Geography Byron Bay Assignment.d

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Geography Byron Bay Assignment.d Powered By Docstoc
					Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”


                              Contents
Page (s) Section
1              Title Page
2              Contents
3              Introduction
3-4            The Geographical Processes that influence
               Byron Bay‟s Coastline
5              The Perceptions of Different Groups in
               relation to the Coastal Management of Byron
               Bay
6              Responses of Individuals, Groups and the
               Government to the issue of Coastal
               Management
7              The Decision Making Processes involved in
               Coastal Management
8              Management Strategies used at Byron Bay
9              Conclusion/Recommendation
10-11          Bibliography/Appendices
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”




                     Introduction
                     Australia is the largest island in the world. Its coasts are an
                     integral source of recreation, industry and residence. An iconic
                     example of this is the Byron Bay coastline. Since about two
                     thirds of Australians live on the coast it becomes subject to
                     human factors and impacts. Storm water, dune modification,
                     introduced species and tourism are some of these human impacts.
                     There are also a number of geographical processes and factors
                     that affect the geomorphology of the coast. In Byron Bay, there
are also different perceptions in relation to its coastal management. In order to create
an ecologically sustainable Byron Bay coast; individuals, groups and the
Government respond and utilise different strategies of coastal management. These
responses are the result of the decision making processes that are involved.
Ultimately, it‟s about achieving a balance.




The Geographical Processes that
influence Byron Bay‟s Coastline
Atmospheric Processes
Wind erosion affects Byron Bay‟s coastline. As the prevailing wind directions are
north and east, Byron Bay‟s wide beaches and rock formations are constantly being
worn away. With mean global temperatures increasing, glaciers are melting and the
sea level is rising. As parts of Byron Bay‟s altitude are below the current sea level;
Byron Bay could soon be underwater.

Biotic Factors
The ecosystems and biodiversity influences parts of Byron Bay‟s coastline. For
example, vegetation and trees provide a sustainable ecosystem for certain animals.
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”

Geological/Tectonic Forces
Soil type, crustal movements, corrosion, rock structure, density and volcanic
activity have all contributed to the Byron Bay today. Approximately twenty-million
years ago when Mt Warning erupted; it scattered numerous different types of igneous
rocks. Basalt is one of these, and it provides a rich red soil optimum for vegetation
growth, while Rhyolite, another igneous rock gave a poor grey soil not a very good at
sustaining flora. Crustal movements have also influence Byron Bay‟s physical
geography as at the moment Australia is moving north. The density and location of
rocks also dictates the level of erosion. Denser, stable rock structures are less
susceptible to corrosion and erosion and visa-versa.

Marine Processes
Ocean processes that influence the geography of Byron Bay include wave erosion,
longshore drift, hydraulic wave action and corrasion. Destructive waves contain
high amounts of energy and in turn, erode sand and rock. Long shore drift is
influencing
the sand
placement at
Byron Bay.
Sand from the
Pass and
Southern
Suffolk Park
are being
moved north/west to Belongil and Tallows respectively. The sheer force of hydraulic
wave action erodes the beaches and when waves use material like sand to abrade the
shore; corrasion is taking place.

Sedimentation Processes
Sedimentation processes include deposition, longshore drift and constructive
waves. Constructive waves have a small amount of energy and the large swash
deposits various materials on the beach and these settle and build up the beach
ecosystems. The prevailing wind direction is south/east so west/north is the direction
of long shore drift. More sand is found at the North ends of beaches while less is
found at the Southern ends (see marine processes).
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”


The Perceptions of Different Groups
Recreational/Commercial Fishers
Those that fish believe the ocean is very important
resource that needs to be effectively managed.
However both recreational and commercial fishers
strongly oppose coastal management in the areas that
forbid fishing. For example, the Cape Byron Marine
Park has sanctuary zones that provide complete
protection from fishing; and this angers fishers who
may find this particular area a good fishing zone.

Byron Shire Council
The Byron Shire Council gives unspoken approval to
a number of coastal management ideas. They in turn make regulations and educate
tourists that the coast is a vital system that cannot be exploited.

Tourists/Local Residents
Tourists and residents have ranging opinions in relation to the coastal management
of Byron Bay. Some believe the coast should be managed to preserve its biodiversity
and ecosystems, while those against the idea of coastal management perceive the
coast contains valuable resources that need to be utilised to drive Byron Bay
economically.

