Canada Customs Revenue Forms - Excel

					             International Cooperative                                          Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                 Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)          Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                            Partners
                                                                                             "ACIS stands for Advance Cargo Information System. ACIS is a logistics information system designed to improve transport efficiency by tracking equipment and cargo on transport
                                                                                             modes (rail, road, lake/river) and at interfaces (ports, internal clearance depots (ICDs)) and by providing information in advance of cargo arrival. ACIS provides both public and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Country / regional railways (e.g., Kenyan,
             ACIS Port, Rail, and Lake Tracker                 UNCTAD           late 1980s   private transport operators and ancillaries with reliable, useful and real-time data on transport operations such as the whereabouts of goods and transport equipment, and thus        Tanzanian, and Zambian Railways)
                                                                                             improves day-to-day management and decision-making. ACIS also produces regular statistics and performance indicators which enable management to remedy deficiencies and to
                                                                                             make full use of the existing infrastructure and equipment capacity."

                                                          World Bank, IMF,                   "World Bank support focuses on custom modernization and harmonization that will help the trade facilitation in the country. To help Afghanistan increase revenue from trade,
             Afghan Custom Operations                      ADB, USAID,
                                                                                  2003       reduce corruption, and prevent smuggling across its borders, the World Bank approved a $31 million IDA credit in December 2003 aimed at helping the government establish a                         Afghanistan
             Assistance                                  BearingPoint, DFID,
                                                                GTZ                          more efficient customs and transit regime. The WB has also o provided support for restructuring and capacity building of the Ministry of Commerce."

                                                                                             "The Americas Counter Smuggling Initiative (ACSI) is a priority undertaking by Customs and Border Protection (CBP) under the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-
                                                                                             TPAT) that is designed to counter the smuggling of drugs and the possible introduction of implements of terror in commercial cargo and conveyances. ACSI focuses on each aspect
                                                                                             of the commercial transportation process and offer a more comprehensive approach to dealing with this problem.
             Americas Counter Smuggling                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Central American States; over 100 ASCI
                                                         USA    [DHS/CBP]         1988       Since February 1998, under the auspices of ACSI, CBP officers have been detailed overseas to assist exporters, carriers, manufacturers and other businesses. These officers aid
             Initiative (ACSI)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Deployments
                                                                                             in the development and implementation of security programs and initiatives to safeguard legitimate trade from being used to smuggle drugs. ACSI teams consists CBP officers who
                                                                                             provide border protection expertise, provide security training, speak at seminars, and perform limited site surveys at manufacturing plants and port facilities. ACSI teams are
                                                                                             traveling to work with BASC companies in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic."

                                                                                             The APEC Sub-committee on Customs Procedures (SCCP) is addressing the APEC objective of harmonising and simplifying customs procedures under the framework of the
                                                                                             SCCP Collective Action Plan (CAP). In progressing its regional initiatives, the SCCP seeks to:
                                                                                             - facilitate legitimate trade and investment in the APEC region;
                                                                                             - maintain its role in protecting the community;
                                                                                             - simplify and harmonize customs procedures;
                                                                                             - improve the speed, accuracy, and transparency of customs transactions;
             APEC Sub-committee on Customs                                                   - establish levels of service to provide traders with certainty;
                                                                APEC              1994
             Procedures (SCCP)                                                               - promote the professionalism and integrity of Customs Administrators;
                                                                                             - encourage voluntary compliance in APEC member economies;
                                                                                             - consult regularly with the APEC business community to ensure its activities meet their needs;
                                                                                             - form strategic partnerships with interested APEC business representatives;
                                                                                             - provide members with the required technical assistance to promote efficiency, effectiveness and equity; and
                                                                                             - tailor the pace of progress to the diverse needs and abilities of APEC member economies

                                                                                             "Undertaken as part of the STAR initiative [see below, p25]. ��                                                                                  Main
                                                                                                                                                             Examines the experiences of several APEC economies in securing their trade. �� aim to disseminate information
             APEC: Best Practice in Secure Trade                                             on best practice and lessons learned to assist in future efforts in counter terrorism measures." ..."Five Case Studies: US/Thailand STAR-Bangkok/Laem Chabang Efficient and
                                                                APEC              2005
             Report                                                                          Secure Trade (BEST) Project ��  Chile’s Graficación Marítima (GRAFIMAR) geographical information system ��                                                         Australia’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Malaysia’s Karsof™ Total Airport Security System ��
                                                                                             Advance Passenger Processing (APP) system ��       Indonesia’s Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Anti-Terrorist Financing (ATF) Regime"

                                                                                             "The Arms Export Control Act (Section 30A -- Exchange of Training and Related Support) authorizes the President to provide training and related support to military and civilian
             Arms Export Control Act                                                         defense personnel of a friendly foreign country or international organization. Such training and related support are provided through the Military Departments (as opposed to the
                                                                USA               1976
             (AECA)                                                                          Combatant Commands). Unit exchanges conducted under this authority are arranged under international agreements negotiated for such purposes, and are integrated into the
                                                                                             theater engagement strategies of the relevant Combatant Commander. Recipient countries provide, on a reciprocal basis, comparable training and related support."

                                                                                             "...represented by the heads of customs training centers or the heads of human resource division of member customs administrations. This forum was set up to boost cooperation
             ASEAN Coordinators of Customs
                                                               ASEAN              1999       and coordinate the provision of training and technical assistance among ASEAN Members, through the ASEAN Customs Training Network. The ACCTC also reports to the ASEAN
             Training Centers (ACCTC)
                                                                                             Directors General of Customs Meeting and is currently chaired by Malaysia."

                                                                                             "During the period of 1999-2004, the ASEAN Customs Community succeeded in completing a large number of activities in essential areas of customs techniques as follows:
                                                                                             (a) Development and implementation of the ASEAN Harmonized Tariff Nomenclature toward the establishment of a regional system of classification.
                                                                                             (b) Development of the ASEAN Customs Valuation Guideline (ACVG) with specific Plan of Action and completion of the ASEAN study on practices related to Customs valuation.
                                                                                             (c)    Development and implementation of the Plan of Action to establish the ASEAN e-Customs.
                                                                                             (d)    Establishment of Customs Post-Clearance Audit in all Member Countries.
                                                                                             (e)    Implementation of the Rules of Origin for Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme for the ASEAN Free Trade Area and Study of Non-Preferential Rules of Origin in line
                                                                                             with the WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin.
             ASEAN Customs Community
                                                               ASEAN              1999       (f)     Design of the ASEAN Single Window in close cooperation with government agencies to ensure the free flow of goods and commodities in ASEAN.                                           ASEAN Member States
                                                                                             (g)     Regional adoption of Risk Management for customs control and management;
                                                                                             (h)     Best Practices in handling complaints and appeals in Customs;
                                                                                             (i)     Enhancement of practices relevant to the exchange of information on customs enforcement and on valuation issues.
                                                                                             (j)      Better transparency through the publication and dissemination of information relevant to the customs legislation of Member Countries.
                                                                                             (k)      Enhanced Partnership with the business community for voluntary compliance.
                                                                                             (l)      Significant contribution to narrow developing gap to Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam, and
                                                                                             (m)      Strengthened efforts on capacity building to several hundred customs officers under ASEAN Programs.

                                                                                             "The AHTN is an 8-digit commodity nomenclature agreed to be adopted in principle by the ten (10) ASEAN member countries on 01 January 2002. It is based on the Harmonized
             ASEAN Harmonised Tariff                                                         System (HS) and involves the alignment of the national tariff nomenclature of each member country with the AHTN."
                                                               ASEAN              1997
             Nomenclature (AHTN)                                                             [per AADCP doc:] "Japan has provided a range of assistance measures to facilitate implementation of the ASEAN Harmonised Tariff Nomenclature (AHTN). This has included a
                                                                                             number of workshops to discuss the text of the AHTN, a train-the-trainers course in AHTN and the development of an AHTN electronic index."
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1
International Cooperative                                                                                                         Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                   Other       Status                                               Source(s)                                                                                   Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

ACIS Port, Rail, and Lake Tracker                                             x          x                                  Training     ongoing                                    ;

                                                                                                                                                                                     p.23 in Appendix'
Afghan Custom Operations
                                                                              x          x           x                      Training     ongoing, expected aid through 2007          pp. 73-74; on funding,
Assistance                                                                                                                                                                                    see

Americas Counter Smuggling
                                                                              x          x                                  Training     ongoing                                    
Initiative (ACSI)

APEC Sub-committee on Customs
                                                                              x          x                       x          Training     ongoing                                    ;
Procedures (SCCP)

APEC: Best Practice in Secure                                                                                              Practices;
                                                       x                                                         x                     briefed in 2005, presumably ongoing                    Download.v1.html?url=/etc/medialib/apec_media_library/downloads/taskforce/cttf/mtg/200
Trade Report                                                                                                               Lessons                                                            5/pdf.Par.0029.File.v1.1
                                                                                                                         Learned Study

Arms Export Control Act
                                                                      x                                                     Training     ongoing                                    

ASEAN Coordinators of Customs                                                                                                                                                       ;
                                                                              x                                  x          Training     ongoing
Training Centers (ACCTC)                                                                                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                         ongoing; First phase of strategy implemented 1999-
ASEAN Customs Community                                                                                                  Training; Best 2004, currently implementing second phase of "ASEAN
Framework                                                                                                                  Practices Customs Vision 2020" strategy and "ASEAN Policy and
                                                                                                                                         Implementation Work Program (PIWP)"

ASEAN Harmonised Tariff
                                                                              x                                  x          Training     ongoing; codes came into effect in 2003    
Nomenclature (AHTN)

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                           Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                       Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)         Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                   Partners
                                                                                          "Short Term Objectives:
                                                                                          To provide technical assistance to the customs administrations of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Viet Nam where particular needs have been identified. (Refer to Appendix on the
             ASEAN Technical Assistance to
                                                                                          priority list of requirements)
             Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and                     ASEAN              1999                                                                                                                                                                                                         Vietnam is lead implementer
                                                                                          Sub-element 1:
                                                                                          To set up a programme of technical assistance for customs administrations to increase the level of understanding and competence on subjects needed by all four countries....
                                                                                          Sub-Element 2: To implement the technical assistance programme"

                                                                                          "ASYCUDA is a computerised customs management system which covers most foreign trade procedures. The system handles manifests and customs declarations, accounting
                                                                                          procedures, transit and suspense procedures.
                                                                                          ASYCUDA generates trade data that can be used for statistical economic analysis.
                                                                                          The ASYCUDA software is developed in Geneva by UNCTAD. It operates on micro in a client server environment under UNIX and DOS operating systems and RDBMS Software.
             Automated System for Customs
                                                              UNCTAD             1981     ASYCUDA takes into account the international codes and standards developed by ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation), WCO (World Customs Organization) and                                     ECOWAS
             Data (ASYCUDA)
                                                                                          the United Nations.
                                                                                          ASYCUDA can be configured to suit the national characteristics of individual Customs regimes, National Tariff, legislation,...
                                                                                          ASYCUDA provides for Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) between traders and Customs using EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and
                                                                                          Transport) rules."

                                                                                          "The declaration recommends that States take appropriate measures to control arms transfers by manufacturers, suppliers, traders, brokers as well as shipping and transit agents
             Bamako Declaration on an African
                                                                                          in a transparent fashion. It also encourages the codification and harmonization of legislation governing the manufacture, trading, brokering, possession and use of small arms and
             Common Position on the Illicit
                                                                                          ammunition and urges States to enact appropriate legislation and regulations to control arms transfers by manufacturers, suppliers, traders, brokers, shipping and transit agents."
             Proliferation, Circulation and                     AU               2000                                                                                                                                                                                                             AU Member States
                                                                                          [Declaration text includes efforts to:] "Strengthen regional and continental cooperation among police, customs and border control services to address the illicit proliferation,
             Trafficking of Small Arms and Light
                                                                                          circulation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons. These efforts should include, but not be limited to, training, the exchange of information to support common action to
                                                                                          contain and reduce illicit arms and light weapons trafficking across borders, and the conclusion of the necessary Agreements in this regard."

                                                                                          "The objective of this, the first phase of the Border Management Information Systems (BMIS) Project, is to provide Imigrasi with an expert consultant to undertake a systems design
                                                                                          study. In addition, the project provides for a costed design for the delivery of required information technology and equipment.
                                                                                          Subject to support of the costed design, the project will move to a second phase which will see both technical and project support being provided through IOM for the development
             Border Management Information
                                                                IOM              2004     and implementation of the integrated alert list system. Other areas for systems development could then be developed in a modular approach as resources allow. It is anticipated                              Indonesia
             Systems (BMIS) Project
                                                                                          that this project will lay the foundation for a nationally integrated computerized border management system in Indonesia. This, in turn, will strengthen and enhance Indonesia's
                                                                                          migration management capacity to handle regular and irregular migrant flows through the increased use of computerized systems throughout the Directorate of Immigration and in
                                                                                          Indonesian Embassies and Consulates abroad."

                                                                                          " … will focus on tactical aspects of rural patrolling necessary to protect remote international boundaries from terrorist incursion. The basis for the course will be rural police patrol
             Border Patrol Operations Course                    USA              1999     planning, individual and team skills, field craft, and the conduct of rural patrols, both in vehicles and on foot. Subjects will include tracking, tactical movement and maneuver,
                                                                                          suspect contact tactics and procedures, and intervention, search, and arrest procedures."
                                                                                          "Germany has for the past two years been leading the police training program in Afghanistan, a fact reflected in the trademark green and white German police cars emblazoned
                                                                                          with the words "Donated by Germany" dominating the streets of Kabul.
                                                                                          The police training program is part of Germany's wider commitment to support international efforts to restore democracy and civil society in Afghanistan after the overthrow of the
                                                                                          Taliban by a U.S.-led coalition in 2001.                                                                                                                                                      USA; Afghanistan; UK [according to UN,
             Border Police and Police Academy
                                                            Germany; US          2002     Germany currently has 29 police officers and border guards stationed in Afghanistan. Their main job is to advise the Afghan interior ministry, train new police recruits and                 Germany is lead nation in charge of reform
             in Afghanistan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of the Afghan police]
                                                                                          coordinate support and logistical operations.
                                                                                          By the end of June about 20,000 police officers will be trained in Afghanistan. The goal for the end of 2005 is 50,000 fully-trained police officers, of which 12,000 will be border
                                                                                          police.". ...Since the end of 2002, Germany has also been in charge of setting up Afghanistan's border police. Germany's efforts to train a civilian police force are part of a multi-
                                                                                          national effort to ensure adequate security across the country."
                                                                                          "The overall objective of the EU Border Management Programme for Central Asia (BOMCA) is to assist the five countries of Central Asia in improving the effectiveness of the
                                                                                          management of their borders… BOMCA covers five sectors of intervention:
                                                                                          - Legal and organisational framework
                                                         EU (implemented by                                                                                                                                                                                                                Includes: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,
             Borders Management Programme                                                 - Human Resources and training
                                                           UNDP country          2003                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
             for Central Asia (BOMCA)                          offices)                   - Regional dog training capacity                                                                                                                                                                    Kyrgyzstan is the lead office.
                                                                                          - Border management at airports
                                                                                          - Model border management in four pilot regions
                                                                                            [See also TACIS, p7-9]

                                                                                          The BUMAD programme is an umbrella programme benefiting Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova. The overall objective of this programme is to reduce drug trafficking from and
                                                                                          through these countries towards EU Member states. The programme adopted a balanced approach addressing interdiction aspects as well as demand reduction and regional co-
                                                                                          operation aspects… To reach this overall objective, the Programme identified seven immediate objectives:
                                                                                          - To reinforce and harmonise national legislative and regulatory frameworks
                                                                                          - To strengthen seaports interdiction capacities
             BUMAD Programme Against Drugs               EU (implemented by
                                                                                          - To strengthen land border interdiction capacities
             and Drug Trafficking in Belarus,              UNDP country          2000                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UNDP
                                                               offices)                   - To develop compatible system for drug intelligence gathering and analysis
             Ukraine and Moldova (BUMAD)
                                                                                          - To reinforce monitoring of drug abuse in the region
                                                                                          - To develop an approach which is a blend of being reactive and proactive – responding to incident of crime (drug abuse or drug traffic) as well as attempting to reduce the
                                                                                          likelihood of crime occurring in the first place – developing a partnership between the police and the community.
                                                                                          - To develop NGOs’ network in the following areas of drug abuse prevention focusing on specific high risks groups, outreach, early detection and intervention for drug addicts,
                                                                                          social and occupational re-integration
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3
                                                                                                                                 Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                  Other      Status                                                  Source(s)                                                                             Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

ASEAN Technical Assistance to
Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and                                                  x          x                                 Training    ongoing

Automated System for Customs                                                                                                                                                         ;;
                                                                              x          x                                 Training    ongoing
Data (ASYCUDA)                                                                                                                                                                       

Bamako Declaration on an African                                                                                          Training;
Common Position on the Illicit                                                                                            Codify +
Proliferation, Circulation and                         x              x       x                                  x       Harmonize     ongoing
Trafficking of Small Arms and Light                                                                                       Regional
Weapons                                                                                                                  Legislation

Border Management Information                                                                                                                                                        ;
                                                       x                                 x           x           x                     6-9 month project
Systems (BMIS) Project                                                                                                                                                               ;

                                                                                                                                                                                               FYO5 State Dept. NDF Budget (as submitted)
Border Patrol Operations Course                        x                                                                   Training    ongoing                                       ; see also

                                                                                                                                       ongoing; According to Afghanistan Watch: "Police and
                                                                                                                                       border guards U.S., Germany & Afghanistan plan to
Border Police and Police Academy                                                                                                                                                     ,,1209235,00.html;
                                                       x                                                                   Training    train by December 2005: 62,000 [3]
in Afghanistan                                                                                                                         • Police and border guards U.S., Germany &
                                                                                                                                       Afghanistan have trained as of June 2004: 20,000 [4]"


Borders Management Programme                                                                                                                                                          ;
                                                       x                      x          x           x                     Training    ongoing in Phase 4 / BOMCA 4 covering 2004-07
for Central Asia (BOMCA)                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Programme Regional Coordinator - Klavdia Maksimenko
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tel: 38 (044) 253-93-63, fax: 38 (044) 253-26-07

BUMAD Programme Against Drugs
and Drug Trafficking in Belarus,                       x                      x          x           x           x                     ongoing                                       
                                                                                                                         Legislation +
Ukraine and Moldova (BUMAD)                                                                                               Regulatory

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                            Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                         Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)         Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                     Partners
                                                                                         "The Business Anti-Smuggling Coalitions (BASC) initiated in March 1996, is a business-led, Customs-supported alliance created to combat the smuggling of contraband via
                                                                                         commercial trade.
                                                                                         BASC was designed to complement/enhance the CIP program.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             "BASC chapters are located in
                                                                                         The objective of BASC is:                                                                                                                                                                       COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA, ECUADOR,
             Business Anti-Smuggling Coalitions                                          To ELIMINATE the contamination of legitimate businesses with heightened security awareness regarding the SMUGGLING of CONTRABAND and other TERRORIST tools in the                                  MEXICO, PANAMA, PERU and
                                                                USA              1996
             (BASC)                                                                      import/export communities.                                                                                                                                                                             VENEZUELA…over 1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           participants…creation of 16 BASC
                                                                                         BASC, as a voluntary program for businesses, with NO Customs-imposed mandates, corporate participants will be expected to set SELF-IMPOSED BUSINESS STANDARDS that
                                                                                         will significantly deter NARCOTICS TRAFFICKERS and TERRORISTS.
                                                                                         The BASC program examines the entire process of and shipping merchandise from foreign countries to the USA, emphasizing the creation of MORE SECURITY-CONSCIOUS
                                                                                         ENVIRONMENT at foreign manufacturing plants to ELIMINATE or REDUCE their vulnerability to the SMUGGLING of CONTRABAND or CONTAMINATION of any kind."

