Patriarchy and Suffrage by Wittgenstein

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									Today’s Lecture:

Patriarchy and Suffrage

Number:

15

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Essentialism and Egalitarianism • Nature of Patriarchal Caste

• Patriarchy in Marriage
• Education • Call for Suffrage • Policy Analysis
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Class Announcements

exams -- grading is in progress

Questions?
Time

Two philosophical ideas

If true, this applies to men as well.

Essentialism

Can be used offensively or defensively.

• Women are “special,” distinct • Women and Men are not the same • Women need their own rules

• Women have their own needs, expectations and sphere
• 3/3/2009 Behavior is innate
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Two philosophical ideas

Offense
Child Custody College Sports Courting Rituals?

Defense
Homemaker Secretaries Supporting roles

Women

Men

NFL announcers? Child Support VMI Alimony Provide an example of using this Provide an example of using this Police, military, example ofof using this Fights Provide puts women using this Provide an concept that an example“on defense” concept the puts women “on offense” construction, etc. puts men “on offense” concept that puts men “on defense” concept that
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Two philosophical ideas

Much of what the women’s movement will be about is the shedding of a Egalitarianism is Question: preferred generally Question: paternal caste that resulted from an Should we be consistent better? essentialistic the two views is in our Which of discourse philosophy?

Egalitarianism

• Women and men are the same
• Gender is a “social construct” • Behavior is learned

• Placed in completely identical circumstances, there Time would be identical behavior
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Patriarchy in Marriage
1. “Surrogate rights” -- your rights come through the status of another

-- “union of the souls”
2. Result?
RightsVoting? (No, your husband did this for you) --- of Married Women in English Common Law

-- Owning property? and husband did this for you) “By marriage, the husband(your wife are one person in law; that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during -- Contracts? (only entered through your Husband) the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of her husband.” -- Lawsuits? (can only started by your husband) -- the concept [source: Blackstone]of “legal disability”
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Patriarchy in Marriage
3. The husband’s duty -- protect and defend -- provide support -- where to live (domicile) -- child’s last name (compare: Rome) -- women not allowed out in public (send slaves to do their shopping) [only true for a period of time]
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Question:

Where have we seen this before?

-- make important decisions (“head of the household”)

-- pater familias (the head of the household)
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Patriarchy in Marriage
(compare: fundamentalist Islamic countries) -- must cover the face (Burka) -- stoning to death for certain crimes (adultery) 4. Duty of the wife -- run the house (trained) -- provide emotional support -- notion: if the husband is not happy, the wife is doing something wrong Question: 5. Divorce
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Who does this benefit and why??
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-- seriously frowned upon Sean Wilson. 2007. Copyright,

Patriarchy in Marriage
-- could not obtain it without “grounds” 6. Being single was bad too! -- you were ostracized (something is wrong with you?) 7. Property Rights in Marriage A. Personal Property -- a woman’s personal property automatically became the husband’s (it passed through his estate to his heirs)

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Patriarchy in Marriage
B. Real estate was different • if acquired before marriage, she could will it • but husband had the right to profits and rents C. Reform • the femme sole estate (English courts in the 1600 and 1700s created the right of women to keep their own personal properly separate from their husband)

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Patriarchy in Marriage
• Married Women’s Property Act: -- ended all legal disabilities in family law arising from the union of the souls -- women could sue, be sued, own and convey property, enter contracts, etc., without regard to their husbands

-- obtained a separate legal identity
-- all states had passed one of these by early 1900s (usually passed late 1800s)

Time
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Education
1821 -- Emma Willard founds the Troy Female Seminary

Timeline

• the first school to offer girls classical and scientific studies on a collegiate level
• first coeducational institution of higher learning.

1833 -- Oberlin College is founded 1837 -- Mount Holyoke • the first college for women, is founded by Mary Lyon in South Hadley, MA.

1849 -- Elizabeth Blackwell graduates from Geneva College in Geneva, NY with the first medical degree awarded to a woman.
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Education
1. Matthew Vassar -- believed higher education of women was possible “under certain circumstances” -- to demonstrate this, he created Vassar College in New York (1861)

-- made sure the curriculum was “not too taxing for the young women”

Question: -- women would be “closely chaperoned” to class Anyone know why? (going to the classroom as if they had never left home)
-- closely supervised
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Education
-- two reasons:

(1) they could become living advertisements for the possibility of higher education for women
(2) contemporary cultural fear that you should not overstimulate a woman’s mind for fear that they will go crazy or it will be dangerous to her mental health 2. Ellen Richards -- first woman to get a degree from MIT -- she had to file a special petition in order to be admitted -- pioneered scientific education for women at a time when Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 15 3/3/2009 was unheard of it

Education
-- coined the phrase “domestic science” -- would volunteer to do “women’s work” in the lab (“I’ll sweep up the lab, you shouldn’t do that,” etc)

Time
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Call for Suffrage
1. Two basic leaders -- Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony

-- Wanted to “piggy back” on the 15th Amendment
-- Felt that women should receive the vote if Americans of African descent were getting it -- racism in the movement?

