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									Web-enabled Information Services for Engineering




  Knowledge Management and Information Systems

   Presentation at Telebalt conference, the 21st of October 2002
             Jouni Meriluoto, Nokia Research Center
         WISE Project

  Web-enabled Information Services for Engineering:
    Knowledge Management for Engineers [www.ist-wise.org]

  European R&D project in IST programme

  Duration 2001-2004

  10 partners :
     Industrial: Airbus (France, Germany), Nokia
     Software providers: PACE, Interface, Cyberstream
     Universities (Helsinki, Berlin)
     Research institutes (Norske Regnesentral, Eurisco)

  Approach: State of art, Requirements, Design, Implementation, Test

                                     done




Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems      2
         WISE Keywords

 Web-enabled - web technology is becoming the backbone for knowledge &
   information exchange. WISE intends to design a platform that enables easy
   integration of existing and future KM tools and approaches and making them
   easily accessible from everywhere.

 Information - what is transferred among people: data, information and knowledge.
    Data is un-interpreted information, whereas knowledge is already processed
    information. Information is shared between systems and users. The scope of KM
    includes knowledge acquisition (education, training, purchase), formal and
    informal knowledge, knowledge maintenance, distribution and usage. KM is
    accomplished through changes in culture and process, supported by technology.

 Services - In WISE, services are viewed as functions that need to be developed in
   order to empower the user – enabling them to design better product in shorter
   time, and more fluently.

 Engineering - WISE supports engineers / designers – during their task of
   developing complex and safety critical products. Engineers produce a large
   amount of documents and knowledge. They interact among each other and with
   external bodies via documents. A goal of WISE is to ease this interaction process
   in order to improve the engineering processes. Engineering has special
   requirements towards Knowledge Management.


Telebalt 22.10.2002     Knowledge Management and Information Systems                   3
         Four Paradigms and Two Interpretations

  Ontology (in philosophy) concerns beliefs about the form and nature of
   reality
  Epistemology concerns the nature of knowledge and the relationship
   between those who know and knowing
  Paradigms [Yolles]
   1) Positivism
   2) Post-positivism
   3) Critical Theory
         Postmodernism
         Poststructuralism
   4) Constructivism
  Interpretations of Information [Virtanen]
    1) Quantitative, based on probability
    2) Qualitative interpretation in a) Communication, b) Presentation,
         and c) Processing




Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems          4
         Positivism

  Ontology:
   Reality can be apprehended,
   Observer independent data: facts
  Epistemology:
   Objectivity,
   Possibility to find universal truths
  Simple belief in science in Western industrial history
  Mechanistic science extended to behaviourism in psychology
  Naïve systemic thinkers




Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems   5
         Post-positivism

  Ontology:
   Objective reality
   Apprehended imperfectly and probabilistically
  Epistemology:
   Only a approximate image of reality is possible

 "Engineering View" [Fivaz]
  Observers can have their own perspective that can influence the way
   they see things.
  Observers have consciousness which (in extension to simple
   behaviourism) is seen to be a set of engineering processes that
   converts information acquired as observation from "outside" into
   information implemented.
  People can be better or worse at this engineering process, and at least
   fuzzy optimisation becomes relevant.
  Mind is biased machine, reality is actually out there, and knowledge is
   objective.



Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems           6
         Critical Theory

  Ontology:
   Reality is virtual
   Social, political, economic, ethnic and other factors shape reality
  Epistemology:
   Subjectivist
   Findings are value laden with respect to the world view of an
   inquirer

  Inquiry is value determined in both postmodernism and
   poststructuralism




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         Constructivism

  There exists both local and specifically constructed realities
  Ontology:
   Reality is relative phenomenon
  Epistemology:
   Knowledge is created in interaction between inquirers in a situation and
   its participants
   Subjectivist epistemology, relates to created findings

  There are no observers, only viewers. Views, like behaviours are
   derived from worldview.
  Interaction of different worldviews occurs through a semantic
   communication process [Luhmann]
  Interaction occurs in a framework, "lifeworld" [Habermas]
  Cognitive oriented constructivist theories and Socially oriented
   constructivist theories.




Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems            8
        Probability



                                     Probability




         Syntactic                                                     Physical
       Communication                  Semantic                         Existence
                                Presentation in language

                                          -novelty
                                         - content
                                  - relative information




         Information Species based on probability – Quantitative interpretation



Telebalt 22.10.2002     Knowledge Management and Information Systems               9
         Communication

                                    Qualitative interpretation
                                    Pragmatic information
                                        communication



                                                       Knowledge-related
                            Expressive
                                                          Truth value
                            Truth value
                                                           necessary
                           not necessary
                                                              -singular,
                        -assumptions, moods,
                                                             - general,
                           intuitions, beliefs
                                                          - explanatory,
                       -absolute values, norms
                                                          -instrumental,
                         - questions, orders,
                                                            - evaluative
                      exclamations, requests…




                             Value
                                                             Transmission
                            -novelty
                                                                 -verbal
                             -utility
                                                              - non-verbal
                          - exchange

Telebalt 22.10.2002        Knowledge Management and Information Systems      10
         Presentation


                                    Qualitative interpretation
                                          Presentation




                                                                      Modal
                                                                  No truth value

                                                                 - absolute values
         Epistemic
                                                                      and norms
         Truth value
                                                                    -experiences
          Evidence                 Doxastic
                                                                    - commands,
                                  Truth value
                                                                   exclamations,
           -singular              No evidence
                                                                      questions,
           - general
                                                                       advices…
        - explanatory          - beliefs, intuitions,
       - instrumental,              guesses…
         - evaluative




Telebalt 22.10.2002      Knowledge Management and Information Systems                11
         Processing


                                   Qualitative interpretation
                                         Processing




                      Metadata                Data               Data-logical
                                         Not processed           Data-derived




           Media                 Data                    Algorithmic            Heuristic
                                                           Numeric              Symbolic




                                                                           Knowledge
                                                                             System
                                                                           Procedural,
                                                                            declarative


Telebalt 22.10.2002       Knowledge Management and Information Systems                      12
          Semiotics




     KM system based on object-oriented analysis can utilise the concepts from
     qualitative information species.