                                                                                          "Provide widely and at low cost, the best knowledge in trade, transport and logistics to professionals, by partnering with industry leaders and professional associations.
                                                                                          Scope and activities
                                                                                            1. supports the development and implementation of training program certified by leading professional associations;                                                                            FIATA (International Federation of Freight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Forwarders Associations) , TRAINMAR ,
             Capacity Building Initiative                                                   2. pools, through the GFP network of partners, appropriate training material (short training sessions, reference documents, videos...);
                                                             World Bank          2004                                                                                                                                                                                                    International Road Transport Union (IRU) ,
             (Previously GFP-DLI)                                                           3. stimulates the development of knowledge-based network.                                                                                                                                      TRAINMAR Centre, TRINIDAD , World
                                                                                            * Certificate of Professional Competence for road transport operators (with IRU)-piloted in Southeast Europe                                                                                             Bank , BearingPoint
                                                                                            * FIATA Freight Forwarding Diploma (under preparation)
                                                                                            * Supply Chain Management Specialist with TRAINMAR (under preparation)"

                                                                                          "The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) provides anti-drug smuggling training to air, sea and land commercial transport companies (carriers). This training is part of the
                                                                                          CBP Carrier Initiative and Super Carrier Initiative Programs under which CBP and the carrier companies cooperate to prevent commercial conveyances from being utilized to
                                                                                          smuggle narcotics.                                                                                                                                                                              "CBP and various carriers have signed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         over 3,800 Carrier Initiative Agreements
             Carrier Initiative Program (CIP)            USA    [DHS/CBP]        1984     Carrier Initiative training is directed at employees of air, sea and land commercial carriers. Those carriers with route systems that are high risk for drug smuggling voluntarily sign        and 27 Super Carrier Agreements…over
                                                                                          agreements with CBP. The carriers agree to exercise the highest degree of care and diligence in securing their facilities and conveyances, while CBP agrees to conduct site                       4800 participants…24 Super CIP"
                                                                                          surveys and provide appropriate training and recommendations for improving security. ...The Super Carrier Initiative Program is for those carriers that face an extraordinarily high
                                                                                          risk from drug traffickers."

                                                                                          "The CBP Office of International Affairs works in partnership with host nation officials and American Embassy personnel to tailor a program to the specific needs of the beneficiary
                                                                                          customs administration or other law enforcement entity.                                                                                                                                          Georgia, Columbia, Costa Rica + long-
             CBP Office of International Affairs                USA              2002     International Affairs currently has long-term advisors in numerous countries including the Republic of Georgia and continues its foreign assistance programs with Colombia, Costa               term, on-site assistance to more than 30
                                                                                          Rica, and others. Although, long-term assistance with foreign customs administrations involves the development of customs procedures and strengthening existing infrastructures,                                 nations

                                                                                          often counter-narcotics assistance is also provided."
                                                                                          Forum aim is trade facilitation and customs harmonization -- "The Central and South Asia Transport and Trade Forum is built on a basic proposition -- that improving transport
                                                                                          corridors is not just an end in itself, important as that clearly is. It is also an essential investment in stronger, more equitable growth, in economic diversification and the greater
             Central and South Asia Trade and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and
                                                                ADB              2003     collective security it brings, and in greater efficiency and competitiveness. ...Our first Conference in 2003 launched the Transport and Trade Forum as the instrument for
             Transport Forum (CSATTF)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Uzbekistan
                                                                                          cooperation. The background studies requested by Ministers on key issues such as customs harmonization, border transport infrastructure and law enforcement have been
                                                                                          CADAP 1 has supported the four major airports in the region with supply of drug control equipment and training. CADAP1 also reinforced the Drug Control Agency in Tajikistan
                                                                                          (ADMIT project) and the drug information prints (non confidential data) in the region (NADIN project). The second phase
                                                                                          CADAP2 - will include the following projects:
                                                                                          - Legal Assistance: assist in reforming judicial and institutional infrastructures with a view to make judicial procedures (for drug related cases) more effective and in line with EU
                                                                                          - Land Border Control: renovate and equip around five border posts in CA. Note that while CADAP2 will concentrate on poorly equipped border posts, located in remote regions
             Central Asia Drug Assistance                EU (implemented by
                                                                                          situated along possible drug trafficking route, BOMCA will concentrate on reinforcing joint border posts starting initially with border posts along Tajik Kyrgyz border.                          Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
             Programme (CADAP 1 + 2) - TACIS               UNDP country          2002
                                                               offices)                   - Seaports and Airports Control: establish drug profiling units at airports and seaports in the region.                                                                                               Turmenistan, Uzbekistan
             Drug Assistance
                                                                                          - Drug Scenting Dogs Training: reinforce regional capacity for the training drug scenting dogs and dog handlers. A similar project will be developed by BOMCA that will concentrate
                                                                                          on needs of modern border management.
                                                                                          - Police Intelligence: reinforce national police information print (confidential data) fro the collection, analysis and exchange of drug related data. Here as well BOMCA (Border
                                                                                          Management Programme in Central Asia) should coordinate with CADAP2 in order to make sure that telecommunication prints to be developed by BOMCA be coherent with drug
                                                                                          information prints of the Police.
                                                                                          - Prevention in Prisons: develop preventive measure in prisons."
                                                                                          NOTE: these activities are coordinated with BOMCA as detailed above
                                                                                          " As a follow-up to the October 2003 workshop in Bishkek, this workshop aims to strengthen existing regional co-ordination of cross-border activities relating to travel documents in
                                                                                          Central Asia. This is the fifth in a series of Travel Document Workshops in the OSCE regions, which the ATU initiated in April 2003 to address the relevant issues in each region
                                                                                          concerned. The workshops provide a forum for technical, cross-border dialogue among participants with technical and/or managerial portfolios on travel documents and border
             Central Asia Regional Co-operation                                           control from each country within a region of OSCE participating States. The workshops are facilitated by international experts on travel documents and terrorism who share with the               Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
                                                               OSCE              2004
             Workshop on Travel Documents                                                 participants insights and lessons learned from other initiatives. National participants are invited to prepare presentations on a topic of their choice relating to travel documents. The             Turmenistan, Uzbekistan
                                                                                          workshops aim to encourage participants to identify specific priority areas related to travel documents with a view to devising possible bilateral and multilateral co-operation
                                                                                          agreements. Upon conclusion of each workshop, a final report is compiled, including lessons learned and recommendations for concrete, immediate steps to improve cross-border
                                                                                          and regional co-operation."

                                                                                          Memorandum of Understanding includes commitment to: "(i) Develop additional protocols, as appropriate, as well as an Action Plan to combat the occurrence and spread of
             Conference on Security, Stability,
                                                                                          terrorism in all its forms and manifestations; (j) Develop policies to combat the illicit proliferation, trafficking and circulation of small arms and light weapons in Africa...(n) Develop
             Development, and Cooperation in                    AU               2000                                                                                                                                                                                                                AU Member States
                                                                                          national, regional and continental strategies to eradicate criminal organisations and syndicates operating in Africa and establish joint cross-border operations to investigate and
             Africa (CSSDCA)
                                                                                          apprehend criminal elements and stop money laundering, drug and human trafficking."
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 5
                                                                                                                                Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                 Other     Status                                               Source(s)                                                                                   Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

Business Anti-Smuggling Coalitions
                                                                              x          x                                           ongoing                                    
(BASC)                                                                                                                                                                                    ms.pps

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Gerald Ollivier,

Capacity Building Initiative                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                              x                                           Training   ongoing (April 04, 2003 to December 04, 2006)
(Previously GFP-DLI)                                                                                                                                                                      c9dac7280485

Carrier Initiative Program (CIP)                                              x                                           Training   ongoing                                    

CBP Office of International Affairs                                           x          x                                Training   ongoing

Central and South Asia Trade and                                                                                         Harmonize                                              ;
                                                                              x                                  x                   ongoing
Transport Forum (CSATTF)                                                                                                  Customs                                               


Central Asia Drug Assistance
Programme (CADAP 1 + 2) - TACIS                        x                      x          x           x                    Training   ongoing
Drug Assistance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jahyun Han. Project Officer. Action against Terrorism Unit (ATU). Kaerntner Ring 5 - 7, 1010 Vienna.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Austria Tel.:++43-1 51 4 36-161 Fax:++43-1 51 4 36-587; Marie-Carin von
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Gumppenberg, Political Officer, 12B Afrosiyob Street, 4th Floor, Mirobod district, 700015 Tashkent,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Uzbekistan, Tel: +998 71 120 44 70, Fax: +998 71 120 61 25,
Central Asia Regional Co-operation
                                                       x                      x                                  x        Training   ongoing indefinitely and funded by OSCE    
Workshop on Travel Documents

Conference on Security, Stability,
                                                                                                                                     A number of initiatives, including a regional arms
Development, and Cooperation in                        x                                                         x
                                                                                                                                     convention, are due to be instituted in 2005         memorandumofunderstanding.pdf
Africa (CSSDCA)

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6
                                                                                                                          Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                 Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)        Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                             Partners

                                                                                         The FRTFSI is a multi-donor umbrella facility that will support Asian Development Bank (ADB) technical assistance to developing member countries f(DMCs) or enhancing port
                                                                                         security (including airports, cargo ports, and containers) and combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The activities to be financed by the FRTFSI may cover a range of
                                                                                         interventions, including projects that (i) strengthen DMCs’ capacity to address anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT), in particular through
             Cooperation Fund for Regional
                                                                                         assistance in the establishment of financial intelligence units and effective legal and supervisory regimes for AML; (ii) promote customs modernization measures facilitating (a) the    ADB Members and Developing Member
             Trade and Financial Security                      ADB              2003
                                                                                         detection and monitoring of cross-border movements of cash and monetary instruments, as well as goods and conveyances that may pose a security risk; (b) security enhancing
             Initiative (FRTFSI)
                                                                                         seaport and airport upgrades; (c) supply chain security; and (d) adherence to International Civil Aviation Organization, International Maritime Organization, World Customs
                                                                                         Organization, and other international safety and security transportation standards; or (iii) complement the APEC STAR Initiative goals and help developing economies implement
                                                                                         related action plans.

                                                                                         "Counter Terrorism Action Plans APEC's Counter Terrorism Action Plans (CTAPs) are based on the APEC Leaders' Statement on Fighting Terrorism and Promoting Growth in
             Counter Terrorism Action Plans                                              2002 and security-related work underway in APEC fora. Each CTAP provides a concise check-list of counter-terrorism measures being undertaken by an APEC Member Economy
             APEC's Counter Terrorism Action                   APEC             2002     to achieve the key elements of the STAR initiative. These include securing cargoes, protecting people in transit, protecting ships engaged in international voyages and international          APEC Member Economies
             Plans (CTAPs)                                                               aviation; measures to halt the financing of terrorism; promoting cyber security; energy security; and the health of communities. Economies can indicate when they expect a
                                                                                         particular measure to be implemented."

                                                                                         "The Security Council, in a Ministerial Declaration attached to its resolution 1377 (2001), has invited the CTC to explore ways in which States can be assisted, and in particular to
                                                                                         explore the promotion of best practices, the availability of existing technical, financial, regulatory, legislative programmes, and synergies between assistance programmes with
             Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC)
                                                                UN              2001     international, regional and subregional organizations, all within the framework of resolution 1373. The CTC's mandate is to promote technical co-operation between States that             UN Security Council Members (15)
             - UNSCR 1373
                                                                                         need help in the field of counter-terrorism, and other States or organisations in a position to provide it..." Cooperative activities include a CTC database on assistance programs
                                                                                         and expert advisors to developing states.

             Counterterrorism Action Group                                               "...a G8-initiated forum for CT donors, to coordinate and increase CT assistance to high-risk countries. International donor assistance provided to these countries includes basic
                                                                G8              2003                                                                                                                                                                                                             G8 States
             (CTAG)                                                                      law-and-order capacity building, legislative assistance, and border security assistance."

             Criteria on [Principles Governing]                                          "...a G8-initiated forum for CT donors, to coordinate and increase CT assistance to high-risk countries. International donor assistance provided to these countries includes basic
                                                              OSCE              1993                                                                                                                                                                                                      OSCE Member States
             Conventional Arms Transfers                                                 law-and-order capacity building, legislative assistance, and border security assistance."

                                                                                         "CSI is a four-part program designed to achieve a more secure maritime trade environment. CSI’s four core elements include, establishing security criteria to identify high-risk
             CSI - Container Security Initiative         USA [DHS/CBP/CSI]      2002     containers; pre-screening those containers identified as high-risk prior to arrival to U.S. ports; utilizing technology to quickly pre-screen high-risk containers; and developing and                   35 ports
                                                                                         using smart and secure containers."

             Customs - Trade Partnership                                                 Strategic Goal #3: Internationalize the core principles of C-TPAT through cooperation and coordination with the international community….C-TPAT complements CSI by adding
                                                               USA              2002                                                                                                                                                                                                (primarily US firms involved to date)
             Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)                                                  another layer of security to the supply chain."

                                                                                         [no specific info available yet on this AFACT Joint Working Group]; generally, "The major activities include: 1.Analyzing and understanding the key elements of international
                                                                                         transactions and working for the elimination of constraints; 2. Developing methods to facilitate transactions, including the relevant use of information technologies such as
             Customs Working Group                            AFACT             2005     UN/EDIFACT and ebXML; 3. Promoting both the use of these methods, and associated best practices, through channels such as government, industry and service associations; 4.                   AFACT Member States (16)
                                                                                         Coordinating its work with UN/CEFACT and other relevant international, regional and non-governmental organizations; and 5. Enhancing the cooperation among the AFACT
                                                                                         members and promoting the objectives of the mission statement in the Asia Pacific region."
                                                                                         "Under the Dangerous Materials Initiative (DMI), NDF has started to fund pilot projects that seek bilateral partnerships to improve controls on biological, chemical, nuclear and
                                                                                         radiological materials worldwide."
                                                         USA [DOS/NADR/                  [Wolf testimony:] "to help countries establish better accounting and control mechanisms to secure radioactive materials, pathogens, and sensitive precursors, from the laboratory to
             Dangerous Materials Initiative (DMI)              NDF]
                                                                                         movement into internal and international commerce. DMI will aim for synergies among U.S. Government agencies and programs and also with international partners and
                                                                                         international organizations."

             Development and Modernisation of                                            "The Custom programme "Development and Modernisation of efficient Central Asian Customs Administrations", which concerns all 5 countries, aims at providing support in the
             efficient Central Asian Customs                                             development and implementation of a comprehensive strategy for the modernisation and development of the customs services, building on a gap-analysis assessment carried out               Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
                                                                EU              2002
             Administrations - TACIS Customs                                             under the 2002 Action Programme and the draft of a Customs Long Term Modernisation Strategy Plan developed with EU-support. This should lead to improvements in areas such                    Turmenistan, Uzbekistan
             Assistance                                                                  as revenue collection, trade facilitation, international co-operation in customs related matters and combating international trafficking in illicit goods."

                                                                                         "Under the 1997 National Defense Authorization Act, the U.S. Congress authorized the Department of Defense, in cooperation with the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP),
             DOD/CBP Counterproliferation                                                to develop and implement a comprehensive international border security training program for the newly independent States of the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the
                                                               USA              1997
             Program                                                                     Baltic States. This program continues with U.S. Customs and Border Protection as the successor agency to the U.S. Customs Service. The DOD/CBP Counterproliferation
                                                                                         Program includes the delivery of, and training in, the use of high and low-tech equipment. Examples of programs coordinated through this initiative include the following."

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7
                                                                                                                                  Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                  Other         Status                                                      Source(s)                                                                                     Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Transportation Security Administration: David Steigman: 202-385-1800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    U.S. Customs Service: Paula D. Keicer: 202-927-8727
                                                                                                                                                                                            ; See also DOS
Cooperation Fund for Regional                                                                                                                                                               ;_ylu=X3oDMTBvdmM3bGlx
Trade and Financial Security                                                  x          x          x                                     US, Australia and Japan so far contributing funds           BHBndANhdl93ZWJfcmVzdWx0BHNlYwNzcg--
Initiative (FRTFSI)                                                                                                                                                                                   /SIG=14naf2idt/**http%3a//

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    for US: Contact Point: Name: _ Eileen McLucas_______ Title: Program Analyst, U.S. Customs and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Border Protection
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Telephone Number: (202) 344-3553 Fax Number: (202) 344-3555___________ Email Address:
                                                                                                                                          "This year the Counter Terrorism Task Force will be                                                                                             
Counter Terrorism Action Plans                                                                                                            undertaking a rigorous cross-analysis of the CTAPs
APEC's Counter Terrorism Action                        x              x       x                                  x                        with the aim of using APEC's extensive sectoral
Plans (CTAPs)                                                                                                                             expertise to develop a regional set of concrete needs
                                                                                                                                          and specific themes, to which donors could respond."

                                                                                                                                          Latest programme of work is listed online at
Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC)                                                                                                         http://daccess-                        ; see CTC database at
                                                       x              x                  x                       x         Training
- UNSCR 1373                                                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                                                                            ;                              Celina B. Realuyo, Director of Counterterrorism Finance Programs, Office of the Coordinator for
Counterterrorism Action Group                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Counterterrorism, U.S. Department of State, 2201 C Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20520, Tel. 202-
                                                       x                                 x          x            x         Training       ongoing                                           ;
(CTAG)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          647-2099, Fax. 202-6471833, Email.

Criteria on [Principles Governing]
                                                                      x                                          x                        ongoing                                           
Conventional Arms Transfers

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Office of International Affairs: (202) 344-3000

                                                                                                                                          "On November 12, 2004, U.S. Customs and Border
                                                                                                                                          Protection (CBP) Commissioner Robert C. Bonner
                                                                                                                                          announced that the Container Security Initiative (CSI) is
CSI - Container Security Initiative                                   x       x                                  x
                                                                                                                                          now operational at 32 ports in Africa, Europe, Asia, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                      si/csi_fact_sheet.ctt/csi_fact_sheet.doc; NIS Export Control Observer (November 2004)
                                                                                                                                          North America, an increase of 7 from 25 ports as of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                      [quote]; State Dept. Report on UNSCR activities
                                                                                                                                          end of August 2004."

Customs - Trade Partnership
                                                                              x                                  x         Training       "over 7,400 companies are enrolled,"                        plan.ctt/ctpat_strategicplan.pdf;
Against Terrorism (C-TPAT)                                                                                                                                                                  

Customs Working Group                                                         x                                  x       Best Practices

                                                                                                                                                                                                      FYO5 State Dept. NDF Budget (as submitted)
Dangerous Materials Initiative (DMI)                                  x                  x                                 Training       ongoing                                           ;

Development and Modernisation of
efficient Central Asian Customs                                                                                                                                                             ;
                                                                              x          x          x                      Training       ongoing
Administrations - TACIS Customs                                                                                                                                                             

DOD/CBP Counterproliferation                                                                                                                                                                
                                                       x                      x          x          x                      Training       ongoing
Program                                                                                                                                                                                               oliferation/counterproliferation_programs.xml

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8
             International Cooperative                                          Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                        Note on Database

                                                            State / Org
             Initiative                                     Sponsor(s)         Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                   Partners

                                                                                           "...includes military training for border and coastal security, programs to strengthen control of the movement of people and goods across borders, aviation security capacity-
             East African Counter Terrorism                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Tanzania,
                                                                USA               2003     building, assistance for regional efforts against terrorist financing, and police training. EACTI also includes an education program to counter extremist influence and a robust
             Initiative (EACTI)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Uganda, and Kenya
                                                                                           outreach program,"

                                                                                           "In parallel with developments at the UN level, the African Union has been preparing for an enhanced role in the maintenance of continental peace and security – most pertinently
             ECOWAS Standby Brigade                                                        through the establishment of a Peace and Security Council that is tasked with identifying threats and breaches of the peace. In order to back the resolutions of the Council, the AU
                                                              ECOWAS              2010
             (ECOBRIG)                                                                     is developing a common security policy and will establish, by 2010, an African Standby Force (ASF) capable of rapid deployment to keep or enforce the peace. The force will
                                                                                           comprise of standby brigades in each of the five African regions, and incorporate a police and civilian expert capacity as well."

