’s role should be to approve and recognize them
   without delay and red tapism.
• Mr. Yogendra Mohan is involved in the provision of both Health and Education of the
   City.
• He is running charitable institutions for homeopathy. Homeopathic clinics are being run
   at Tilak Nagar, Parbati Bagla Road and Govind Nagar - Barra Area.
• He also run following institutes
   1. Shri Purnachandra School for 10+2 on CBSE pattern since 1991.
   2. Jagran Institute of Management and Mass Communication to impart one year training
       in print media, TV media, Broadcasting, Advertising and Public Relations. - There is
       100 percent placement for passing graduates from Jagran Institute of management
       and mass communication. T.V Channel -7 is owned by Jagran group.
   3. Institute of Jagran Management (starting in 2006) – it will provide 2 year post
       diploma course (PDGM) affiliated to AICT, MBA degree.
   4. Jagran College of Arts, Science and Commerce.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Mr. Jagdish Yadav
Designation:                                  Chairman, Lok Vikas Mandal, Kanpur
Contact No.:                                  09450149688
Date of Discussion                            10/5/2006, 8/6/2006
Discussion Team                               Mr. D.C. Awasthi, Pritam Kapur, Dr.
                                              Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas :
   • Slum up gradation
   • Housing for poor
   • Basic services to the poor

Summary of Discussion
   • From March, 1996 to 2004 National Slum Development Project was implemented by
     KDA by selecting 315 Malin Bastis.
   • Out of 390 slums, 150 have been developed by spending 26 crore for providing basic
     infrastructure and became Adarsh Bastis. The results were apparent and appreciated.
   • At present, no yojana (Plan) is in operation for Malin Basti. Only job trainings have
     been provided to girls and boys. In this scenario, JNNURM is only hope.
   • With the limited money allotted for Malin Basti, the physical infrastructure has been
     provided but at socio-economic front no development has taken place. Even no
     provision has been laid to provide health and education at slum level. The socio-
     economic issues need to be addressed.
   • At slum, basti dwellers do not have any public dispensary. They have to go to private
     doctors after covering large distances which means increased inconvenience and high
     cost. There is no study available to find out that what type of disease happened at
     slum level.
   • After anganwadi, there is no scheme for providing basic education.
   • Most of the community toilets are not working properly in spite of huge expenditure
     incurred on them.
   • Mainly agencies such as DUDA, SUDA and KNN are involved for upliftment of
     slums.
   • In 70-80 slums, re-building of houses are required.
   • The women should be made aware of the benefits of cleanliness and cleanliness
     drives should be organized at different slums.
   • The authorities have demolished around 25 slums whereas only 1200 houses are built.
   • Before demolishing any slum, alternate site and accommodation should be provided
     first.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Mr. Rakesh R. Jaiswal
Designation:                                    CEO,ECO-Friends Ngo,Kanpur
Contact No.:                                    09415129482
Date of Discussion                              10/05/2006
Discussion Team                                 Mr. D.C.Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:

    •   Discussion on JNURM objectives and vision for the city
    •   Why Kanpur is Important?
    •   What Kanpur should focus
    •   What are areas of concern in his view


Focus Areas
• Discharge of dirty water
• Institutional Reforms
• E-governence

Summary of Discussion
• All the Nalah’s discharging in Ganges and Pandu rivers need to be tapped and effluents
   need to be created or else to be discharged in the rivers at 15 KM downstream.

•   Institutional reforms for institutions like KJS, KNN and KDA are of utmost urgently
    Elderly staff may be given opinion of VRS and new staff as per need is to be trained to
    run the plants and system efficiently and objectively.

•   E- Governance to maintain transparency and increase efficiency in the system.

•   Computerization and development of softwares for better financial control and discipline.

•   Adequate generation of money for operation and maintenance of current plants as well as
    those coming up in future




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Name of the Stake Holder:                       Mr. Girish Bajpai
Designation:                                    Chairman, Pandit Deen Dayal Jan Kalyan and
                                                Vikas Samiti
Contact No.:                                    09839875876, 09838562057
Date of Discussion                              8/6/2006
Discussion Team                                 Pritam Kapur, Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • What Kanpur should focus on?
    • What are areas of concern in his view?
    • What are the problems faced by slum dwellers?
    • What is the likely solution of problems faced by slum dwellers?

Focus Areas :
   • Basic services for the poor
   • Slum up-gradation
   • Housing for poor

Summary of Discussion
   • In Kanpur, few hatas are located on religious trust land, some hata’s landlord has
     migrated to Pakistan and in a few hatas court cases are going on.
    •   Sewerage lines are hundred years old and their diameter is too small.
    •   In 40 to 50 percent areas sewerage is mixed with storm water drains. This leads to
        chocking of sewerage and should be stopped immediately.
    •   Community participation should be an integral part for all the projects to be
        implemented at slum level.
    •   Complete responsibility for sanitation work should be given to community and they
        should be accountable for the same.
    •   The relocation sites are not connected by link roads and no public transport is
        available to travel to the city.




