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					Step Nine

     Develop a Project Identity
Step 9: Identity Action

A. Nature of the task
  »   To create an identity that will clearly
      communicate your image and your intended
      relationship with your audience (e.g., your
      purpose and why it‟s important)
B. Complete the Worksheet.
  »   Generic information p. 51 wkbk
  »   Blank worksheets p. 93 wkbk
Step 9: Identity Action
Summary Tips

Use examples from a wide variety of sources
 to help determine your preferences.
Produce materials that “carry the identity”
 (e.g. name, logo, mission statement, etc. -
 start with the easiest!).
Manage your identity.
Step 9 Worksheet

 What four things (styles, attitude,
  relationships) do you want people to think
  about you, your issues and your services.
 How do you want people to feel?
 What distinguishes your project from others?
 How does your project complement others?
  Build on others?
Identity amplifies the
impact of a campaign:

 Helps people remember key messages
  because they can connect discrete
 Stimulates conversation and comment.
 In time, the unifying features could come to
  represent the messages leading people to
  immediately recall the campaign messages
  when the symbol is presented.
We build the roads, and the
     roads build us.

    Sri Lankan saying
Display identity
 A campaign identity includes:

  » where you meet, how you dress, how you answer the
    phone, etc
  » a mission or vision
  » a positioning statement/copy platform,
  » slogan
  » name
  » logo or distinguishing signature
  » images

 Identity defines, distinguishes, and synergizes.
Mission Statements

 A good mission statement articulates very clearly what the purpose of
 the organization is. A great mission statement provides clarity and

 • “To establish Merck as the preeminent drug-maker worldwide.”
      … Merck, 1979
 • “To be number two in the beer industry by the end of the 1990s.”
      … Coors, 1990
 • “We‟re going to democratize the automobile.” …Henry Ford, 1909
 • “Our whole people and empire have vowed themselves to the single
 task of cleansing Europe of the Nazi pestilence and saving the world
 from the new dark ages. We seek to beat the life and soul out of Hitler
 and Hiterlism. That alone. That all the time. That to the end.” …
 Winston Churchill, 1940
When Considering a Name

 Known terms are familiar and engaging, yet
  often confusing because they can have
  multiple meanings
  » E.g. “healthy weights”
 Using neutral terms is safer, and still
  engaging, but there is less confusion
  » E.g. “Zone”, “Balance”, “Winning”
 Using acronyms is safe, though meaning can
  be less clear

 Display it

 Share it

 Protect it
Step 10: Production
Action Summary
A. Nature of the task
     Develop specs for each desired product (vehicle), select
      and contract with suppliers, and manage production
B. Complete worksheet.
     Generic information p. 55 wkbk
     Blank worksheets p. 94 wkbk (adapt freely!)
C. Tips
   Try to produce the best materials, within budget, on
   Be sure to manage reviews and sign-off‟s very carefully.
Production Worksheet
Key Messages

Content (What)              Benefits (So What)             Action Step (Now What)

Desired Identity of Your Issue, Organization and Services

Audience Should Think                     Audience Should Feel


Start Date                  Finish Date                    Distribution Timeline

Budget Range

Minimum                                   Maximum
The Golden Rule of

You can only pick two of these:

 Speed
 Quality
 Low Cost
Clear Communication

 Readability
  » Words
     • Style and reading level
     • Organization
     • De-Fog Your Prose
     • Get it Right
  » Visuals
     • Layout and print
     • Illustrations
 Test, test, test
De-Fog Your Prose
Positive & Negatives
A linguistics professor was lecturing to his class one

“In English,” he said, “a double negative forms a
positive. In some languages though, such as
Russian, a double negative is still a negative.

However,” he pointed out, “there is no language
wherein a double positive can form a negative.”

