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Solvent and Solving Safety

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  • pg 1
									 What wet, smell like a gasoline
 product and will go woof if you
      don't pay attention
          Solvent Safety
Learn not to burn, or cause skin or
         health problems
Working Safely with
     Solvents
    We use them not
      abuse them
The first three pages you read
 One have you done your Hazard
  Assessment for usage, chemical make
  up and storage
 Two have you read the products MSDS
  sheet and first aid and health risks
 Three have you reviewed your ERP –
  why you ask well it flammable and if is
  sparks where are the fire extinguisher
  or means of putting out the flame.
Oh Yes the last two pages
 One have you go the proper PPE to
  use it
 Two have you got the proper storage
  and waster disposal of end use items
  like cleaning rags, etc
+   Fume Hood
Your employer must:
   assess the risks to your health from your use of
    solvents and the precautions necessary to protect it;
   introduce measures to prevent you from being
    exposed to solvents or, where this is not reasonably
    practicable, ensure that your exposure is adequately
    controlled;
   ensure that control measures are used, equipment is
    properly maintained and checked and procedures are
    observed;
   where necessary, monitor your exposure and carry
    out appropriate health surveillance;
   inform you about the risks and the precautions
    necessary to protect your health;
   train you in the use of control measures and any
    protective equipment which is required.
  What are Solvents?
Solvents are liquid chemicals that are used to
dissolve oils, greases and paints, or are ingredients in
paints, glues, epoxy resins, mastics, inks and
pesticides.

They are often used in cleaning and degreasing
materials and tools and in spray painting.

Examples include acetone, alcohol, turpentine, paint
thinner, kerosene, mineral spirits, toluene, xylene
and methylene chloride.
                 uses of mineral spirits
   Typical toluene, xylene,solvents
Spray painting –
Cleaning metal or plastic parts – trichloroethylene, trichloroethane
Cleaning tools - acetone, MEK, toluene, xylene, mineral spirits
Fiberglass products - acetone
Printing presses – a variety of solventss
Silk-screening – a variety of solvents
Dry cleaning - perchloroethylene
Furniture refinishing - methylene chloride
Plastics manufacturing – a variety of solvents
Electronics – glycol ethers
Flammable and combustible solvents
Most solvents will burn – except those containing chlorine.

The more volatile a solvent is (turns into vapor), the more
flammable it is.

A solvent with a flashpoint of 100 F or less is designated
“flammable” and ignites easily.

If the flashpoint is more than 100 F, the solvent is called
“combustible” and is more difficult to ignite.




          Flashpoint: the lowest temperature at which a solvent gives
          off enough vapor to burn when a flame or spark is present.
When solvent vapors can ignite
Lower and upper flammable limits – LFL & UFL
                                                Acetone

        LFL – 2.5%
                                       UFL – 12.8%




                      Flammable Range 2.5% to 12.8 %

     Too little fuel will not ignite




   Other solvents have different LFLs and UFLs. The UFL can
   be exceeded in closed confined spaces. “LFL” is also
   called “LEL” – lower explosive limit.
“ Vapors that exceed the LEL are
usually toxic as well, and lower the
amount of oxygen. So if the
explosion or fire doesn’t harm you,
the toxicity or lack of oxygen
probably will.”
Main Dangers of solvents
 Toxic effects
 Corrosive effects
 Flammable nature
 Reactive nature – incompatible chemicals
How can solvents affect health?

   Some of the short-term effects are:
       irritation of eyes, lungs and skin;
       headache;
       nausea;
       dizziness;
       light-headedness.
   Increased chance of having an accident.
   Long-term effects e.g. dermatitis.

      Unconsciousness and even death can result from
      exposure to very high concentrations of solvent
      vapours.
How can solvents get into the body?