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     Bimlabati (Bindu)
Designation:                                  President, Community Development
                                              Society (CDS)
Contact No.:                                  0512-2231059
Date of Discussion                            02/05/2006
Discussion Team                               Dr. Vinita Yadav and D.C. Awasthi
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • Why Kanpur is Important?
    • What Kanpur should focus
    • What are areas of concern in his view

Focus Areas
   • Community Development Activities.
   • Sanitation & Health facilities
   • SHG & Income Generating activities.
Summary of Discussion
   • The CDS society was formed under the DUDA.
   • Total no. of families are 775 in 556 houses.
   • For the Household Toilets a sum of Rs 200/- was collected from each house and this
       amounted to a total collection of Rs 1,20,000/-.
   • Rs. 7 lacs was given by Kanpur Nagar Nigam & 2 lacs was given by energy
       development Authority.
   • A 5 room school has been provided by SUDA along with drains, roads & electricity
       in the community.
   • A savings group has been formed in the community with 9 members. Each member
       contributes Rs.30.
   • Income generating activities have not been initiated for want of financial assistance.
   • Access to personal loan is difficult.
   • Moreover the women prefer to have an employment opportunity within the
       compound of their community.
   • No health services are provided for in the community.
   • The community lanes need to be broadened




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Name of the Stake Holder:                     19 CDS Members
Designation:                                  Community Development Societies
Contact No.:                                  -
Date of Discussion                            8/6/2006
Discus sion Team                              Pritam Kapur, Dr. Vinita Yadav
Discussion Agenda:
    • Discussion on JNNURM objectives and vision for the city
    • What are the areas of concern in their view?
    • What Kanpur should focus on?
    • What are the problems faced and their likely solutions according to them?

Focus Areas
   • Basic services for the poor
   • Slum up-gradation
   • Housing for poor

Summary of Discussion
   • Maintenance of sulabh shochalaya and community toilets should be with CDS
     members as currently they are in real bad shape.
   • The storm water drains and sewerage should be cleaned and maintained regularly.
   • Proper sites to dump the waste needs to be identified.
   • Community toilets should be provided where plinth area is too small to have
     individual toilets.
   • The design for community toilets i.e. whether it would be soak pits, septic tank or
     sewerage system, number of seats, lighting and water arrangement and place should
     be discussed with slum dwellers.
   • In some of the slum basties such as Govardhan Purva, Kanjaram Purva and Natvan
     Tala, no sewerage lines have been laid. The provisions to lay sewerage lines should
     be made.
   • Budget for O&M should be earmarked for maintaining different services.
   • Out of total 425 slums, 390 were selected under NSDP. Under N.S.D.P and U.B.S.P.
                                            a
     programme, both physical and soci l infrastructure has been provided to slum
     dwellers but after these schemes have been closed there is no such provision and
     development work suffers.
   • Earlier there were anganwadi for children’s and health programmes at slum level. At
     present, there is no scheme to provide primary education and health benefits at slum
     level. The provision for primary education and health camps should be organized at
     slum level.
   • The land titles should be given to slum dwellers and their contribution (monetary and
     physical) should be sought so that they should feel attached to the land.
   • At the places where multi-storey housing for slum dwellers is proposed, firstly
     alternate sites should be arranged and they should be relocated. Some part of the slum
     should be taken up for constructing the houses first, so that people will have
     confidence in government schemes and are willing to be evacuated for the time being.
   • Transparency should be maintained in the procedure for allotting houses to slum
     dwellers.



Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                                241
ANNEXURE II
                                                                     KANPUR
                                                             City Development Plan (CDP)