A voice from the back of the room piped up, “Yeah.
Resources and Services:
Clear Language
1. Canadian Public Health Association
1565 Carling Avenue, Suite 400
Ottawa, ON K1Z 8R1
(613) 725-3769; Fax: (613) 725-9862
E-mail: Website :
• fee for service basis
• health communication training package, video, Plain.word game,
   working with low-literacy seniors package

2. Clear Language and Design (CLAD)
Toronto East End Literacy Project
Sally McBeth
• fee for service basis
Plain Word Game
The Great Scavenger Hunt
   A great logo (public, voluntary, or private sector)
   A great positioning statement
   An example of the use of a spokesperson(s) that helps define an
    organization and/or its product and services.
   An example of how a product or organization distinguishes itself
    from others.
   A visual or statement that demonstrates collaboration and/or
    cooperation (synergy).
   An example of a confusing and/or poor identity.
   A great name for an organization
   A great slogan
   Material that is well-organized
   Material that is well-written and appropriate for the audience
   Excellent illustrations and other visuals that are appealing and
    create high impact
   Excellent layout and use of design elements (print, borders, etc)
   Materials that pay attention to cultural norms and meanings

   What I learned…
   What I struggled with…
   In „real life‟ I would…
   In „real life‟ I would not…
Step Twelve

Step 12: Evaluation Action
A. Nature of the task:
     Gather, interpret and act upon qualitative and
      quantitative information throughout the 11 steps.
B. Complete worksheet
     Generic information p. 61 wkbk
     Blank worksheet p. 99 wkbk
C. Tips
   through the steps in the workbook, paying most
    attention to clearly identifying stakeholder
    expectations, finding resources for the evaluation, and
    being sure your efforts are “evaluable”.
Three Types of Evaluation
 Formative evaluation includes audience
  analysis and pre-testing. Purpose is to
  maximize chance of success before starting.
 Process evaluation examines how a program
  in progress is operating.
 Summative evaluation methods usually
  consist of a comparison between audience‟s
  awareness, attitudes and/or behaviour
  before and after.
 Step 12: How to Evaluate
 Health Promotion Programs
1.    Get Ready to Evaluate
     »    Establish clearly defined goals and objectives
     »    Identify measurable success indicators

2.    Engage Stakeholders
     »    Understand stakeholders‟ interests and expectations
     »    Engage stakeholder participation
     »    Develop evaluation questions

3.    Assess Resources For the Evaluation
     »    Determine availability of staff and resources and amount of money allocated for evaluation

4.    Design The Evaluation
     »    select type of evaluation to be conducted
     »    design evaluation framework
     »    consider ethical issues and confidentiality

5.    Decide on qualitative versus quantitative methods
     »    Assess strengths/weaknesses of different methods of measurement
     »    Select your sampling design
How to Evaluate (con’t)

6.     Develop Work Plan, Budget, and Timeline for Evaluation

7.      Collect the Data Using Agreed Upon Methods and Procedures
      »     Pilot test
      »     Collect data

8.      Process and Analyze the Data
      »    Prepare data for analysis
      »    Analyze data

9.      Interpret and Disseminate the Results
      »     Interpret
      »     Present
      »     Share

10.    Take Action
Evaluation and the 12
Health Communication Step              Applicable Type of Evaluation
1. Project Management                  Formative: Situational Assessment
2. Revisit Health Promotion Strategy   Formative: Logic Model
3. Analyze and Segment Audiences       Formative: Audience Analysis
4. Develop Inventory of Resources
5. Set Communication Objectives        Summative: Set Comm. Objectives/Indicators
6. Select Channels and Vehicles        Process: Set Implementation Objectives/Indicators

7. Combine and Sequence Activities     Process: Set Implementation Objectives/Indicators

8. Develop the Message Strategy        Formative: Pretesting
9. Develop a Project Identity          Formative: Pretesting
10. Develop Materials                  Formative: Pretesting
11. Implement Your Campaign            Process: Advertising Model
                                       Summative: Impact Monitoring Model,
12. Complete Campaign Evaluation       All types: Analysis, Interpretation, Action
Can health communication
campaigns work?
Can health communication
campaign’s work?
 Most researchers agree they can impact on
  awareness, knowledge and attitudes.
 However, major trials over the last two decades
  (Stanford, Minnesota, COMMIT) has fostered
  skepticism about the effects on behaviour.
 In his recent book, Professor Hornik concludes that
  “There is good evidence for the effects of
  public health communication”.
Andreasen, A. 2002. Book review of “Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behaviour
   Change by Robert Hornik. 2002”. In Social Marketing Quarterly. Vol VIII, No. 3.
    Hornik’s comments on
 Exposure is the key.
 Three pathways to effects:
     » Direct
     » Influence media & opinion leaders to change social norms.
     » Alert policy-makers to need for structural changes.
 Many communication effects are not due to planned
  interventions, but to the increased media attention
  to the issue. This makes it difficult to detect effects.
   As reprinted in Andreasen, A. 2002. Book review of “Public Health Communication:
    Evidence for Behaviour Change by Robert Hornik. 2002”. In Social Marketing Quarterly. Vol
    VIII, No. 3.
Why Campaigns Fail

1. Inadequate exposure
2. Various audience perception barriers (may
   also be considered message design flaws!)
3. Certain types of messages may trigger
   boomerang effects
4. Planners/sponsors succumb to various
5. Lack of attention to proven planning
1. Inadequate Exposure

 Low volume
 Design (doesn‟t catch attention)

  From Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence
     and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.
2. Audience Perception
Barriers (a.k.a design flaws!)
   Denial of susceptibility
   Denial of relevance
   Rejection of unpalatable recommendations
   Perception that messages are:
    » offensive, disturbing, boring, stale, preachy,
      confusing, irritating, misleading, irrelevant,
      uninformative, useless, unbelievable, or
    From Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence
       and Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.
3. Boomerang Effects

 Alarming statistics or portrayals of misbehaviours may
  normalize behaviour
 Portraying behaviour as risky may appeal to risk-takers
 Forbidden fruit might sell the fruit
 Highly threatening appeals may backfire without a strong
  efficacy component
 Exaggerated claims may undermine credibility
 Emphasis on negative outcomes may produce
 Audiences may shift problems. For example, if teenage
  drivers are convinced that safety belts will protect them,
  they may drive faster .

   From Atkin, C. 2001. Impact of Public Service Advertising: Research Evidence and
      Effective Strategies. Project conducted for Kaiser Family Foundation.
4. Temptations

 Regarding audience as ignorant or misguided
 Being extremist (promoting behaviours that
  are unpalatable to audience)
 Being too politically correct
 Seeking to impress colleagues
 Emphasizing fancy design over solid content
5. Lack of attention to
proven planning principles
 Many campaigns simply do not follow good
  campaign planning and design procedures
  that are known to be the absolute minimum
  requirements for a successful campaign.
5. Lack of attention to
planning principles con’t
 2000 study of 50 published nutrition and/or physical
  activity social marketing campaigns.
 Examined:
     »   Goals and reporting on goals
     »   Planning and background gathering techniques
     »   Use of behavioural theory
     »   Identification of target audiences
     »   Audience analysis and segmentation strategies
     »   Levels of intervention
     »   Channel selection
     »   Formative and summative evaluation
   Alcalay, R. & Bell, R. Promoting Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Social Marketing:
    Current Practices and Recommendations. June 2000. For the Cancer Prevention and
    Nutrition Section of California Department of Health Services. Available from Center for
    Advanced Studies in Nutrition and Social Marketing.
5. Lack of attention to
planning principles con’t
 Fewer than 1/3 of campaigns expressed goals in
  measurable terms.
 Goals were rarely formulated on the basis of
  data descriptive of target audiences.
 Many campaigns did not mention any theory
 Audience segmentation strategies were
  primarily based on demographics (usually age)
  and only occasionally made use of psychological
  and lifestyle principles.
5. Lack of attention to
planning principles con’t