                                                                                           "During the course of 2005, the government intends to take steps to broaden the tax base, with revenue effects likely to show up in 2006. With external assistance, the government
                                                                                           will develop by June 2005 a plan to overhaul the tax and customs administrations. Related tax measures, which could be adopted in 2006, include the introduction of a general
             Emergency Post Conflict Assistance                                            sales tax which could serve as the precursor to a value added tax, in addition to the existing 5 percent import duty (or ―reconstruction levy‖) which would in turn be changed into a
                                                                IMF               2005
             (EPCA) [customs training for Iraq]                                            uniform import duty with reduced exemptions." p. 17 "Despite the intensity of efforts by the international community so far, TA needs in Iraq are still significant. Key areas within the
                                                                                           mandate of the Fund are fiscal policy (customs and tax administration, fiscal federalism, tax regime for the oil sector, and expenditure and treasury management), banking sector
                                                                                           reform, statistics, and social safety net..." p. 21

                                                                                           "This project aims to support and enhance the Kyrgyz Republic's stability, security and economic development through the equipment of Karamyk checkpoint, contributing to the
                                                                                           management of the international borders and migration flows in, through and from the Kyrgyz Republic.".. "Part of a larger assistance program described as follows: "In 2000, IOM
                                                                                           equipped Manas International airport with computerized Inter Agency Migration Information System (IAMIS) that gathers information about people coming to and leaving the Kyrgyz
                                                                                           Republic. IAMIS is connected to all ministries involved with migration issues. The information system is also connected to a blacklist, which permits border guards to prevent mala
             Equipping of the Karamyk Border
                                                                IOM               1999     fide travelers entering the country. Recently, IOM extended this information system to Osh airport, and the border checkpoints at Torugart and Irkeshtam (land border with China).                          Kyrgyzstan
             Point in Kyrgyzstan (KARAMYK)
                                                                                           In collaboration with the US Embassy, IOM plans to continue this project and to equip the Kyrgyz railway checkpoints on the border between the Kyrgyz Republic and Kazakhstan.
                                                                                           In collaboration with the Government, IOM introduced new secure visas, which help combat with illegal migration and trafficking in human beings and are more difficult to forge.
                                                                                           IOM is also providing English language training to border guards, which will help them welcome travelers and check documents more efficiently.
                                                                                           IOM is planning to create an Inter Agency training center to provide international standards training (technical, language and human rights) to migration related personnel."

             EU Action Plan against the                                                    "This Strategy provides a fully fledged-roadmap for immediate and future action in the fight against proliferation of WMD. The main areas where the EU is currently concentrating
             Proliferation of Weapons of Mass                    EU               2003     its efforts are: * Strengthening the international system of non-proliferation, *Pursuing universalisation of multilateral agreements, *Reinforcing strict implementation and compliance                EU Member States
             Destruction,                                                                  with these agreements, * Co-operating closely with the key partners, *Assistance to third countries."

             EU Code of Conduct on Arms
                                                                 EU               1998     Establishes common criteria for conventional arms transfers and enhanced transparency among EU members through annual reporting requirements of transfers and denials                                   EU Member States

                                                                                           Agreement on a Common Order of Export Control by EURASEC Member States, signed on October 28, 2003, in Moscow. "According to the agreement’s terms, it aims to create
             EURASEC - Eurasian Economic                 Belarus, Kazakhstan               conditions conducive to the effective functioning of a common economic and customs space; support the development of balanced, mutually beneficial trade and scientific-
             Community's Common Order of                 Kyrgyzstan, Russia,      2003     technical ties among EURASEC member states; strengthen the nonproliferation regime; and guarantee the defense of national interests and security of member states. According                      EURASEC Member States (5)
             Export Control                                 and Tajikistan                 to the agreement, EURASEC members will establish common standardized export control norms, rules, and regulations covering raw materials, goods, equipment, technology, and
                                                                                           services that can be used in the production of WMD and other types of military equipment and weapons, and means of WMD delivery.[3]"

                                                                                           "The European Union is committed to strengthening Export Control policies and practices within its border and beyond, in coordination with partners. The Strategy aims at
             European Union Strategy against                                               strengthening the Community export control regime and recommends a peer review of Member States’ implementation of export controls of dual use items relevant for WMD
             the Proliferation of Weapons of                     EU               2003     production. The peer review has recently been finalised and will lead to concrete recommendations to improve export controls within the EU. The EU Strategy also aims at                                   EU members
             Mass Destruction                                                              strengthening existing international export control regimes, ia by supporting the membership of all its new Member States in these regimes. Finally, the EU also advocates
                                                                                           adherence to effective export control by all countries, including the ones which are outside the existing regimes and arrangements."

                                                                                           "...program to assist countries to develop strong export and border control systems to prevent the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), their missile delivery
                                                                                           systems, advanced conventional weapons, and related items. The EXBS program works with governments in strengthening their export controls by improving their legal and
                                                                                           regulatory frameworks, licensing processes, border control and investigative capabilities, outreach to industry, and interagency coordination. The Department of State implements
             EXBS - Export Control and Related
                                                                                           the EXBS program in over 40 countries by drawing on expertise from the Departments of Commerce, Energy, and Homeland Security and from the private sector. The program                      active in over 40 countries (FY05) in Africa,
             Border Security Program, US Dept.                  USA               1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Asia, Europe, Latin America, + Middle East
                                                                                           also has placed over 20 Program Advisors at U.S. Embassies to help to coordinate and implement assistance. In support of the Department of State-lead EXBS program, the
             of State
                                                                                           Department of Commerce conducts technical exchanges designed to remedy deficiencies that the U.S. Government has noted in certain dual-use national export control systems.
                                                                                           Commerce has conducted over 400 technical exchanges in 33 countries and has identified and remedied 323 deficiencies. Identified deficiencies range from the non-existence of
                                                                                           an export control law to a control list that does not conform to international regime standards." [See also SEED Act below]

                                                                                           "Our FREEDOM Support Act programs work throughout the volatile region of Eurasia to bolster security and stability by opening political systems to independent voices and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Eurasian states [particularly Azerbaijan;
                                                                                           creating economic opportunity, while cooperating with governments to strengthen border security and interdict the flow of illicit trafficking in humans and narcotics. FREEDOM
             FREEDOM Support Act (FSA)                          USA               1992                                                                                                                                                                                                     Georgia; Kazakhstan; Moldova;
                                                                                           Support Act assistance is a critical element of U.S. Government efforts to work with the countries of Eurasia, particularly the key front line states in Central Asia, in the global war          Turkmenistan; + Uzbekistan]
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                     against terrorism."                                                                                                                                                                                                                         9
International Cooperative                                                                                                         Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                  Other       Status                                                      Source(s)                                                                             Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mr. Matt Mclean and Dr. Michele Malvesti (NSC), Bill Schofield (Department of State), Marc Powe and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          COL Dan Pike (OUSD (Policy)), and LtCol Fritz Barth (Joint Staff J-5) --per DSB rpt '04 on Transitions -
East African Counter Terrorism                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pope, William Pinckney (202) 647-8949 2509 S/CT HST
                                                       x                                 x           x                     Training     ongoing                                           ;
Initiative (EACTI)                                                                                                                                                                        

ECOWAS Standby Brigade                                                                                                                                                                    ;
                                                       x                                                                                in development

Emergency Post Conflict Assistance
                                                                              x          x           x                   Tax Collection ongoing                                           ;
(EPCA) [customs training for Iraq]                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Kakoli Ray, Chief of IOM Mission in Kyrgyzstan. Phone: +(996 312) 65-17-30, 65-17-31. Fax: +(996
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          312) 65-18-50. Email:

Equipping of the Karamyk Border                                                                                                                                                           ;
                                                       x                                 x           x                     Training     3 month project; Part of a larger aid program
Point in Kyrgyzstan (KARAMYK)                                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In October 2003 the High Representative, Javier Solana, has appointed Ms Annalisa Giannella, as his
                                                                                                                                        Attempting to assist developing countries (in Balkans,                                                                                            Personal Representative for non Proliferation of WMD to co-ordinate, help implement and further
                                                                                                                                        Central Asia and Caucasus through IAEA Joint Action                                                                                               develop the EU Strategy against the proliferation of WMD, and to give sharper focus to these issues in
EU Action Plan against the                                                                                                              program) in combating the illicit trafficking in nuclear                                                                                          dialogue with third countries.
Proliferation of Weapons of Mass                                      x                  x           x           x         Training     and radioactive materials, to institute an export control
Destruction,                                                                                                                            peer-review program, and to get all new EU members
                                                                                                                                        into Multilateral Export Control Regimes (I.e,
                                                                                                                                        Wassenaar, et al.); see Dec 2004 progress report.

EU Code of Conduct on Arms                                                                                                              ongoing (may be revised, particularly to accommodate; for text of Code, see
                                                                      x                                          x
Exports                                                                                                                                 defense trade with China)                         

EURASEC - Eurasian Economic                                                                                                             EURASEC formed in October 2000. Member states are
                                                                                                                                        Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and
Community's Common Order of                                           x       x          x                       x
                                                                                                                                        Tajikistan; Armenia, Moldova, and Ukraine are
                                                                                                                                                                                          NIS Export Control Observer (November 2004)
Export Control                                                                                                                          observers.

European Union Strategy against                                                                                                                                                                     EU Report on UNSCR 1540 activities - http://trade-
the Proliferation of Weapons of                        x              x       x          x                       x         Training     ongoing
Mass Destruction                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Paul van Son, Director of the State Department Office of Export Control Cooperation,
                                                                                                                                        Currently, 20 dedicated EXBS Program Advisors are                                                                                       ;                                                   Andrew Church, Deputy Director
                                                                                                                                        stationed at U.S. Embassies. FY05 plans include
                                                                                                                                        expansion to 47 countries; funding has tripled since '98.
                                                                                                                                        The Departments of Justice and State, along with
                                                                                                                                        EXBS program, will commence work in Asia in 2005,
EXBS - Export Control and Related                                                                                                       assessing the legislative and regulatory frameworks for
                                                                                                                                                                                                  State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
Border Security Program, US Dept.                      x              x       x          x           x                     Training     criminalizing the use of weapons of mass destruction
of State                                                                                                                                for terrorism, and state capacity to investigate and
                                                                                                                                        prosecute such acts. Pending the assessments, the
                                                                                                                                        Department of Justice would provide technical
                                                                                                                                        assistance, such as legislative drafting, skills building
                                                                                                                                        for investigators, prosecutors, and judges, and
                                                                                                                                        implementing new laws and regulations.

FREEDOM Support Act (FSA)                              x              x       x          x           x                     Training     ongoing
             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                           Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                        Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)        Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                    Partners

                                                                                         Under the Africa Action Plan, which resulted from the Kananaskis Summit, partners are committed to: "Supporting efforts by African countries and the United Nations to better
             G8 Africa Action Plan (AAP)                      NEPAD             2002     regulate the activities of arms brokers and traffickers and to eliminate the flow of illicit weapons to and within Africa -- including by: Developing and adopting common guidelines to              G8 + NEPAD Member States
                                                                                         prevent the illegal supply of arms to Africa; and, Providing assistance in regional trans-border cooperation to this end." Among other things....

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         G7 + Russia + non-G-8 States as donor
             G8 Global Partnership Program                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                participants (the Netherlands, Norway,
                                                                                         "...calls for the United States to contribute $10 billion, and the other original G-7 nations a combined $10 billion to help Russia and other nations destroy their stockpiles of weapons      Finland, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, the
             ("10+10 over 10 Program" of                         G8             2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Czech Republic, Denmark, Ireland, New
                                                                                         of mass destruction (WMD). Adopted Action Plan for Nonproliferation."
             Kananaskis Summit)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zealand, South Korea, Australia, and

                                                                                         "In order to assist the Western Balkan (WB) governments in the creation of new border security systems, DCAF has developed a programme intended to address the strategic
                                                                                         needs and issues involved in this process. The participating countries are Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Macedonia and Serbia & Montenegro, with activities aimed in particular
                                                                                         at the respective Ministries of the Interior, responsible for border security. DCAF appreciates that Croatia, who has
                                                                                         already been invited to negotiation talks by the EU, is willing and able to assist its neighbours through the sharing of its own national experiences.
                                                         Geneva Centre for
                                                          the Democratic
             Border Security Systems                     Control of Armed
                                                                                2001     Through a series of tailor-made workshops entitled ―Lessons Learned from the Establishment of Border Security Systems‖ DCAF is, together with seven donor countries, offering                         Government of Switzerland
                                                          Forces (DCAF)                  an inside look at how Estonia, Finland Germany, Hungary, Russia, Slovenia and Switzerland developed their own respective systems and what lessons they learned in the
                                                                                         process. After being initiated in November 2001 the programme will continue at least up until 2007. The whole plan of activities, designed to support the creation and development
                                                                                         of reliable border security systems that will be
                                                                                         in line with EU requirements, has been drawn up according to the demands of South Eastern European countries."

                                                                                         "GBSLE assistance continues to help Georgia build the capabilities to control its borders, improve proficiency and professionalism of the Customs, Border Guards and other
             Georgia Border Security and Law                                             security agencies by providing training and technical assistance and the tools to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking including patrol vessels, aircraft, vehicles, navigation,     Georgia; coordinated by US Customs
                                                            USA [DoD]           2002
             Enforcement (GBSLE)                                                         communication and radar equipment, and infrastructure enhancements. A new Red Bridge border guard station provided with GBSLE assistance opened in March 2003." [Part of                                        Service
                                                                                         DoD's Georgia Train and Equip program (GTEP); see also FREEDOM Support ACT (FSA) above]

                                                                                         "GTEP assistance combined a range of assistance sources, including FSA assistance, directed at helping Georgia control its borders and combat terrorism. Under GTEP, U.S.
             Georgia Train and Equip Program
                                                                USA             2002     assistance is providing training and equipment to help prepare four combat infantry battalions and one mechanized company team to defend Georgia against potential terrorist                                   Georgia
                                                                                         threats. GTEP training included Border Guards, Ministry of Defense and other security forces and graduated its first class of trained infantry in December 2002."

                                                                                         "Meetings twice a year in Washington and Brussels to review activities by the various partners and analyze most critical TTF matters. Next meeting in September 2005
                                                                                         (Geneva)…Building TTF Partnerships Goals
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ICC, UNCTAD, World Bank , WCO,
             GFP Gatherings                                     GFP             2003       * exchange information on on-going activities                                                                                                                                                             UNECE
                                                                                           * attract new partners
                                                                                           * launch new cooperation arrangement"
                                                                                         "The Distance Learning Initiative launched by the GFP (the GFP-DLI) aims at providing the best know-how in the field of trade, transport and logistics to professionals through
                                                                                         partnerships between industry leaders and professional associations in the delivery of certified distance learning programs.
             GFP-DLI                                            GFP
                                                                                         The GFP-DLI has been launched initially in Southeast Europe with support from the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of US Government and the Dutch Government under
                                                                                         a Trade and Transport Facilitation Program in Southeast Europe. It is open to all interested countries."

                                                                                         "GFP : a collaborative tool for practitioners and policy makers involved in trade facilitation and transport facilitation (TTF)" [from "about" page...]"The Global Facilitation Partnership
             Global Facilitation Partnership for                                         for Transportation and Trade (GFP) aims at pulling together all interested parties, public and private, national and international, who want to help achieve significant improvements
                                                         WCO, UN, WB +          2003
             Transport and Trade (GFPTT)                                                 in transport and trade facilitation in World Bank member countries. The Partners have together agreed to design and undertake specific programs towards meeting this objective,
                                                                                         making use of their respective comparative advantage in the subject matter in a coordinated fashion."

                                                                                         "The Administration launched the five-year (FY2005-FY2009) $660 million initiative in mid-2004 as a means to alleviate the perceived shortage worldwide of trained peacekeepers
                                                                                         and ―gendarmes‖ (police with military skills, a.k.a. constabulary police), as well as to increase available resources to transport and sustain them." [Note: is US contribution to
                                                                                         Canadian initiative developed at the G8 Summit in Kananaskis, Canada in June 2002]. In terms of activities..."The initiatives will be carried out by:
             Global Peace Operations Initiative           USA                            • Operating training programs, including ―train the trainer‖ courses and pre-deployment training for specific missions; • Developing a common doctrine and common operational                   G8 (agreed to support in 2004); African
             (GPOI)                                             [DOS]                    standards for employing carabinieri/gendarme-like forces in peace support operations, specifically with regard to crowd control, combating organized crime, high risk arrests,                                  Union
                                                                                         prison security, protection of sensitive facilities, election security, VIP security and border control; • Providing interoperability training with the relevant military forces; and •
                                                                                         Interacting with academic and research institutions in related areas, such as humanitarian law, human rights, criminal law, prison management, and civil-military cooperation."
                                                                                         [source for latter is gpoi.pdf]

                                                                                         3-yr plan "....includes physical protection and other security arrangements for nuclear and other radioactive materials, accountancy of these materials, detection of illicit trafficking
             IAEA Nuclear Security Plan of
                                                                IAEA            2002     both domestically and at international borders, the response to such acts, and activities to facilitate information exchange. The plan is also aimed at supporting the development of
                                                                                         a comprehensive and coordinated global nuclear security framework."
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11
                                                                                                                                   Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                   Other        Status                                                      Source(s)                                                                              Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

                                                                                                                                          The G8 under UK leadership in 2005 is focusing on
                                                                                                                                          Africa and climate change, with emphasis (per 2003 G8; 2003 G8 summit text:
                                                                                                                                          Summit report) on capacity-building for implementing
                                                                                                                                          the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light
G8 Africa Action Plan (AAP)                            x              x                  x           x           x          Training
                                                                                                                                          Weapons (SALW)and Regional Action Plans and                 ents%2Fimplementation_report_by_africa_personal_representatives_to_leaders_on_the_
                                                                                                                                          supporting the ECOWAS Moratorium on the import of           g8_african_action_plan.html&LinkMap=0&linkname=PostG8_Africa_EvianG8Summit&ref
                                                                                                                                          SALW. Export criteria and control of brokering activities   erpagename=Africa
                                                                                                                                          are also a key concern..