                                                                          Annexure II

           List of Officials who attended the meeting held on 19th April 2006
 S.No      Name                 Designation                 Department
    1.     S.S.Mathur           Architect Planner           J.P.S Associates (P) Ltd.
    2.     S.K.Relan            Institutional Expert        J.P.S Associates (P) Ltd.
    3.     D.C.Awasthi          Consultant                  J.P.S Associates (P) Ltd.
    4.     Dr. Vinita Yadav     Consultant                  J.P.S Associates (P) Ltd.
    5.     P.Kapur              Executive Director          J.P.S Associates (P) Ltd.
    6.     U.N. Tiwari          Add. Commissioner           Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    7.     Lalta Prasad         Chief Engineer              Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    8.     Satish Chandra       Executive Engineer          Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    9.     Hari Ram             Executive Engineer          Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    10.    H.C.Chauhan          Director (C.C.)             Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    11.    Shanshah Sultan      Executive Engineer          Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    12.    Sudhir Kumar Ozha    Assistant Engineer          Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    13.    S.A.Royal            Assistant Engineer          Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    14.    D.S.Tripathi         Assistant Engineer Zone 4   Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    15.    R.K.Agnihori         Junior Engineer             Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    16.    Jagdish Prasad       Junior Engineer             Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    17.    Pankaj Bhushan       Junior Engineer             Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    18.    M.K.Agnihotri        Drawing Supdt.              Kanpur Nagar Nigam
    19.    Anil Garg            Chief Engineer              Kanpur            Development
                                                            Authority
     20. M.C.Tiwari             General Manager             Pollution Control Unit, U.P.Jal
                                                            Nigam, Kanpur
     21.   Mukesh Kumar         Project Manager             Ganga Action Plan
     22.   R.B.Singh            Executive Engineer          Kanpur Jal Sansthan
     23.   S.K.Verma            Assist. Engineer            Kanpur Jal Sansthan
     24.   R.N.Goyal            Assist. Engineer            Kanpur Jal Sansthan
     25.   M.P.Srivastava       Supt. Engineer              U.P. Housing Board
     26.   S.K.Rajput           General Manager             KESCO
     27.   Manju Gupta          Scientific Officer          U.P. Pollution Control Board
     28.   Anoop Bajpai         Project Officer             District Urban Development
                                                            Authority (DUDA)
     29.   R.N.Mishra           Assist. Project Officer     DUDA
     30.   Trijin Bisen         C.O. Traffic                Kanpur Nagar
     31.   U.K.Gonlart          Assist. Engineer, CD-2      Public Works Dept.
     32.   Dr. R.B.Singh                                    C.S.A       University       of
                                                            Agriculture
     33. Dr. S.Kumar                                        C.S.A        University      of
                                                            Agriculture
     34.   Shashikant Asasthi   C.O.
     35.   Radha Krishan        Suptd. Engineer             Public Works Dept.
     36.   P.N.Gupta            Suptd. Engineer             Irrigation Department
     37.   M.K.Verma            Conservation Assistant      Archeology Survey of India
     38.   R.K.Sehgal           Administrative Officer      Archeology Survey of India
     39.   M.F.R.Zaid           Foreman                     Archeology Survey of India



Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                                  235
              ANNEXURE III:
INTRODUCING E-GOVERNANCE IN
                    KANPUR
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


                                                                          Annexure III

                     INTRODUCING E-GOVERNANCE IN KANPUR

         WHAT IS E -GOVERNANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF KANPUR?
         E-governance in the context of a city like Kanpur means use of electronic
         data processing and electronic data display systems (e.g. maps, charts or
         graphs) for easy and speedy access of urban information both to the city
         managers and to the citizens of the city.

         One of the essential characteristics of a e-governance systems is, that data
         should be available to the city managers on line and on real time basis. This
         means that all recording units such as payments and receipts, registration of
         properties, birth and death certificates should be on line i.e. all transactions
         should be directly entered into the computer by the concerned operator.

         As for the citizens, it should ease interaction with the government agencies,
         increase speed and transparency. An advanced system of e-governance
         should preferably be web based and citizens should be able to access
         information as also file returns etc electronically from the comfort of their
         home.

         Another characteristic of e-governance is easy availability of information and
         various disclosures to the public through interactive web sites so that any
         citizen can access not only general information like rules, procedures, rights
         of the citizens and the citizen’s charters but can also access information like
         city’s finances, personal disclosures of the wealth of the councillors etc.

         OBJECTIVE OF RECOMMENDING E-GOVERNANCE IN KANPUR
         • To provide electronic information to city managers both by way of MIS
           and by way of spatial displays, both for financial matters and on physical
           progress with a view to improve city management
         • To integrate and computerize all front end offices that interact with
           citizens to both provide better service to citizens as also to provide real
           time information to city managers on issues like collections, outstanding,
           grievances, breakdowns and repairs etc.
         • To provide a host of information to the citizens by web services or by
           touch screen kiosks such as monthly and quarterly progress reports of key
           service departments, tenders and forms, rules on property tax, information
           on bus timings, train timings, eating places, markets etc.

         CURRENT STATUS OF E-GOVERNANCE IN KANPUR
         Currently, e-governance as outlined above is non-existent in Kanpur city.
         Some amount of computerization has been carried out and a partial GIS map
         has been prepared. However, the data is rarely up to date because data entry
         is not on-line and the computers are not linked to each other by LAN or
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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


         WAN. City data or property data has not been entered onto the GIS, and
         hence information about any road, property or any asset of the municipality
         or the KJS is not readily available from the GIS.
         On the positive side, a number of employees are computer literate and
         accounts of various service organizations are computerized, though not on
         real time basis. Similarly some of the employees in KNN are proficient with
         GIS and can provide a base on which the e      -governance initiatives can be
         built.

         ELEMEN TS OF E-GOVERNANCE AND IT’S IMPLEMENTAT ION
         PLAN
         Obviously e-governance cannot be introduced overnight and a process
         approach has to be followed, where the e-governance is established in
         phases. Our recommendations are as follows;

         Phase-I
         • Computerization of financial accounting together with introduction of
           accrual accounting. This should include setting up of computers at all
           payments and receipts centres, and linking them to the zonal and H.O.
           computers so that the financial information is always up to date and on
           real time basis.
         • Computerization of property tax system, including a data base on all
           properties to track the details of sanctioned plans, actual construction,
           calculation of property tax and actual tax paid. This should be linked to
           the financial accounting system, so that MIS on Property tax is readily
           available.
         • Completing the GIS mapping and linking the property and other data base
           to the GIS, so that the information and MIS is also available on spatial
           basis to city managers.
         • Computerization of Public grievances and redressal mechanism. This
           information should also be available on GIS, so that areas of recurring
           grievances and trouble spots can be identified and city managers can
           analyse reasons and take corrective action.
         • Computerization of birth and death certificates and data on birth and
           death.

