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What wet, smell like a gasoline product and will go woof if you don't pay attention Solvent Safety Learn not to burn, or cause skin or health problems Working Safely with Solvents We use them not abuse them The first three pages you read One have you done your Hazard Assessment for usage, chemical make up and storage Two have you read the products MSDS sheet and first aid and health risks Three have you reviewed your ERP – why you ask well it flammable and if is sparks where are the fire extinguisher or means of putting out the flame. Oh Yes the last two pages One have you go the proper PPE to use it Two have you got the proper storage and waster disposal of end use items like cleaning rags, etc + Fume Hood Your employer must: assess the risks to your health from your use of solvents and the precautions necessary to protect it; introduce measures to prevent you from being exposed to solvents or, where this is not reasonably practicable, ensure that your exposure is adequately controlled; ensure that control measures are used, equipment is properly maintained and checked and procedures are observed; where necessary, monitor your exposure and carry out appropriate health surveillance; inform you about the risks and the precautions necessary to protect your health; train you in the use of control measures and any protective equipment which is required. What are Solvents? Solvents are liquid chemicals that are used to dissolve oils, greases and paints, or are ingredients in paints, glues, epoxy resins, mastics, inks and pesticides. They are often used in cleaning and degreasing materials and tools and in spray painting. Examples include acetone, alcohol, turpentine, paint thinner, kerosene, mineral spirits, toluene, xylene and methylene chloride. uses of mineral spirits Typical toluene, xylene,solvents Spray painting – Cleaning metal or plastic parts – trichloroethylene, trichloroethane Cleaning tools - acetone, MEK, toluene, xylene, mineral spirits Fiberglass products - acetone Printing presses – a variety of solventss Silk-screening – a variety of solvents Dry cleaning - perchloroethylene Furniture refinishing - methylene chloride Plastics manufacturing – a variety of solvents Electronics – glycol ethers Flammable and combustible solvents Most solvents will burn – except those containing chlorine. The more volatile a solvent is (turns into vapor), the more flammable it is. A solvent with a flashpoint of 100 F or less is designated “flammable” and ignites easily. If the flashpoint is more than 100 F, the solvent is called “combustible” and is more difficult to ignite. Flashpoint: the lowest temperature at which a solvent gives off enough vapor to burn when a flame or spark is present. When solvent vapors can ignite Lower and upper flammable limits – LFL & UFL Acetone LFL – 2.5% UFL – 12.8% Flammable Range 2.5% to 12.8 % Too little fuel will not ignite Other solvents have different LFLs and UFLs. The UFL can be exceeded in closed confined spaces. “LFL” is also called “LEL” – lower explosive limit. “ Vapors that exceed the LEL are usually toxic as well, and lower the amount of oxygen. So if the explosion or fire doesn’t harm you, the toxicity or lack of oxygen probably will.” Main Dangers of solvents Toxic effects Corrosive effects Flammable nature Reactive nature – incompatible chemicals How can solvents affect health? Some of the short-term effects are: irritation of eyes, lungs and skin; headache; nausea; dizziness; light-headedness. Increased chance of having an accident. Long-term effects e.g. dermatitis. Unconsciousness and even death can result from exposure to very high concentrations of solvent vapours. How can solvents get into the body? ● Breathing in vapours and fumes. ● Contact with skin ● Ingestion (e.g. hand to mouth contact, eating with contaminated hands) Classification of Solvents Inorganic solvents water and aqueous solutions containing special additives (surfacants, detergents, PH buffers, inhibitors). acids and bases e.g. liquid anhydrous ammonia (NH3),concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Organic solvents Oxygenated solvents contain oxygen. e.g. alcohols, glycol ethers, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ketones, esters, and glycol ether/esters. Hydrocarbon solvents consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms. -Aliphatic solvents: have straight-chain structure; e.g.hexane, gasoline, kerosene. -Aromatic solvents: have benzene ring structure; e.g. benzene, toluene and xylene. Halogenated solvents contain halogenic atoms :(Cl, F , Br or I). Classification Hazardsresulting from acute, repeated or prolonged exposure: Risk to health very toxic or toxic harmful corrosive irritant cancer causing hazards to reproduction can cause non-heritable birth defects sensitizing Fire and explosion hazards may be classified as follows explosive oxidizing extremely flammable highly flammable flammable The following properties present a hazard to the environment and are: toxic to living organisms persistent in the environment bioaccumulative Toxic (T) and Very Toxic (T+) •Danger of cumulative effects, may cause cancer. •Use in fume hood and wear protective clothing. •Contact with the skin must be avoided. •Avoid exposure to vapour or liquid •Keep container tightly closed. •Wash hands after use. •If you feel unwell seek medical advice. Examples Highly toxic chemicals Toxic Acids (e.g. hydrochloric, Arsenic compounds nitric, oxalic) Inorganic cyanides Benzene Mercury compounds Carbon disulphide Selenium and its compounds Chlorinated hydrocarbons Thallium salts Harmful (Xn) substances • Health risk if swallowed, inhaled or if it penetrates the skin. • Do not breath in, use fume hood or face mask. • Use protective clothing. • Do not eat, drink or smoke after use and wash with plenty of water after contact with skin. Examples of Harmful Chemicals Alkyl bromides and chlorides e. g. bromomethane, iodomethane Aromatic and alaphatic amines.g. aniline, nitroaniline Phenols and aromatic nitro compounds Corrosive (C) substances • Causes severe burns, destroys living tissue! •Wash immediately with plenty of water in case of contact with eyes or skin. • Wear gloves and goggles, remove all contaminated clothing. Examples of Corrosive Chemicals Acids and Bases ("caustics" or "alkalis"). Dehydrating agents e.g. phosphorous