G8 Global Partnership Program                                                                                                                                                               ;;
("10+10 over 10 Program" of                                                   x          x           x                                    ongoing                                           ;
Kananaskis Summit)                                                                                                                                                                          

Border Security Systems                                x                                 x                       x          Training      ongoing

Georgia Border Security and Law
                                                       x                      x          x           x                      Training      ongoing                                           ;
Enforcement (GBSLE)                                                                                                                                                                         

Georgia Train and Equip Program                                                                                                                                                             ;
                                                       x                                 x           x                      Training      ongoing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Marc Juhel

GFP Gatherings                                                                x                                  x                        ongoing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Gerald Olliver or Anne DeSouza
GFP-DLI                                                x                                                         x                        ongoing, but merged with GFPTT                    

Global Facilitation Partnership for                                                                                      Training; Best ongoing; efforts include drafting Customs
                                                                              x                                  x                                                                          
Transport and Trade (GFPTT)                                                                                                Practices Modernization Handbook                                           f7b2d143ba56;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Job C. Henning, Vice President - Hicks Associates = supports DoD's efforts

Global Peace Operations Initiative
                                                       x                                 x           x           x          Training      Five-year program (2005-2009)                     ;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mr. B. Weiss,Office of Nuclear Security, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer
IAEA Nuclear Security Plan of                                                                                                                                                               ; http://www-        Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, , Telephone No.: (+43 1) 2600 21955, Telefax No.: (+43 1) 2600
                                                       x                      x          x           x           x          Training      ongoing through 2005                                                                                                                               29299, E-mail:, E-mail address for paper submission:
Activities                                                                                                                                                                                  ;

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               12
                                                                                                                           Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                        Note on Database

                                                            State / Org
             Initiative                                     Sponsor(s)       Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                    Partners

                                                                                         "EU assistance is directed at promoting the reform of public administration so that government can function more effectively. Reform can only succeed if support systems are in
                                                                                         place for such areas as policy planning, inter-ministerial co-ordination, government decision-making, civil service regulations, human resources management, budget procedures
                                                                                         and quality control. ... The European Union has also set up a series of Customs and Fiscal Assistance Offices in the countries of the region, to help boost customs revenue and cut
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Croatia; Austrian Ministry of Finance
             Integrated Border Management                                                fraud, corruption and money laundering. Much of the assistance has been at a technical level, transferring necessary skills to local officials, and putting in place automated systems
                                                                 EU             2001                                                                                                                                                                                                     (Customs); German Border Police and
             Programme in CARDS countries                                                for customs data that allow complete import and export statistics to be collected. Recommendations have also been made to governments on organisational structure, and new                      Slovenian Border Police (border control)
                                                                                         units responsible for trade control, debt management, intelligence and investigation are increasing revenue yield by detecting evasion. ... Furthermore, twinning supports and
                                                                                         finances the secondment of civil servants from EU member states to work as advisers to beneficiary institutions for a period of at least twelve months, and is running in,
                                                                                         among other areas, statistics, internal audit and customs

                                                                                         " The basic objectives of CICTE, as set forth in the Commitment of Mar del Plata, are to: * Enhance the exchange of information via the competent national authorities, including
             Inter- American Committee Against                                           the establishment of an Inter-American database on terrorism issues; * Formulate proposal to assist member states in drafting appropriate counterterrorism legislation in all states;
                                                                OAS             2001                                                                                                                                                                                                              OAS Member States
             Terrorism (CICTE)                                                           * Compile the bilateral, sub regional, regional and multilateral treaties and agreements signed by member states and promote universal adherence to international counterterrorism
                                                                                         conventions; * Enhance border cooperation and travel documentation security measures; and * Develop activities for training and crisis management." [CICTE Mission Statement]

                                                                                         " the first legally binding regional agreement on illiicit firearms trafficking....By signing the Convention, these states commit to * establishing as criminal offenses the illicit firearms
             Inter-American Convention Against
                                                                                         manufacturing and trafficking; * setting up and maintaining an effective system of licenses and authorizations for the export, import and transit of firearms; * marking firearms at the
             the Illicit Manufacturing of and
                                                                                         time of manufacture, and when they are imported; * sharing information that is needed by law enforcement officials who are investigating arms trafficking offenses; * strengthening
             Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition,               OAS             1997
                                                                                         controls at export points; and * and ensuring that law enforcement personnel receive adequate training. Through these requirements, the Convention raises regional standards for
             Explosives, and other Related
                                                                                         firearms export controls. By creating a mechanism for exchanging information, cooperating on investigations, and ensuring that law enforcement personnel are adequetely trained,
                                                                                         it also increases the regional capacity to identify, investigate and prosecute illicit firearms manufacturers and traffickers."
             Interdict/RADACAD, International
                                                                                         "...will give advanced training to key participants identified during the initial WMD Operations training as candidates to develop and deliver on-going training to sustain the program
             Border Security Training Program                   USA             1997                                                                                                                                                                                                             DOS, DoD, DHS/CBP
                                                                                         in their respective countries. The course will be based on current WMD educational methodology and will include WMD/emergency response-specific subject."
             [WMD Train-the-Trainer Course]

                                                                                         "IAASP is a world wide association dedicated to mutual co-operation in setting the highest standards of safety, security and law enforcement, regarding the transportation of
                                                                                         persons and property through air and seaports across boundaries and other terminals. The Association is registered in Washington State USA and British Columbia, Canada.
             International Association of Airport
                                                               IAASP            1969     IAASP objectives include: • Deterrence, detection and response to unlawful activity. • Promotion of the most effective safety, security and law enforcement procedures. •
             and Seaport Policy (IAASP)
                                                                                         Encouraging development of information exchange and experience. • Facilitating partnerships through regional networking. • Providing expertise for training programs. • Assisting
                                                                                         organizations that are responsible for setting standards for port safety, security and law enforcement and, • Developing strategic cooperation with other organizations."

                                                                                         "The Guidelines and Explanatory Notes draw on a wide range of WCO documents and ICC policy statements. Many Guidelines, for example the use of risk-assessment
                                                                                         techniques with pre-entry and post-audit procedures, are as favourable to better security and other border controls as to improved trade facilitation.
             International Chamber of Commerce                                           The Guidelines make specific reference to the value of systematic Customs/trade co-operation through Memorandum of Understanding programmes.
             Customs Guidelines, Integrity                      ICC             1997     They have numerous uses. For example, they set out, in a convenient form, a summary list of key provisions that, cross-referenced to corresponding stipulations in WCO                                           WCO
             Toolkit, and Security Toolkit                                               Conventions, can be readily expanded into a Code of Best Customs Practices.
                                                                                         Selected Guidelines and Explanatory Notes have been assembled into Toolkits for use in assessing Customs practices in relation to such specific concerns as Supply Chain
                                                                                         Security and Integrity."
             International Convention on Mutual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           WCO Member States (Signatories:
             Administrative Assistance in                                                "Article 2: 1. Contracting Parties shall, through their Customs administrations, provide each other with administrative assistance under the terms set out in this Convention, for the
                                                                WCO             2003                                                                                                                                                                                                     Madagascar, Jordan, Ghana, Cambodia,
             Customs Matters (a.k.a. The                                                 proper application of Customs law, for the prevention, investigation and combating of Customs offences and to ensure the security of the international trade supply chain."                        Belarus, Lebanon, Burkina Faso)
             Johannesburg Convention)

                                                                                         "...provides training, equipment, and technical assistance and is designed to enhance detection, investigation and interdiction capabilities of border, customs, and law enforcement
             International Counterproliferation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NIS, Eastern European + Baltic states +
                                                                USA             2002     officials in the newly independent countries of the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and the Baltic states." According to GAO report, equipment in ICP and CTR programs
             Program (ICP)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                USA
                                                                                         have included: "...pedestrian portal monitors (to screen people) and handheld radiation detectors."

                                                                                         "The Department of Justice provides technical assistance and training to prosecutors, other law enforcement officials, and criminal justice organizations focused on the
             International Criminal Investigative              USA
                                                                                         development of sustainable skills and institutions that enable participating countries to more effectively combat complex and transnational crime, and build a basis upon which they
             Training and Assistance Program             [DOJ/OPDAT/ICITAP      1986                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Croatia +
                                                                 ]                       can address WMD threats as well. This assistance is provided by the Department’s Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training (OPDAT), and the
                                                                                         International Criminal Investigative Training and Assistance Program (ICITAP)"

                                                                                         LEAs support emerging democracies, protect U.S. interests through international cooperation and promote social, political and economic stability by combating crime. The program                   ILEA Gaborone (Botswana); ILEA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Bangkok (Thailand); ILEA Budapest
                                                                                         provides training/technical assistance, supports institution building and enforcement capability and fosters relationships among member law enforcement agencies. ILEAs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Hungary) the first ILEA; ILEA Roswell
                                                                                         encourage partnerships among regional states to address common problems associated with criminal activity. The ILEA concept is an effort by participant governments to achieve                   (New Mexico) - hosts Eastern Europe,
             International Law Enforcement                                               the common goal of international law enforcement. It seeks to train those who will craft the future for rule of law, human dignity, personal safety and global security. ILEAs are a            Russia, NIS, ASEAN, member countries
                                                         [DOJ implements;       1995
             Academies (ILEAs)                               DOS funds]                  progressive form of international assistance and offer three different types of programs: the Core course (appx. 50 participants from at least 3 countries), specialized training                  and the PRC (including the Special
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Autonomous Regions of Hong Kong and
                                                                                         courses/regional seminars tailored to specific needs (appx. 30 participants from 2 or more countries, run parallel to Core courses) and emerging global threats. Topics addressed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Macau); and member countries of the
                                                                                         include: transnational crimes, counterterrorism and financial crimes. The Departments of State, Justice, Homeland Security and Treasury, along with foreign governments,                        SADC plus other East and West African
                                                                                          implement the ILEA programs. ILEAs have trained over 13,000 officials from 68 countries.                                                                                                                      countries.

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13
                                                                                                                                Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                 Other      Status                                                    Source(s)                                                                               Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mr Željko Andrijanic, Croatian Customs Administration, A. von Humboldta 4a, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Tel
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        +385 1 6102 407, Fax +385 1 615 4186

Integrated Border Management                                                                                                          ongoing; thus far concentrated on Croatia border
                                                       x                      x          x           x                    Training                                                    ;
Programme in CARDS countries                                                                                                          control and customs operations, latter through 2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mr. Stephen Monblatt, Director, Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism, Organization of American
Inter- American Committee Against
                                                       x                                                         x                    ongoing                                         
Terrorism (CICTE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Matt Schroeder, FAS; Mr. Francesc Claret at the Conventional Arms Branch, Department for
Inter-American Convention Against                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Disarmament Affairs, United Nations Room S-3100B, tel: 1-212-963-5170, fax: 1-212-963-1121, e-mail:
the Illicit Manufacturing of and                                                                                                                                                      ;
                                                                                                                                      33 signatories; 26 ratifications deposited; note: no
Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition,                   x              x       x          x                       x        Training
                                                                                                                                      compliance monitoring or enforcement mechanisms           .html;;
Explosives, and other Related                                                                                                                                                         

Interdict/RADACAD, International                                                                                                                                                                FYO5 State Dept. NDF Budget (as submitted)
Border Security Training Program                                      x                                          x        Training    ongoing                                         ;
[WMD Train-the-Trainer Course]                                                                                                                                                        

International Association of Airport                                                                                                                                                  's/Intro%20to%20IAASP.pdf;
                                                       x                                                         x                    ongoing
and Seaport Policy (IAASP)                                                                                                                                                            

International Chamber of Commerce                                                                                                                                                     ;
Customs Guidelines, Integrity                                                 x                                  x                    ongoing
Toolkit, and Security Toolkit                                                                                                                                                         ;

International Convention on Mutual
Administrative Assistance in                                                                                              Admin       Open for ratification; yet to enter into force (Nairobi;
                                                                              x                                  x
Customs Matters (a.k.a. The                                                                                              Assistance   Convention is in force)                         
Johannesburg Convention)
                                                                                                                                      per DoD: "Currently, 13 countries have signed WMD
                                                                                                                                      agreements and agreements with other countries are in
International Counterproliferation                                                                                                    various stages of negotiation. Seventeen countries    State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
                                                       x                      x          x           x           x        Training
Program (ICP)                                                                                                                         have been assessed by U.S. policy personnel and their
                                                                                                                                      senior officials have attended the WMD Executive

                                                                                                                                      " Located in the Criminal Division of the U.S.
International Criminal Investigative                                                                                                  Department of Justice, ICITAP programs are instituted
Training and Assistance Program                        x                                 x                                Training    at the request of the National Security Council and the   State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
(ICITAP)                                                                                                                              Department of State in agreement with governments
                                                                                                                                      which have requested assistance."

International Law Enforcement                                                                                                                                                         ;
                                                       x                      x          x           x                    Training    ongoing
Academies (ILEAs)                                                                                                                                                                     

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14
                                                                                                                         Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                      Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)       Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                    Partners

             International Material Production
                                                                                        "...improves the security of weapons-usable nuclear and radiological material and enhances detection and interdiction infrastructure at international borders. Working with Russia
             and Cooperation Program (NA-25) -                 USA
                                                                               2004     and countries of the former Soviet Union, the program helps secure nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials by upgrading security at nuclear sites, consolidating                            Russia, FSU, + USA
             Second Line of Defense Program              [DOE/NNSA/NA-25]
                                                                                        these materials to sites where installation of enhanced security systems have already been completed, and improving nuclear smuggling detection capabilities at border crossings."

                                                                                        "The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is a low-cost, highly effective component of U.S. security assistance that provides training on a grant basis to
                                                                                        students from over 120 allied and friendly nations in FY 2003, with 130 programmed to receive IMET funds in FY 2004. The overall objectives of the program are to: * Further the
             International Military Education                                           goal of regional stability through effective, mutually beneficial military-to-military relations which culminate in increased understanding and defense cooperation between the U.S.
                                                         USA   [DoD/DSCA]      1961                                                                                                                                                                                                               Slovenia, Mexico +
             Training (IMET) program                                                    and foreign countries; * Provide training that augments the capabilities of participant nations’ military forces to support combined operations and interoperability with U.S. forces;
                                                                                        and * Increase the ability of foreign military and civilian personnel to instill and maintain basic democratic values and protect internationally recognized human rights in their own
                                                                                        government and military." Training funded by IMET, conducted through Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)

                                                                                        ..."is designed to strengthen nonproliferation export control practices and procedures in partner countries. INECP helps establish the infrastructure needed to control proliferation-         Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan; "INECP
                                                                                        sensitive commerce by improving licensing procedures and practices, promoting industry compliance, and strengthening enforcement capabilities in other countries. The program                  team is building relationships with and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      providing training for customs officials in
             International Nonproliferation                    USA                      has traditionally focused on the three post-Soviet supplier states—Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan." Per NIS Export Control Observer "NNSA’s International Nonproliferation
                                                                               2002                                                                                                                                                                                                   Central Asian countries of Turkmenistan,
             Export Control Program (INECP)              [DOE/NNSA/NA-20]               Export Control Program (INECP) has been involved in the development of a package of training modules collectively referred to as the Commodity Identification Training (CIT)                     Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan,
                                                                                        program. This program educates foreign customs inspectors and other border enforcement personnel on export control practices and improves their ability to identify dualuse                  Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, and Turkey"
                                                                                        commodities, based on key visual and other distinguishing characteristics."                                                                                                                             [Scheinman briefing]

                                                                                        "The U.S. Coast Guard, through its International Port Security Program (IPSP), encourages bilateral or multilateral discussions with nations around the world in an effort to
                                                                                        exchange information and share best practices that align implementation and enforcement requirements of the MTSA with the ISPS Code and other international maritime security
                                                                                        standards...the Coast Guard works closely with our international trading partners to promote reasonable and consistent implementation and enforcement of the ISPS code for
             International Port Security Program
                                                         USA [DHS/USCG]        2004     enhanced maritime security in countries (and ports) that participate in global trade. To conduct the information exchange, USCG International Port Security Liaison Officers (IPSLO)
                                                                                        are assigned to three regions (Asia-Pacific, Europe/Africa/Middle East, and Central/South America) for world-wide coverage in order to assist other nations in facilitating bilateral
                                                                                        exchanges. In addition an IPSP Team has been established in Washington D.C. to conduct country/port visits, discuss security measures implemented and develop best practices
                                                                                        between countries.

                                                                                        Decided at Conference of Contracting Governments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974: 9 - 13 December 2002 on "A new, comprehensive security
             International Ship and Port Facility
                                                               IMO             2004     regime for international shipping...The purpose of the Code is to provide a standardized, consistent framework for evaluating risk, enabling governments to offset changes in threat
             Security (ISPS) Code
                                                                                        with changes in vulnerability for ships and port facilities."

                                                                                        "IOM will assist border services and police with the aim of strengthening immigration inspection and border control in Kazakhstan and Central Asia and thus contribute to
             IOM's Technical Cooperation on
                                                                                        combating irregular migration, trafficking in human beings and drug trafficking.
             Migration (TCM) -- Enhancing
                                                                                        IOM will carry out a detailed needs assessment on all the border posts on Kazakhstan's southern land border, define needed technical assistance and other measures, and deliver                  Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
             Immigration Inspection and Border                 IOM             2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Turmenistan, Uzbekistan
                                                                                        technical equipment. IOM will also organize training activities for all the border services of Central Asia, support training facilities and promote inter-agency and inter-state
             Control in Kazakhstan and Central
                                                                                        information sharing and cooperation. The measures in Kazakhstan will be completed by support to the border services in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and, most likely, Turkmenistan.
             Asia (EIBK)
                                                                                        Within this project, IOM will also assist the Kyrgyz Republic to introduce a new passport issuing system with a central database."

                                                                                        "Border delays are a costly handicap for East-West freight traffic crossing Europe. Carriers planning their routes are invited to check this report on waiting times at border crossing
                                                                                        points, compiled every day from Monday to Friday, from information supplied by IRU national associations.
                                                                                        The IRU intends to improve this internet application through a more intensive co-operation with and reporting by national Member Associations on the situation at their national
                                                                                        borders in the coming months. The new application will cover new border crossing points, trucks as well as coaches and it will allow a more interactive input and search for relevant
             IRU Border Waiting Time
                                                               IRU             2000     data....                                                                                                                 Goals
             Observatory (IRU BWTO)
                                                                                        - Draw attention of governments and international institutions to existing serious problems of border crossing by commercial traffic in various European regions.
                                                                                        - Help transport operators in daily route planning.
                                                                                        Scope and activities The web application covers mainly EU external and other borders in CEE. Reports from IRU Member Associations are put on the web by the IRU from
                                                                                        MON to FRI every week."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     "The joint GFP/UNTF web site was created
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and is being maintained by professionals
                                                                                        "Since November 2003, the Global Facilitation Partnership and the UN Trade Facilitation network have a joint web site at ... Officially launched on 7 July 2003                 from BULPRO, the national trade
             Joint GFP/United Nations Trade                                             during a GFP meeting in Washington, the joint GFP/UNTF site is a collaborative tool for practitioners and policy makers involved in trade and transport facilitation, containing over           facilitation body of Bulgaria, and seven
                                                               UN              2003
             Facilitation Network (UNTF) website                                        320 publications, 250 recommendations, and a wealth of structured information. The UN Trade Facilitation network is a common platform for UN agencies involved in trade                      leading international organizations that deal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   with trade facilitation:
                                                                                        facilitation activities."
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        UNIDO; the World Bank and ...WCO..."