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Suffrage mindset -They thought it was crazy that illiterate black men should be given the vote, but that highly educated white women would be denied the vote. The argument was that women were much better equipped to use the vote intelligently.

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Stanton’s quotes -Thought that the 14th Amendment elevated the “lowest orders of man” over the “highest classes of woman.” She stated: “While philosophy and science alike point to woman as the new power, destined to redeem the world, how can men fail to see that [this is just what] we need to restore honor and virtue in government? Thought society in California and Oregon was chiefly male, and rapidly attending to savagism, shiploads of women went out and restored order and decency to life [talking about the early days of California gold rush]. Would black men ever veiled anything among those white savages? What we need today in government, in the world of mortals and thought, is the recognition of the feminine element, as it is this alone that can hold the masculine in check. (1869 – Stanton)

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Call for Suffrage
1. Seneca Falls Convention -- Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott met at an antislavery convention in London -- the convention refused to seat them because of their gender -- Stanton was the bride of an anti-slavery advocate, and Mott was a Quaker preacher.

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Call for Suffrage
-- women had been involved in the temperance movement and the anti-slavery movement -- Stanton and Mott decide to call for the Seneca Falls conference to afford women some measure of equality -- held on July 19-20, 1848

-- about 300 people, including 40 men
-- no woman felt comfortable presiding, so Lucretia's Question: husband, James Mott, presided

Drafted the “Declaration of Sentiments” (reads like the Declaration of Independence)
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Why is this significant?

Significance: first attempt Sean political organization at Wilson. 2007. Copyright,

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Call for Suffrage
3. More consequential organization A. National Woman’s Suffrage Association -- more radical group from New York B. American Women’s Suffrage Association -- from Boston, was less radical -- only wanted the vote; did not demand equality in other areas -- the two organizations would join in 1890.

4. Litigation strategy
-- after the “piggy back” strategy failed, they tried the courts
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-- “new departure strategy”

Call for Suffrage
5. Minor v. Happersett (1875) -- held that women do not have the right to vote -- didn’t need a sexist rationalization …
15th Amendment -The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

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14th Amendment -2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and VicePresident of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
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Call for Suffrage
5. Minor v. Happersett (1875) -- held that women do not have the right to vote -- didn’t need a sexist rationalization … -- 1878 abandoned “new departure” in favor of trying to get a constitutional amendment

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Call for Suffrage
6. Social Protest -- 1872: Susan B. Anthony’s arrest. -- 1910: The Women's Political Union holds its first suffrage parade in New York City
Civil Disobedience -In Rochester, NY, Susan B. Anthony registers and votes contending that the 14th amendment gives her that right. Several days later she is arrested.

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Call for Suffrage
6. Social Protest -- 1872: Susan B. Anthony’s arrest. -- 1910: The Women's Political Union holds its first suffrage parade in New York City -- 1917 White House protest
Jail and hunger strikes -Members of the National Woman's Party picket the White House. Alice Paul and ninety-six other suffragists are arrested and jailed for "obstructing traffic." When they go on a hunger strike to protest their arrest and treatment, they are force-fed.
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Question:
Call for Suffrage Did it make any difference about who won the elections?

7. Success

-- Late 1800s-- Western states first (Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho) -- 1912: Teddy Roosevelt’s progressive party become the first major party to endorse the issue

-- It wasn’t until 1917 or after that any state east of the Mississippi granted women the right to vote. (New York, Indiana, Rhode Island)
-- 19th Amendment passed in 1919 (ratified 1920). 8. An analysis of voting behavior
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Reverse Gender Gap -Women voted conservative -- A general decline in voter turnout had begun during the turn of the century. It appears that the turnout of women was lower than men during the 1920 election. Women actually voted for Harding, the conservative, in greater proportion than did men. And would continue to vote conservatively throughout the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. You can think of it as a reverse gender gap.

Time
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Policy Analysis

Question: How was the suffrage movement different from the Civil Rights movement?

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Policy Analysis
1. Some Observations: -- not as many social protests, and not as violent – women were not hosed down and beaten with night sticks. -- also appears to have been incremental • one state at a time, a little more as time passes • civil rights movement was episodic (pulse model of change) -- Don’t assume that each group will follow the same exact pattern -- there will be similarities, but there will be differences
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Policy Analysis

Steep Increase

Steep Reactionary Increase Decline

illustration

Reactionary Decline Step-level 3

Step-level 2 Step-level 1

“Roughly” Incremental Change Steps Progression in Tumultuous
Time
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