 Only a minority of campaigns conducted any
  consumer research and often that research was
  not described.
 Individual behaviours were more likely to be the
  focus of change efforts than family practices
  and/or community norms/activities.
 More attention should be paid to setting
  realistic, specific and measurable objectives.
5. Lack of attention to
planning principles con’t

 Social marketing concepts should become
  more central to campaigns, which often
  mention this framework but do not integrate
  it into planning.
 Behavioural theories should be more actively
  applied to campaign designs.
5. Lack of attention to
planning principles con’t
 Audience segmentation and research should be
  more central to the planning of campaigns.
 Communication strategies should be formulated
  based on better information about target
  audiences‟ communication patterns.
 Better understanding of message design decisions
  is needed.
 A major thrust of campaigns should be altering the
  social and physical environment.

 Other researchers have drawn similar conclusions.
Key Researchers

 Leslie B. Snyder
 Robert Hornik
 Charles Atkin
THCU Services &
THCU’s Consultation Service

 Free to those working on Ontario-focused projects.
 Scope varies, depending on need:
  »   Short training sessions;
  »   Brief, one-time advice;
  »   Review your work or product
  »   Hands-on assistance working through our step models;
  »   Links to other sources of information and resources
 Consultation request form
 Sample consultations
Upon Request Workshops

 All of our workshops, are available upon request for
  groups as small as 30 and as large as 50
 Any coalition or agency can partner with THCU to
  host a workshop in their community
 We provide the facilitators at no cost and will work
  with you to help tailor, organize and promote the
 Service request form
 We require at least three months‟ notice to plan
  and deliver a workshop
Brought to you by THCU….

 Case Study Series:
   » Planning, evaluation, health communication

 What We‟re Reading:
   » Recommended and summarized resources'reReading.htm
 Literature search results:
   » Completed to support our client consultations

 THCU‟s Online Learning Community:
   » Questions generated from our clients, answers generated by THCU
     and colleagues
More by THCU

 Guide to French Language Resources
 Changing Behaviours: A Practical
 Overview of Sustainability Workbook
THCU in collaboration with OHPRS

 Health Promotion 101
   » This free, online course helps people familiarize themselves with essential
     health promotion concepts.

 Online Proposal Writing Course
   » The purpose of this online course is to help both newbies and veterans
     prepare a coherent and effective proposal.

 Ontario Health Promotion Email Bulletin
   »   Information exchange among Ontario practitioners.
   »   Announcements and events distributed weekly.
   »   Feature articles are distributed every second week.
   »   The bulletins go out every Friday afternoon.
THCU on Health Communication

 Map of all health communication resources
 Developing health communication campaigns toolkit
 Buzz for Behaviour Change
   Audience profiles
   Making the case (for health promotion initiatives)
   Strengthening personal presentations workbook
   Health communication message review criteria
   Interactive online campaign planner
 Special update on risk communication
Health Communication resources:
Not ours, but also good!

 HealthComm Key Searchable Database

 Free Range Thinking
 News and Views on Social Marketing and
  Social Change
Check-in & reflection

 What are the most important
  learnings/messages you will take away from
  today‟s workshop?
 Reflection: what activities and resources will
  you commit to learning more about
100 College Street
Room 213
The Banting Institute
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario
M5G 1L5
Tel (416) 978-0522
Fax (416) 971-2443
Other Online Resources

Learning Community
Critics Community
THCU Case Studies – Tobacco Sales to Minors and Prevention
of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Audience Profile – Tweens
A big thank you to

 Ontario Ministry of Health Promotion
 Jodi Thesenvitz, Cathy Duerden, and Noelle
 Our workshop participants

The Health Communication Unit and its
 resources and services are funded by the
 Ontario Ministry of Health Promotion. The
 opinions and conclusions expressed in this
 presentation are those of the author(s) and
 no official endorsement by the Ministry of
 Health Promotion is intended or should be

Description: Blank Timeline Worksheet document sample