Taming Your Enemy

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					Personal and Professional
Development Program
DPST Workshop Series

Module 4:
Taming Your Enemy

                            Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
                            Ahmad Fuad bin Abdul Rahim
                            Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
                            Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
                            Nor Azwany Yaacob
INTRODUCTION                                     3
OBJECTIVES OF THE MODULE                         7
WHY TIME MANAGEMENT                              8
NATURE VS. NURTURE                               9
TIME MANAGEMENT PROCESS                         10
ASSESSING OUR WORK                              11
ORGANIZING OUR WORK                             11
COMBATING TIME WASTERS                          12
PRIORITIZING OUR WORK                           12
COLLABORATING WITH OTHERS                       13
REVIEWING OUR WORK                              13
LEARN (SELF-REFLECTION)                         14
      Neuroticism                               15
      Openness                                  15
      Extroversion                              16
      Agreeableness                             16
      Conscientiousness                         16
TAKE HOME MESSAGES                              17
SESSION OUTLINE                                 18
REFERENCES                                      20
       First Publication: July 2010

   © Dr Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff

   © All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced stored in
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any
    form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
 otherwise, without prior permission of
           author/s or publisher.

        ISBN: 978-967-5547-14-0

               Edited by
    Dr Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
     Dr Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
        Dr Nor Azwany Yaacob
      School of Medical Sciences,
         USM, Kubang Kerian,
           16150 Kota Bharu
          Kelantan, Malaysia

              Published by:

        KKMED Publications
    Medical Education Department,
     School of Medical Sciences,
        USM, Kubang Kerian,
          16150 Kota Bharu
         Kelantan, Malaysia

         Published in Malaysia

Personal and Professional Development Program
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus

The School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Universiti Sains Malaysia practices
an integrated, problem-based and community-oriented medical
curriculum. This five year programme is divided into three phases. Phase I
(year 1) is the fundamental year focusing on organ-based systems, Phase II
(year 2 and 3) continues the system-based approach and introduces the
basics of clinical clerkship. Phase III (year 4 and 5) is the clinical phase
whereby the students are rotated through all the clinical disciplines. The
school adopts the SPICES approach in the implementation of its
curriculum, i.e. Student oriented, Problem based, Integrated, Community
oriented, Electives and Self learning and Systematic.

Ethical issues, communication and soft skills were realized as important
elements in the curriculum since the inception of the school. Relevant

inputs were imparted to students at various places in the time table. This
practice was improved and consolidated from time to time. In the mid-
nineties a ‘Student Motivation Unit’ was established to assist students who
needed counseling and was soon followed by a more formal Student
Development Unit. In 1996 this unit was combined with another parallel
component of the school's curriculum, the Bioethics and Communication
Skills Programme and was renamed as the Student Personal and
Professional Development Programme (PPDP). In line with the Malaysian
Ministry of Higher Education directive to all institutions of higher learning
to emphasize soft skills in all university curriculums, SMS once again
renamed the PPDP to Student Soft Skills and Development Programme
(Program Pembangunan Insaniah Pelajar - PPIP) in 2007. This programme
facilitates and coordinates soft-skills development activities in the
curriculum to foster the development of good personal attitude and
professional behavior in the undergraduate. It also helps the
undergraduates to adapt to challenges in the learning process.

The ‘Discovering Potential for Sustainable
Transformation’ (DPST) workshop series
The Discovering Potential for Sustainable Transformation (DPST) workshop
series was introduced and developed to enhance and promote positive
personal qualities, soft skills and professional development among
undergraduate medical students. The programme is run through a series of
five one-day workshops. The topics of workshops are:

         Maximizing Personality.
         Leading to Lead.
         Interfacing Strategies.
         Taming Your Enemy.
         Response to Change.

The importance of promoting and nurturing positive personal qualities,
soft skills and professional development among future medical doctors are
becoming more apparent within healthcare. Research evidence showed
that they have effects on the quality of care provided. This programme
might affect personal qualities, soft skills and professional development in
different ways, including the effect that they might have on the wellbeing
of themselves and their staff which, in turn, are related to the quality of
care provided. Healthy and competent healthcare providers affect the
quality of healthcare system and indirectly reflect the quality of Universiti
Sains Malaysia (USM) undergraduate medical programme. Therefore it
reflects the APEX status and puts the USM undergraduate medical
programme in the eyes of the world. It is noteworthy that a sustainable
transformation of undergraduate medical students’ potential is a must.

The Discovering Potential for Sustainable Transformation (DPST) was
introduced because of three simple reasons:

To increase awareness of the impact and importance of positive personal
qualities, soft skills and professionalism to students as well as future
medical doctors.

To encourage the development of positive personal qualities, soft skills and
professionalism among undergraduate medical students as future medical

To help USM undergraduate medical students to develop their own self-
improvement strategies to improve and maximize their potential therefore
they will be a better and more competence either as medical doctors or as

Last but not least, we really hope that the DPST programme will be a
precursor towards sustainable transformation of future medical doctors’
positive personal qualities, soft skills and professional development.

