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FBA's _functional behavioral assessment_

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					          FBA’s (functional behavioral assessment)

Functional Assessment- Behavior is a Function of the Environment

 Allows us to identify the causes of maladaptive behavior and replace
  it, as opposed to suppressing it through punishment.

 The causes are sought in the immediate environment. The learning
  history of the individual is also considered.

 The outcome of the assessment provides an analysis of the way the
  individual learned the behavior and how it is presently supported and
  maintained in the environment.

 The purpose of the assessment is to categorize behavior by its
  function. Function vs. Form!

      Functional (causal) relationships exist between behaviors that
       we see and the antecedents and consequences that precede
       and follow those behaviors.

              Problem Behaviors in “Plain English”

 What’s the pay off?

 To get…or to get out of…

 Occur in 4 categories
    1. Accepting No
    2. Willingness to give up fun
    3. Demands
    4. Wanting something

                  Functional Response Classes
           AKA: Problem behaviors in not-so-plain English

 Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement (SR+)
 Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement (SR-)
 Automatic Positive Reinforcement
 Automatic Negative Reinforcement

              Steps to Conducting a Functional Analysis

     1.   Functional Interview
     2.   Direct Observation
     3.   Experimental Manipulations
     4.   Functional Analysis Summary
     5.   Behavior Lesson Plan

                           1. Functional Interview

 Conduct a functional assessment interview with at least two
  individuals who know the learner and have observed the problem
  behavior.

 FAST

 Motivation Assessment Scale

                         2. Direct Observation

 Collect data using functional analysis observation forms

 Collect data using direct observation
    o Sequence analysis (ABC data)
    o Frequency of occurrence
    o Rate of occurrence (frequency of occurrence per unit of time)
    o Duration (how long did it last)
    o Latency (time that elapses between stimulus and response)

                       3. Experimental Manipulations

 Procedure allows the interviewer/ observer to test the function for the
  behavior using conditions

 Where the behavior occurs most frequently (in which condition)
  suggests the function
 Complete this step it:
    o The function of the behavior appears unclear even after steps 1
      and 2
    o The severity of the behavior is not a variable


                         ALONE CONDITION

 Test if the behavior is maintained by self-stimulation (a history of
  socially mediated positive reinforcement)

 Allow the student to be by him/ herself for 20 minutes and tally the
  frequency of the behavior


                      ATTENTION CONDITION

 Test to see if the behavior is maintained by attention (a history of
  socially mediated positive reinforcement)

 Give 5-10 seconds of attention for each occurrence of the behavior in
  a 20 minute session.


                        DEMAND CONDITION

 Test to see if the behavior is maintained by escape or avoidance (a
  history of socially mediated negative reinforcement)
 Place the learner in demand situations and allow the individual to
  escape for each occurrence of the behavior. Wait one minute before
  placing another demand in a 20 minute session.


            PLAY/ “HEAVEN” CONDITION (CONTROL)

 Allow the learner free access to all reinforcers in an enriching
  environment.

 No Demands!
 Count the number of times the behavior occurs in the 20 minute
  session


                            RESULTS?!

 Confirmation about the function of the behavior so as to ensure
  appropriate Tx and intervention!


                     4. Functional Analysis Summary

 Combine information from steps 1-3
     Functional analysis interview
     Direct observation forms
     Experimental manipulations


                         5. Behavior Lesson Plan
 Choose an intervention found in the INTERVENTIONS BASED ON
  FUNCTION OF THE BEHAVIOR that follows the proceeding
  procedures for selecting an appropriate intervention, based upon your
  functional analysis summary.


                      Behavior Support Plans

 Definition of target behavior

 Procedures to reduce the MO to exhibit problem behavior

 Extinction procedures

 Procedures to teach alternative behaviors (replacement behaviors)


                Selecting an Appropriate Intervention
    Assessment of controlling variables precedes selection of
     appropriate procedures

    The assessment should include environmental manipulations of
     antecedents and consequences

    Replacement behaviors, functional equivalents, should be taught

    Use reinforcement based approaches



                Reinforcement Based Approaches

 Eliminate deprivation and aversive stimulation (behavior’s MO)

 Extinguish the reinforcement contingency

 Differentially reinforce alternative functionally equivalent responses



                          Tx Based Upon FBA

    Manipulate your As and Cs (controlling variables)

    Put problem behavior on extinction- reinforcers must be controlled

    DRA or DRI


                           Tx Based Upon FBA

       DRA- Choose a less effortful response or modify the response
        difficulty by prompting and reinforcing immediately. This will
        now be the only member of the class reinforced! If you simply
        manipulate antecedents (lessening demands), you never teach
        a replacement. Work doesn’t get done and old behavioral
        repertoires will spontaneously recover/ resurface.
       DRI- A subset of a DRA, create a new class (replacement-
        behavior is incompatible with target behavior)


                         Determining appropriate Tx

          Use when determining what Tx using LRE (least restrictive
           environment)

          Positive behavioral supports establish control through the
           manipulation of antecedents. Has a seductive effect- people
           value over the right to effective Tx, which requires the
           manipulation of antecedents AND consequences. Tx needs
           to be driven by the research as opposed to values.