                                                                                        "Utilizing expertise and lessons learned from the NNSA Second Line of Defense Program’s installation of radiation detection equipment in Russia, NNSA will cooperate with
             Megaports Initiative                        [DOE/NNSA/NA-20]
                                                                               2004     international partners to deploy and equip key ports with the technical means to detect and deter illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. This effort supports the                    USA-FSU
                                                                                        U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Container Security Initiative."
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               15
                                                                                                                                   Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                   Other       Status                                                   Source(s)                                                                              Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Tracy Mustin, Director, Office of the Second Line of Defense, National Nuclear Security Administration
International Material Production
and Cooperation Program (NA-25) -                                                                                                                                                                 State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
                                                       x              x       x          x                                  Training     ongoing
Second Line of Defense Program                                                                                                                                                                    20/na25_index.shtml

International Military Education                                                                                                                                                        ;
                                                       x                                                                    Training     ongoing
Training (IMET) program                                                                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Office of Export Control Policy and Cooperation, (202) 586-2331
                                                                                                                                         "In response to the events of September 11, 2001, and                                                                                           Adam M. Scheinman, Director; Domestic Program: Anatoli Welihozkiy; INECP: Todd E. Perry;
                                                                                                                                         in keeping with the U.S. Government's determination to                                                                                          Multilateral Program: Richard Goorevich
                                                                                                                                         disrupt weapons of mass destruction procurement
                                                                                                                                         activities by proliferants around the world, INECP has
                                                                                                                                         expanded [from Russian nuclear assistance program]
International Nonproliferation                                                                                                                                                          ;
                                                       x              x       x          x                       x          Training     to include known or emerging supplier states, such as
Export Control Program (INECP)                                                                                                           China, India, Pakistan, South Korea, Argentina, and
                                                                                                                                         Israel, as well as select transit states, including
                                                                                                                                         Uzbekistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Georgia,
                                                                                                                                         Azerbaijan, Armenia, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates,
                                                                                                                                         Taiwan, and others."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Regional Port Security Program Coordinators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Asia-Pacific Region, CDR Jung Lawrence; Phone: 011-81-425-52-2511 Ext. 58405; E-Mail:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         JLawrence@D14.USCG.MIL or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Europe/Africa/Mid-East Region, LCDR Brian Gilda; Phone: +31 10 442 4458; E-Mail:
International Port Security Program                                                                                      Training; Best                                                                                                                                        
                                                       x                                 x                       x                      Still in development                            
(IPSP)                                                                                                                     Practices                                                                                                                                                     South/Central Region,

International Ship and Port Facility                                                                                                     Was supposed to enter into force in 2004 --need to
                                                                              x          x                       x                                                                      
Security (ISPS) Code                                                                                                                     verify

IOM's Technical Cooperation on
Migration (TCM) -- Enhancing                                                                                                                                                            ;
Immigration Inspection and Border                      x                                 x           x                      Training     24 month project                               ;
Control in Kazakhstan and Central                                                                                                                                                       
Asia (EIBK)

IRU Border Waiting Time
                                                       x                                                         x                       ongoing; info updated daily                    
Observatory (IRU BWTO)

                                                                                                                             Best                                                       ;
Joint GFP/United Nations Trade
                                                                              x                                  x         Practices;    ongoing                                        
Facilitation Network (UNTF) website                                                                                                                                                               f7b2d143ba56

Megaports Initiative                                   x                      x          x                                  Training     Still in development                           

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16
                                                                                                                            Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                           Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)          Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                      Partners

                                                                                           "The Initiative, known as Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative (MARRI) covers: asylum, legal migration, illegal migration, border management, visa policy and entry
                                                                                           policies, return / settlement of refugees / displaced persons." [From "Way Ahead"...] "The first meeting of the MARRI Regional Forum was convened by the SEECP in Herceg Novi,                  Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and
             Migration, Asylum, Refugees                                                   Montenegro, 5 - 6 April 2004. The ministerial SEECP meeting decided to establish a political and professional Regional Forum for the five SAp countries (Ministerial Declaration).
                                                                 SP               2002                                                                                                                                                                                                      Montenegro – and includes neighbouring
             Regional Initiative (MARRI)                                                   The Regional Forum will be composed of Ministers and Senior Officials responsible for migration, asylum, border management, visa and refugee return or settlement. It will aim at               candidate countries Bulgaria and Romania,
                                                                                           exchanging information, experiences, lessons learned, best practices as well as to discuss and resolve issues of common interest and concern and develop a common vision for                                as well as Moldava
                                                                                           the region. For further information please see the attached Joint Statement of the meeting in Montenegro."

                                                                                           "The Missile Technology Control Regime is an informal and voluntary association of countries which share the goals of non-proliferation of unmanned delivery systems capable of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MTCR Partners (34) + outreach to
             Missile Technology Control Regime                                             delivering weapons of mass destruction, and which seek to coordinate national export licensing efforts aimed at preventing their proliferation....The Regime's dialogue with
                                                                MTCR              1987                                                                                                                                                                                                          prospective members and reg'l
             (MTCR)                                                                        prospective partners is conducted through the MTCR Chair, visits to capitals by teams comprised of representatives of four MTCR partners and bilateral exchanges. The group                      organizations (e.g., SCO + Arab League)
                                                                                           does not have an observer category. "

                                                                                           " intended to prevent, detect and reverse proliferation of WMD material and technology as well as strengthening the nonproliferation regime. Under this program, the
                                                                                           Department of Energy is conducting multi-year initiatives to: (1) secure materials through security upgrades at civilian reactors in 54 countries; (2) reverse WMD programs,
             Nonproliferation and International
                                                         USA [DOE/NNSA/]          2004     including removal of material and equipment from countries such as Libya and Iraq; (3) review more than 4,000 export license applications annually; (4) strengthen the                                         54+ countries
             Security program
                                                                                           nonproliferation regime by training 13,000 IAEA inspectors, export control officials and other nonproliferation experts by 2013; (5) strengthen export control regimes in 36 emerging
                                                                                           suppliers, FSU and transshipment states; and (6) conduct six technology exchanges on the safety and security of nuclear warheads with Russia and other countries annually."

                                                                                           National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD 25) on International Drug Control Policy addressed rising global demand for illicit drugs as the principal narcotics-related threat to
                                                                                           the US. A key objective of that policy urged the Secretary of State to expand US. international demand reduction assistance and information sharing programs in key source and
                                                                                           transit countries. ... Foreign countries are requesting assistance from the US to address their problems, citing US experience and efforts on the issue. Our response has been a
                                                                                           comprehensive and coordinated approach in which supply control and demand reduction reinforce each other. Such assistance plays an important role in helping to preserve the
             NSPD 25                                            USA               2003
                                                                                           stability of societies threatened by the narcotics trade. Our demand reduction strategy encompasses a wide range of initiatives. These include ... the development of coalitions of
                                                                                           private/public institutions, the faith community, and law enforcement entities to mobilize national and international opinion against the drug trade and to encourage governments to
                                                                                           implement strong counternarcotics agendas. The demand reduction program also provides for evaluations of the effectiveness of these efforts and for ―best practice‖ research to
                                                                                           use these findings to improve similar services provided both in the US and globally.

                                                                                           "The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperates to address this problem. The objective
                                                                                           of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and
                                                                                           since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. While the primary mission of the ITWG
                                                                                           continues to be advancing the science and techniques of nuclear forensics and sharing technical and information resources to counter nuclear trafficking, recently the ITWG has
             Nuclear Smuggling International                                               focused on improvements to its organization and outreach. Central is the establishment of guidelines for best practices in nuclear forensics, conducting international exercises,
                                                          USA         [LLNL]      1996
             Technical Working Group (ITWG)                                                promoting research and development, communicating with external organizations, providing a point-of-contact for nuclear forensics assistance, and providing mutual assistance in
                                                                                           nuclear forensic investigations. The recommendations of the ITWG have been adopted by many nations in forming plans to respond to incidents of illicit trafficking. By
                                                                                           encouraging the participation of those states where nuclear materials are interdicted, expertise can be brought closer to the source of these incidents. Only by sharing information
                                                                                           about nuclear processes, materials, and signatures can members benefit from collective experience and knowledge to evaluate and prosecute nuclear trafficking cases.
                                                                                           This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under
             Nuclear Weapons Storage Security            USA [DoD/DTRA/                    " Russia enhances the security, safety, and control of nuclear weapons during storage. It also assists Russia with drug and alcohol screening and evaluation of personnel who
                                                                                  2002                                                                                                                                                                                                                      USA-FSU
             (NWSS) Program                                    CTR]                        have access to nuclear weapons and improves the safety of those personnel by providing dosimeters for radiation and radon detection."

                                                                                           "...supports proliferation prevention objectives by enhancing the security, safety, and control of nuclear weapons during shipment. Ongoing projects include:
             Nuclear Weapons Transportation              USA [DoD/DTRA/                        * Nuclear Weapons Transportation
                                                                                  2002                                                                                                                                                                                                                    USA-Russia
             Security (NWTS) Program in Russia                 CTR]                            * Railcar Maintenance and Procurement
                                                                                               * Transportation Safety Enhancements"

             Office of International Programs                                              "In conjunction with the interagency community, particularly the Export Control and Related Border Security Assistance (EXBS) Program administered by the U.S. Department of
                                                               USA                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FSU-Baltic States-Central European and
             (OIP) - Nonproliferation and Export         [DOC/BIS/NEC/OIP]
                                                                                  1994     State, the OIP Program works with both the public and private sectors to strengthen export control systems in many countries around the world ...The Technical Information Center                              other states
             Control Cooperation                                                           (TIC) supports the OIP Team by providing a technical forum for participating countries to assist them in implementing and strengthening their own export control systems."

                                                                                           "Failed, failing, and post-conflict states pose today's greatest foreign policy challenge... In recognition of this fact, a Cabinet-level decision was made in April 2004 to establish at the
             Office of the Coordinator for
                                                                                           State Department the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS). The Coordinator reports directly to the Secretary of State and is charged with ensuring
             Reconstruction and Stabilization                   USA               2004
                                                                                           coordinated, unified U.S. Government civilian efforts to prevent and prepare for post-conflict situations. In the event a military engagement is necessary, S/CRS works closely with
                                                                                           our military colleagues to plan from the outset for the transition from military to civilian operations."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Transportation Security Agency + industry
                                                                                           " innovative public-private partnership dedicated to enhancing security throughout international and domestic supply chains while facilitating the efficient cross-border                    (Boeing, ADT, Global Marine Security
             Operation Safe Commerce (OSC)                      USA               2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Systems, Iridium, Parsons) -- int'l partners
                                                                                           movement of legitimate commerce."

                                                                                           Note: listed under OSCE database of border monitoring projects: " The OSCE Academy's goal is to contribute to the improvement of security-related regional and international
                                                                                           expertise and co-operation on and in Central Asia. Within the framework laid out in the concept paper, the programme is addressing the following overall objectives: - to provide
                                                                                           expert training and education for young professionals in early warning, conflict prevention, conflict resolution and post-conflict rehabilitation, through modern pedagogical                      Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
             OSCE Academy in Bishkek                            OSCE              2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Turmenistan, Uzbekistan
                                                                                           approaches, - to conduct demand-driven and practice-oriented research on relevant Central Asian topics aiming at national and regional security-building, - to support knowledge
                                                                                           transfer, networking and public information work among the OSCE Centres in Central Asia, the Secretariat, other OSCE institutions and regional and international partner
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17
                                                                                                                                  Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                   Other       Status                                                 Source(s)                                                                                Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MARRI Liaison Office Brussels, Place du Luxembourg 1, 1050 Brussels (Belgium), Mr. Kilian
                                                                                                                                        ongoing; "A Programme of Action... was launched at                                                                                               Kleinschmidt, Head of Service, Tel: +32 (2) 286 13 61, Fax: +32 (2) 286 13 90,
                                                                                                                                        the first MARRI Steering Committee Meeting on 8th                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                        July 2003 in Vienna. The Programme has been
Migration, Asylum, Refugees                                                                                                             developed by MARRI in 5 Working Groups consisting
                                                       x                                                         x       Best Practices                                               
Regional Initiative (MARRI)                                                                                                             of representatives from the Countries in the Region, SP
                                                                                                                                        Member States and International Organizations. It is
                                                                                                                                        closely coordinated with the SAP Process and
                                                                                                                                        especially CARDS projects."

Missile Technology Control Regime                                                                                                                                                     ; see also re: recent outreach activities
                                                                      x                                          x          Training     ongoing outreach efforts

Nonproliferation and International                                                                                                                                                              State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities -;
                                                                      x                  x           x           x          Training     ongoing
Security program                                                                                                                                                                      

NSPD 25                                                x                                             x           x       Best Practices ongoing                                                 NRCRPT 2005 -

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         David K. Smith* and Sidney Niemeyer , *R-Division – Counterterrorism and Incident Response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory e-mail:

Nuclear Smuggling International
                                                       x                                 x                       x                       ongoing                                      
Technical Working Group (ITWG)

Nuclear Weapons Storage Security                                                                                                                                                                State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
                                                       x              x                  x                       x          Training     ongoing
(NWSS) Program                                                                                                                                                                        

Nuclear Weapons Transportation                                                                                                                                                                  State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
                                                                      x       x          x           x                      Training     ongoing
Security (NWTS) Program in Russia                                                                                                                                                     

Office of International Programs
                                                                                                                         Training; Best
(OIP) - Nonproliferation and Export                                   x                                          x                      ongoing                                       
Control Cooperation

Office of the Coordinator for
                                                                                                                                         exact program parameters are unclear, but program
Reconstruction and Stabilization                       x
                                                                                                                                         does envision international cooperation and assistance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    POSSIBLE ASSISTANCE AND EXPERTISE TO OFFER Contact Point: Name: Jillene Nikolao Title:
                                                                                                                                         Phase I completed w/ tracking technology under International Analyst Telephone Number: 571.227.2244 Fax Number: 571.227.2577 Email Address:
Operation Safe Commerce (OSC)                                                 x          x                       x                       development; Pilot program being tried in Ports of     ter_terrorism_action_plans.html; DOT:;; Operation Safe Commerce Information: Charles Massey 505-845-0773 ;
                                                                                                                                         Everett, Seattle and Tacoma                                                  Dick Wayne 505-844-6856

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Armands Pupols, Mission Programme Officer, Conflict Prevention Centre, Kartner Ring 5-7, 1010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Vienna, Austria, Tel.:+43 1 514 36 241 Fax:+43 1 514 36 96l; Tim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Epkenhans, Director, OSCE Academy, 1 A Botanicheskiy Pereulok, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Tel.:+996 312
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         54 23 01 Fax:+996 312 54 23 13
OSCE Academy in Bishkek                                x                                                                    Training     ongoing and funded by OSCE                   

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           18
                                                                                                                          Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                      Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)        Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                   Partners
                                                                                         "Within the framework of its comprehensive Anti-Trafficking Programme, the Centre in Tashkent assists Uzbek law enforcement agencies in their efforts to control illicit trafficking of
             OSCE Anti-Trafficking Programme                                             small arms and light weapons as well as in human beings…. Since 2002, the Centre in Tashkent has trained Uzbek border guards and customs officers in order to enhance their
                                                              OSCE              2000                                                                                                                                                                                                             Uzbekistan, Austria
             (OSCE Centre in Tashkent)                                                   professional capacities in searching, tracing and seizing illegally trafficked SALW in the region, in examining forged travel and customs documents as well as in raising their
                                                                                         awareness of internationally accepted rules and regulations in border management."

                                                                                         "Border experts team
             OSCE Conflict Prevention Centre -                                           In recognition of the increasing importance of borders and border related issues, in 2003 a small team of experts was created within the CPC. It provides general advice on all
                                                              OSCE              2003
             Border Experts Team                                                         border management issues. Following requests from participating States, the team also conducts assessment trips to mission areas, to define fields where the OSCE could assist
                                                                                         in enhancing border management and security."

                                                                                         "SEE Cross-border Co-operation Programme
                                                                                         As a follow-up to the Ohrid Way Forward Document agreed on in May 2003 at the Ohrid Conference, the team has developed a two-phase programme addressing the most urgent
             OSCE Conflict Prevention Centre -
                                                                                         needs of the South-East European countries in the field of cross-border co-operation at the regional and sub-regional levels. The first phase of the OSCE SEE Cross-border Co-
             OSCE SEE Cross-border Co-                        OSCE              2004
                                                                                         operation Programme (OSCCP) began in February 2004. It consisted of a series of six seminars, aimed at promoting cross-management agreements in areas such as transition to
             operation Programme (OSCCP)
                                                                                         civilian border policing, joint training, cross-border co-operation of law enforcement agencies and blue-border issues. In view of the success of the first phase, the team will conduct
                                                                                         a further series of workshops for the second phase of the programme, due to begin in 2005."

                                                                                         OSCE participating States agreed to co-operate to address the problems associated with small arms in a comprehensive way by developing norms, principles and measures
                                                                                         covering all aspects of the issue, including: manufacture, marking, record keeping, export control criteria, and transparency about transfers (i.e. commercial and noncommercial
                                                                                         imports and exports), through effective national export and import documentation and procedures. Detailed recommendations, guidelines and principles were set out in the areas of
                                                                                         production and export controls and great emphasis was also placed upon the importance of the exchange of information amongst OSCE Member States as a means of promoting
             OSCE Document on Small Arms and
                                                              OSCE              2000     best practices in all the areas covered by the Document. The Document also introduced strict standards and measures to restrain transfers, secure stockpiles and remove                                OSCE Member States
             Light Weapons
                                                                                         weapons from circulation. As a means of further enhancing the implementation of the OSCE Document, in December 2003, the OSCE's Forum for Security Co-operation adopted
                                                                                         a Handbook of Best Practice Guides on small arms and light weapons control issues. The Handbook is a comprehensive manual providing a set of best practice guides relating to
                                                                                         stages of a gun’s life starting with the manufacture and ending with destruction and DDR.

                                                                                         "The Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism (PAP-T) remains the main platform for joint efforts by Allies and Partners in the fight against terrorism. It serves as a useful tool in
             Partnership Action Plan against
                                                              NATO              2004     facilitating NATO’s strategic outreach to Partners, particularly from Central Asia and the Caucasus and, as the first result-oriented action plan, contributes to NATO’s general effort             NATO Member States (26)
             Terrorism (PAP-T)
                                                                                         to keep Partnership active and relevant in the present security environment."

                                                                                         "PISCES is a software application, tailored to each country’s specific needs, and provides border control officials at transit points with information that allows them to identify and
             PISCES - Personal Identification                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 participating states in 2005; up to 60
                                                         USA [DOS/NADR-                  detain or track individuals of interest. Officials can also use PISCES to quickly retrieve information on persons who may be trying to hastily depart a country after a terrorist incident.
             Secure Comparison and Evaluation            TIP funds PISCES]
                                                                                2002                                                                                                                                                                                                      others identified as useful for US
                                                                                         The Terrorist Interdiction Program run by the U.S. Department of State Office of Counterterrorism trains border control officials to use PISCES to collect, compare, and analyze data                 Counterrorism concerns
                                                                                         that can be utilized to arrest and investigate suspects." Employed in Georgia 2004.

                                                                                         "The British Government is in the process of setting up the Post Conflict Reconstruction Unit because it is determined to do more to improve the United Kingdom's capacity to deal
             Post-Conflict Reconstruction Unit                                           with post conflict stabilisation. Overall, the PCRU will: 1. develop strategy for post conflict stabilisation, including linking military and civilian planning, and working with the wider
                                                                UK              2005
             (PCRU)                                                                      international community. 2. plan, implement and manage the UK contribution to post conflict stabilisation, including practical civilian capabilities needed to stabilise the environment
                                                                                         in immediate post conflict situations."

                                                                                         "The Trade Logistics Group of the World Bank is preparing a number of guidelines, for policy makers and task managers to develop and implement trade and transport facilitation
                                                                                         projects. These guidelines will include:
             Preparation of Customs Guidelines              World Bank          2004     (i) Border stations; (ii) Inland clearance; (iii) Risk management; (iv) Valuation; (v) Origin; (vi) Enforcement; (vii) Clearance policy; (viii) Development strategy; (ix) Legislation; (x)
                                                                                         Positioning of Customs; (xi) Performance indicators; (xii) Monitoring conditionality; (xiii) Customs diagnostic; (xiv) Computerization; (xv) Transit.
                                                                                         See the first note on border processing."

                                                                                         "The State Department’s Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) has been given the responsibility for managing PDD-71 implementation.
                                                                                         Core changes being made in the U.S. CIVPOL program as a result of PDD-71 include:
             Presidential Decision Directive 71                                            * Development of a ready roster of 500-2,000 U.S. officers pre-screened and trained to make them eligible for rapid deployment;
             on Strengthening Criminal Justice                                             * Targeted recruitment of specialists (e.g., training, border control, customs, organized crime investigators, supervisory/management);
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        UNMIK, UNMIBH, UNTAET, OSCE,
             Systems in Support of Peace                       USA              2000       * Enhancement of existing training programs;                                                                                                                                                          Afghanistan +
             Operations and other Complex                                                  * Outreach to the U.S. law enforcement community-departments, individuals, and professional organizations;
             Contingencies (PPD-71)                                                        * Development of professional contingent commanders and performance criteria to help evaluate U.S. CIVPOL effectiveness;
                                                                                           * Developing a recognition and awards program for superior U.S. CIVPOL performance; and
                                                                                           * Obtaining Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) certification for the training programs as applicable."