Knowledge resides in human beings - not in the media. However, in
sociological constructivism the context is part of the knowledge.

Telebalt 22.10.2002       Knowledge Management and Information Systems           13
         Semantics


                                             Significatio
                                              (meaning,
                                               sign)

          Word
                                Perception                  Convention

                 Concept




                                             Experience              Referent
                            Form                                         (Object)


Cognitive oriented constructivist theories emphasize the exploration
and discovery on the part of each learner as explaining the learning
process. Knowledge is still very much a symbolic, mental
representation in the mind of the individual. But collaborative system
for engineering needs a socially oriented approach.
Telebalt 22.10.2002        Knowledge Management and Information Systems             14
         KM Systems as Technologies


 Information technologies for managerial and professional workers
    evolved already several decades
       Management Information Systems (MIS)
       Decision-Support Systems (DSS)
       Executive Information systems (EIS)
       Information Management Systems
       Artificial Intelligence
       Semantic Network
       Collaboration (Groupware…)
       (Re)engineering




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                     Information Systems as KM Tools

                       IHMC Concept Map                                          ORGANIZATIONAL       Cerebyte Infinos
                                                 KNOWLEDGE
                         Decision Explorer                                       MEMORY               QLoops Knowledge Management
                                                 MAPPING                                              Networks
                      Axon Idea Processor
     OntoBroker / OntoEdit / OntoAnnotate                                                             Questmap
                                                                                   DOCUMENT
                                                                                                      CyberDOCS
                                                                                   MANAGEMENT
         LearnLinc                                                                                    Documentum
                                                                                   SYSTEMS
       EduSystem                                                                                      Lotus Knowledge Discovery Server
        VCampus                                                                                       Lotus K-station
              Serf      ON-LINE
            LUVIT       TRAINING                                Tools                KNOWLEDGE           Knowledge XChanger, Focus,Tribe
             Saba                                               Survey               MANAGEMENT          V66
           Theorix              OmniSpace                      21.05.2002 - v4                           Oculus CO
  Learning Objects              Technologies
                                                                                                         DioW eb Enterprise
  standardisation                   Caucus        COLLABOR-                           INFORMATION        dtSearch Engine
                     Collaboration Fabricators    ATION                               RETRIEVAL          INQUERY
                 Communispace Corporation
                                                                                                         Omnidex
                             KMTechnologies
                                                                                                         Verity K2
                          Open Text - Livelink
                                                                                   KNOWLEDGE
                                                                                                    CART / MARS
Security Technology (Firewall Problem)                                             DISCOVERY &
                                             UNDERLYING                                             SPSS tools
     CAD-Systems and corresponding                                                 DATA MINING
                                             TECHNOLOGIES                                           DataEngine
     interfaces
                Middleware technology                                                               Darwin




              KM Tool survey can be downloaded from www.ist-wise.org

      Telebalt 22.10.2002                        Knowledge Management and Information Systems                                        16
          WISE System Architecture


WISE           Web                    Eng. tool             Eng. tool                  Mobile
clients       Browser                 plug in 1             plug in 2                  client

                                            display management




                                                                                           Administrative
WISE




                                                                                             functions
Knowledge      Rules            capture            re-use               monitoring
              database
server
                                    Process flow            Query
                                      control               engine


                                       storage
                   retrieval                                modelling           indexing
WISE                                 management
Knowledge                        knowledge base distribution mechanism
base
                       DB1                 DB2                                       DBn


  WISE will support engineers with context-sensitive
  knowledge management functions based on web technologies
 Telebalt 22.10.2002         Knowledge Management and Information Systems                                   17
         KM System as a Human Process

 Knowledge management system, however, does not have to be a
   computer system. It can be a process of
  finding, selecting, organizing, distilling and presenting
   information in a way that improves comprehension in a specific
   area of interest, and
  acquiring, storing and utilizing knowledge for such things as
      problem solving, dynamic learning, strategic planning and
        decision making.




Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems   18
         Human Factor Issues in Engineering

  Knowledge = most important personal asset of an engineer in a
   quickly changing business environment
     reluctance to share

  Time pressure to get the job done
      no time for documentation, making knowledge explicit,
       abstraction…

  Very high need for knowledge from previous experience,
   neighbouring departments
     readiness to share?

  The internet experience (easy access to tons of useful
   information)
      experience that knowledge exchange works

  Human factors form the basis for KM systems
Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems   19
         WISE Results

  User interviews at three industrial sites
      what are the real needs of engineers regarding information and
        knowledge?
  corporate KM strategies and instruments already in place
  3 industrial scenarios with big common scope (80%!)
  High need for KM adapted to engineering needs
  Goal: Build a Knowledge Portal – get a focused access to all the
   information you need, integrated with your work tools
  Challenges:
      Multiple platforms & proprietary engineering tools
      Select information according to context
      Convince engineers and managers to share knowledge
      Provide methods and processes for practical KM
  Holistic WISE approach: Looking at technological, organisational and
   human-factors issues

                               Thank you.
                           www.ist-wise.org
Telebalt 22.10.2002   Knowledge Management and Information Systems        20

								
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