Overcharging Cell Phones by dnq34267

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									Battery Charging
   Operation
      Battery
  HAZARDOUS        POSSIBLE
CONSTITUENT        EFFECTS
                Corrosive, causes
                severe skin burns,
SULFURIC ACID
                  and can cause
                    blindness.
                Causes nerve and
                 kidney damage,
    LEAD            suspected
                  carcinogen
Preventive Maintenance
• When the top of a battery is “dirty or
  looks damp.
• Give a battery a general cleaning, use
  hot water (130° F to 170° F) with a
  neutralizer / detergent solution.
               Charging
• Clean Battery Terminals.
• Attach clamps to the battery in proper
  polarity.
• Keep open flames and sparks away from
  battery.
• Ventilate the battery well while charging.
             Charging
• The charge a battery receives is equal
  to the charge rate in amperes multiplied
  by the time in hours.
• Measure the specific gravity of a cell
  once per hour during charging to
  determine full charge.
         Overcharging
• Results in warped or broken plates,
  damaged separators, severe shedding
  of the active materials pasted to the
  plates, and excessive loss of water,
  which cause plates to dry out.
                 Jump Starting
• Be sure to turn off accessories.
• Connect the red cable to the positive terminal on the good battery
  while the engine is running.
• Connect the other end of the red cable to the positive terminal on the
  dead battery.
• Then connect one end of the black cable to the negative terminal on
  the good battery.
• Connect the other end of the negative cable to a known good ground
  in the vehicle with the dead battery.
• After starting the vehicle with the discharged battery, allow the engine
  to return to idle speed.
• Remove the negative jumper cable starting with the end that is
  connected to the vehicle ground
• Remove the positive cable.
   JUMP-STARTING A WEAK or
  DEAD AUTOMOBILE BATTERY
         CORRECTLY
• When a motor vehicle battery fails, a
  jump start often is the best short term
  way to get the motor going. Because it
  is important that jump starting be done
  properly, the National Safety Council
  recommends the following procedure:
                   PART I
• Position another vehicle with a healthy battery
  and your car so they do not touch each other. Be
  sure both batteries are of the same voltage.
• Read the owners' manuals for BOTH vehicles for
  any special directions.
• Turn off the ignitions of both vehicles and set the
  parking brakes. Place automatic transmissions in
  "Park" and standard transmissions in neutral.
• Wear safety glasses and gloves while using
  cables.
                  PART II
• Unless given different directions in the owner's
  manual, use the booster cables in this order:
• Clamp/connect one end of the positive (+)
  booster cable to the positive (+) post of the dead
  battery.
• Connect the other end of the same cable to the
  same marked post (+) of the booster battery.
• Connect the second, negative (-) booster cable to
  the other post of the booster battery.
• Make the final negative (-) booster cable
  connection on the engine block of the stalled
  vehicle away from the battery.
               PART III
• Start the booster vehicle and let it run for
  a few minutes. Then, start the disabled
  vehicle.
• Remove the cables in the reverse order of
  connection, being very careful not to let
  the booster cable clamps touch each other
  or come in contact with car parts. Also,
  avoid the fans of the engines. Electric fans
  may run without the engine being on.
      TRACTOR SAFETY
• Farm tractors should be equipped with
  bypass starter covers.
  Many farm tractors do not have bypass
  starter covers for preventing jump starting.
  Tractor operators may attempt to jump start a
  farm tractor if the battery is dead. If the tractor
  is in gear, it could lurch forward and run over
  operators and innocent bystanders. A bypass
  starter cover would save lives.
TRACTOR SAFETY FACT
• If all farm tractors were equipped
  with bypass starter covers:

• It would save approximately 350 lives
  annually on U.S. farms.
   Cell Phone Dangers: An
    Explosive Situation?
• You’re at a gas station filling up. So is
  the driver at the next pump. Suddenly
  you hear his cell phone ring. As
  gasoline fumes waft upward from the
  nozzle inserted in his vehicle, he
  reaches to answer the call. Do you:
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
a) Ignore it.

b) Be concerned.