         Phase-II
         • Introduction of a file tracking system, so that movement of files and their
           efficient disposal can be electronically tracked and delays can be reported
           to the city managers in the form MIS.
         • Adding information on urban services to the poor and location of slums
           etc. on the GIS, so that concentration of slums, progress on provision of
           basic services can be followed up pictorially on GIS
         • Introduction of an asset management system, so that the status of assets
           both KNN and KJS could be managed efficiently. This will include
           information on age and condition of assets, status on maintenance,
           breakdowns, rents received etc. so that the efficiency of utilization of
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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


           assets can be improved and trouble spots in terms of repeated breakdowns
           can be tracked and rectified.
         • Adding information on roads, streetlights, transformers, traffic signals,
           parking lots and spaces to the GIS so that traffic management and
           maintenance of roads can be improved.
         Phase-III
         • Setting up a web site and setting up touch screen kiosks in public places
           so that ordinary citizens can access any information about the city easily.
         • Setting up bill payment kiosks that accept both cheques and cash on 24 hr
           basis ala ATM style so that all bill payments be it property tax, water
           charges, telephone bill or electricity bills can all be paid at one place and
           conveniently.
         • Loading information about the city, such as 24 hr chemists, location of
           hospitals, emergency services, bus stops and petrol stations etc. Bus and
           train timings and various other information of interest to the citizens. This
           should be available both through web site and by touch screen kiosks.

         ORGANIZATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
         For such an e-governance plan to be successfully implemented,
         organizational arrangements have to be made for the following three stages:

         Development stage
         • Appoint competent consultants to develop the e-governance system in
           stages, including drawing up specifications and assistance in hardware
           purchase
         • Appoint a senior nodal officer to co-ordinate the development of e-
           governance systems and for co-ordinating with the different departments
         • Outsource feeding in of previous data in the computers to enable the
           electronic records to be brought up to date and on line
         • Synchronise the MIS system with the GIS system, so that all data can be
           accessed on the GIS platform as well

         Capacity building stage
         • Intensive training programs should be undertaken by the consultants to
           train the various persons responsible for feeding in data on line and for
           accessing the data
         • Develop and train an e-governance officer in each department who should
           manage the system and take corrective actions in case of bugs and
           breakdowns
         • Provide training to the city managers on accessing computerized data both
           in the form of tables and graphs and in spatial format on GIS platform
         • Provide an extended period of hand holding to build capacity ‘on the job’




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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


         Taking over and internalizing stage
         • In this stage the consultants should slowly withdraw and the management
           of the e -governance system should be taken over by the nodal officers
           appointed.
         • The entire organization should start feeling at ease with the e-governance
           system and the computerized environment.
         • Stabilize the system and take over the system.




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                           239
                      ANNEXURE IV:
    JNNURM AND METHODOLOGY FOR
DEVELOPING ‘CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN ’
                                                                  KANPUR
                                                           City Development Plan (CDP)


                                                                          Annexure -IV

         JNNURM AND METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ‘CITY
                      DEVELOPMENT PLAN’

       BACKGROUND
       Urban population of India has increased from 23.34 percent in 1981 to 27.8
       percent in 2001 (Census of India 1991, 2001). It has been predicted that by
       2020, about 50 per cent of India's population will be living in cities. It’s
       mainly the larger urban centres which experienced faster demographic growth
       as compared to smaller order settlements. With the increase of population, the
       cities are not able to cope with the pressures of industrial development and the
       growth of the services economy on one hand. On the other hand, we are
       unable to address the needs of the poor i.e. basic services like drinking water
       supply, sanitation, housing and social services are not available to an
       increasing percentage of urban population. Cities need to be developed on a
       long-term planning framework to cope up with this problem. All previous
       efforts in city planning have been limited by “a narrow -focused project
       approach”. The cities are often facing problems of inadequate service levels
       and inadequate infrastructure, of inadequate investment and the non-
       availability of adequate land and housing. The legal systems, lengthy
       procedures and the inability of local bodies to perform effectively make i     t
       difficult to deal with the problems which cities face. The Planning
       Commission and the Ministries, in consultation with States, have developed an
       agenda of reform to persuade urban local bodies to look ahead and plan for
       growth in a sustainable manner.

       In many states, cities are seen as ‘wards’ of the State governments. They are
       not able to look inward and build on their inherent capacities i.e. both financial
       and technical. Though the cities have the financial as well as technical
       resources, the need is felt to emphasize the governance related reforms in the
       Mission which will enable the cities to locate the needed human and financial
       resources for improving its service delivery. Against this background, the
       central government has come out with the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban
       Renewal Mission (JNNURM), which is a city-based programme, to build the
       capacity of cities for better urban management.