             Programme for Co-ordination and                                             "PCASED will be an initial five-year technical programme established and operated by UNDP to backstop the moratorium regime and related practical development and security-
             Assistance for Security and                                                 related activities, including assistance, where possible, in mopping up surplus weapons in interested countries that had been affected by conflict. It would become fully operational
                                                              UNDP              1999                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mali; ECOWAS
             Development in West Africa                                                  as soon as one or more Governments would have declared the moratorium. However, a technical secretariat would be established in advance to assist interested Governments to
             (PCASED)                                                                    fully understand the technical and political aspects of the proposal and thus facilitate a political decision for the declaration of the moratorium."

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             19
                                                                                                                                  Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                  Other       Status                                                    Source(s)                                                                                    Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               12B Afrosiyob Street, 4th Floor, Mirobod district
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               700015 Tashkent, Uzbekistan
OSCE Anti-Trafficking Programme                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tel: +998 71 120 44 70
                                                       x                      x                                  x         Training     ongoing                                         
(OSCE Centre in Tashkent)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fax: +998 71 120 61 25

OSCE Conflict Prevention Centre -
                                                       x                                                         x                      ongoing                                         
Border Experts Team

OSCE Conflict Prevention Centre -
                                                                                                                         Workshops /
OSCE SEE Cross-border Co-                              x                                                         x                   ongoing                                            
operation Programme (OSCCP)

OSCE Document on Small Arms and
                                                                      x                                          x       Best Practices ongoing                                         
Light Weapons

                                                                                                                                        "...a number of NATO nations and Partners noted the
                                                                                                                                        need for further efforts to implement the PAP-T with
                                                                                                                                        special emphasis on relevant aspects of border
Partnership Action Plan against                                                                                                                                                                    Report on the Partnership Action Plan against terrorism
                                                       x                                 x                       x         Training     management and security...The NMAs are currently
Terrorism (PAP-T)                                                                                                                       reviewing potential training activities in support of PAP-
                                                                                                                                        T." Also considering outreach to non-NATO partners,
                                                                                                                                        particularly in Mediterranean
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Brig. Gen. Mark Kimmitt, Deputy Director for Coalition Operations and dan Senor, former Senior
                                                                                                                                                                                                  NIS Export Control Observer (November 2004); State Dept. NDF FY05 Budget Request             Adviser, CPA
PISCES - Personal Identification
                                                                                                                                                                                                  as Submitted;
Secure Comparison and Evaluation                       x              x       x          x                       x                      Employed in Iraq and Republic of Georgia in 2004

Post-Conflict Reconstruction Unit
                                                      ?               ?       ?                                                         Still in development                            

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               For more information, please contact

Preparation of Customs Guidelines                                             x                                  x        Guidelines    ongoing                                                   0dcf9b570276;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mr. Steve Otto, CIVPOL Training Coordinator at

Presidential Decision Directive 71
on Strengthening Criminal Justice
Systems in Support of Peace                            x                      x                                            Training     ongoing                                         ;
Operations and other Complex
Contingencies (PPD-71)

Programme for Co-ordination and
Assistance for Security and
                                                       x                                 x                       x         Training     ongoing                                         
Development in West Africa

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20
                                                                                                                                  Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                              Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)        Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                           Partners
                                                                                        "The United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects reflects the commitment of UN
                                                                                        States to tackle the illicit small arms trade at the national, regional and global levels. The Programme of Action devotes 8 paragraphs specifically to highlighting necessary action at
                                                                                        regional level, and includes commitments to:
             Programme of Action to Prevent,
                                                                                        ��Establish points of contact within regional organisations to aid in the implementation of the PoA.
             Combat and Eradicate the Illicit
                                                                UN              2001    ��Negotiate legally-binding regional instruments and implement those that already exist.                                                                                                                           UN Member States
             Trade in Small Arms and Light
                                                                                        ��Establish and strengthen regional moratoria on small arms production and/or transfers and create regional action programmes.
             Weapons in All Its Aspects (UN PoA)
                                                                                        ��Enhance cooperation between law enforcement, border and customs agencies in the regions.
                                                                                        ��Encourage the creation and strengthening of relevant laws, regulations and administrative procedures.
                                                                                        ��Create regional mechanisms to promote safe and effective stockpile management.
                                                                                        ��Support national disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes.
                                                                                        ��Develop measures to enhance transparency."

             Protocol Against the Illicit                                                        "By its resolution 55/255 of 31 May 2001, the General Assembly adopted the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components
             Manufacturing of and Trafficking in                                                 and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (A/55/383/Add.2) which requests States Parties to consider establishing a
             Firearms, Their Parts and                                                           system for regulating the activities of those who engage in brokering, including measures such as: requiring registration of brokers operating within their territory; requiring licensing
             Components and Ammunition,                         UN                2001           or authorization of brokering; or requiring disclosure on import and export licenses or authorizations, or accompanying documents, of the names and locations of brokers involved                        UN Member States
             supplementing the United Nations                                                    in the
             Convention against Transnational                                                    transaction. If they had already done so, State parties are encouraged to include information on brokers and brokering in their exchanges of information under article 12 of the
             Organized Crime (A/55/383/Add.2)                                                    Protocol and to retain records regarding brokers and brokering in accordance with article 7 of the Protocol."

                                                                                                 The PSI is a counterproliferation effort aimed at interdiction of shipments of weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and related materials flowing to or from states or
                                                                                                 non-State actors of proliferation concern. On 4 September 2003, PSI partners agreed and published the PSI "Statement of Interdiction Principles" (SOP), which identifies steps
                                                                                                 necessary for effective interdiction. Since the PSI was announced, the US has cooperated with other countries to prevent illicit trafficking in nuclear, chemical, and biological               11 original members, 4 added since:
                                                                                                 weapons, their delivery systems, and related materials on land, sea, or in the air. Such efforts have resulted in a number of successful interdictions, including of the "BBC China," a      Australia, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain,
             PSI - Proliferation Security Initiative     USA [DOS/P/NP]           2003           ship that was carrying a large quantity of gas centrifuge equipment to Libya. ....                                                                                                             the United Kingdom, Canada, Norway,
                                                                                                 On 11 February 2004, President Bush called for PSI to expand to include shutting down proliferation networks. The President called on PSI participants to enhance cooperation in             Russia, Singapore, and the United States;
                                                                                                 law enforcement, intelligence, and military channels to identify where proliferation facilitators are operating, shut them down, and bring them to justice. The United States is working      other states participate in exercises, etc.
                                                                                                 to develop guidelines to assist in the expanded work of PSI and is continuing to
                                                                                                 advance PSI’s goal of establishing a global web of counterproliferation partnerships.

                                                                                                 "At the conference on the Security of Radioactive sources held in Vienna in March 2003, the US Secretary of Energy announced a new initiative, the Radiological Security
                                                                                                 Partnership (RSP) to address "the potential threats from under secured high-risk radioactive sources". The RSP, in partnership with the IAEA, jointly engages with other countries
             Radiological Security Partnership                                                   to mitigate the risk posed by radiological materials that could be used as a radiological dispersal device (RDD).
                                                         USA [DOE] & IAEA
             (RSP) & Regional Radiological                w/ 3rd countries
                                                                                  2003           The US Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Agency are in the process of establishing a Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP) programme intended to
             Security Partnership (RRSP)                                                         complement the RSP, as well as on-going bilateral and IAEA radiological risk reduction activities. The RRSP will allow the IAEA and US DOE to work jointly with a regional partner
                                                                                                 to promote and support key issues and activities for radiological security in that region. Specific activities will be attuned to the particular needs and competences available
                                                                                                 amongst participating States. The RRSP will also offer the opportunity for other donors with particular regional interests or competences to join the Partnership."

                                                                                                 "Rapid Expert Assistance and Co-operation Teams (REACT) form a pool of skilled resources available for rapid deployment to upcoming and future missions..." [from 2nd source:
             Rapid Expert & Assistance                                       1999 [concept]      General staff / monitoring functions in OSCE field activities take a variety of forms. Included in this category are monitoring activities aside from those covered by other fields of
             Cooperation Teams (REACT)                                       2001 [launched]     expertise such as elections and police, as well as the work performed by those assigned to situation/watch operations and in staff/personal assistant positions.
                                                                                                 The monitoring done may involve passive observation (e.g. of border movements)..."

                                                                                                 "Twelve SECI states are parties to an agreement to share information to combat trans-border crime, under which they established the Regional Center for Combating Transborder
                                                                                                 Crime in Bucharest, Romania, also known as the SECI Center.
                                                                                                 The SECI Center functions as a regional focal point for the communication and transmission of "real time" law enforcement information on cross-border crime. It is staffed by 20             Center is located in Bucharest, Romania;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  works with IOM, EULEC, IPMCD
             Regional Center for Combating                                                       liaison officers (police and customs officers) from 12 states in SEE, working closely with law enforcement experts from most of the countries of Western Europe, Russia, Poland,
                                                               SECI          2000 [operationl]                                                                                                                                                                                                  (observers), Western Europe, Russia,
             Trans-border Crime (SECI Center)                                                    Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, the U.S., and others. Liaison officers exchange law enforcement information related to trans-border crime in the region, and also lead and coordinate          Poland, Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, the
                                                                                                 operational task forces in the field. The Center’s four primary task forces target narcotics, commercial fraud, trafficking in persons, and terrorism (which consists of financial crime,     U.S., INTERPOL, SEESAC, and others.
                                                                                                 small arms trafficking, and WMD), and include, inter alia, experts from international organizations, supporting states, and the region." Confucting several task forces, including
                                                                                                 those below and the SECI Task Force on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings (THB) and Illegal Migration (IM).

                                                                                                 Co-coordinated by Albania and Croatia, the Task-Force (TF) is the result of a merger between the earlier TF on Commercial Fraud (led by Croatia) and the TF on Combating
                                                                                                 Customs Valuation Fraud (led by Albania). An analysis was conducted to explore the possibility of a merger from professional-, organizational-, and financial points of view...The
                                                                                                 first meeting explored ways to better exchange information related to Customs Value Fraud and to discuss renewed efforts in the field of cigarette smuggling. Experts from SECI
                                                                                                 Center Member and Observer countries, UNMIK and UNECE attended. A main topic of discussion was the presentation of the BULLDOG Operation evaluation report. This
                                                                                                 operation, coordinated by the Task Force on Commercial Fraud, ran from 15 June 2002 to 14 September 2002. It employed an Operational Plan prepared by Croatian Customs.
             SECI Anti-Fraud Anti-Smuggling
                                                               SECI               2003           The operation sought to improve communication and data exchange among SECI member states, monitor the movement of tobacco/cigarettes consignments in the SECI Region                                    UNMiK and UNECE
             Task Force
                                                                                                 through a defined Early Warning System, and gather, manage and analyze post-seizure data for the purpose of developing relevant threat assessments on the illegal trade of
                                                                                                 tobacco in Southeast Europe....Cigarette smuggling is identified by many as the single smuggling problem faced by the countries in the Southeast Europe region.
                                                                                                 Smuggled and counterfeit cigarettes deprive nations of lawful duties and tax revenue, generate sums of illicit profit for organized crime, and thus represent a key factor in
                                                                                                 crime/corruption in the region.
The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       21
                                                                                                                                 Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                 Other        Status                                                    Source(s)                                                                                Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

Programme of Action to Prevent,
Combat and Eradicate the Illicit
                                                       x                      x                                  x                      ongoing                                         
Trade in Small Arms and Light
Weapons in All Its Aspects (UN PoA)

Protocol Against the Illicit
Manufacturing of and Trafficking in
Firearms, Their Parts and
Components and Ammunition,                                            x                                          x                      ongoing                                         
supplementing the United Nations
Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime (A/55/383/Add.2)

                                                                                                                                        ongoing; State Dept. states that as many as 60 states
                                                                                                                            Joint                                                                 State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities; see also
                                                                                                                                        have in some way participated in PSI activities; 21 are
PSI - Proliferation Security Initiative                               x       x                                  x       Exercises;
                                                                                                                                        actively involved; several worldwide exercises held; a
                                                                                                                                        Statement of Interdiction Principles signed in 2003

Radiological Security Partnership
(RSP) & Regional Radiological                                         x                              x                                  ongoing                                         
Security Partnership (RRSP)

Rapid Expert & Assistance                                                                                                                                                               ;
                                                       x                                                         x        Training      ongoing
Cooperation Teams (REACT)                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Yalçin CAKICI, Director of SECI Center

Regional Center for Combating
                                                       x                                             x           x                      ongoing                                         ;
Trans-border Crime (SECI Center)

SECI Anti-Fraud Anti-Smuggling                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                              x                                  x                      ongoing
Task Force                                                                                                                                                                                        3.htm

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 22
                                                                                                                            Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                      Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)          Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                Partners
                                                                                           "Regional links to fight trans-border crime [have] been established through the SECI Anti-Terrorism Task force, headed by Turkey. The Task Force is focusing on small arms and
             SECI Anti-Terrorism Task Force                     SECI              2003
                                                                                           light weapons, as well as weapons of mass destruction."
                                                                                           "In October 2002, APEC Leaders agreed to implement the Secure Trade in the APEC Region initiative (STAR) to secure and enhance the flow of goods and people through
                                                                                           measures to protect cargo, ships, international aviation and people in transit….The STAR II conference agreed that implementing new security measures and securing a more
             Secure Trade in the APEC Region                                               stable economic environment requires collaboration between the public and private sectors and a sharing of information between governments. However, there were concerns
                                                         [APEC/SOM/CTTF/S         2002                                                                                                                                                                                                       APEC Member Economies
             (STAR) Conference                                  TAR]                       about the impact that security measures could have on trade facilitation. A global approach towards the full implementation of these measures is vital and it was in every economy's
                                                                                           own interest to see that their neighbours and trading partners also proceed to meet the requirements. A high priority was also placed on international technical cooperation and the
                                                                                           involvement of international financial institutions."

                                                                                           "Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the United States and Mexico signed the U.S.-Mexico Border Partnership (known as the Smart Borders agreement) and the U.S.
             Smart Borders Agreement (a.k.a.                                               government began providing assistance to enhance border and port security, through X-ray and other inspection equipment, computer systems for information-sharing, and
                                                            USA-Mexico            2002
             U.S.-Mexico Border Partnership)                                               training for Mexican customs and immigration officials. This Northern Border Security Infrastructure program, funded through INC, began with $25 million appropriated in the
                                                                                           FY2002 supplemental spending bill (P.L. 107-206), and received another major boost of $20 million in FY2004."

                                                                                           " The goal of the project is to provide electricity to key departments in the Shkodra Police Directorate and key border posts in the region of Shkodra via solar panels, which can act
                                                                                           as backup systems for the border posts and the police station, which suffer from frequent electricity cuts. The project has an environmental component, requires little maintenance
             Solar Panel Police                                OSCE               2004     and is more economical than the current generators used for electricity generation, once the solar panels have been installed. The installation of a back-up solar panel system                             Albania
                                                                                           should provide enough energy to keep key departments in the Shkodra Police Directorate and key border posts equipped with computers, fax and passport checking machines
                                                                                           operational full time."
                                                                                           The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) in Macedonia is part of a joint World Bank-U.S. sponsored program that also supports efforts by Albania, Bosnia-
                                                                                           Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania to facilitate trade. The program promotes more efficient trade flows across the borders of participating countries by providing EU-
                                                                                           compatible customs standards. SECI supports the implementation of ongoing customs reforms, with a focus on integrated solutions at selected pilot sites. These sites are intended
                                                                                           to increase the productivity of border agencies and reduce waiting time/lines at border crossing stations. The US funds infrastructure upgrades, such as updated IT systems,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and
             Southeast European Cooperative                                                training, and other key programs in support of the Trade and Transport Facilitation of Southeast Europe (TTFSE) program. This project, begun in FY 2001, will run to the middle of
                                                         Joint US-World Bank      1996                                                                                                                                                                                                   Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, and
             Initiative (SECI)                                                             FY 2005. Measurement results show reductions of 26 to 78 percent in average processing times at the pilot sites in 2003, compared to 2002.                                                                 Romania
                                                                                           SECI has overseen the creation and development of a Risk Analysis Unit in the Macedonian Customs Administration (MCA). The team was trained and equipped with the tools
                                                                                           needed to analyze and monitor cargo selectivity, based on the automated compliance measurement and risk-assessment/profiling system for cargo. SECI will support the
                                                                                           extension of this process across the country. It also assisted MCA to develop a public
                                                                                           hotline to report Customs offenses and corruption, and helped set up an Office of Internal Affairs to investigate alleged corruption.

             Southern Africa Development
                                                                                           "...commits Member States to standards relating to, inter alia: the coordination of procedures for the import, export and transit of firearms shipments; the regulation of firearms
             Community (SADC) Protocol on the
                                                               SADC               2001     brokering; and a review of national firearms legislation. It further commits Member States to incorporating into their national laws as a matter of priority, 'provisions that regulate             SADC Member States
             Control of Firearms, Ammunition
                                                                                           firearm brokering in the territories of State Parties.'"
             and Other Related Materials

                                                                                           "The objective of the SCAD Programme is to support the efforts of the three countries in combating drug trafficking via South Caucasus, and foster regional cooperation to this
                                                                                           effect. The Programme with a total budget of EURO 959,000 earmarked for Armenia has five objectives. The first objective is the reinforcement and harmonization of the national
             Southern Caucasus Anti-Drug                 EU funded; UNDP                   legal and regulatory frameworks for drug control. The second objective is to strengthen land border interdiction capacities to reduce drug transit from both east/west and
                                                                                  2001                                                                                                                                                                                                    Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia
             Programme (SCAD)                              implemented                     south/north routes and foster cross-border cooperation. Under its third objective, the programme addresses the development of a compatible system for drug intelligence to collect
                                                                                           and analyse drug related undisclosed data. The fourth objective is to help create a drug use monitoring capacity in the South Caucasus region, and the final fifth objective is to
                                                                                           strengthen capacities of education and law enforcement bodies for drug prevention at schools." The lead office is in Georgia.

                                                                                           The Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe is a multilateral political initiative to encourage and strengthen cooperation among the countries of Southeast Europe (SEE) and to
                                                                                           streamline efforts to assist them in preparing for Euro-Atlantic integration. The Stability Pact is based on the principle that conflict prevention and peace building can be successful
                                                                                           only if three key sectors are addressed: (I) promotion of sustainable democratic systems, (II) promotion of economic and social well-being, and (III) creation of a secure
                                                                                           environment. The Stability Pact has dedicated three "Working Tables" to correspond to these three sectors. With relatively little U.S. funding (approximately $15 million through FY
                                                                                           2003), the U.S. has been able to influence the development and implementation of initiatives funded at an overall level of approximately $3 billion in such areas as redirecting the
                                                                                           focus of the Investment Compact Initiative, guiding fundamental principles for the establishment of an independent and private media, pushing forward the Sava River Initiative, and        South Eastern European states: Albania,
             Stability Pact for South Eastern                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
                                                                 EU               1999     developing European based and funded programs in anti-trafficking and anti-corruption. The Stability Pact has six core areas of activity for 2003-2004:
             Europe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FYR of Macedonia, Moldova, Romania and
                                                                                           - Local Democracy and Cross-Border Cooperation;                                                                                                                                                      Serbia & Montenegro
                                                                                           - Media;
                                                                                           - Infrastructure and Energy;
                                                                                           - Trade and Investment;
                                                                                           - Stabilizing Population;
                                                                                           - Fighting Organized Crime

                                                                                           " Objective 4: Prevent criminal exploitation of seaports and hemispheric maritime trade for purposes of committing terrorist acts, illicit drug, weapon, and people trafficking, cargo
                                                                                           theft, and financial and commercial crimes: 1. Denying criminals access to seaports and the legitimate commercial maritime shipping cycle. 2. Strengthening enforcement efforts to
             Strategic Framework for Inter-                                                reduce inbound and outbound movement of criminal proceeds or the assets of criminal enterprises. 3. Assisting the customs services and other law enforcement agencies of OAS
                                                                OAS               2004
             American Port Security Cooperation                                            Member States to seize the assets of terrorists or criminals exploiting maritime commerce, through aggressive use of forfeiture laws. 4. Enhancing bilateral and multilateral
                                                                                           cooperation among OAS member States against all financial crimes exploiting maritime commerce by establishing or updating enforcement tools and implementing multilateral anti-
                                                                                           money laundering standards."