pentoxide and calcium oxide. Halogens and halogen salts e.g. bromine, zinc chloride, sodium hypochlorite. Organic halides and organic acid halides such as acetyl chloride. Acid anhydrides. Some organic materials such as phenol ("carbolic acid"). Oxidizing Agent (O) •May cause fires when reacted with other materials such as alcohols, carbohydrates and cellulose. •Keep away from combustible material. •Keep container tightly closed. Should be stored separately from organic solvents and incompatible compounds. Examples Perchloric acid, chlorates and perchlorates Chromates, dichromates, permanganates, persulphates and periodates Nitric acid, nitrates, sodium nitrite Liquid oxygen and liquid air, peroxides Environmentally dangerous (N) substances •Can cause environmental damage, harmful to fish, aquatic organisms, other animals, plants or the ozone layer •Do not empty into drains Examples Pesticides, varnishes, lead and mercury compounds, many copper salts, CFCs •Do not eat or smoke in areas where there are solvents. • Wash hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory area and after changing gloves. •Never use solvents for washing the skin. They remove the natural protective oils from the skin and •Keep away from naked can cause irritation and flames as very toxic inflammation. gases may be given off May be toxic or facilitate (by chlorinated solvents) absorption of a toxic chemical. and many solvents are flammable. It is dangerous to mix chlorinated solvents and flammable solvents together. Examples are chloroform and acetone or methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide, carbon tetrachloride and dimethylformamide in the presence of iron. On no account should oxidisers be added to flammable solvent, since there is a high risk of fire or explosion. In some cases, (for example with nitric acid) there will be a violent blow out of material due to the immediate heating effect . In other cases (for example with bromine and ethanol) there can be a delayed reaction which may cause the drum to rupture if it has been sealed before the heat is generated by the reaction. The addition of water or acids to the waste in the drums is also dangerous since it corrodes the drums, eventually causing leaks of the waste solvent. Methanol Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption Exposure (Ingestion or Inhalation) may cause eye, kidney, heart and liver damage Chronic or substantial acute exposure may cause serious eye damage, including blindness Irritant Narcotic Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis. Isopropanol (IPA) May cause skin irritation (Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause defatting of the skin and dermatitis) May cause central nervous system depression (headache, dizziness, etc.) May cause kidney damage May form explosive peroxides May cause reproductive effects based upon animal studies May cause severe eye irritation and possible injury (burning sensation, redness, tearing, inflammation, and possible corneal injury ) Causes digestive and respiratory tract irritation (inhalation of vapor may cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects) Target Organs: Kidneys, central nervous system. Ethanol May cause skin irritation May cause reproductive effects based upon animal studies May cause severe eye irritation and possible injury Chronic use can cause serious liver damage Causes digestive and respiratory tract irritation (inhalation of vapor may cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects) Toluene Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or by absorption through skin Symptoms of overexposure may include fatigue, confusion, headache, dizziness, drowsiness Very high concentrations may cause unconsciusness and death Serious irritant May affect liver, kidneys, blood system and central nervous system Exposure to alcohol may increase toxic effects Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis Flammable Solvents Lower Flammable Limit – LFL In most work situations, the “lower flammabe limit” (LFL) is the main concern. Vapors from flammable liquids in the workplace are often too diluted to catch fire or explode. In a small room or confined space like a tank, the vapor levels can quickly go above the LFL. OH and S regulations prohibit anyone entering a confined space if flammable vapor levels are above 10% of the LFL Flammable Solvent Safe Practices Keep away from open flames or sparks. Use containers specially designed (UL- approved) for flammable liquids. Ground and bond metal containers when transferring solvents to prevent static electricity sparks. Acetone, toluene, xylene, turpentine, gasoline and MEK are especially flammable (flashpoint below 100 F) Hazards of Solvents Health a group, solvents can: As Irritate your eyes, nose or throat, Make you dizzy, high, sleepy, give you a headache or cause you to pass out, Affect your judgment or coordination, Cause internal damage to your body, Dry out or irritate your skin. What do you do if affected by solvents? Anyone who appears to have been affected by solvents should be taken into the fresh air immediately and given appropriate first-aid treatment. Heavily contaminated clothing should be removed as soon as possible. Solvent splashes should be washed off the skin with plenty of water and any wounds covered with a suitable dressing. Splashes of solvent in the eye should be treated by washing the eye with water for at least 10 minutes before the injured person is transferred to hospital. Disposal of Solvents There are three categories which are disposed of by the "waste solvent" route. Waste flammable solvent (Ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, xylene, petroleum ethers etc.) Waste chlorinated solvent (Chloroform, dichloromethane trichlorethylene etc.) Waste oil All chemical waste must be disposed of promptly These should be stored in approved through the Hazardous safety cans and sent to the HMF when Materials Facility (HMF) they are no more than 2/3 full. Solvents containing toxic or carcinogenic www.tcd.ie/hazardous_ materials. substances should also be separated. The final message...... You are not going to die using chemicals solvent or no solvent ... BUT you MUST be carefull and take preacutions!!!!!!! ... FOR YOU AND THE PEOPLE AROUND YOU!!!!! It’s just common sense.......
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