       This programme has been launched for neglected cities willing to undertake
       time bound reforms to enable the m to improve their infrastructure and quality
       of life that falls short of global benchmarks. An outlay of Rs. 100,000 crores
       has been provided under JNNURM. It covers 63 cities over a period of seven
       years starting from 2005-06. Other than 7 mega cities, the mission proposes to
       cover around 30 other cities with population of over one million while the
       balance will be important urban centers with crumbling infrastructure and
       sizeable population. Smaller cities are covered under the Urban Infrastructure

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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) and
       Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP).

       JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION
       The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission addresses the
       problems created by outda ted laws, systems and procedures and aims to align
       them to the contemporary needs of our cities and towns. The Mission seeks to
       do away with those statutes that inhibit the functioning of land and housing
       markets and seeks to bring in the improvements whic h will enable the city-
       level institutions to become financially strong and viable.

       The JNNURM aims to provide an incentive to large urban areas to undertake
       institutional, structural and fiscal changes necessary for developing improved
       service delivery systems that are sustainable, address poverty and enhance
       local economic performance. The overall objective of the scheme is to
       improve the economic and physical infrastructure for the rapidly increasing
       urban population and also to provide essential facilities and services across the
       fast growing cities using public private partnership. To receive the assistance
       under the scheme, the states are required to bring reforms in the areas like
       stamp duty, rent control and repeal of urban land ceiling act and commitments
       on issues like regulatory framework for civic amenities, accountability
       standards and e-governance projects for land records, property tax and issues
       of automobile licenses etc.

       While the mission requires several mandatory state and city level reforms, and
       proposes a range of optional reforms, success depends ultimately on city and
       state governments achieving the following outcomes:
       Ø Modern, transparent budgeting, accounting, financial management systems
           designed and adopted for all urban services and governance functions
       Ø City-wide framework for planning and governance established and
           operational
       Ø All urban residents having access to a basic level of urban services
       Ø Financially self-sustaining agencies for urban governance and service
           delivery established, through reforms to major revenue instruments
       Ø Development of well functioning, efficient and equitable urban land
           market
       Ø Local services and governance conducted in a manner that is transparent
           and accountable to citizens
       Ø e- governance applications introduced in core functions of ULBs resulting
           I reduced cost and time of service delivery processes

       The twin focus of the Mission is (a) improved urban infrastructure and (b)
       improved urban basic services. The role of governance reform in the Mission
       is to ca talyze a process that enables both these to move forward.



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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       OBJECTIVES OF JNNURM
       The JNNURM mission’s objectives are to ensure that urban sector is able to
       achieve the following aspects:
       Ø integrated development of infrastructure services
       Ø linkage between asset creation and its management through a slew of
           reforms for long term project sustainability
       Ø ensuring fund availability to meet the deficiencies in urban infrastructure
           services
       Ø planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, out
           growths and urban corridors
       Ø improved delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities
       Ø urban renewal programme for the old city areas
       Ø providing basic services to the urban poor

       This approach to central funding of city restructuring is new and innovative,
       and requires significant institutional reform at both state and urban local
       government levels. Cities are expected to articulate their vision, their plans
       and their commitment through a City Development Plan. The City
       Development Plan jointly provides the starting point for this process.

       CITY DEVELOPMENT PLA N AND ITS OBJECTIVES
       A City Development Plan is both a perspective and a vision for the future
       development. It involves studying the current stage of city’s development,
       setting out the direction for change, identifying the thrust areas and suggesting
       the alternative strategies and interventions for bringing in the required change.
       The core objective of CDP is to identify the infrastructure projects to be
       implemented during mission duration across various urban sectors along with
       the proposed implementation mechanism including the Private Sector
       Participation (PSP) strategy. The CDP focuses on the urban reforms measures
       needed to be implemented to improve the health of ailing municipalities.

       THE CDP PROCESS
       The process of formulating a CDP as outlined in the JNNURM toolkit is
       presented in figure 1.




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                             242
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)




                                   MULTISTAGE EXERCISE


                             The City assessment                    Parameters

                             Opportunities, strengths,                  §   Demography
                               risks and weakness
                                                                        §   Economic Base
                               Unmet demand/gap
                                                                        §   Financial
                                                                        §   Physical and
                                                                            Environment
                        Future Perspective and Vision
                                                                        §   Infrastructure
    Multi-                   Opportunities, strengths,
 Stakeholder                risks and weakness Unmet                    §   Institutions
  Consulta-
    tions
                                    demand/gap                          §   Universalisation
                                                                            of services


                        Strategies for Development
                                                                    Sectors/Components
                              Options and Strategies
                                                                    § Environmental
                                                                      services
                            Link with Reform Agenda
                                                                    § Social/Infrastructure
                                                                    § Urban renewal
                            Criteria for prioritisation
                                                                    § Slum improvement
                                                                      and housing for EWS
                                                                    § Transport and roads
                          City Investment Plan &                    § Services to the urban
                          Financial Alternatives                      poor




Figure 1: Process of Formulation of CDP


Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                             243
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)




City Development Plan tries to address the following:

                                       Where
                                       are we
                                        now?


         What                      Perspective &
                                   Vision for the          Where do we want
     strategies are
       required?                      Future                   to go?
                                   Development


                                        What
                                         are
                                       priority
                                       needs?