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           23
                                                                                                                                Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                 Other     Status                                            Source(s)                                                                                 Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

SECI Anti-Terrorism Task Force                         x              x                              x           x                   ongoing                                 

Secure Trade in the APEC Region
                                                       x                      x          x                       x        Training   STAR III conference underway February 2005        re_trade_in_the.html#STAR_II;
(STAR) Conference                                                                                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                                                             ; U.S. State Department, Bureau for International
Smart Borders Agreement (a.k.a.                                                                                                                                                        Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL), Congressional Budget Justification for FY
                                                       x                                 x                                Training   ongoing
U.S.-Mexico Border Partnership)                                                                                                                                                        2004 (CBJ 2004) (Washington, DC: June 2003).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Alex Finnen, Deputy Head of Presence Rr. Donika Kastrioti, Villa 6, Tirana, Albania Tel.:+355 4 235993
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Fax:+355 4 235994

Solar Panel Police                                     x                                 x                                           ongoing: note: OSCE website says it is unfunded

Southeast European Cooperative                                                                                                                                               ; see also
                                                       x                      x          x           x                    Training   ongoing
Initiative (SECI)                                                                                                                                                            

Southern Africa Development                                                                                                                                                  ;
Community (SADC) Protocol on the                                                                                         Harmonize
                                                                      x                                          x                   ongoing                                 ; See also
Control of Firearms, Ammunition                                                                                           Controls                                                     "Strategic Indicative Plan for the Organ on Politics, Defence and Security Cooperation"
and Other Related Materials                                                                                                                                                  

Southern Caucasus Anti-Drug                                                                                              Capacity                                            ;
                                                       x                                 x           x           x                   ongoing
Programme (SCAD)                                                                                                         building                                            

Stability Pact for South Eastern                                                                                                                                             ; budget source:
                                                       x                                             x                    Training   ongoing

Strategic Framework for Inter-                                                                                                                                               
                                                       x                      x                                  x        Training   ongoing
American Port Security Cooperation                                                                                                                                                     04%20%20last%20version.htm

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     24
                                                                                                                        Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                    Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)      Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                   Partners

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     "Funds will be obligated for projects
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Brazil, Pakistan, Republic of Korea,
                                                                                       "...second phase... the State Department will provide $1.19 million to ten enforcement-related training programs...part of the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy ("STOP") initiative         Malaysia, and Panama, as well as for
             Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy
                                                               USA            2004     announced on October 4, 2004 by the United States Trade Representative, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Justice, and U.S. Department of Homeland                                initiatives in the Tri-border region of
             ("STOP") initiative                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil; in Africa;
                                                                                       Security." (Note: related to Tri-Border Initiative listed elsewhere)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with Interpol; and with countries in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          China-East Asia Pacific region."

                                                                                       "Funded by Great Britain’s Global Opportunities Fund, ―Strengthening Regional Security through Cambodia's Enhanced Border Control Capacity‖ is a three-year Technical
             Strengthening Regional Security
                                                                                       Cooperation project consolidating Cambodia's migration management capacity with particular reference to combating terrorism and trans-border crime. The project's main capacity             Cambodia, Thailand, Lao PDR, Viet Nam,
             through Cambodia's Enhanced                       IOM            2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Malaysia and Singapore
                                                                                       building instruments include specialised training; study visits and related cross-border activities. The project concentrates on the prevention of migration-related crime through
             Border Control Capacity
                                                                                       information analysis and intelligence-led law enforcement; transfer of expertise in detecting document fraud; and increasing the security of Cambodian borders."

                                                                                       SEED Aspects and Projects Include:
                                                                                       Albania - upgrade border control infrastructure in air and seaports; computerize border guard and customs operations
                                                                                       Bosnia-Herzegovina - State Court is operational; State Border Service controls B-H's international border crossings; build state law enforcement capacity by supporting State
                                                                                       Information and Protection Service; develop open markets, legal reform of the business sector, integrate with world economy; prepare for state-level value-added tax and unified
                                                                                       customs service as precursor to EU entry; assist returned refugees via loans, grants, and training for community integration; strengthen legal standards while combating criminal
                                                                                       sector                                                                                                                                                                                      Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria;
             Support for East European                   USA [DOS/P/EUR/
                                                                              1989     Bulgaria - improve civil security, strengthen border controls, increase transparency, de-centralize government, involve civil society in government decisions, implement reforms to           Hungary; Latvia; Macedonia; Romania;
             Democracy (SEED) Act                              RLS]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Serbia and Montenegro; Kosovo
                                                                                       justice sector and court system
                                                                                       Macedonia - training program was initiated to bring police investigators, prosecutors, and investigative judges together to aggressively combat human trafficking
                                                                                       Romania - promote economic reform, private sector growth, democratic governance, improved health/social services; special focus on issues such as corruption, human
                                                                                       trafficking, border security, and judicial reform
                                                                                       Serbia and Montenegro – work needed regarding ICTY cooperation, military and security sector reform, justice sector modernization, and combating armament proliferation
                                                                                       Kosovo – assist with sustainable return and reintegration activities

                                                                                       "The Tampere Convention calls on States to facilitate the provision of prompt telecommunication assistance to mitigate the impact of a disaster, and covers both the installation and
                                                                                       operation of reliable, flexible telecommunication services. Regulatory barriers that impede the use of telecommunication resources for disasters are waived. These barriers include
                                                                                       the licensing requirements to use allocated frequencies, restrictions on the import of telecommunication equipment, as well as limitations on the movement of humanitarian teams.
             Tampere Convention                                EU             1999     The Convention describes the procedures for request and provision of telecommunication assistance, recognizing the right of a State to direct, control and coordinate assistance              Ratified by 30 countries as of Jan 2005
                                                                                       provided under the Convention within its territory. It defines specific elements and aspects of the provision of telecommunication assistance, such as termination of assistance. It
                                                                                       requires States to make an inventory of the resources – both human and material – available for disaster mitigation and relief, and to develop a telecommunication action plan that
                                                                                       identifies the steps necessary to deploy those resources."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kyrgyzstan + USG (DOS/INL funding),
             Technical Assistance to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Foreign
                                                                                       "The overall objective of this project is to support and enhance the Kyrgyz Republic's stability, security and economic development through the establishment of a unified and
             International Check Points in the                 IOM            2002                                                                                                                                                                                                 Affairs, Ministry of Interior, Central Border
                                                                                       operational capacity for the management of the international borders and migration flows in, through and from the Kyrgyz Republic."                                                          Control Department of National Security
             Kyrgyz Republic (ICPK)

             Technical Assistance to the                                               "The Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) has identified as a priority the improvement of its border management systems and has encouraged the International
             Government of Zambia in Border                                            Organization for Migration (IOM) to assist in building capacities in this regard. With strongly increasing migration movements in the region, including significant irregular migration,
                                                               IOM            2005                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zambia
             Management: Preliminary Actions                                           including probable elements of human trafficking, the improvement of border management has become a high priority. IOM will initiate assistance to GRZ through the provision and
             (ZBM)                                                                     management of an expert assessment of needs, systems and supporting legal and regulatory framework features for management of cross-border movement in Zambia."
                                                                                       "The Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme continues to focus on putting advanced science to work to meet the economic and social needs of developing countries.
                                                                                       ….Nuclear Security
             Technical Cooperation Fund (TCF)                  IAEA           1957     During the period 2003–2004, the Secretariat delivered 20 nuclear security projects through TC, focusing on training activities in illicit trafficking, border control and physical
                                                                                       protection of nuclear material and facilities. I am pleased to report that, for the 2005–2006 TC cycle, all TC nuclear security projects will be funded under footnote a/, supported
                                                                                       exclusively by the Nuclear Security Fund and other extrabudgetary resources."
                                                                                       "The interagency Terrorist Finance Working Group (TFWG), chaired by State, coordinates, develops, and delivers training and technical assistance to priority countries to bolster
                                                                                       their anti-money laundering/counterterrorist financing regimes. U.S. assistance programs address the legal drafting, financial investigations, bank regulatory supervision, financial
                                                                                       intelligence units, and judicial/prosecutorial aspects of combating terrorist financing. In addition, these programs have begun to address the threat of terrorist financing through non-
             Terrorist Finance Working Group
                                                          USA [DOS/S/CT]      2001     bank conduits, such as alternative remittance systems, cash couriers, and the abuse of charities. To date, 17 priority countries deemed most vulnerable to terrorist financing have
                                                                                       been formally assessed, and training and technical assistance have been provided to countries, bilaterally and regionally, in the Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin
                                                                                       America. In addition, U.S. anti-money laundering programs underway in regions traditionally plagued by narco-trafficking and organized crime networks have complemented
                                                                                       counterterrorism finance efforts by reinforcing host government institutions' ability to follow the money trail."

                                                                                       "The TIP improves countries’ capabilities to prevent the transit of terrorists and their materials between borders. …. TIP strives to significantly impact terrorists’ freedom of
                                                                                       movement between countries by providing participating nations with a computer network enabling immigration and border control officials to quickly identify suspect persons
             Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP)         USA [DOS/NADR]      2002                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 nations since 2001
                                                                                       attempting to enter or leave the country. TIP also provides participating nations with increased capability to collect, compare, and analyze traveler data and contribute to the global
                                                                                       effort to understand terrorist methods and track their movements."

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             25
                                                                                                                                  Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                  Other       Status                               Source(s)                                                                              Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing

Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy
                                                                              x                      x                     Training     ongoing                    
("STOP") initiative

Strengthening Regional Security
through Cambodia's Enhanced                            x                                 x           x           x         Training     3 years (May 2004 - April 2007)
Border Control Capacity

Support for East European                                                                                                Training; anti-                           ; also country reports for FY2003 at
                                                       x              x       x          x           x           x                       ongoing
Democracy (SEED) Act                                                                                                       trafficking                             

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mr Cherif Ghaly, Chief, Information and Communications, Technology Section, UN Office for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Tel: +41 22 917 2184, Fax: +41 22 917 0440, E-mail
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ; Dr Cosmas Zavazava, Head, Special Unit for Least Developed Countries,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Telecommunication Development Bureau, International Telecommunication Union, Tel: +41 22 730
                                                                                                                         Facilitation for                                                                                                                           5447, E-mail
Tampere Convention                                                    x                  x                                Emergency came into force 8 January 2005

Technical Assistance to                                                                                                                                            ;
International Check Points in the                      x                                 x                                              24 months                  ;
Kyrgyz Republic (ICPK)                                                                                                                                             

Technical Assistance to the
Government of Zambia in Border                                                                                                                                     ;
                                                       x                                 x                                              4 months
Management: Preliminary Actions                                                                                                                                    

Technical Cooperation Fund (TCF)                       x                                                                   Training     ongoing                    

Terrorist Finance Working Group                                                                                                                                    ;
                                                                              x          x                       x         Training     ongoing

                                                                                                                                                                             FYO5 State Dept. NDF Budget (as submitted)
Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP)                   x                                                                   Training                                ;

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      26
                                                                                                                                 Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                              Note on Database

                                                            State / Org
             Initiative                                     Sponsor(s)          Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                       Partners
                                                         USA   [funded by        [copyrightd,   Automated/computerized system for tracking chem, bio, fissile, and radiological materials that the US State Department offers developing countries, mainly in Eastern Europe                  East/Western Europe, FSU, Japan, Hong
             TRACKER System                              DOS/NADR/ NDF]           developed                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Kong
                                                                                                though more geographical reach is planned. Note: source code expected to be released to public in future under open source initiative

                                                                                                "...the TTFSE program... is a cooperative program implemented through the World Bank, supports infrastructure development, customs reform, and trade facilitation in SEE."
                                                                                                [According to website Overview description...] The Trade and Transport Facilitation in Southeast Europe Program (TTFSE) fosters trade by promoting more efficient and less costly              "The Trade and Transport Facilitation in
                                                                                                trade flows across the countries in Southeast Europe and provides European Union-compatible customs standards. The program seeks to reduce non-tariff costs to trade and                       Southeast Europe Program is a regional
             Trade and Transport Facilitation in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               endeavor gathering eight countries, the
                                                          SECI - World Bank         2000        transport, reduce smuggling and corruption at border crossings, and strengthen and modernize the customs administrations and other border control agencies. The initial
             Southeast Europe (TTFSE) project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    World Bank, the ... United States of
                                                                                                participants in the program include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Romania. Moldova and Serbia and                         America, of the Netherlands, of France,
                                                                                                Montenegro joined the Program in 2003. The program is the result of a collaborative effort between the national governments in the region, the World Bank, and the United States                    and of Austria among others.
                                                                                                in collaboration with the European Union."

             Trade and Transport Facilitation
                                                             World Bank             2001        "Preparation and update of the TTF Toolkit offering a systematic framework for Audit, Analysis and Remedial Actions…"                                                                            See also Port Reform Toolkit (2001)

                                                                                                "The TSCTI would seek to further strengthen regional CT capabilities, enhance and institutionalize cooperation among the region’s security forces, promote democratic governance               Expanded beyond Pan Sahel Initiative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               partners of Mali, Mauritania, Niger and
             Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism                                                     and human rights, and ultimately benefit our worldwide CT goals and bilateral relationships. The TSCTI concept would look beyond simply the provision of training and equipment
                                                                 USA                2004                                                                                                                                                                                                      Chad. TSCTI expands to include Algeria,
             Initiative (TSCTI)                                                                 for counterterrorism units, but also would consider development assistance, expanded public diplomacy campaigns and other elements as part of an overall CT strategy. TSCTI is                Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, Ghana, and
                                                                                                under review within the Administration, and we are working to integrate the concept into agency budget and program planning processes."                                                                         Nigeria

                                                                                                "In 2002, the Department of Commerce launched the Transshipment Country Export Control Initiative (TECI) to increase cooperation and dialogue on export controls and
                                                                                                transshipment trade with government and industry in nine major transshipment hubs ... Under the TECI initiative the Commerce Department provides assistance to countries to                     Cyprus, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Malta,
             Transshipment Country Export
                                                         USA      [DOC/BIS]         2002        encourage adoption and further development of export control systems and undertakes data exchanges to facilitate more effective administration of transshipment controls. The                  Panama, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand,
             Control Initiative (TECI)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        UAE
                                                                                                Department of Commerce also encourages host government development of effective controls to facilitate enforcement. The Department of Commerce also works with industry to
                                                                                                enlist support at transshipment hubs against illicit transshipments."

             Tri-border Initiative ("3+1")                       USA                2002        Counterterrorism and counter-piracy training and assistance in key border area                                                                                                                    Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina + USA

                                                                                                "The Coast Guard also offers professional military education in a specialized course entitled the International Maritime Officers Course (IMOC). It is only open to international
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               "Since the first convening class in March
             U.S. Coast Guard International                                                     students and is attended by mid-level officers from around the world. ...IMOC participants study the organization, planning, management and operation of a multi-mission maritime
                                                           USA     [USCG]           1995                                                                                                                                                                                                      1995, 425 students from 94 countries have
             Maritime Officer Course (IMOC)                                                     force. Presented in a seminar format with guest instructors and lecturers from the military, civilian, and academic communities, IMOC helps develop maritime service leaders who                     graduated from this course."
                                                                                                will hold positions of prominence and responsibility."

                                                                                                "On 6 December 1991, the General Assembly adopted resolution 46/36 L entitled "Transparency in armaments", which requested the Secretary-General to establish and maintain
                                                                                                at United Nations Headquarters in New York a universal and non-discriminatory Register of Conventional Arms, to include data on international arms transfers as well as
                                                                                                information provided by Member States on military holdings, procurement through national production and relevant policies.
             UN Conventional Arms Register                       UN                 1991        The Register comprises seven categories of major conventional arms, namely, battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, large calibre artillery systems, combat aircraft, attack                           164 UN Member States
                                                                                                helicopters, warships (including submarines) as well as missiles and missile-launchers. It has been in operation with effect from calendar year 1992. Thus far, a total of 164
                                                                                                Member States have reported to the Register one or more times. The Register captures the great bulk of the global arms trade in the categories of conventional weapons covered
                                                                                                by it."

                                                                                                Pilot project with six countries sharing borders (Laos, China, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar). "This phased project will progressively develop and expand to address
                                                                                                the operational effectiveness of law enforcement agencies across and along the borders of countries which are party to the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the
             UN Cross-Border Law Enforcement             UN Office of Drugs &                   Subregional Action Plan on Drug Control. The project will be implemented in two phases and priority will be given to the border areas of China. This will mainly entail building                  Laos, China, Cambodia, Vietnam,
             Initiative                                         Crime                           national and regional cooperation and enabling cross-border personnel to work as a team. The key components will be workshops and specialized training to develop skills and                             Thailand, Myanmar
                                                                                                knowledge of drug control, initiatives to engender trust and confidence, and structures which favour close liaison. Enforcement activities conducive to practical and daily
                                                                                                collaboration will be identified and encouraged."

                                                                                                "As suggested by a number of Security Council Members during the retreat last June in Long Island, UNOWA has established a matrix for a more effective follow up of Security
                                                                                                Council recommendations contained in the Presidential Statement of 25 March 2004 (S/PRST/2004/7). Issues such as small arms, child soldiers, security sector reform, DDR,
                                                                                                roadblocks and cross-border peacebuilding are among our key priorities.
                                                                                                - On small arms and light weapons, we are targeting the tracing and marking of small arms, the establishment of a regional register and the transformation of ECOWAS Moratorium
             UNOWA Cross-border Security
                                                               UNOWA                2005        into a legally binding instrument.                                                                                                                                                                            ECOWAS
                                                                                                - On security sector reform, combating non military threats to the security sector is a main priority. Specific issues to address are health, especially the spread of HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                epidemics in armed and security forces, the administration of justice and the strengthening of the customs services.
                                                                                                - On integrated borders and cross-boundary peacebuilding, four clusters have been established. These are: (1) Guinea/Cote d’Ivoire/Liberia/Sierra Leone, (2) Mali/Burkina
                                                                                                Faso/Cote d’Ivoire/Ghana, (3) Mauritania/Mali/Niger and (4) Senegal/Gambia/guinea Bissau. Specific security, humanitarian and social development priorities are being prioritized."

                                                                                                UNSCR 1373 requires all States to take certain counter-terrorism measures, including: to freeze economic resources of persons who commit, attempt to commit, facilitate or
                                                                                                participate in the commission of terrorist acts; to prohibit their nationals or any persons and entities within their territories from making economic resources or other related services
                                                                                                available for the benefit of persons who commit, attempt to commit, facilitate or participate in the commission of terrorist acts; to ensure that terrorist acts are established as serious
             UNSCR 1373 (see also CTC)                           UNSC               2001        criminal offenses in domestic laws and regulations and that punishment duly reflects the seriousness of such acts; to deny safe haven to those who finance, plan, support or                             UN Member States
                                                                                                commit terrorist acts; and, to ensure that any person who participates in the financing, planning, preparation or perpetration of terrorist acts is brought to justice. States are called
                                                                                                upon to exchange information and cooperate to prevent the commission of terrorist acts. UNSCR 1373 establishes a committee, the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC), to
                                                                                                monitor implementation of the resolution and to receive reports from States on steps they have taken to implement the resolution.