Module 4

Taming Our Enemy – Nurturing Our

Objectives of the module
By the end of the workshop participants will be able to:

        define what is time management skills.
        identify individual time management styles.
        explain characteristics of each cluster:
         o Neuroticism (I)
         o Openness (II)
         o Extroversion (III)
         o Agreeableness (IV)
         o Conscientiousness (V)
        discuss the importance of knowing time management styles
         toward sustainable personal characters development in the

Time Management Skills & Styles

Time management skill is about do what’s important, and ignore what isn’t
and that urgent things are only important things that were not addressed
when they originated.

Time management style is defined as consistent individual preferences or
ways to manage time.

Why Time Management

Time is the scarcest of the manager; if it is not managed, nothing else can
be managed (Peter Drucker).

The day is of infinite length for him who knows how to appreciate & use it

Today is better than yesterday, and tomorrow will be better than today.

Time management is a personal process and must fit your style and
circumstances (Marion, 2001)

There is one resource that we have in common which is TIME. It is a hard
taskmaster; hence time management is not optional (Patrick, 2007).

Good, effective time management is a core skill, a career skill that we all
need both to make us able to perform in a current job and to enhance our
career prospects (Patrick, 2007). Ineffective time management can lead to
burnout and distress.

Therefore, managing time property is the key for better and rewarding

Time Management is both Science & Art

Science believes that there are theories in time management skills. The
theories of how to manage time effectively and efficiently as they
postulate that time management can be learned (culture), but it is also
depending on the ‘inborn’ (traits). Traits tend to be strongly influenced by
our inherited endowment, perhaps as high as 80%. While culture, up-
bringing and nurture can stimulate or reward such behaviour, the root
causes are more genetics. This is why they tend to endure for life and
become a visible predictor or pattern of behaviour. They are often noticed
as a consistent or repetitive pattern of behaviour. They are thus a good
indicator for the type of job or work that motivates and satisfies each of us
differently, based on the degree of their intensity (strength).

In the art perspective, personal qualities of the person, ways of managing
and using appropriate styles are important factors for effective and
successful time management.

Nature vs. Nurture

A trait (more nature) that is exhibited by behaviour (trait manifestation),
first require a stimulus or trigger from the external environment (more
nurture). A trait can equally exert influences on our behaviour. Traits like
intelligence, calmness, flexibility, and openness can strongly influence our

For example, external stressors can produce a brain chemical called
Cortisol, but this still requires genes to switch it on, to release it into our
brain. If we are genetically built to be calm and with high tolerance to
stress, less Cortisol will be released and we are less prone to stress.

Significance of Knowing about Time Management

Having an insight about time management skills and styles can help us to
understand of why we are the way we are, and why we are better with
some tasks or works and less so with others. With that understanding we
may realize our strengths and weaknesses in managing time, therefore
help us strategies self-improvement plans to improve our time
management ability.

The USM Personality Inventory (USMaP-i)

This workshop uses the USMaP-i. The USMaP manual can be downloaded

Participants will be requested to fill in the inventory according to the scale
and instruction provided. Participants are encouraged to answer all
statements honestly.

Facilitators will guide participants on how to calculate each cluster score
via the formula provided.

Time Management Process

                   There     are     generally   seven
                   recommended steps in managing
                   our time. It is a dynamic and
                   flexible depending on us how to fit
                   it with our styles. The process is as
                   shown in the diagram.

Assessing our work

Knowing and understanding of our
work nature.

One question we need to ask
ourselves, where did our time go
at present?

We really need to be aware and
know about our own working

Do we do right things at the right

Avoid doing unnecessary things at
all cost!

Organizing our work

To organize our work by using
LEADeR system:

L – List the activities.

E – Estimate how long each item
will take

A – Allow time for

De – Decide priorities

R – Review the plan as a whole

This checklist may help us in
organizing our work, activities or

Combating time wasters

The art of being wise is the art of knowing what to overlook.

It is a process of eliminating interruption or distraction that can waste our

3 important aspects of one of the greatest time wasters (it is actually us):

          Do not put off the things you find difficult

          Do not put off the thing you do not like

          Beware of your favorite tasks

Prioritizing our work

First thing first.

Prioritizing our tasks before we take action. Priority Quadrants below may
help us to prioritise our task.

Collaborating with others

Everyone have difference skills and difference things to get done most
quickly and easily.

Working or doing something collaboratively is an effective way to save our

Collaboration help us to work more efficient and effective with similar unit
of time.

We need to collaborate with right person at the right time

Reviewing our work

Analyzing works that were done can improve time management skills.

Corrective action can be planned in the future to improve the effectiveness
and efficiency in managing our time.

It can identify our strengths and weaknesses in managing time.

Learn (self-reflection)

It is a process of learning from problems we encountered in managing time
by doing self-reflection.

It involves improving self-awareness about the problems, reevaluation of
solutions and enhancing time management effectiveness if similar
problems encounter in the future.