                           Figure 2: Questions Addressed in CDP


       CITY DEVELOPMENT PLA N FOR KANPUR CITY
       The objective of preparation of City Development Plan for Kanpur was to
       identify the infrastructure projects to be implemented in the city during the
       duration of JNNURM across various urban sectors together with the proposed
       implementation mechanism including the Private Sector Participation (PSP)
       strategy. The CDP focused on the urban reforms measures which need to be
       implemented to improve the health of ailing municipalities and to make them
       sustainable and financially independent.

       OBJECTIVES OF THE ASSIGNMENT
       The objectives of the Kanpur CDP were:
       § To identify the core city challenges, a perspective and vision for the future
          development of a city, its present stage of development (current status) and
          sets out a direction of change
       § To focus on the development of economic and social infrastructure,
          policies and programmes addressing the specific issues of urban poor,
          strengthening of municipal governments and their financial management
          and accounting processes, promoting transparency in their functioning etc.
       § To provide a direction for cities and state governments to undertake urban
          sector reforms which will facilitate flow of investments into city based
          infrastructure.
       § To systematically think of the future and to determine how it wishes to
          shape their future
       § Finally, to develop a City Development Plan for Kanpur

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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)




       The coverage of the CDP was as follows:
       Ø What did the analysis of city’s profile show? Where were the
           opportunities and where are the key constraints?
       Ø Given the opportunities and constraints, where did the city wishes to
           move in a medium term perspective? While the vision was forward-
           looking, it was also a realistic vision, achievable within a given time
           frame.
       Ø What strategic options were available to achieve the vision?
       Ø What was the aggregate investment needed to implement the vision?
           What were the options for mobilizing resources for implementing the City
           Development Plan (CDP)?
       Ø What reforms other than those embodied in the JNNURM were necessary
           for effectively implementing the City Development Plan (CDP)?

       SCOPE OF WORK
       The scope of work entailed the following three key stages:
       - City Assessment
       - Development of Strategic Agenda and A Vision for the City
       - Evolved Strategies for Deve lopment
       - Development a City Investment Plan and Financing Strategy
       - Stakeholders Consultation

       The detailed scope of work as per ToR is enclosed in annexure 1

       DELIVERABLE AND TIMELINE
       Inception Report: It has outlined the overall approach. The report was
       submitted after 10 days i.e. on 12th May from the commencement of the
       assignment.

       Rapid Assessment Report: Outlining a snapshot assessment of the main
                       ed
       issues that need to be addressed while formulating the CDP. The report got
       submitted within 20 days i.e. on 24th May from the commencement of
       assignment

       Draft City Development Plan Report: The report was submitted within 60
       days from the commencement of the assignment i.e. on 10th July from the
       commencement of the assignment.

       Final Comprehensive City Development Plan Report: The report was
       submitted within 90 days from the commencement of the assignment i.e. on
       5th August after incorporating the comments received on the draft city
       development plan.




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                            245
                                                                   KANPUR
                                                            City Development Plan (CDP)


        APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY

        Approach for Preparation of CDP
        A fully consultative and participatory approach with local stakeholders and
        development partners was adopted while developing a city development
        strategy and development plan for Kanpur. Consultative meetings and city
        wide workshops were held at crit ical stages of the process to arrive at a
        consensus on key issues and to frame optional strategies to address the service
        delivery and financial issues identified.

        The consultations were carried out with officials from departments such as:
        § Kanpur Nagar Nigam
        § Kanpur Development Authority
        § Kanpur Jal Nigam
        § Kanpur Jal Sansthan
        § U.P. Housing Board
        § U.P. Pollution Control Board
        § District Urban Development Agency
        § Archeology department
        § U.P. Tourism Dept.
        § KESCO
        § Public Works Department
        § District Industry Centre etc.
        and with other stakeholders such as trade associations, industrialists, hoteliers,
        Merchant Chamber of Commerce, community development societies etc. The
        CDP therefore reflects a broadly shared understanding of the city's
        socioeconomic structure, constraints, and prospects (the analytical assessment)
        and a shared "vision" for Kanpur city with agreed goals, priorities and
        requirements (the strategic plan of action).

        The steps followed in the preparation of CDP are shown in figure 3


     Analysis of City’s             Opportunity and                 Realistic Vision
          Profile                    Constraints




      City Development
            Plan                                                      Strategic Options




         Reform Action
              Plan                   Options for Resource             Investment Required
                                         Mobilization


        Figure 3 Steps followed in the Preparation of CDP
Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                                   246
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       Methodology:

       Mobilization of Team
       The team of consultants were mobilized and familiarized with the project. The
       team was introduced to the officials of Kanpur Naga r Nigam with a view to
       obtain their perspective on the objectives of the study. The team has fine-tuned
       its understanding of the assignment, related approach and methodology, and
       deliverables in consultation with the Client.