         Socially Mediated Positive Reinforcement (SR+)

 After a behavior occurs, attention, an activity, or a tangible item is
  delivered, thereby increasing the likelihood that the behavior will
  occur again.


           General Interventions for Problem Behaviors

 DO
     Give lots of attention and provide an enriching environment as
      a preventive measure (catch Johnny being good)
     Teach the child to mand for attention and reinforce when the
      used appropriately

 Deliberately withdraw attention for problem behavior (i.e. Carbone’s
  infamous “walk and peel”)


           Interventions For Behaviors Maintained by SR+

    Noncontingent reinforcement…AKA: pairing!
   Extinction: remove positive R for certain behaviors

   Timeout (from reinforcement): remove access to positive R which
    is maintaining misbehavior

   DRO (differentially reinforce other behaviors): deliver positive R if
    misbehavior doesn’t occur for a specified period of time

   DRA (differentially reinforce alternative behaviors): teach the
    student to gain access to your attention or items through more
    appropriate behavior (i.e. count and mand- change over delay)


           Socially Mediated Negative Reinforcement (SR-)

      The withdrawal of something (i.e. demands) after a behavior
       occurs increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur
       again.

      60-70% of behaviors (escape)

      Value increases or decreases in the presence of instructional
       demands, which are a signal that less reinforcement will follow

      You work to remove these conditions- actual removal (escape/
       avoidance) is the R


           Interventions for Behaviors Maintained by Negative
                        Reinforcement (escape)

 Stimulus demand fading- changes relevant to instruction including:
      Pace of instruction (2-3 sec prompt/ 1 sec ITIs)
      Schedules of R- variable ratios
      Intersperse easy and hard tasks
      Extinction: prompting compliance
      DRI: development of instruction following a behavior (i.e.
       compliance trials)
        DNRA: development of APPROPRIATE escape behavior(i.e.
         request break instead of tantrum)


                 Automatic Positive Reinforcement

  Self stimulatory sensations produced by certain behaviors- behavior
   is inherently reinforcing

  Feedback within the body makes the behavior more likely to occur
   again.

  Provide an enriching environment to combat this!

  Act of engagement produces R

  Hobbies- teach skills to access SR+ in the environment; offer
   stimulatory exercises to compete

   Interventions for Behaviors Maintained by Automatic Positive
                          Reinforcement

  Sensory reinforcement contingent upon alternative behavior
   (DRA)…AKA working to stim

  R of alternative self-stimulatory responses (DRA)- shape stim
   behaviors so that they provide the same input, but appear more
   functional (i.e. a pretzel instead of a chew toy!)

  Condition other reinforcers!

  Sensory extinction- attenuation of sensory R that maintains the
   behavior

Determine Intervention Restriction Level(s) Necessary to Reduce the
Behavior(s): Use Least Restrictive Procedures that will be Effective!

  Level 1: least restrictive (consultation and data encouraged)
   Use reinforcement, shaping, chaining, Mo, prompting, fade in
    demands, negative reinforcement, social and escape extinction,
    contingent guided practice and general protocols that follow

 Level 2: data mandatory/ FBA encouraged

 Level 3: data mandatory, FBA mandated, approved by parent,
  behavior analyst

 Level 4: data mandatory, FBA mandated by parent, behavior analyst,
  program administrator


                 Effective Functional Assessment

 Classifies behaviors by functions

 Topography does not predict intervention

 Why vs. what

 Identify the controlling variables (antecedents and consequences)
  that maintain problem behaviors

 Select treatment and intervention based upon functional categories


                      Why say Yea to FBAs?

 By manipulating MOs (the value) and SDs, putting unwanted
  behaviors on extinction, and differentially reinforcing alternative
  behaviors…
     Individuals will come into contact with an increased amount of
       reinforcement
     Tx will based upon the function of the behavior and will reduce
       problem behavior
     Targets chosen will be beneficial to the consumer and
       functional
       By-product is happiness which leads to increased level of
        productivity and improved quality of life
       Important to distinguish between the discrepancies between
        individuals’ behavior and a standard. Are they hurting
        themselves/ others? Determine if the behavior is
        inconsequential.
       Tx protocol: MO manipulation- Extinction- DRA


                         Behavior Protocols


                    Addressing Problem Behavior

 What is problem behavior?
   Behavior that interferes with an individual’s ability to learn and
    function in society
   Behavior that if not reduced, will decrease opportunities for an
    individual to contact reinforcement in life


                Why does problem behavior occur?

 To get…or to get out of

 Transitioning from preferred to non-preferred

 Accepting no

 Demands

 To get an item or attention


                       How do you address this?

 Prevention is the most important step. Be proactive rather than
  reactive!
 That is, to use effective instructional techniques and strategies that
  incorporate motivation

 Keep me busy!


