Slide 1 - Clemson University

Document Sample
Slide 1 - Clemson University Powered By Docstoc
					Roadmap to Offshore Wind
Site Development


    Diane Reinebach, M.S., P.E.
 RMT, Inc., an Alliant Energy Affiliate
   diane.reinebach@rmtinc.com
         February 27, 2007
Overview
 Who: Development team and investment principals
 Where: Siting assessments for wind, energy, waves,
  and environment
 What: Activities to accomplish and equipment
  needed for power plant in-service
 When: In-service date
 How: Vision + roadmap + work to overcome
  obstacles
                        Transformer




                                                              Turbine


Interconnection /                                  Tower
   Switchgear
                                               Substation /
                                               Transformer




                             Buried or Covered Cable                Foundation   Anti-scour
                                                                                 Protection
                    Graphic Courtesy of Walt Musial - NREL
  Offshore Wind Development-Design-
  Build Process Roadmap




                         Power    Electrical                  Electrical
   Site                                        Bidding &                   Startup &   Operations &
             Permits   Purchase    & Civil                     & Civil
Assessment                                     Procurement                             Maintenance
                       Agreement Engineering                 Construction Commission
Who
 Development Team
 Electricity offtaker
 Developer
 Turbine supplier
 Major equipment
  suppliers
 Engineering
 Construction
 Commissioning – all
  of above
Developer Responsibilities
 Secure interconnection agreement, PPA, and
  financing
 Secure permits/approvals
 Project management
 Schedule
 Hire engineering and construction
 Equipment procurement
Developer Responsibilities - cont.

 Economics through careful project design
 Public acceptance
 Schedule
 Development, engineering, construction, and O&M
  cost estimates
 Revenue estimates
Needed in Hand

 Permits – go ahead
 Turbine Agreement – performance, cost, delivery
  date, warranty, O&M rider
 Interconnection Agreement – to grid
 Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) – who is paying
  for power
Where
  Site Assessment Activities
 Environmental fatal flaws
 Permitting requirements (federal, state, local)
 Constructability review:
    Who can do it
    What needs to be done
    How it can be done
    When (season) to construct

 Government relations
 Mapping / Renderings
                                                    Site Assessment
Wind & Interconnect Studies

 Wind resource                            Power Curve

 Turbine energy production   1600

  – drives revenues           1400

                              1200
 Coordination of             1000
  interconnect studies and     800
  preliminary electrical       600
  design                       400

                               200
                                 0
                                     1    5   9   13   17   21

                                         Wind Speed m/s
 Macro-Turbine Placement:
 A Balancing Act of Interests

 Meteorological studies – best wind
 Setbacks – shoreline, conservation and fishing areas
 Environmental – geologic, archaeological, threatened
  and endangered species, migratory and aquatic life
 Other preferences – shipping lanes, viewshed
Turbine Placement Tradeoffs

 Better wind and viewshed further from shore vs.
  increased cable costs and electrical losses to transport
  power onshore
 Space between turbines to minimize cable costs vs.
  minimizing wake effects
    A turbine in the wind shadow of another decreases energy
     output, increases turbulence
    Component life
Environmental Activities

 Shoreline/wetlands
 Ocean floor
 Threatened and endangered species
 Avian and marine impacts
 Archaeological and cultural artifacts
 Transmission lines



                                          Permits
Public Acceptance

                     Viewshed
                     Property values
                     Land use and zoning for
                      interconnection and
                      construction laydown
                     Recreational fishing and
                      boating
                     Other land and water
                      uses
What
Role of the Utility
 Buy the energy under a PPA … or

 Utility Ownership of Assets – Rate Base

    Self-build – utility as General Contractor, like other power
     plants, or
    Turnkey – purchase wind farm at in-service, relying on
     others’ experience




                                                         Power Purchase
                                                           Agreement
  Power Purchase Agreement – Pricing
 Need project capital, operating, and
  O&M costs
    Equipment and labor prices change quickly
     – timing is everything

 Need energy production estimates
    Wind resource
    Turbine production curves
    Loss estimates

 Develop pro forma to negotiate PPA
  pricing
Major Cost Components: Offshore
Wind Farm (2002)
                                        % of Installed
       Component                        Cost
       Turbines and Tower               54%
       Sub-structure and Foundation     26%
       Electrical Interconnection       9%
       Installation and Other           9%
       O&M Budget                       2%