       A plan for inputs required from different consultants at different times was
       drawn. A project manager (Dr. Vinita Yadav, urban planner) was appointed
       from the staff of the company and the overall direction was to be provided by
       Project Director (Mr. P.Kapur). In addition, highly qualified staff (Mr. D.C.
       Awasthi, ex Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur) was also mobilized to
       collect data and to analyse the same

       City Level Workshop I
       Due to excellent initiative taken by KNN, meeting cum workshop was held at
       Kanpur Nagar Nigam on 19th April 06. The officials from various departments
       such as Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur Jal
       Nigam (KJN), Kanpur Jal Sansthan (KJS), Kanpur Jal Nigam, Pollution
       Control Board, U.P. Housing Board, District Urban Development Authority
       (DUDA), Public Works Department (PWD), Irrigation Department and
       Archeology Survey of India attended the meeting. The list of participants, who
       attended the meeting, is enclosed in Annexure 2. The meeting was organized
       to brief the government officials about the overall JNNURM Concept, the
       process involved in the preparation of City Development Plan, their vision
       about the city, the current state of various infrastructure facilities etc.

       In the meeting, the consultant team briefed the government department
       officials about the JNNURM concept, meaning of City Development Plan
       (CDP), constituents of City Development Plan, process which consultants will
       adopt for preparation of CDP. The meeting was attended by the officials from
       the rank of Executive Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Director, Project Manager
       etc. The summary of discussions is presented in brief in Annexure 1.




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                                                                   KANPUR
                                                            City Development Plan (CDP)


       Data Collection
       A comprehensive list of data to be collected from secondary sources such as
       demographic information, socio-economic development, location and
       connectivity, spatial growth and land use, growth potentials of the city, roles
       and responsibilities of different institutions, housing stock and housing supply,
       extent, quality, reliability and level of urban basic services, road and
       transportation, slums, protected monument, urban services, institutional
       arrangements and environmental aspects and financial assessment was
       compiled. The discussions with Kanpur Nagar Nigam officials were held to
       finalise the checklist. The checklist was finalized after the discussion. The
       checklist covered the following areas:

       (a)   City Profile
       (b)   Demography
       (c)   Kanpur City Economy
       (d)   Urban Planning and Land Use Management
       (e)   Poverty and Slums
       (f)   Roads and Transportation
       (g)   Infrastructure – Sectoral Analysis
             § Water Supply
             § Sewerage
             § Storm Water Drainage
             § Solid Waste Management
             § Street Lighting
             § Housing
             § Social Infrastructure i.e. Education, Medical Facilities etc.
       (h)   City Environment Status
       (i)   Heritage and Tourism
       (j)   Municipal Finance
       (k)   Institutional Framework

       Analysis of Secondary data
       The data collected from secondary sources and through interactive sessions/
       interviews was analyzed to make a realistic assessment of where the city was
       and the direction in which it will move and its strengths and weaknesses. An
       analysis of the Kanpur City’s existing situation with respect to the followings
       was carried out to see its implications for service delivery and urban
       management.
       § Demography,
       § economic activities i.e. identification of existing nature of commercial and
           industrial establishments,
       § urban land use
       § transportation
       § urban poverty
       § urban infrastructure and services (like transportation, water supply and
           sanitation, sewerage and solid wastes management, drains etc.)
       § physical and environmental aspects and
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                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       §   institutional aspects

       The critical assessment as well as projections of population growth,
       infrastructure needs and resource requirements was carried out.

       This task provided us an initial background about where the city is in context
       to the demography, economic, historical development, present status of basic
       infrastructure, financial situation as well as key emerging issues in Kanpur.

       Identification of Key Stake holder’s
       A list of officials from different departments such as Housing Board, District
       Urban Development Authority, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur Jal
       Nigam, Kanpur Jal Sansthan, Department of Industries, U.P. State Industrial
       Development Corporation, U.P. Financial Corporation, Pollution Control
       Board, Traffic cell, Kanpur Police etc. involved in the preparation of urban
       development plan was also drawn up to carry out detailed discussions.

       The list of key stakeholders, who were involved in the urban service delivery,
       was collected from various government departments i.e. Kanpur Nagar Nigam
       and other agencies such as Kanpur Development Authority (KDA), District
       Urban Development Authority, District Industrial Department and Director of
       Industries etc. and compiled to prepare a final list. They were as follows:
       § ex- appointed Elected Representatives
       § trade associations
       § industries associ tions
                            a
       § hotel associations
       § builders associations
       § non-government organizations
       § community development societies (CDS)

       Discussions/ Consultations with key stakeholders
       The objective of the stakeholder’s consultation was to ensure that the CDP
       reflect ground realities and the needs of the people as articulated by them were
       incorporated in the CDP.

       For this purpose the methodology to be followed was: After identification of
       stakeholder, consultations with various stakeholders i.e. both officials from
       departments such as Kanpur Nagar Nigam, Kanpur Development Authority,
       Kanpur Jal Nigam, Kanpur Jal Sansthan, Housing Board, PWD, KESCO,
       District Development Authority (DUDA), U.P. State Industrial Development
       Corporation etc. were carried out to make them aware of city development
       plan, city’s vision and strategy. Besides carrying out discussions with the
       officials, discussions with discussions with key stakeholders such as
       Community Organisations, trade associations etc were also carried out to find
       out their roles in city development, know their perception about the city vision
       and develop a set of mission statements during different stages of project. The

Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                            249
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       consultative process through stakeholder consultations formed an integral part
       of the preparation of City Development Plan.