                       What if it still occurs?

 If you or the environment selects a problem behavior because the
  MO was not eliminated, terminate the behavior’s reinforcement
  contingency

 Huh?! Don’t reinforce it. Don’t allow any pay off that could increase
  the likelihood the behavior occurs again

 Replace the behavior with an alternative response

 Know the functions of behaviors

 Why is the child resorting to this? In other words, what is motivating
  the behavior to occur (what happened before it) and what is
  reinforcing it (what is happening afterwards to maintain it?) You will
  respond differently given the function of the behavior

 Determine intervention restriction level(s) necessary to reduce the
  behavior(s):
     Levels 1, 2, 3, and 4


                     Responding to Behaviors

 Know the IEP and behavior support plan

 If the behavior is new, document

 Protect the child and others. Know CPI techniques/ obtain
  certification and emergency procedures (seclusion, manual restraint,
  protective equipment)
 If emergency procedures are used more than 5 times in a school
  year, a behavior plan should be written.

 When should emergency procedures be used?
     If a child is engaged or is about to engage in aggressive
      behavior
     If a child is engaged or is about to engage in SIBs
     If a child is engaged or is about to engage in destructive
      behavior
     If these behaviors continue and emergency procedures
      continue, an FA and BIP should be written


                  General Behavior Management

             Managing Everyday Problem Behaviors

 Walk and Peel
     If the individual can’t have something, provide a brief
       explanation as to why and offer an alternative. i.e. you can’t
       have _________, but you can have _________. If problem
       behavior doesn’t occur, reinforce. If it continues, then ignore.
       Literally, “walk and peel.”

 Count and Mand
   Use for instances when the individual can have access to an item,
    or your attention, but not for problem behavior
   Set up discriminated S delta, negatively correlated with the
    availability of R
   Using a change over delay, use your fingers as you demonstrate
    the passage of time and count. If behavior persists, restart the
    count. Prompt the mand (DRA) after the delay and allow for the
    immediate access to the R


                    General Behavior Protocols

 Use compliance as extinction (DRI) for behaviors exhibited during
  demand situations. A contingent-effort procedure may also be used
 Be reflective…too high a VR schedule, task difficulty, etc.


                             Extinction

 Extinction: withholding a stimulus that previously acted as a R for
  behavior; decreases behavior
      For behaviors maintained by SMNR, continue to apply stimulus
      For behaviors maintained by SMPR, count and mand/ walk and
        peel
      For behaviors maintained by AR, ensure that the movements
        are interrupted by attenuating/ diminishing their effects.

                                 Quiz

1. What do you do if the child wants something and CAN have it, but
   tantrums to get it?

2. What do you do if the child wants something and CAN have it, but
   cries to get it?

3. What do you do if the child wants something and CAN’T have it, and
   tantrums to get it?

4. What do you do if the child wants something and CAN have it, but
   hits to get it?

5. What do you do when the child does not follow a request or
   instruction (does not comply) and hits, kicks, daydreams, stims, or
   screams instead?


                        What about waiting?

 Teach a child to wait to receive reinforcement (and yourself while
  you’re at it) by:
   Presenting R and count
   Reward successful wait with R
   Expand wait time through shaping
      Extinction for failure (don’t deliver R)


      What about when the child has to give up fun (transition)?

   Promise procedure:
     When a child is engaged in a preferred activity and will soon need
       to transition to something not as reinforcing present a reinforcer
       (promise) and tell the child to move to the desired location, etc. If
       the child comes, reinforce with the promise. If the child refuses,
       prompt compliance. DO NOT deliver the promise


                               Case Studies

   Note the target behavior (B)

   Note the controlling variables (A) and (C)

   Note the perceived function of the behavior (B) based on the (A) and
    (C)

   Note the general behavior protocol you would use to manipulate the
    C

   Note a proactive strategy that could be considered to manipulate the
    A



Joe is 5 years old and is diagnosed with autism. He plays alone in a block
center, engaging in no maladaptive behavior. His teacher presents him
with a demand. He cries and flops to the floor for several minutes. The
crying ceases when his teacher removes the demand and allows him to
continue to play.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________
Brian asks his mom to go swimming. The neighborhood pool is now closed
for the season. His mom tells him this and he begins to tantrum.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________


Terri’s dad asks him to get his pajamas. He begins to scream and yell.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________


My alarm clock goes off at 6:00am. I push the snooze button.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________


Alex works one on one with his teacher without exhibiting any problem
behavior. He then rotates into an independent work station and notices his
teacher working with another student. He begins to cry and scream for
several minutes until his teacher comes over and asks him what’s wrong.
The crying ceases. His teacher goes back over to the other student and he
begins to cry again. The teacher begins to walk towards him again and the
crying stops.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________



Alexis is observed playing with her favorite toys and is banging her head
while doing so. She is then observed in an intensive teaching structure and
continues to head bang, but only on occasion- the frequency is less then
when she was playing.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________

Exercise 9: role play behavior protocols

				
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