The Marine Parks Authority/National Parks
The Marine Parks Authority (M.P.A) and National Parks are emphatic approvers of
the coastal management of Byron Bay. In particular, the M.P.A is responsible for the
Cape Byron Marine Park and its task is to ensure the Park complies with the
regulations it agreed to.

Developers/Business Owners
Developers and Businesses are very opinionated both ways. Developers cannot touch
conserved sites; hence their disapproval of management. But coastal management
does see a more aesthetically pleasing location for home-buyers. Businesses are
money orientated and need people using their facilities. If coastal management
disallows house construction this can limit population and in turn, business levels.
  Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
  Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”

  Responses of Individuals
  For the individual, otherwise known the average Joe, trying to conserve the natural
  environment is the best form of coastal management. This can be achieved by
  complying with all the regulations (for example reading and obeying signs on
  beaches); using environmentally friendlier options (for example biodegradable
  plastic bags) and being an advocate for the coast (i.e. support the ecologically
  sustainable decisions of the community and oppose the unsustainable ones). The
  individual needs to understand the coast as a multi-purpose system that provides
  environments, resources, recreational facilities and business; and therefore one needs
  to work towards a balance.

  Responses of Groups
  Various community based groups are doing their bit to achieve sustainable coastal
  management. For example, The Green and Clean Awareness Team created Dune
  Care. This group‟s aims include safeguarding dune structures, removing weeds,
  introducing indigenous flora and developing flexible planting methods that suit the
  Byron Bay community (for example, planting in stages). Other groups include The
  Byron Environment Centre, Conservation Volunteer Groups and The Byron Bay
  Community Centre.

Government Response Taken
Local           The Byron Shire Council has regulated a number of Coastal Management
                Actions. For example, The 2007/2008 Stormwater Management Service
                Charge provides the “Council with the opportunity to levy charges on a
                catchments area, while ensuring that the income generated does not exceed the
                level of expenditure for additional stormwater management.”

State           The Byron Coastline Management Plan of NSW for Brunswick Heads to
                Byron Bay. “This project will develop a management plan that will provide a
                framework for sustainable use of the coast of Byron Shire.”

Federal         The Marine Parks Authority is a Government organisation that controls the
                Cape Byron Marine Park. The Park has four different zones that help sustain
                the ecology of Byron Bay. For example, habitat protection zones ban high
                environmental impact activities like comercial fishing that threatens the
                biodiversity of the ocean.
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”

Decision Making Processes




http://www.ies.wisc.edu/research/wrm00/decfig1.gif
The above flow chart is a simplified decision making guide to an environmental
situation that applies to the coastal management of Byron Bay. The catalysts are the
causes for the changing decision, for example in Byron Bay Long shore Drift. The
initial assessment conflict is a brief discussion of the disadvantages and/or positives
impacts of the catalysts. For Long Shore Drift, a disadvantage is the loss of sand
which means the loss of the beach wideness and thus the exposure of sand dunes to
hydraulic wave action. Identifying the stakeholders is essentially naming those
people/groups affected by the event. Long shore drift affects tourists and beachgoers.
Inviting the stakeholders to participate in the decision making process is relevant as
those affected are often very opinionated and outspoken on the issue. Then choosing
a decision making strategy occurs. For long shore drift, a popular choice may be
groynes to stop sand movement. Then the decision is discussed and disagreements
are compromised and sought out (long shore drift may impact of ocean organisms and
where the marine processes work (waves, currents and tidal changes)). The decision
comes next (groyne(s) put in place) after the stakeholders and citizens are aware of
the issue more fully. Finally, the chosen management strategy should be evaluated.
Did the strategy affect marine life or humanity negatively? Was it successful in
minimising the problem?
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”


Management Strategies used at
Byron Bay
There are management
strategies used at Byron Bay
that promote ecological
sustainability of the coast to
varying extents.



Excavation of „Lake Byron‟
The movement of the waste water contained in fetid beach lakes on Byron Bay‟s
Belongil beach is only a temporary fix to the problem. The stagnant ponds are a
health issue for humans and sea life, as the water is of a very poor quality. The
excavation of the water is only temporary fixation as the stormwater drain that
supplies the water will continue to drain waste water into the pond. According to
Byron Bay resident Keith Anderson, “a more permanent solution” is needed.