● Breathing in vapours and fumes.
● Contact with skin
● Ingestion (e.g. hand to mouth contact,
  eating with contaminated hands)

     Classification of Solvents
    Inorganic solvents
       water and aqueous solutions containing special additives
        (surfacants, detergents, PH buffers, inhibitors).
        acids and bases e.g. liquid anhydrous ammonia (NH3),concentrated sulfuric
        acid (H2SO4)
   Organic solvents
       Oxygenated solvents
            contain oxygen. e.g. alcohols, glycol ethers, methyl acetate, ethyl
             acetate, ketones, esters, and glycol ether/esters.
       Hydrocarbon solvents
            consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms.
         -Aliphatic solvents: have straight-chain structure;
             e.g.hexane, gasoline, kerosene.
          -Aromatic solvents: have benzene ring structure; e.g. benzene, toluene and
             xylene.
       Halogenated solvents
            contain halogenic atoms :(Cl, F , Br or I).
                Classification
Hazardsresulting from acute, repeated or prolonged exposure:
Risk to health
        very toxic or toxic
        harmful
        corrosive
        irritant
        cancer causing
        hazards to reproduction
        can cause non-heritable birth defects
        sensitizing

   Fire and explosion hazards may be classified as follows
      explosive
      oxidizing
      extremely flammable
      highly flammable
      flammable


   The following properties present a hazard to the environment and are:
      toxic to living organisms
      persistent in the environment
      bioaccumulative
               Toxic (T) and Very Toxic (T+)
                                   •Danger of cumulative effects, may cause
                                   cancer.
                                   •Use in fume hood and wear protective
                                   clothing.
                                   •Contact with the skin must be avoided.
                                   •Avoid exposure to vapour or liquid
                                   •Keep container tightly closed.
                                   •Wash hands after use.
                                   •If you feel unwell seek medical advice.


Examples                                Highly toxic chemicals
Toxic Acids (e.g. hydrochloric,            Arsenic compounds
nitric, oxalic)                             Inorganic cyanides
Benzene                                    Mercury compounds
Carbon disulphide                          Selenium and its compounds
Chlorinated hydrocarbons                   Thallium salts
            Harmful (Xn) substances
                            • Health risk if swallowed, inhaled or if it
                              penetrates the skin.
                            • Do not breath in, use fume hood or
                              face mask.
                            • Use protective clothing.
                            • Do not eat, drink or smoke after use
                              and wash with plenty of water after
                              contact with skin.



Examples of Harmful Chemicals
Alkyl bromides and chlorides e. g. bromomethane, iodomethane
Aromatic and alaphatic amines.g. aniline, nitroaniline
Phenols and aromatic nitro compounds
           Corrosive (C) substances
                                    • Causes severe burns, destroys
                                    living tissue!
                                    •Wash immediately with plenty of
                                    water in case of contact with eyes
                                    or skin.
                                    • Wear gloves and goggles, remove
                                    all contaminated clothing.

Examples of Corrosive Chemicals
   Acids and Bases ("caustics" or "alkalis").
   Dehydrating agents e.g. phosphorous pentoxide and calcium oxide.
   Halogens and halogen salts e.g. bromine, zinc chloride, sodium
   hypochlorite.
   Organic halides and organic acid halides such as acetyl chloride.
   Acid anhydrides.
   Some organic materials such as phenol ("carbolic acid").
              Oxidizing Agent (O)
                              •May cause fires when reacted with
                              other materials such as alcohols,
                              carbohydrates and cellulose.
                              •Keep away from combustible
                              material.
                              •Keep container tightly closed.

                              Should be stored separately from
                              organic solvents and incompatible
                              compounds.
Examples
Perchloric acid, chlorates and perchlorates
Chromates, dichromates, permanganates, persulphates and
periodates
Nitric acid, nitrates, sodium nitrite
Liquid oxygen and liquid air, peroxides
     Environmentally dangerous (N)
     substances

                        •Can cause environmental
                        damage, harmful to fish,
                        aquatic organisms, other
                        animals, plants or the ozone
                        layer
                        •Do not empty into drains

Examples
Pesticides, varnishes, lead and mercury compounds,
many copper salts, CFCs
•Do not eat or smoke in areas
where there are solvents.
• Wash hands thoroughly before
leaving the laboratory area and
after changing gloves.
•Never use solvents for washing
the skin.
   They remove the natural
   protective oils from the skin and   •Keep away from naked
   can cause irritation and            flames as very toxic
   inflammation.
                                       gases may be given off
   May be toxic or facilitate         (by chlorinated solvents)
   absorption of a toxic chemical.     and many solvents are
                                       flammable.
   It is dangerous to mix chlorinated solvents and flammable
    solvents together.
       Examples are chloroform and acetone or methanol in the
        presence of sodium hydroxide, carbon tetrachloride and
        dimethylformamide in the presence of iron.
   On no account should oxidisers be added to flammable solvent,
    since there is a high risk of fire or explosion.
        In some cases, (for example with nitric acid) there will be a
        violent blow out of material due to the immediate heating
        effect .
       In other cases (for example with bromine and ethanol) there
        can be a delayed reaction which may cause the drum to
        rupture if it has been sealed before the heat is generated by
        the reaction.
   The addition of water or acids to the waste in the drums is also
    dangerous since it corrodes the drums, eventually causing leaks
    of the waste solvent.
                       Methanol


       Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption

         Exposure (Ingestion or Inhalation)
    may cause eye, kidney, heart and liver damage

 Chronic or substantial acute exposure may cause serious eye
                 damage, including blindness


                          Irritant

                          Narcotic


 Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis.
                     Isopropanol (IPA)


 May cause skin irritation (Prolonged and/or repeated contact may cause
                   defatting of the skin and dermatitis)

             May cause central nervous system depression
                     (headache, dizziness, etc.)

                     May cause kidney damage

                   May form explosive peroxides

     May cause reproductive effects based upon animal studies

 May cause severe eye irritation and possible injury (burning sensation,
     redness, tearing, inflammation, and possible corneal injury )

 Causes digestive and respiratory tract irritation (inhalation of vapor may
     cause respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects)
          Target Organs: Kidneys, central nervous system.
                                 Ethanol

                            May cause skin irritation



           May cause reproductive effects based upon animal studies



               May cause severe eye irritation and possible injury


                  Chronic use can cause serious liver damage



 Causes digestive and respiratory tract irritation (inhalation of vapor may cause
            respiratory tract irritation. May cause narcotic effects)
                              Toluene

     Toxic by inhalation, ingestion or by absorption through skin

                   Symptoms of overexposure may include
             fatigue, confusion, headache, dizziness, drowsiness


         Very high concentrations may cause unconsciusness and death


                            Serious irritant

 May affect liver, kidneys, blood system and central nervous system


             Exposure to alcohol may increase toxic effects


         Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause dermatitis
Flammable Solvents
                Lower Flammable Limit – LFL
In most work situations, the “lower
flammabe limit” (LFL) is the main concern.



Vapors from flammable liquids in the
workplace are often too diluted to catch
fire or explode.



In a small room or confined space like a tank,
the vapor levels can quickly go above the LFL.



      OH and S regulations prohibit anyone entering a confined
      space if flammable vapor levels are above 10% of the LFL
 Flammable Solvent Safe Practices
Keep away from open flames or sparks.




Use containers specially designed (UL-
approved) for flammable liquids.




Ground and bond metal containers when transferring
solvents to prevent static electricity sparks.



    Acetone, toluene, xylene, turpentine, gasoline and MEK
    are especially flammable (flashpoint below 100 F)
          Hazards of Solvents
   Health a group, solvents can:
       As
Irritate your eyes, nose or throat,


Make you dizzy, high, sleepy, give you a headache or
cause you to pass out,


Affect your judgment or coordination,


Cause internal damage to your body,


Dry out or irritate your skin.
What do you do if affected by
solvents?
   Anyone who appears to have been affected by
    solvents should be taken into the fresh air
    immediately and given appropriate first-aid
    treatment.
   Heavily contaminated clothing should be removed as
    soon as possible.
   Solvent splashes should be washed off the skin with
    plenty of water and any wounds covered with a
    suitable dressing.
   Splashes of solvent in the eye should be treated by
    washing the eye with water for at least 10 minutes
    before the injured person is transferred to hospital.
Disposal of Solvents
                               There are three categories which are
                                disposed of by the "waste solvent"
                                route.
                                     Waste flammable solvent (Ethyl
                                     acetate, diethyl ether, xylene,
                                     petroleum ethers etc.)
                                     Waste chlorinated solvent
                                     (Chloroform, dichloromethane
                                     trichlorethylene etc.)
                                    Waste oil
 All chemical waste must
 be disposed of promptly       These should be stored in approved
 through the Hazardous          safety cans and sent to the HMF when
 Materials Facility (HMF)       they are no more than 2/3 full.
                               Solvents containing toxic or carcinogenic
 www.tcd.ie/hazardous_
 materials.
                                substances should also be separated.
           The final message......

 You are not going to die using chemicals
          solvent or no solvent

... BUT you MUST be carefull and take
           preacutions!!!!!!!


   ... FOR YOU AND THE PEOPLE
          AROUND YOU!!!!!

        It’s just common sense.......

								
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