Green Process The Role of Laboratory and Analytical Testing for RoHS Introduction Larry Somrack, President NSL Analytical Services, Inc. Introduction Why do you need Lab Testing? 3 Different Ways to Prove Compliance Lab Choices Selection Criteria Techniques Laboratory Responsibilities Homogeneity Issues Exemptions FAQ‘s Why do you need Laboratory Testing for RoHS? Third Party Verification of Compliance Unbiased information Trustworthy information Proof of Compliance Why do you need Laboratory Testing for RoHS? Process Controls In-house laboratory ―Spot Checks‖ of Supplies Strategic Testing Plan 3 Different Ways to Prove Compliance 1. Vendor Certification Materials Declaration Form 2. On-Site Testing Screening Instrument ie Handheld XRF High concentration items 3. Comprehensive Testing In-house Laboratory 3rd Party Laboratory Analysis Accurate Quantification of Results Why do you need to test? Proof of Compliance Proof of Compliance from 3rd Party Laboratory Lab Choices Captive Laboratory Electronic Testing Laboratories Product Testing Laboratories Environmental Laboratories Materials Testing Laboratories RoHS Testing = Materials Testing Selection Criteria Extensive Expertise in Materials Composition Standardized Quality Systems Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) ISO/IEC 17025 required for QC 080000 IECQ – ISO 9000 Use Standard Reference Materials Turnaround Times to Meet Your Needs Thorough Knowledge of RoHS Requirements Involvement with governing bodies that determine RoHS methods and procedures Using Best Available Methods for Materials Testing Handheld X-Ray For Screening XRF has important role in RoHS testing Screening tool to identify high concentrations of restricted substances PVC – Cd and Pb Polystyrene ABS – PBDE Plastics (red, orange, yellow) Cd, Cr6, Pb Plating Cr6 Others Quick indication of substance‘s presence Alternative test methods required for accurate determinations Methods Used for Accurate RoHS Analysis X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Inductively Coupled Plasma /Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/AES) Inductively Coupled Plasma/ Mass Spectroscopy (ICP/MS) Atomic Absorption (AA) Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption (CVAA) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) FTIR Verification Test Procedures Test Methods Homogeneous Test Substance Electronic Techniques s Polymers Metals Components Mechanical All Direct Direct Grinding Preparation Measure Measure Grinding Machining Chemical All Solvent Ex. Acid Acid Digestion Preparation Acid Digestion Solvent Extraction Digestion Analytical PBB/PBDE GC/MS — GC/MS Methods LC LC Cr(VI) Colorimietry Colorimietry Colorimietry Hg ICP/AES, ICP/MS, Cold Vapor AAS, AAS Pb/Cd XRF, ICP/AES, ICP/MS, AAS Laboratory‘s Responsibilities Evaluation of Materials for RoHS Testing Identify Homogeneous Materials Assess Effective Material Preparation for Analysis Laboratory‘s Responsibilities Recommend Testing Based on Material Composition Sample Size, Methodologies, Etc. Selection of the most accurate and appropriate Methodologies and Procedures Such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard methods. Laboratory‘s Quality System Comprehensive Quality Systems Documentation Controls Review of Data by Experienced Technical Staff Reference Standards Recoveries Instrument Calibration using NIST traceable standards Spike Recoveries Blanks The key is to make sure the laboratory is providing Legally Defensible Data Accurate Procedures Methods are under Development Materials Testing vs Environmental Methods Example of poor science and methods listed for inorganic materials: Steel, Ceramic and Copper PBB and PBDE Lab listed Methods 8081A, 8270C, 3540C and 3550B 8081A Organochlorine Pesticides by GC ―Pesticides in extracts from solid and liquid matrices‖ 8270C Semi-volatile Organic Compounds by GC/MS ―solid waste matrices, soils, air sampling media, water 3540C Soxlet Extraction ‗solids such as soils and wastes‖ 3550 B - Ultrasonic Extraction ‗solids such as soils, sludges and wastes‖ Accurate Procedures International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) To ensure compliance, test lab should use approved or standardized procedures and certified reference materials. Lab should provide full compliance statement with test results and QC data Keep Those Results in a Safe Place and Keep them Readily Available ON Line or Electronically Send test samples with known materials as a Quality Check on the Lab. Testing Challenges Homogeneity– The major issue impacting Due Diligence Grinding is not the Solution!!! Key Requirement of RoHS Directive Each Assembly Component MUST Be Tested Separately Definition: ―Homogeneous material means a material that can not be mechanically disjointed into different materials.‖* *DTI RoHS Regulations, Govt Guidance Draft August 2005 Example of Non-Homogenous Material Silicon Chip Gold Wire Copper Lead Frame Chrome Plating Tin/Lead Solder Silver Epoxy or High Lead Plastic Encapsulation Solder Adhesive Populated Circuit Board Testing Challenges Definition: ―Homogeneous material means a material that can not be mechanically disjointed into different materials.‖* *RoHS Enforcement Guidance Document Version 1 – issued May 2006 Example of Homogenous Material Bare Board Part Issues with Testing Non-Homogeneous Materials Dilution Factors False Compliance Lack of Identification of Specific Non- Compliant Component Example Tin Lead Solder at 37% lead (Fail) Total lead in a 1lb board 0.081% (Pass) [(0.37 x 1g)/454g] x 100 = 0.081% Issues with Testing Non-Homogeneous Materials Contamination with Exempt Materials False Non-Compliance Solder and plastic have low melting points Exemptions Understanding exemptions and proper identification is critical in determining true compliance. Exemptions: Up to 4% Pb in Copper Alloys Lead in Glass and Ceramics Deca-Polybrominated Biphenylethers (Deca- BDE) Medical & Military Applications Etc., etc., etc. . . By the Laboratory Knowing Exemptions You Can Save Time and $$$. Exemption Example What does that mean to you? Strategic Testing Plan Good and Bad Science Methods Instruments Materials Screening Reduce costs Recommendations Get your Testing Done as Soon as Possible Choosing the Right Laboratory will Help You Succeed With Your Due Diligence Strategy Look For: Accurate Procedures Good Quality Systems Defensible Data Available RoHS Testing Experience Cost Effective Methods Ask for Any Available References Save your Company Time and Money! Frequently Asked Questions Cost Turnaround Time Sample Size How much testing do you need? The Role of Laboratory and Analytical Testing for RoHS QUESTIONS?
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