Overview of the Framework

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					Review of General Framework for Identifying Substances to be
            Addressed in the Great Lakes Basin




        Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (GLBTS) Meeting
                    Chicago, September 24, 2008
                         Objectives of the presentation

•   Provide a review of the draft Framework to date
•   Provide a closer look at what the boxes of the Framework mean
•   Explore the Framework by providing an example.
      – The example is Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE), selected for its data-richness
      – The example of NPE is used in this presentation only to illustrate the definition of each box of
         the Framework and has not currently been selected as a substance for management in the
         GLB.
•    Provide a platform for discussion on the Framework this afternoon. We would like your input to
    establish a path forward for the Framework
               Overview of: General Framework for Identifying Substances to be
                             Addressed in the Great Lakes Basin
I                                      Feeders for Substance Identification


       Great Lakes Screening           National Chemical Management                   Other Sources of
                                                 Programs                               Information



II                                    Considerations for Substance Selection




      Monitoring and           Use/release/exposure                  Environmental            Levels and trends
       surveillance                 information                       benchmarks




                               Environmental and                  Other reasons for
                                  health data                         concern




III                                Considerations for Management Opportunities



                                                 Evaluate whether
                                                   Great Lakes
                                                  programs can
                                                   complement
                                                  national efforts
I
                     Feeders for Substance Identification


    •    Substances which feed into the Framework may be identified through various mechanisms,
         primarily identified in three broad categories:


        Great Lakes Screening              National Chemical                 Other Sources of
                                         Management Programs                   Information
    • A project that draws upon
    the national programs of both     Including:                       Including:
    countries to provide a list of    • Canada’s Chemicals                   • stakeholder
    substances targeted for           Management Plan (CMP)                  nomination
    monitoring, based on              • US’ Chemicals                        • provincial/state
    selected physical-chemical        Assessment and                         programs
    properties, available             Management Program                     • international fora
    analytical methods, as well       (ChAMP)                                • academic studies.
    as use, release and exposure
    information.
I
                    Feeders for Substance Identification

    Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

    Great Lakes Screening
    •  NPEs are not involved in the Great Lakes Screening Project

    National Chemical Management Programs
    Canada
    •   ‘CEPA toxic’ under CEPA, 1999, added to CEPA 1999 Schedule 1- List of Toxic Substances in
        2002
    United States
    •   High Production Volume (HPV) Chemicals

    Other Sources of Information

    European Union
    •   European Union Directive restricts the marketing and use in Europe of products and product
        formulations that contain more than 0.1% of NPE (as of January 2005)
    OSPAR (The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic)
    •   NPE is on the OSPAR List of Chemicals for Priority Action (2007)
II
                      Considerations for Substance Selection


     •   the Framework provides categories of considerations to facilitate the evaluation of potential threat
         to the Great Lakes Basin (GLB):




     Monitoring and           Use/release/exposure              Environmental                Levels and trends
      surveillance                 information                   benchmarks


                               Environmental and              Other reasons for
                                  health data                     concern
                                    Considerations for Substance Selection (continued)
II
                               Monitoring and surveillance
                               Monitoring and Surveillance


     •   Is the substance is present in the GLB?
     •   These data include:
           – measurements in water, air, sediment, soil, or biomonitoring
           – In certain cases where this information is not available, source/use/release/exposure
               information may be considered as a surrogate




     Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

     •   Numerous monitoring and surveillance data demonstrates the presence of NPEs in the GLB. For
         example:
          – USEPA & GLNPO are participating in numerous collaborative sampling efforts to assess the
             presence of APEs in the region
          – Beenie et al. 1997, reports concentrations in surface water (<0.020 to 10 μg/L) & sediments
             (<0.015 to 38 μg/g d.w.)
          – Environment Canada & Health Canada 2001, reports concentrations in Canadian freshwater,
             effluent and sludge from Canadian sewage treatment plants, surface waters & sediments
          – International Joint Commission, 2006 Reports concentrations in Great Lakes species;
             sediments & water
                                           Considerations for Substance Selection
                                     Considerations for Substance Selection (continued)
II
                   Source/Use/Release/Exposure Information


     •   Source, use, release, and exposure data may support monitoring and levels/trends data
     •   Precautionary assessment in cases where the effects of a substance could be significant by the
         time it is measured
     •   Includes indications of persistence based on continuous discharge to GLB and/or intensive use
         properties

     Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

     Source/Use
     •   NPE used in many sectors including:
           – textile processing, pulp and paper processing, paints, resins and protective coatings, oil and
               gas recovery, steel manufacturing, pest control products, cleaning products, degreasers and
               detergents, cosmetics, paints*
     •   NPE available for use in Canada: 23 800 tonnes (1995), 19 000 (1996)*
     •   NPE production in United States: ~104 300 tonnes (in 1998), demand increasing ~2 % annually
     Release
     •   The major route for the release of NPEs through discharge of effluents (i.e. municipal, textile)
     Exposure:
     •   found in: fresh water, sediment, fish and beluga whale tissue, textile mill effluents, pulp and paper
         mill effluents, MWWTP influents, effluents and sludges, and soil to which municipal sludges had
         been applied (in Canada)

     *Canada has taken risk management actions to restrict use
                                            Considerations for Substance Selection
                                      Considerations for Substance Selection (continued)
II
                               Environmental Benchmarks