 c) Dive for cover
 CELL PHONE BATTERY
• The Web page of the U.S. General
  Services Administration (GSA), which
  oversees the use of thousands of official
  vehicles, tells their operators “DO NOT
  (their capitalization) use your cellular
  phones when at a gas station. Cellular
  use anywhere fuel is stored is
  hazardous.”
      URBAN LEGEND??
• The impetus behind all this is a spate of
  reports (some, but not all, confirmed) that
  sparks generated by the circuitry in cell
  phone switches and batteries can, in fact,
  touch off a fuel explosion. “In one incident, a
  driver suffered burns and his car was
  severely damaged when … talking on his
  mobile phone near a gas pump. Electronic
  devices in gas stations are protected with
  explosive containment devices,” GSA
  declares. “Cell phones are not.”
                FACT
• Cell phones are not designed for use in
  an ignitable fumes atmosphere. In fact,
  some owner’s manuals clearly state
  this.
REMOTE BUT POSSIBLE
• It is possible for a spark powerful enough to create an
  explosion to be generated. One way this can happen,
  says the Safety Center, is if the phone is dropped,
  the battery pops out, and something bridges its
  terminals, creating a short. Others have warned of
  defective circuitry inside the phone doing the same.
• The chances of all this coming together at the precise
  same moment is “distinctly remote.” But even so,
  caution while fueling is advisable. Turn off your
  engine, don’t re-enter your vehicle (a static spark
  might be created), don’t use your phone, and above
  all, DON’T SMOKE!
   BATTERY CHARGING
• One advantage of a manual transmission is
  the ability to start a vehicle with a depleted
  battery. If the charging system (alternator and
  voltage regulator) are in proper working
  condition, simply push-start the car and kick it
  over, then drive long enough to let the
  charging system do its work. A good half-hour
  drive should give it a solid charge.
   Here are a few tips to
  quickly restore a battery
     using this method.
1.Drive at a constant speed (highway driving)
   versus stop-and go (city driving). This will
   give the alternator an opportunity to charge
   more evenly.
2. Turn off all accessories (radio, air
   conditioner, etc.).
3. If possible, drive during the day. Even
   headlights use power. Having them off
   increases the amount of electricity going to
   the battery.
               *******
• Remember, this does not replace
  charging the battery. A car's alternator
  is not designed to fully restore a
  depleted battery, but rather to maintain
  a healthy one. As soon as possible, put
  your battery on a battery charger such
  as the Battery Tender, and give it a full
  charge for a day or two.
Automatic Transmission
• If you have an automatic transmission, you
  can jump-start the car instead. If the charging
  system is in proper working condition, it will
  recharge quickly. Follow the same steps as
  above to ensure that the car won't need
  another jump, then, as soon as possible,
  have the battery fully charged by a mechanic
  or you can do it yourself if you own a high-
  quality battery charger .
           BATTERY TIP
• Another tip: If parking a car for long periods of
  time (weeks or months), it's best to
  disconnect the battery to prevent discharging.
  Use a crescent or open-ended wrench to
  loosen the strap from the negative terminal
  on the battery, then remove the connector.
  Make sure the connector is tucked away from
  the terminal, where it cannot come into
  contact with the post.
   Battery Maintenance
 Check the water level every couple of
 months. It should be just touching the
 bottom of the refill hole.

• Refill the battery, when needed, with
  distilled water. Don't use tap water, it
  produces corrosion on the terminals.

• Don't overfill the cells. Just to the bottom
  of the refill hole is perfect.
           The following tips apply to all
    batteries, including maintenance-free.

     To ensure good connectivity, clean the terminals periodically with a wire
     brush.

•    When removing a connector from a terminal, twist it from side to side and
     pull gently upward. Refrain from excessive tugging or prying.

•    When reconnecting a connector to a terminal, seat it down firmly on the
     post. A few gentle whacks from a rubber mallet will do it. Don't over
     tighten and strip the nut.

•    After securing the connector, coat the whole post with high-temperature
     grease. This will reduce corrosion and rust.

•    If you keep having electrical problems (battery dies, car won't start, power
     is intermittent or weak), it's not necessarily the battery. It could be in the
     charging system, normally either a bad alternator or voltage regulator. A
     mechanic can test the system to isolate the problem.

								
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