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Symbiosis Examples

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					Types of Relationships.
• Mutualism is a relationship where both animals benefit from the interaction.
• Commensalism is a relationship in which one animal benefits, but the other does not,
although it is not harmed inany way.
• Parasitism occurs between a parasite and a host. The parasite harms the host.
• Predator-Prey is when one organism hunts and kills the other organism for food.
 Interspecific Competition is between two organisms of different species.
• Intraspecific Competitionis between two organisms of the same species.

WHAT TO DO: Read each summary below and then identify the type of animal
relationship. Write “M” for Mutualism,“C” for Commensalism, and “P” for Parasitism, “PP”
for Predator-Prey,“IE” for Interspecific , and “IA” for Intraspecific competition.

Burrowmates: Watchman Goby fish and
snappingshrimp live together on coral           Grasshoppers: Grasshoppers all eat the
reefs. Snapping shrimpare blind, so they        same food – leaves from wildflowers and
can’t see predators. That’s okay!Goby fish      grasses. When there is not enough food,
―lookout‖ while the shrimp dig (with            the weaker of the species die off.
oneantenna on the Goby’s tail). The Goby
wiggles itstail to warn the shrimp of           Bad Barnacles: Barnacles attach
danger. Then bothroommates hide in the          themselves inlarge numbers to docks,
burrow.                                         boats, rocks, and sea turtles’shells.
                                                Because barnacles can’t move on their
Smile Crocodile!:The Nile crocodile opens       own,boats and sea turtles transport them
itsmouth wide and allows the Egyptian           to new places.Often, too many attach
plover to eatoff leeches that get               themselves to a sea turtle’s
attached to its gums.                           shell and cause infections that make it
                                                sick.
Remora Menu: The remora fish attaches
itself toa shark using a sucker on its          Clowning Around: A sea anemone has
dorsal fin. It eats upstray food scraps as      nematocyst cells that sting anything that
the shark feeds. Fortunately,the shark          comesclose to it—except the clownfish.
never interrupts the remora’s eating            That may bebecause these animals have
tomake it into a meal!                          similar slimy coatingson their skins. The
                                                clownfish cleans the anemone ofalgae and
Strain in the Stomach: Many different           the anemone provides a safe place forthe
strains oftiny bacteria live in the             clownfish to live and spawn.
stomachs and largeintestines of animals—
including humans! Thesestrains don’t
cause pains. Theyfeed on partly
digestedfoods, and even aiddigestion.
Blackbirds Song: Male redwing
blackbirds have a specific song that they   Rent free lodging
sing to attract a female mate. The          This is between the Southern Rufous
females most often pick the blackbirds
                                            woodpecker and Black Tree ants.
with the brightest red spot and the
                                            Normally non-social creatures, these ants
loudest song.
                                            are generous when it comes to the
Coral Bleaching: Algae called               Southern Rufous woodpecker, which may
zooxanthellae (ZOah-zan-THEL-uh) live       be found in India and Sri Lanka. For
inside coral polyps—tinyanimals that form   reasons still a mystery, these ants allow
a coral reef. The algae keeppolyps alive    the woodpecker to lay eggs in a hole
by making oxygen. They also give
                                            beside their nests.
coraltheir colors. If the water gets too
warm, the algaedie. The polyps then lose    Free meals.The hornbill is a type of bird
their color and oxygen,which causes the
                                            living in the jungle. When the monkeys
corals to die, too.
                                            climb trees in search of juicy fruits, they
Coral Reef Car Wash: The cleaner            cause moths, beetles and other insects to
wrasse polishesoff dead skin and            fall to the ground. These falling insects
parasites—from the interior offishes to     are veritable feasts for the hornbills.
the exterior! Fish line up and give the     Feast without an effort, manna from the
greenlight to be cleaned by remaining       trees. The hornbills naturally stay close
still, spreading theirfins and gills, and
                                            to the Guenon monkeys.
opening their mouths.


Bad Mussels: Zebra mussels are an
invasive species that came to the United
States from Russia. They eat the algae
and plankton that other fish need to
survive, causing some species of fish to
become endangered.

Birds and Buffalos: A cape buffalo with
an oxpecker on its back in Kenya. =The
oxpecker feeds from the supply of ticks
on the buffalo, which in turn benefits
from tick removal.

				
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