     Areas of Rapid Assessment:

     a)    Rapid Assessment of Infrastructure, Land Use and Environment
           The secondary information was collected and discussions / consultations
           with key officials from various government departments, the municipal
           corporation of Kanpur, civil society organisations were carried out to
           understand the current situation, identify key issues and critical
           infrastructure gaps and bottlenecks as well to synthesize suggestions for
           improvement in the urban service delivery

     b)    Rapid Assessment of Institutional Mechanism
           The assessment of Kanpur Nagar Nigam and other parastatal agencies was
           carried out with the help of secondary data collected and discussions held
           with municipal officials in Kanpur Nagar Nigam as well as officials of
           Kanpur Development Authority, U.P. Housing and Development Board,
           U.P. Jal Nigam, U.P. Jal Sansthan etc. examining institutional issues and
           identification of key constraints and points of citizen interface.

     c)    Rapid Assessment of Financial Health of Different Institutions
           The financial status of Kanpur Nagar Nigam and other parastatal agencies
           dealing with the service provision and efficiency of their institutional
           framework was also analyzed. The analysis focused on assessing the
           financial status of city government and also of other parastatal
           organizations responsible for service provision, status of current assets and
           liabilities including outstanding debt and analysing the role of inter-
           governmental transfers in the finances of municipal government.

       SWOT Analysis
       The Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats (SWOT analysis) of the city
       government/ parasitical agencies and related government departments will be
       carried out to have an overall understanding of the factors responsible for
       inefficient and inadequate production and delivery of urban services, their
       managerial deficiencies and financial constraints and to highlight critical
       factors with calls urgent remedial measures at the city and state governments
       levels.

       Stakeholder’s Workshops (Workshop II) to discuss the status of City and
       building consensus on priority issues
                                                th     th
       Stakeholder Workshops was held on 6th, 8 and 9 June at Kanpur to present
       the findings of the rapid assessment and also to obtain feedback from the
       stakeholders, through group discussions, on the priority issues affecting the
       growth and development of Kanpur. The city vision was also discussed in the
       workshop.

Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                             250
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       Methodology for Preparation of Draft Final Report

       Developing a Future Vision - What Need to be done & where we want to go
       Based on the outcomes of the City assessment and discussions with various
       stakeholders, a city vision was developed, which provided the direction of
       change with a specific time frame, to guide the future development of the City.

       Mission Strategies or Reforms required to achieve the Vision
       Based on the vision, strategies identifying key strategic issues, risks and
       opportunities facing the city with focus on JNNURM goals, objectives and
       reform priorities were formulated. Through strategy, the gap between where
       the city is and where it wishes to go was filled up. The vision and strategies
       was shared through wide ranging consultations among key stakeholders. This
       was done by adopting consensus building measures i.e. stakeholder
       consultation and discussions with KNN officials etc. The action plan was
       prepared to achieve Mission targets through consultation process.

       The milestones and targets, which were measurable and achievable within a
       timeframe, were identified.

       Infrastructure Development Needs
       A demand and supply gap analysis for basic infrastructure and services
       requirements was carried out. This was to ensure that the proposed initiatives
       and action plans as outlined in the CDP were not only be able to fulfill the
       crit ical gaps and bottlenecks but also caters to future demand taking into
       consideration the population growth and the urban growth.

       Infrastructure Financing Plan (City Investment Plan) and Means of
       Finance
       Based on the demand analysis carried out and the issues identified earlier,
       specific projects were conceptualised. A city investment plan provided the
       estimate of the level of investment which was required at the city level to
       implement the City Development Plan. The assessment of the financial status
                                                             as
       of municipal bodies and other financial institutions w also carried out to
       determine their creditworthiness to provide funding for identified reforms/
       projects/ Programmes.

       Workshop III for presentation of findings and building consensus on draft
       City Development Plan for Kanpur
       The workshop was organized on 26th July for key stakeholders from Kanpur
       where the draft CDP was presented with the objective of obtaining their
       consensus on CDP. The consensus was arrived at after detailed consultations
       with various stakeholders in the workshop on the key findings of the draft
       report. The draft report was also presented on 25th July before Principal
       Secretary and Special Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development, GoU;
       Director, Joint Director and Consultant, RCUES; State government and local
       government officials and officials from parastatal agencies.
Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                            251
                                                                 KANPUR
                                                          City Development Plan (CDP)


       Finalization of the City Development Report
       Alterations were made to the draft City Development Plan on the basis of
       feedback obtained from various stakeholders in Work   shop III to prepare the
       final City Development Plan report. The final City Development Plan was
       prepared on the basis of feedback received from stakeholders in workshop and
       suggestions received from officials of Kanpur Nagar Nigam, State Resource
       Centre (R CUES) etc.




Final Report: Kanpur City Development Plan Under JNNURM                            252

				
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