     •   Substances detected in the Great Lakes in levels that exceed environmental benchmarks may be
         important candidates for management consideration
     •   Environmental benchmarks include: water quality criteria, fish tissue concentrations, human health
         based standards
     Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

     Canada
     •  Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines for Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylates
                Environmental Media    Media Type             Guideline Type           Guideline Value *
                Water                  Freshwater             Full                     1.0 μg·L-1
                                       Marine                 Interim                  0.7 μg·L-1
                Sediment **            Freshwater             Provisional Interim      1.4 mg·kg-1
                                       Marine                 Provisional Interim      1.0 mg·kg-1

     United States
     •   U.S. Water Quality Criteria for Nonylphenol in Fresh and Marine Water
                 Environmental Media    Media Type             Guideline Value
                 Water                  Fresh water            - A four day average of 6.6μg/L not exceeded
                                                               more than once every three years
                                                               - A one hour average of 28μg/L not exceeded
                                                               more than once every three years
                                        Marine water           - A four day average of 1.7μg/L not exceeded
                                                               more than once every three years
                                                               - A one hour average of 7.0μg/L not exceeded
                                                               more than once every three years
                                          Considerations for Substance Selection
                                    Considerations for Substance Selection (continued)
II
                                         Levels and Trends

     •   Current levels of a substance in the GLB compared with available environmental benchmarks to
         assess whether potential health or environmental concerns exist
     •   Trends may be assessed to determine changes in environmental levels of the substance over
         time




     Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

     •   Monitoring data includes: Beenie et al. 1997, reports concentrations in surface water (<0.020 to
         10 μg/L)

     •   The highest range of NPE surface water concentrations exceeds both the Canadian freshwater
         guideline value of 1.0 μg/L and the United States fresh water four day average criteria of 6.6 μg/L
                                          Considerations for Substance Selection
                                    Considerations for Substance Selection (continued)
II
                            Environmental and Health Data

     •   Additional avenue for assessing potential impact on the GLB.
     •   Data may range from conclusions of toxicity through the national programs to reasonable worst-
         case scenario estimates of intake by human populations that indicate concern



     Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

     •   ‘CEPA toxic’ based on CEPA 1999 64(a)&(b)
     •   not considered a priority for investigation of options to reduce public exposure through control of
         sources that are addressed under CEPA 1999 64(c)
                                          Considerations for Substance Selection
                                    Considerations for Substance Selection (continued)
II
                                Other Reasons for Concern


     •   Opportunity to assess specific characteristics of a substance that may make it a potential threat to
         the GLB
     •   Incorporates ‘precautionary approach’
     •   Includes:
           – indications of endocrine disrupting properties, acute adverse effects, and the concern that
              manufacturing/importation of the substance may increase in the future



     Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

     •   Evidence from scientific journals suggests NPEs have endocrine disrupting properties
      ‘Considerations for Substance Selection’ Outcomes

Stream 1 and Stream 2 Substances

Substances analyzed under the Framework may fall into one of two streams, based on data
   availability

•   Stream 1: Substances for which sufficient data exist to evaluate the questions posed under
    section II, ‘Consideration for substance selection’. Stream 1 substances would be assessed for
    management opportunities prior to those that fall into Stream 2
•   Stream 2: Substances with insufficient information to evaluate under selection II fall into Stream 2

For Stream 1 substances, Framework determinations include:
     – Data suggest that a substance is not currently a cause for concern in the GLB.
     – Data may suggest that a substance poses a threat to the GLB, with management activities
         already proposed. The GLBTS may rely on existing efforts or recommend complementary
         measures
     – Data may suggest that a substance poses a threat to the GLB, with no existing management
         programs, and management actions may be recommended for the GLB
III

               Considerations for Management Opportunities

      •  summarize existing program actions to address the substance
      •  assess opportunities to complement existing programs
      •  The following questions may be posed to determine whether management actions in the GLB are
         warranted and where reduction opportunities lie:
          – What is the present management status (regulatory and voluntary)?
          – Is current management sufficient and is further action necessary?
      Example: Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylate (NPE)

      Canada
      •  The risk management objective for NPE-containing products: achieve 50% reduction by 2007 and
         a 95% reduction of NPEs by 2010 in soap and cleaning products, processing aids used in textile
         wet processing and pulp and paper processing aids
      •  There are 2 Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning notices under CEPA developed to manage risks
         associated with NPEs (effective December 04, 2004):
           –   Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans in Respect of
               Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylates Contained in Products
           –   Notice Requiring the Preparation and Implementation of Pollution Prevention Plans in Respect of
               Nonylphenol and its Ethoxylates Used in the Wet Processing Textile Industry and Effluents From Textile
               Mills that Use Wet Processing
      US
      •  US EPA’s Design for the Environment Program partnered with cleaning product manufacturers
         and others in the design of products with a more positive health and environmental profile, Safer
         Detergents Stewardship Initiative SDSI, a high-level recognition program for companies who
         switch completely to safer surfactants
                            Next Steps for Framework

•   Receive input from stakeholders
•   Revise Framework and include ‘companion document’ describing Framework
•   Distribute revised Framework with companion piece to stakeholders in the fall
•   Provide final draft by December meetings