Cape Byron Marine Park Zonings
The different zones in Cape Byron Marine Park promote ecological sustainability
to different levels. Santuary zones are areas that disallow the catchment of fish but
allow recreational activities to continue. This zone particularly helps the biodiversity
and subsequently the ecosystem develop through the preservation of its natural
aspects. Habitat protection is another zone in the park that, as the name suggests,
supports creatures‟ ecosystems. The banning of deleterious activities (e.g.
commercial fishing) is permitted in this zone to protect the environment. General use
zones are less strict in its regulations. It allows most activities and keeps a balance
between human and animal integration.


For further management strategies refer to ‘responses’ on page 6.
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”

Conclusion
The coast is a popular part of Australia and Byron Bay is a central location for
tourism, business, residence and the like. However, there have been human impacts
and geographical processes that have threatened the sustainability of the Bay.
Atmospheric, biotic, geological, tectonic, sedimentation and marine processes as well
as tourism, dune modification and stormwater have been these impacts. There are
different perceptions of various groups in relation to the coastal management of Byron
Bay and in turn myriad responses from individuals, community groups and levels of
the Government. When a management strategy is decided upon, it follows a decision
making process ensuring the stakeholders and more importantly the environment are
content with the management idea. Ultimately, Byron Bay has utilised some methods
of coastal management. These strategies aim to create a more ecologically sustainable
coastline and achieve a balance – the balance of environment and industry/
humanity.

Recommendation
Coastal management is an issue in Australian environments and Byron Bay
epitomises this issue. The Government does a fair degree of work in planning certain
acts and proposals that address the problems. However it is individuals and groups
that can be the most pro-active. By conserving the environment, the future of Byron
Bay looks sustainable. Preserving the environment is one way to achieve this. The
coast can be kept unaltered by following regulations and treating the coast as a fragile
amenity (see Marine Park sanctuary and habitat protection zones pg 8). Restoring
the coast is the second form of conservation. Good examples of restoration are
picking up rubbish, planting native trees and removing exotic species of flora (see
dune care pg 6). The formation of community groups is good way to make a big
difference in the restoring of the coast. The other type of conservation is adaptation.
This type changes the original form in safe way to suit the human/environment
mutuality; for instance, fencing around protected zones and using management
processes that add to the ecological sustainability of the coast (see groynes/long shore
drift pg 7). This mutual benefit between humanity and ocean is the most important
management of all. To create an ecologically sustainable Byron Bay coastline -
Conservation is the answer. Preserve, restore and adapt the coast to achieve a
symbiotic relationship and universal harmony.
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”

Bibliographical References

> Author unknown, date unknown, Byron Bay English Language School Byron Bay:
view West [online] http://www.bbels.com.au/photos.html accessed 25/08/2007.


> Author unknown, date unknown, Byron Bay Resorts [online]
www.byronbayresorts.com/map/map.JPG accessed 25/08/2007.


> Author unknown, date unknown, Lighthouse Photos – other countries [online]
http://www.lighthousestampsociety.org/photos/index.htm accessed 25/08/2007.


> Author unknown, date unknown, Wave Action – Destructive Waves [online]
http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/images/coast/destructivewaves.gif
accessed 25/08/2007.


> Big Volcano Tourism Marketing and Media, 1997, Byron Shire Council [online]
http://www.bigvolcano.com.au/services/communit.htm accessed 25/08/2007.


> Brennan, L e tal, 2002, New Byron Bay Sewage Treatment Plant Commissioning
[online] www.byron.nsw.gov.au/water_sew_treat.shtml accessed 25/08/2007.


> Field Trip Booklet Coastal Management Byron Bay, N.S.W Xavier Catholic
College, Year 10 Geography.


> Paine, J. 2005 Australian Geography: Geo active 2: Stage 5 Second Edition, John
Wiley and Sons, Milton.
Matthew McBurney, Year 10 Australian Geography, Issues in Australian
Environments Report, 10 FSP, Mr. Mudge, “Coastal Management”

Appendix 1




www.byronbayresorts.com/map/map.JPG