Species, Populations, and Communities Notes Outline by jamesdauray

VIEWS: 1,632 PAGES: 9

More Info
									Environmental Science Notes Outline                              Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities


   1. Define ecosystem -


   2. Ecosystems are made from two main components:

           a.   Biotic –

                   i. Examples:

           b.   Abiotic –

                   i. Examples:

   3. List and define each of the organization levels of life:

           a.

           b.

           c.

           d.

           e.

           f.

   4. Define habitat -

           a.   What are two factors that can limit an organism’s range?


   5. Define critical factor –
Environmental Science Notes Outline                          Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities




   6. Define adaptation –


           a. How is a cheetah an example of this?

   7. Define evolution -


   8.   Define natural selection –


   9. Natural selection is caused by :

           a. Mutations –


           b.   Selective Pressure –


   10. There are five parts to the theory of evolution. Explain what each means:

           a. Organisms produce more offspring than surivive.


           b. The environment is hostile and has limited resources.


           c. Organisms differ in the traits they have.


           d. Some inherited traits provide an advantage.


           e. Each generation has more organisms with advantageous traits.
Environmental Science Notes Outline                             Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities

   11. How is artificial selection different than natural selection?


Origin of Life

   12. How long ago did each of the following occur?

           a. Life began:

           b. Plants growing on land:

           c. First recorded animal fossils:

           d. Age of Mammals:

           e. Humans appear: About 150,000 years ago

   13. What evidence is there that evolution has occurred?

           a.

           b.

           c.

   14. What is speciation


   15. How do you know if two groups are different species?

           a. Divergent evolution –


           b. Convergent evolution –


           c. Coevolution -
Environmental Science Notes Outline                               Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities


Scientific Naming

   16. How many different common names are there for the crayfish?


   17. The scientific name of an organism includes its ______________ and ______________.

           a. Write an example scientific name:

   18. The taxonomic naming system uses the following levels of organization:

   Taxonomic Levels                   Humans                             Corn




Phylogenetic Trees

   19. A phylogenetic tree is also known as a ___________________.

   20. Organisms are classified based on three characteristics:

           a.

           b.

           c.

   21. What does it mean if two organisms have many characteristics in common?
Environmental Science Notes Outline   Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities
Environmental Science Notes Outline                            Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities

Ecological Niche

   22. Define habitat –


   23. Define niche –


   24. There are three specific types of niches. Explain each type:

           a. Opportunistic –


           b. Pioneer –


           c. Keystone –

Species Interactions
   25. What is a predator?


   26. What is prey?


   27. What is intraspecific competition?


   28. How do each of these help avoid competition?

           a. Dispersal –


           b. Territoriality –


           c. Resource Partitioning –
Environmental Science Notes Outline         Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities




   29. What is interspecific competition?


   30. What is commensalism?


   31. What is mutualism?


   32. What is parasitism?


Examples of Symbiosis
   33. Whales and barnacles:
   34. Clownfish and sea anemones:
   35. Bison and cowbirds:
   36. Ostriches and gazelles:
   37. Mistletoe and spruce trees:
Environmental Science Notes Outline                           Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities


   38. What does population growth study?


   39. Define biotic potential –


   40. Describe exponential growth:

           a. What shape of a curve does this growth make?

   41. What is carrying capacity?

           a. What happens during an overshoot?

           b. What happens during a dieback?

   42. Draw the population oscillation graph and label overshoot, dieback, and carrying capacity.




   43. What is logistic growth?


   44. What is environmental resistance?

           a. Give an example of environmental resistance:

   45. Draw and label an logistic growth curve:
Environmental Science Notes Outline                          Unit 3: Species, Populations, and Communities

   46. What are density dependent factors?

           a. Give an example:

   47. What are density independent factors?

           a. Give an example:

Population Growth Strategies

   48. What do k-strategists focus on?

   49. What do r-strategists focus on?

   50. Compare and contrast K and r-strategists:

Characteristic                   r-strategists                  K-strategists
Lifespan

Growth Rate

Maturity Rate

Number of offspring

Parental Care

Best Environment

Predator or Prey?

Example

Community Structure

   51. Describe the three types of arrangement:
          a. Random:

           b. Clumped:

           c. Regular:

   52. Draw the three types of arrangement:
                 Random                            Clumped                         Regular
ttp://www.aurumscience.com               9
Environmental Science notes outline                                       October 2, 2009



Scientific Design

    44. Blind Experiment –



    45. Double Blind -



    46. Modeling –


            a. Pro:


            b. Con:


    47. Natural Experiments –


            a. Pro:


            b. Con:



    48. What disease did John Snow study:

            a. What were the symptoms of this?



            b. How did he conduct this study?




Educational Worksheet by James Dauray   |   http://www.aurumscience.com             10
Environmental Science notes outline                                         October 2, 2009



Other Factors Affecting Experiments

    49. Define probability –


            a. What is the probability of getting tails on a coin flip?


            b. What is the probability of getting tails twice in a row?


    50. Define sample size –


            a. Why is it good to have a high sample size?


Principles of Matter and Energy

    51. Define matter –

            a. The three phases of matter are:

                    i. ___________________

                    ii. ___________________

                   iii. ___________________

    52. The Law of Conservation of Matter states that…_______________________________

        _______________________________________________________________________.


    53. Define energy –

            a. Kinetic energy is found in ________________________.

            b. Potential energy is ____________________.

    54. Define heat –



    55. First Law of Thermodynamics:

Educational Worksheet by James Dauray   |     http://www.aurumscience.com             11
Environmental Science notes outline                                       October 2, 2009




    56. Second Law of Thermodynamics:



            a. Can something be 100% efficient?


    57. Define atom –


            a. Protons:


            b. Electrons:


            c. Neutrons:


    58. Draw a carbon atom below:




    59. Define molecule –

            a. Give two examples:

    60. Define compound –




Educational Worksheet by James Dauray   |   http://www.aurumscience.com             12
Environmental Science notes outline                                            October 2, 2009



    61. Given each of the following molecules, label as Element or Compound.

            a. Hydrogen:

            b. Oxygen:

            c. Nitrogen:

            d. Hydrogen chloride

            e. Water

            f. Carbon dioxide

            g. Sulfur dioxide

            h. Nitrogen dioxide

            i. Methane

    62. Define acid –

    63. Define base –

    64. The pH scale runs from ____ to _____.

            a. The strongest acid would be a __________.

            b. Neutral would be a _____________.

            c. The strongest base would be a __________.

    65. Examples of acids and bases:

            a. Name a strong acid:

            b. Name a weak acid:

            c. Name a strong base:

            d. Name a weak base:




Educational Worksheet by James Dauray   |   http://www.aurumscience.com                  13

								
To top