 Onshore – Turbines & Tower are ~ 80% of cost
 Foundations and installation are expensive on water
Electrical Engineering

 Collector system
 Substation design / power factor corrections
 Transport line
 Interconnection
 System protection
 Communications/SCADA


                                                    Electrical &
                                                 Civil Engineering
Collector System

 Individual turbines are strung together on low
  ampacity cable to form a circuit
 Line losses are a consideration – function of
  distance and cable ampacity
 A 200-MW wind farm can use 20 miles of cable in
  the collector system circuits alone, not including to-
  shore cabling
Civil Engineering – Site Specific
                Geotechnical investigations
                Foundation design
                   Wind, water, and ocean floor loadings
                Thermal testing
                Substation/Interconnection civil
                 design
                Environmental conditions vs. loads
                 are key


                                            Electrical &
                                         Civil Engineering
Bidding & Procurement
 Onshore is seller’s market – affects price, high demand
 Availability – plan ahead
 Long lead times – one year for the transformer after
  specification
 Contract administration
 Construction quality assurance – evaluate equipment
  during manufacturing process; catch problems early,
  before construction
 Procurement – desire multiple vendors

                                                    Bidding &
                                                   Procurement
Electrical & Civil Construction
              Surveying, site work, roads, restoration
              Foundations, piers, concrete
              Electrical collector systems
              Substations and grid interconnections
              Turbine erection
              Equipment installation
              Control building
                                        Electrical & Civil
                                        Construction
Courtesy of Vestas Wind
Planning & Scheduling

 Coordinate thousands of activities
 Start during bid process
 Logistics of labor and materials
    Cranes, barges, helicopters, equipment delivery dates

 Critical path items
 Relationship of tasks (predecessors/successors)
Construction Cost Control

 More than price of materials, labor, delivery

 Track changes and how they affect costs

 Minimize delays, control schedule

 Look at costs in real time during construction phase

 Include wind/weather delay days
 Health & Safety

 Key focus for each construction
  team
 Offshore wind farms are in high
  wind areas
 Added challenge of construction
  under and over water
Startup & Commissioning

              Component measurements
                 In situ cable testing, etc.
              Construction environmental
               compliance
              Energization
              Performance testing


                                          Startup &
                                        Commissioning
  Operations & Maintenance

 Electrical distances to
  interconnection may be long
 Plan for towers as storm
  shelters
 Corrosion
 Wave action and ice
  barriers
 Scour inspections
                                Operations &
                                Maintenance
Operations & Maintenance Needs

 Operations and data management information
  systems (SCADA)
 Scheduled and emergency maintenance and repair
  plans
 Environmental risk management systems and
  programs
 Emergency planning and response programs
When
When in North America
 Ontario: 2 years to in-service turned into current
  moratorium
 Texas: Public acceptance, high energy economy, existing
  platforms, “get it done”, different regulatory body within 10
  miles of shoreline; 3 years to in-service, 2010
 New England: New approvals, politics (blue vs. red),
  public acceptance; 5 years public policy to in-service,
  2012
 Southeast Coast: Hard questions already answered;
  8 years in-service, 2015
 Ohio: Offshore Lake Erie being reviewed now
   Roadmap Schedule


                         Power    Electrical                Electrical
   Site                                        Bidding &                  Startup &   Operations &
             Permits   Purchase    & Civil                   & Civil
Assessment                                     Procurement                            Maintenance
                       Agreement Engineering               Construction Commissioning




 2007 - 2010 -
 2009 2012             2012        2012         2013        2014          2015
How
Offshore Wind Energy Collaborative
Recommendations

 Technology development – foundations,
  constructability, size turbines to meet economics
 Environmental compatibility
 Economic and financial viability
 Regulation and government policies
 Leadership – must have legislative
Strategies for Leadership

 Create and maintain a vision of offshore wind as part
  of a mainstream energy mix:
    Develop projected timetable for key milestones

 Site-specific implementation plan – Utility and State
  coordinated document
Offshore Roadmap Q&A

 Who: Development team and investment principals
 Where: Siting assessments for wind, energy, waves,
  and environment
 What: Activities to accomplish and equipment
  needed for power plant in-service
 When: In-service date
 How: Vision + roadmap + work to overcome
  obstacles
       Questions?

   Diane Reinebach, M.S., PE
RMT, Inc., an Alliant Energy Affiliate
  diane.reinebach@rmtinc.com