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     27
                                                                                                                               Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives
International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial               Other      Status                                                 Source(s)                                                                                 Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                           FYO5 State Dept. NDF Budget (as submitted)
TRACKER System                                                        x                  x                       x       Training   ongoing                                      ;;
                                                                                                                                                                                           886319 [ppt]

                                                                                                                                                                                 ; see also
Trade and Transport Facilitation in
                                                                              x                                  x       website    ongoing                                      ; MOU:
Southeast Europe (TTFSE) project                                                                                                                                                           mou.htm

Trade and Transport Facilitation
                                                                              x                                  x       Toolkit    ongoing; 3rd revision                                  P:+Trade+and+Transport+Facilitation:+A+Toolkit+for+Audit,+Analysis,+and+Remedial+A
Toolkit                                                                                                                                                                                    ction.+Revision+3./$File/TF-Toolkit-Rev3.pdf

Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism
                                                       x                                 x                       x       Training   ongoing; formerly the Pan Sahel Initiative   ;
Initiative (TSCTI)                                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     April, 2004: BIS places Mark Bayuk in Hong Kong as the Export Control Attaché.

Transshipment Country Export                                                                                                                                                                State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
                                                                      x       x          x           x           x       Training   A number of activities and exchanges took place in 2004
Control Initiative (TECI)                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                    Meeting held in December 2004; some training already FYO5 State Dept. NDF Budget (as submitted)                                               William P. Pope, Acting Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Tri-border Initiative ("3+1")                          x                                             x           x       Training   (countering money laundering and financial crimes) and;
                                                                                                                                    more being planned (post-WMD incident response)        9704.htm

U.S. Coast Guard International                                                                                                                                                   ;
                                                       x                                                         x       Training   ongoing
Maritime Officer Course (IMOC)                                                                                                                                                   

UN Conventional Arms Register                                         x                                          x                  ongoing                                      

UN Cross-Border Law Enforcement                                                                                                                                                  ; Wdurch
                                                       x                                 x                       x                  ongoing
Initiative                                                                                                                                                                                 interview (May 2005)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah, Special Representative of the Secretary General for West Africa

UNOWA Cross-border Security
                                                       x              x                                          x       Training   just beginning                               ;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Amb. Curtis Ward, UN CTC

UNSCR 1373 (see also CTC)                              x                      x                                  x       Training                                                ;

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       28
                                                                                                                           Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

             International Cooperative
             Initiatives               for Enhanced Border, Trade, and Customs Security                                                                                                                                                                                                     Note on Database

                                                           State / Org
             Initiative                                    Sponsor(s)     Date Begun Description                                                                                                                                                                                                    Partners
                                                                                     Adopted by the Security Council at its 4956th meeting, on 28 April 2004 -- Universalizes export controls by calling on all states to implement more rigorous export and border
             UNSCR 1540                                       UNSC           2004    controls, to criminalize proliferation, and to support greater international cooperation on nonproliferation activities. For the full text, see                                                           all UN Member States
                                                                                     "The Wassenaar Arrangement has been established in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility
                                                                                     in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, thus preventing destabilising accumulations. Participating States will seek, through their national policies,
             Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)                        WA            1996                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WA Members
                                                                                     to ensure that transfers of these items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities which undermine these goals, and are not diverted to support
                                                                                     such capabilities." In recent years, Wassenaar has conducted outreach activities to include prospective members and industry.

                                                                                          "Information and documentation are key elements in the control of international cross-border trade. In today’s interconnected electronic environment, these controls will
                                                                                          increasingly include Customs-to-Customs information exchange prior to the arrival of the goods in order to provide the necessary level of security, as well as acceptable release
                                                                                          times. Standardized and harmonized information requirements and procedures are essential to establish the common understanding which allows for an effective and efficient
             WCO Customs Data Model                            WCO            2002                                                                                                                                                                                                         WCO Member Countries (165)
                                                                                          exchange of information between all parties involved in international cross-border movements. The WCO Customs Data Model provides this common understanding on Customs
                                                                                          information Requirements. The Data Model will also provide Contracting Parties to the revised Kyoto Convention with a global Customs standard to implement provisions dealing
                                                                                          with reduced data requirements and electronic submission of declarations and supporting documents."

                                                                                          online database of customs-related technologies and suppliers: "The Databank is a tool with the goal of providing Customs Administrations with detailed and updated information
                                                                                          on technical equipment, available in the market place, which can assist them in areas of securing the international trade supply chain, crossborder movements of persons and
             WCO Databank on Advanced                                                     goods, from terrorism and international criminal activity.
                                                               WCO            2003                                                                                                                                                                                                         WCO Member Countries (165)
             Technology                                                                   The Databank lists companies alphabetically and products are classified under the following headings: * Communication Equipment; * Document Verifiers & Document Readers; *
                                                                                          Equipment - Tools, Safety; * Software and Services; * Surveillance Equipment; * Test & Detection Equipment; * X-Ray Equipment;
                                                                                          The Databank is published both on the public and the restricted WCO Members’ Website."

             WCO Framework of Standards to                                                "―This Framework sets out Principles and Standards which together constitute a set of measures that should be adopted by all WCO Members. It is aimed at providing uniformity
                                                               WCO            2004                                                                                                                                                                                                         WCO Member Countries (165)
             Secure and Facilitate Global Trade                                           and predictability to the conduct of trade, and ensuring security and facilitation for the passage of goods at borders‖, the Deputy Secretary General stated."
                                                                                          For more than a decade the WCO has played an active and key role In addressing the complex problem of Corruption in public service and more specifically in Customs. As early
                                                                                          as late eighties, when it was still a taboo to discuss the problem of corruption in an international forum, the WCO recognised and acknowledged that Corruption could be a major
                                                                                          threat to the efficiency and effectiveness of Customs services.
                                                                                          The WCO thus set itself to developing a comprehensive strategy and a programme to promote integrity in Customs. Since then WCO’s integrity strategy and programme has
                                                                                          progressed in logical phases. In phase 1 it developed a comprehensive strategy to address the issue of Integrity in Customs. This work resulted in the adoption of the historic
             WCO Strategy and Programme for                               2003 [updated
                                                               WCO                        Arusha Declaration in 1993. In phase 2 an institutional mechanism (establishment of an Integrity Working Group, now PTC Integrity Sub-Committee) and supporting instruments                      WCO Member Countries (165)
             Promotion of Integrity in Customs                               from '93]
                                                                                          (WCO Integrity Self-Assessment Guide and Model Code of Conduct) as well as the WCO Integrity Action Plan were developed. In its current phase the WCO’s integrity related
                                                                                          work is characterised by consolidation, integration and promotion of its instruments and initiatives. The WCO has adopted the Revised Arusha Declaration
                                                                                          in its Council Sessions in 2003. To assist Members in implementing the Revised Arusha Declaration, the WCO has developed the Integrity Development Guide as a
                                                                                          comprehensive integrity tool set, incorporating the existing
                                                                                          supporting instruments. The WCO Integrity Action Plan was also updated for the year 2003/2004.
                                                                                          "In order to promote the implementation of conventions and instruments intended to harmonize Customs procedures at international level, WCO Members may receive training and
                                                                                          technical assistance missions (TTA)....The TTA programmes are part of a voluntary policy which is constantly being improved by the WCO. Such missions essentially enable
             WCO Technical Training Assistance
                                                               WCO            1998        Members with low or average incomes to invest in what is their most important asset, namely their personnel. In fact, the missions led by the various WCO Secretariat departments                WCO Member Countries (165)
                                                                                          enable Customs officials to adapt quickly to regulatory and technical developments. In this way, Customs administrations can effectively adopt new strategies to be implemented to
                                                                                          meet the numerous challenges of the international environment."
                                                                                          * To measure the average time between the arrival and the release of goods – and each step
                                                                                          * Useful tool
             WCO Time Release Study / WCO
                                                               WCO           2003/04      --to identify problems and bottlenecks, including those caused by customs, other border agencies and trade; and                                                                            World Bank; employed in Phillipines, Kenya
             Time Release for Goods Software
                                                                                          --to stimulate efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness...
                                                                                          * Software developed in cooperation with the World Bank"
             WMD Proliferation Prevention
                                                         USA [DoD/DTRA/                                                                                                                                                                                                                Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,
             Initiative (WMD-PPI) for Non-                     CTR]
                                                                              2002        "...assists Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine in strengthening their ability to deter, detect, and interdict trafficking of WMD and related materials."                                   Ukraine +USA
             Russian FSU States

                                                                                          "The Zangger Committee, also known as the "NPT Exporters Committee", essentially contributes to the interpretation of article III, paragraph 2, of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation
                                                                                          Treaty (NPT) and thereby offers guidance to all parties to the Treaty….In Fall 2001, the Zangger Committee decided to launch an outreach programme between the Zangger
                                                                                          Committee and third countries. The outreach programme has three objectives: 1. To build a strong and sustainable relationship between the Zangger Committee and third
             Zangger Committee                                  ZC            1972                                                                                                                                                                                                    Zangger Committee Members (35) + EU
                                                                                          countries. 2. To increase the transparency of the activities of the Zangger Committee, by explaining its role, purpose and functions, in particular its role as technical interpreter of
                                                                                          article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). 3. To provide opportunities for open dialogue on issues of common interest and concern on non-
                                                                                          proliferation and nuclear export controls."

The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            29
                                                                                                                                  Stimson Center Survey of International Border Control Initiatives

International Cooperative
                                                                  Issues                           Types of Activities
                                                  Border         Export                                         Info-
Initiative                                                                 Customs   Technical   Financial                   Other       Status                                                Source(s)                                                                              Contact(s)
                                                  Security       Control                                      Sharing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ambassador Mihnea Motoc, Chairman, U.N. Security Council 1540 Committee
UNSCR 1540                                             x              x       x                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                                         Conducting outreach to industry and prospective
                                                                                                                                         members as well think tanks and academics around the; see also re: SALW -
Wassenaar Arrangement (WA)                                            x                  x                       x       Best Practices world; see 2004 Outreach effort             ; re: Best Practices, see
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Dietmar Jost Tel : 00 32 (0)2 209 93 55 - E-mail :

                                                                                                                                         "The WCO will publish Version 1 of the WCO Customs
                                                                                                                                         Data Model on the basis of the results of the G7
                                                                                                                                         Customs Initiative. Subsequent versions will be
WCO Customs Data Model                                                        x                                  x
                                                                                                                                         developed following comprehensive maintenance and
                                                                                                                                         changes to the control rules and procedures in order to
                                                                                                                                         ensure a reliable and stable WCO standard."

WCO Databank on Advanced
                                                       x                      x          x                       x                       in early stage development                  

WCO Framework of Standards to                                                                                             Harmonize      first draft accepted in Dec 2004; expected to be
                                                                              x          x
Secure and Facilitate Global Trade                                                                                         Systems       adopted at WCO Council in June 2005                   htm;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Customs Modernization Sub-Directorate, Mr. Joe Kelly,

                                                                                                                                                                                     ; TEXT:
WCO Strategy and Programme for
                                                                              x                                  x       Best Practices ongoing effort                               
Promotion of Integrity in Customs                                                                                                                                                              ty%20Development%20Guide%20E%20%20Final.pdf

WCO Technical Training Assistance                                                                                                        New TTA database available online to WCO members
                                                                              x          x                       x        Harmonize
(TTA)                                                                                                                                    as of 2003                                            TTA.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ger Diepens (WCO) at

WCO Time Release Study / WCO
                                                                              x          x                                 Evaluation    ongoing                                     
Time Release for Goods Software                                                                                                                                                                f6fe07640afd

WMD Proliferation Prevention                                                                                                                                                                   State Dept. Report on UNSCR 1540 activities;
Initiative (WMD-PPI) for Non-                          x              x       x          x           x                      Training     ongoing                                     ;
Russian FSU States                                                                                                                                                                   

Zangger Committee                                                     x                  x                       x                       Note: outreach is limited to NPT Signatories

             The Henry L. Stimson Center - FOPO Rule of Law Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                30
Types of Technical Assistance
Expertise / Services / Modernization
Computer Software / Hardware

Note on Database

This survey does not include initiatives for disarmament or
enhancing internal/domestic security mechanisms (only
cross-border control mechanisms). Nor does it reflect the
numerous assistance programs related to human trafficking
and the many, many international training programs that
exist -- only those with a distinct border control (v. internal
development) focus and an intent to improve border or trade
control capabilities. Also, it does not include initiatives
purely for the purpose of facilitating regional or cross-border
trade. Finally, it includes only ongoing (v. future or past)
initiatives (e.g., African Standby Force).
AAP        Africa Action Plan
ACCTC      ASEAN Coordinators of Customs Training Centers
ACIS       Advance Cargo Information System
ACSI       Americas Counter Smuggling Initiative
ADB        Asian Development Bank
AECA       Arms Export Control Act
AFACT      Asia Pacific Council for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business
AHTN       ASEAN Harmonised Tariff Nomenclature
APEC       Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
ASEAN      Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASF        African Standby Force
ASYCUDA    Automated System for Customs Data
AU         African Union
BASC       Business Anti-Smuggling Coalitions
BIS        Bureau of Industry & Security
BMIS       Border Management Information Systems
BOMCA      Borders Management Programme for Central Asia
BUMAD      Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova against Drugs (Programme)
CADAP      Central Asia Drug Assistance Programme
CARDS      Community Assistance for Reconstruction, Development and Stabilisation
CBP        US Customs and Border Protection
CEFACT     [United Nations] Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business
CICTE      Inter- American Committee Against Terrorism
CIP        Carrier Initiative Program
CSATTF     Central and South Asia Trade and Transport Forum
CSI        Container Security Initiative
CSSDCA     Conference on Security, Stability, Development, and Cooperation in Africa
CT         Counter-Terrorism
CTAP       Counter Terrorism Action Plans
CTC        Counter Terrorism Committee (UN)
C-TPAT     Customs - Trade Partnership Against Terrorism
CTR        Cooperative Threat Reduction
DDR        Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration
DFID       Department for International Development (of United Kingdom)
DHS        Department of Homeland Security
DMI        Dangerous Materials Initiative
DOC        Department of Commerce
DoD        Department of Defense
DOE        Department of Energy
DOJ        Department of Justice
DOS        Department of State
DSCA       Defense Security Cooperation Agency
DTRA       Defense Threat Reducation Agency
EACTI      East African Counter Terrorism Initiative
ECOBRIG    ECOWAS Standby Brigade
ECOWAS     Economic Community Of West African States
           [United Nations] Directories for Electronic Data Interchange for Administration,
           Commerce and Transport
EPCA       Emergency Post Conflict Assistance
EU         European Union
EULEC      European Institute for Law Enforcement Cooperation
EURASEC    Eurasian Economic Community
EUROPOL    European Police Office
EXBS       Export Control and Related Border Security Assistance
FIATA      International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations
FRTFSI     Cooperation Fund for Regional Trade and Financial Security Initiative
FSA        FREEDOM Support Act
FSU        Former Soviet Union
G7         Group of Seven Industrialized Nations
G8         Group of Eight
GAO        Government Accountability Office (formerly General Accounting Office)
GBSLE      Georgia Border Security and Law Enforcement
GFP        Global Facilitation Partnership
GFP-DLI    Global Facilitation Partnership Distance Learning Initiative
GFPTT      Global Facilitation Partnership for Transport and Trade
GPOI       Global Peace Operations Initiative
GRZ        Government of the Republic of Zambia
GTEP       Georgia Train and Equip Program
GTZ        Deutsche Gesellschaft Technische Zusammenarbeit
HS         Harmonized System
IAASP      International Association of Airport and Seaport Policy
IAEA       International Atomic Energy Agency
IAMIS      Inter Agency Migration Information System
ICC        International Chamber of Commerce
ICD        Internal Clearance Depots
ICITAP     International Criminal Investigative Training and Assistance Program
ICMPD      International Center for Migration Policy Development
ICP        International Counterproliferation Program
ICPK       [Technical Assistance to] International Check Points in the Kyrgyz Republic
IDA        International Development Assistance
ILEA       International Law Enforcement Academy
IMET       International Military Education and Training
IMF        International Monetary Fund
IMO        International Maritime Organization
IMOC       International Maritime Officer Course
INECP      International Nonproliferation Export Control Program
INTERPOL   International Criminal Police Organization – Interpol (ICPO-Interpol)
IOM        International Organization for Migration
IPMCD      International Center for Migration Policy Development
IPSLO      International Port Security Liaison Officers
IPSP       International Port Security Program
IRU        International Road Transport Union
IRU BWTO   IRU Border Waiting Time Observatory
ISPS       International Ship and Port Facility Security
ITWG       [Nuclear Smuggling] International Technical Working Group
KARAMYK    Equipping of the Karamyk Border Point in Kyrgyzstan
LLNL       Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
MARRI      Migration, Asylum, Refugees Regional Initiative
MTCR       Missile Technology Control Regime
NADR       Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs
NATO       North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NDF        Nonproliferation & Disarmament Fund
NEPAD      New Partnership for Africa's Development
NIS        Newly Independent States
NNSA       National Nuclear Security Administration
NPT        Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty
NSPD       National Security Presidential Directive
NWSS       Nuclear Weapons Storage Security
OAS        Organization of American States
OAU        Organization of the African Union - see AU
OIP        Office of International Programs
OPDAT      Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training
OSC        Operation Safe Commerce
OSCCP      OSCE SEE Cross-border Co-operation Programme
OSCE       Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe
PAP-T      Partnership Action Plan against Terrorism
           Programme for Co-ordination and Assistance for Security and Development in
           West Africa
PCRU       Post-Conflict Reconstruction Unit
PISCES     Personal Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System
POA        Programme of Action
PRC        People’s Republic of China
PSI        Proliferation Security Initiative
RDD        Radiological Dispersal Device
REACT      Rapid Expert Assistance and Co-operation Teams
RRSP       Regional Radiological Security Partnership
RSP        Radiological Security Partnership
S/CRS      Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization
SADC       Southern African Development Community
SAPCCO     Southern African Police Chiefs Co-ordinating Organisation
SCAD       Southern Caucasus Anti-Drug Programme
SECI       Southeast European Cooperative Initiative
SEE        Southeast Europe
SEECP      South-East European Cooperation Process
SEED       Support for East European Democracy
           South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light
SOP        Statement of Interdiction Principles
SP         Stability Pact
STAR       Secure Trade in the APEC Region
STOP       Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy
TACIS      Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States
TCF        Technical Cooperation Fund
TCM        Technical Cooperation on Migration
TECI       Transshipment Country Export Control Initiative
TFWG       Terrorist Finance Working Group
TIACA      The International Air Cargo Association
TIC        Technical Information Center
TIP        Terrorist Interdiction Program
TRAINMAR   Train-Martime
TSCTI      Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Initiative
TTA        Technical Training Assistance
TTF        Trade and Transport Facilitation
TTFSE      Trade and Transport Facilitation of Southeast Europe
          Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small
          Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects
UNCTAD    UN Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP      United Nations Development Programme
UNECE     UN Economic Commission for Europe
UNMIBH    United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina
UNMiK     United Nations Mission in Kosovo
UNOWA     UN Office for West Africa
UNSCR     UN Security Council Resolution
UNTAET    United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
UNTF      United Nations Trade Facilitation Network
USA       United States of America
USAID     US Agency for International Development
USCG      US Coast Guard
WA        Wassenaar Arrangement
WB        World Bank
WCO       World Customs Organization
WMD       Weapons of Mass Destruction
WMD-PPI   WMD Proliferation Prevention Initiative
          [Technical Assistance to the Government of] Zambia in Border Management:
          Preliminary Actions
ZC        Zangger Committee

est. 1999, forerunner was ASEB (Asia EDIFACT Board) est. 1990
United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the European Union and Canada
United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the European Union and Canada

Description: Canada Customs Revenue Forms document sample