                  This process may help us to manage
                  our time effectively as well as to
                  improve our time management

Characteristics of each cluster

               Low score indicates:
               -   Seek a balance between task & relationship

               -   Manage stress well
               -   Calm in face of crisis
               -   Optimistic & realistic

               -   May be too idealistic

               -   May take on too much work & fail to manage

               -   Look at the big picture

               -   Look ahead – is positive

               -   More strategic

               -   More flexible

               -   More polychronic

               -   Dislikes deadlines

               -   Get easily distracted

               -   Less aware of time

Goes with the flow
-   Put   relationship       ahead     of    task
-   May talk more & seen be seen as wasting
-   Likes to plan as a team effort
-   Need to express feelings
-   May easily change priorities due to
    relationship building & networking

-   Want to please others
-   Find hard to say no
-   Listen to others
-   Put other feelings         ahead    of   task
-    may be seen as too soft

-   Likes to have a ‘to do list’
-   Uses checklists
-   Follow up
-   More monochronic
-   Follow a sequence
-   Check details
-   Well organized
-   Stick to the plan
-   May resist change

Take home messages

Time management skills are both science and art.

Time management skill is a dynamic process that can be nurtured through

Time management skills and prioritization is inseparable.

Time management skills and styles differ.

 •     Skills can be learnt, styles more on our innate make up.

Time management skills are about

 •     do right things at the right time,

 •     combating time waster.

 •     prioritizing task

 •     collaborating

“If we love with what we are doing and fully utilize our natural talents, we
will be more highly motivated to achieve goals that realistically suit us, and
become successful.”

Session Outline

Following is a suggested session outline. The facilitator is free to modify
the outline as is relevant.
                                                                    Size of
            Objectives                        Activity                        Materials   Time
Information Delivery 1
Introduction of session              Lecture                      Whole       Computer    5
Ice-breaking                         Find similarities e.g.       group       LCD OR      mins
Highlight relevance of knowing       importance of knowing                    white
time management skill & style –      capabilities of your                     board
to maximize strengths and            handphone, computer, etc
potential, to improve
Explanation of objectives of
Group activity 1: Information consolidation
To involve participants in           Give group 2 minutes to      Pairs or    None        5
thinking about relevance of          think about features of      whole                   mins
knowing time management skill        own time management          group
& style                              and how to maximize it.
                                     Then, explain to neighbour
                                     or to the group
Information delivery 2
To introduce to participants:        Lecture                      Whole       PPT file    15
 The definition of                                               group       named       mins
         o     Time management                                                ‘Maxi-
                skill                                                         mising
         o     Time management                                                Persona-
                style.                                                        lity’*
 The role of ‘Nature’ and
       ‘Nurture’ in the
       development of time
       management skill
 The important applications of
       knowing time
       management skill
Group activity 2.1: Information consolidation
To involve participants in using     Open to questions OR         Whole       None        15
and applying concepts explained short debate about                group                   mins
previously                           ‘Nature vs. Nurture’
Group activity 2.2: Practical Session
To administer USMaP-i to             Distribute USMaP-i           Whole       USMaP-i     20
participants to enable them to                                    group                   mins
identify their own time
management style based on
personality cluster

Information delivery 3
To inform participants regarding Lecture                        Whole        PPT          30
the characteristics of each                                     group        presenta-    mins
cluster:                                                                     tion
 Neuroticism (I)
 Openness (II)
 Extroversion (III)
 Agreeableness (IV)
 Conscientiousness (V)
Group activity 3: Information consolidation
To involve participants in         Break participants into 4    Sub          Mahjong      30
reflection and application of the  groups                       groups       paper
information given previously       Discuss how to apply                      Marker
                                   information given to                      pens
                                   medical study and practice
                                   After 10 minutes, each
                                   group presents for 5
Evaluation and debriefing
To make sure that participants     Discussion                   Whole        PPT file:    5
know why they have been asked Check responses against           class        objectives   mins
to do the things required of them list
To review what has been learnt     Discussion                   Whole        PPT file:    5
                                   Individuals asked to         class        key points   mins
To obtain feedback from            Fill in feedback form*       Each         Feedback     10
participants regarding the                                      person       form         mins
                                                                Total time   2 hrs and 20 mins


  1. Patrick F (2007). Successful Time Management. 2nd
     ed. USA: Kogan Page Limited.

  2. Marion HY (2001). Personal Time Management. 3rd
     ed. USA: Course Technology.

  3. Sherperd P (2007). Personality Matter: The Whole
     Brain Approach, Why We Learn, Think and Behave.
     Malaysia: Brain Works Media.

  4. Yusoff MSB, Rahim AFA & Esa AR (2010). The Manual
     of USM Personality Inventory (USMaP-i). Malaysia:
     KKMED Publications.


Description: Discovering Potential for Sustainable Transformation (DPST) Workshop Series, Personal and Professional Development Programme, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia