Technical Approaches to Characterizing and Cleaning Up Brownfield Sites

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                                              November 2001

   Technical Approaches to

Characterizing and Cleaning up

      Brownfields Sites


     Technology Transfer and Support Division

   National Risk Management Research Laboratory

         Office of Research and Development

        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

                 Cincinnati, OH 45268


The U.S. Environm ental P rotection Agency through its Office of Research and Develop ment funded and
managed the research described here under Contract No. 68-C7-0011 to Science Applications International
Corporation (SAIC ). It has been subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative review and has been
ap proved for pub lication as an EP A do cument. M ention of trade nam es or comm ercial p roducts does not
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with protecting the Nation’s land, air,
and water re sourc es. Un der a mand ate of na tional en vironmental laws, the A gency strives to formulate and
implement actions leading to a compatible balan ce be tween human activities and the ability of natural
systems to suppo rt and nurture life. To m eet this mandate, E PA’s resea rch prog ram is providing data and
technical support for solving environmental problem s today and building a science knowledge base
necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and
prevent or reduce risks in the future.

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the Agency’s center for investigation of
technological and management approaches for reducing risks from threats to human health and the
enviro nment. The focus of the Laboratory’s research program is on methods for the prevention and control
of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water
systems, remediation of contaminated sites and groundwater; and prevention and control of indoo r air
pollution. The goa l of this research is to catalyze d evelo pme nt and implementation of innova tive, cost-
effective enviro nmental technologies; develop scientific and engineering inform ation needed by EP A to
support regulatory and policy decisio ns; and provide technica l support and information transfer to ensure
effective implementation of environm ental regulations and strategies.

This publication has been produ ced as part of the Labo ratory’s stra tegic lon g-term research plan. It is
pub lished and made available by EPA ’s Office of Research and Develop ment to assist the user com munity
and to link researc hers with their clients.

                                                                               E. Timothy Oppelt, Director
                                                             National Risk Managem ent Research Laboratory


This document was prepared by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory
Technology Transfer and Support Division (TTSD) in the Office of Research and Development.
Susan Schock of TTSD served as Work Assignment Manager. Tena Meadows O’Rear served as
SAIC’s Project Manager. Participating in this effort were Arvin Wu, Joel Wolf, and Karyn Sper.
The reviewers of this document include Eletha Brady-Roberts of the National Center for
Environmental Assessment, Margaret Aycock of the Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research
Center at Lamar University, Jan Brodmerkl of the US Army Corps of Engineers, members of the
Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials, Alison Benjamin of the
Southwest Detroit Environmental Vision, and Emery Bayley of ECOSS, Seattle.

Appreciation is given to EPA’s Office of Special Programs for guidance on the Brownfields

    Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

    Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

    Acknowledgm ents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

    Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

    Chapter 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

     Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

     Purpo se . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Chapter 2. Characterization of Brownfields Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           4

     Low-Risk and High-Risk Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  4

     Types of Brownfields Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                4

     Other Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         7

    Chapter 3. Site Assessment and Due Diligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

     Role of EPA and State Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

     Performing A Site Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

     Due Diligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

     Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Chapter 4. Site Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              20

     Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        20

     Setting Data Quality Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 22

     Establish Scre ening L evels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            22

     Conduct Environm ental Samp ling and Data Ana lysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               23

Chapter 5. Contaminant Manage ment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           26

 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            26

 Evaluate Remedial Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      27

 Screening and Selection of Best Remedial Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 29

 Develop Remedy Implementation Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              30

 Remedy Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                   31

Chapter 6. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Appendix A. Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Append ix B. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Appendix C. Testing Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

 Appendix D. Cleanup Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

 Appendix E. Works Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

                                                      Chapter 1

Background                                                             Cleaning up Iron and Steel Mill Sites under the
Many communities across the country have brownfields                   Brownfields Initiative, EPA/625/R-98/007,
sites, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency                  December 1998.
(EPA) defines as abandoned, idle, and under-used                     � Technical Approaches to Characterizing and
industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or                Cleaning up Automotive Repair Sites under the
redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived                      Brownfields Initiative, EPA/625/R-98/008,
environmental contamination. Concerns about liability,                 December 1999.
cost, and potential health risks associated with                     � Technical Approaches to Characterizing and
brownfields sites may prompt businesses to migrate to                  Cleaning Metal Finishing Sites under the
"greenfields" outside the city. Left behind are                        Brownfields Initiative, EPA/625/R-98/006,
c ommunities burdened with environ m e nt al                           December, 1999.
contamination, declining property values, and increased
unemployment. The EPA established the Brownfields                    These guides cover the key steps to redeveloping
Economic Redevelopment Initiative to enable states, site             brownfields sites for their respective industrial sector.
planners, and other community stakeholders to work                   In addition, a supplementary guide contains information
together in a timely manner to assess, safely clean up,              on cost-estimating tools and resources for brownfields
and sustainably reuse brownfields sites.                             sites (Cost Estimating Tools and Resources for
                                                                     Addressing Sites Under the Brownfields Initiative,
The cornerstone of EPA's Brownfields Initiative is the               EPA/625/R-99-001, January 1999).
Brownfields Pilot Program. Under this program, EPA is
funding more than 200 brownfields assessment pilot                   In an effort to streamline this series of guides, EPA
projects in states, cities, towns, counties, and tribal lands        developed this guide to provide decision-makers, such
across the country. The pilots, each funded at up to                 as city planners, private sector developers, and others
$200,000 over two years, are bringing together                       involved in redeveloping brownfields, with a better
community groups, investors, lenders, developers, and                understanding of the common technical issues involved
other affected parties to address the issues associated              in assessing and cleaning up brownfields sites.1 This
with assessing and cleaning up contaminated                          guide will be supplemented with industry specific
brownfields sites and returning them to appropriate,                 profiles that provide information on specific types of
productive use. Information about Brownfields Pilot                  brownfields sites. Together, the guide and the site-
funding can be found at In                  specific profiles provide an integrated approach to
addition to the hundreds of brownfields sites being                  addressing brownfields sites.
addressed by these pilots, many states have established
voluntary cleanup programs to encourage municipalities
and private sector organizations to assess, clean up, and
redevelop brownfields sites.

Purpose                                                                 1
                                                                               Because parts of this document are technical in nature,
EPA has developed a set of technical guides, including               planners may want to refer to additional EPA guides for further
this document, to assist communities, states,                        information. The Tool Kit of Technology Information Resources for
municipalities, and the private sector to better address             Brownfields Sites, published by EPA’s Technology Innovation Office
                                                                     (TIO), contains a comprehensive list of relevant technical guidance
issues related to brownfields sites. Currently, three
                                                                     documents (available from NTIS, No. PB97144828). EPA’s Road
guides in the series are available:                                  Map to Understanding Innovative Technology Options for
                                                                     Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup, also by EPA’s TIO, provides
� Technical Approaches to Characterizing and                         an introduction to site assessment and cleanup (EPA Order No.


Exhibit 1-1. Flow Cha rt of the B row nfields Re development Pro cess

This overview of the brownfields redevelopment                reveals unacceptably high levels of contamination, the

process can help planners make decisions at various           viability of the project should be reassessed.

stages of the project. An understanding of key
industrial processes once used at a brownfields site          Should the Phase II site investigation reveal a

can help the planner identify likely areas of                 manageable level of contamination, the next step is to

contamination and common management approaches.               evaluate possible remedial alternatives. If no feasible

Where appropriate, this overview also points to               remedial alternatives are found, the project viability

information sources on specific processes or                  would have to be reassessed. Otherwise, the next step

technologies.                                                 would be to select an appropriate remedy and develop

                                                              a remedy implementation plan. Following remedy

The purpose of this     guide is to provide decision-         implementation, if additional contamination is

makers with:                                                  discovered, the entire process is repeated. 

�	 An understanding of common industrial processes            This document is organized as follows:

    formerly used at brownfields sites and the general
    relationship between such processes and potential         �   Chapter 2 – Characterization of Brownfields Sites

    releases of contaminants to the environment.              �   Chapter 3 – Phase I Site Assessment Due Diligence

                                                              �   Chapter 4 – Phase II Site Investigation 

�	 Information on the general types of contaminants           �   Chapter 5 – Contaminant Management 

    likely to be present at brownfields sites.                �   Chapter 6 – Conclusion 

                                                              �   Appendix A – Acronyms

�	 A discussion of the common steps involved in               �   Appendix B – Glossary

    brownfields redevelopment: Phase I site                   �   Appendix C – Testing Technologies 

    assessment, due diligence, Phase II site                  �   Appendix D – Cleanup Technologies

    investigation, remedial alternative evaluation,           �   Appendix E – Works Cited

    remedy implementation plan development, and               �   Appendix F – Other Useful Resources

    remedy implementation.

Typical Brownfield Redevelopment Process
The typical brownfields redevelopment process begins           Astoria, Oregon

with a Phase I site assessment and due diligence, as           A Brownfields Success Story:

shown in Exhibit 1-1. The site assessment and due
diligence process provides an initial screening to             The City of Astoria, Oregon, EPA, the Oregon
determine the extent of the contamination and possible         Department of Environmental Quality,
legal and financial risks. If the site assessment and          ECOTRUST and the community partnered
due diligence process reveals no apparent                      together to cleanup the City’s abandoned mill
contamination and no significant health or                     sites along the waterfront. One of these sites,
environmental risks, redevelopment activities may              Astoria’s Plywood Mill, will house a public
begin immediately. If the site seems to contain                promenade, shops, and residential housing.
unacceptably high levels of contamination, a
reassessment of the project’s viability may be                EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
appropriate.                                                  Brownfields.­

A Phase II site investigation samples the site to
provide a comprehensive understanding of the
contamination.     If this investigation reveals no
significant sources of contamination, redevelopment
activities may commence. Again, if the sampling


                                                  Chapter 2

                                           Typical Brownfields Sites

This section provides an overview of typical                   stored and transferred on site. Groundwater, drainage
brownfields sites. An understanding of the industrial          area sediments, and nearby surface waters, may be
processes that caused the contamination at the site can        contaminated with pesticide and herbicides and could
help guide planners and decision-makers in the                 exhibit elevated levels of nitrate from fertilizer runoff
brownfields redevelopment process. Decision-makers             which can be leached to groundwater.
should consult the industry specific guides as listed in
Chapter 1 of this document, for information on                 Asbestos Piles - Asbestos piles result from mining
facility-specific strategies. In many cases, sites may         operations, ship building and similar activities, and waste
have housed a sequence of different industrial practices       disposal of industrial and domestic debris. In certain
in the past, complicating the assessment process. Not all      areas, naturally occurring asbestos may result from
sites are appropriate candidates for brownfields               mining operations and building foundation excavation.
redevelopment due to the extent of the contamination,          Asbestos was once commonly used as an insulator in ship
and in some cases, only portions of a site are targeted for    building, steam pipes, and other hot surfaces. It was also
brownfields redevelopment.                                     commonly used in floor tiles and other building products
                                                               found in homes and commercial buildings. Asbestos
For more information pertaining to ongoing and                 presents a potential health concern when it is airborne
completed brownfields redevelopment projects, contact          and can be inhaled. Fiber release is more likely to occur
Regional and Headquarters EPA brownfields                      when asbestos containing materials (ACM) are “friable”
Coordinators, and state brownfields coordinators. A            (can be crumbled by hand pressure) and damaged. An
complete list of contacts is provided in “Road Map to          example of friable ACM is fluffy, spray-applied asbestos
Understanding Innovative Technology Options for                fireproofing material. “Non-friable” ACM, such as
Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup,” EPA545-B-97-           vinyl-asbestos floor tile, can also release fibers when
002. A current list of state and Regional contacts is          sanded, sawed or otherwise aggressively disturbed.
available at EPA’s Brownfi eld s Home page
<>.       In addition to        Auto Salvage/Metal Recyclers - Auto salvage yards
listing contacts in and links to each state and Region,        recover usable parts, scrap metal, and other recyclable
this website provides an index of related publications         materials from old or wrecked automobiles. Non-
and brownfields tools, information on pilots and other         recyclable materials are stored onsite or sent to a
activities under the Brownfields Initiative, and links to      municipal landfill. Metal recyclers purchase metal from
other related Office of Solid Waste and Emergency              a variety of sources – typically from industry,
Response (OSWER) and EPA web sites.                            commercial salvage yards, and individuals – and sort and
                                                               process the scrap metal for resale. Metals commonly
                                                               traded by these facilities include iron, steel, copper,
Types of Brownfields Sites                                     brass, and aluminum. Depending on the type of recycling
There are a wide variety of potential brownfields sites.       operations, the surrounding soils may be contaminated by
Almost any former manufacturing, distribution, or              heavy metals, asbestos, PCB oils, hydraulic fluids and
recycling facility that used, produced, or reclaimed           lubricating oils, fuels, and solvents.
chemicals is a potential brownfields site. Common
types of brownfields sites include:                            Chemical/Dye Manufacturing Facilities - A wide range of
                                                               chemicals are used in facilities that manufacture,
                                                               reformulate, and package various chemicals and dyes for
Agri-Business - Feed supply and other agricultural             commercial and industrial use. These chemical products
chemical distribution points may be contaminated with          include acids and bases, dyes and pigments, polymers,
fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Such products are     plastics, surfactants, solvents, soaps, and waxes. These


manufacturing processes are highly variable, depending          pumps, along with overfilling of and leakage from the
on the product being produced. There are, however,              USTs, are likely sources of site contamination at gas
certain types of process components that are frequently         stations. Many UST leaks are from the piping systems.
encountered in these facilities, including bulk storage
(both above and below ground) tanks for gaseous,                The primary contaminants of concern at gas stations
liquid, and solid materials; blending and packaging             include petroleum hydrocarbons, benzene and other
equipment; storage areas for drums, bags, carboys, tote         BTEX compounds. Service areas typically have small
bins, and other chemical containers; process piping and         containers of ethylene glycol, hydraulic oils, lubricants,
conveyor systems (pneumatic or mechanical augers and            automotive batteries (lead and acid), and compressed gas
conveyors); and waste piles and disposal pits. In               cylinders from welding operations (especially acetylene
addition, many larger facilities have rail spurs, industrial    and oxygen). Surface soils may be contaminated from
wastewater treatment plants, and sludge lagoons or              historical spills or dumping of used lubricants, coolants,
settling ponds.                                                 and cleaning solvents from service activities. Subsurface
                                                                soils and groundwater, especially in the vicinity of USTs,
The contaminant type and the distribution of these              may also be contaminated from spills, overfilling, and
contaminants is highly specific to the process type.            leaks.
Environmental problems resulting from chemical/dye
manufacturing may persist in nearby or downstream               Landfills/Dumps (Municipal/Industrial) - Landfills are
surface waters or sediments long after operations have          now restricted to household garbage, yard wastes,
ceased. Moreover, chemical operations can change over           construction debris, and office wastes. Prior to 1970,
time or involve multiple processes, therefore these sites       however, landfills could accept industrial wastes.
may be overlaid with several generations of wastes from         Therefore, older landfills are likelier to be contaminated
a variety of products or processes. Many chemical               by hazardous chemicals. Even modern landfills can
facilities also have quality assurance and research             contain a host of chemicals from household wastes such
laboratories that use small quantities of toxic chemicals       as oils, paints, solvents, corrosive cleaners, batteries, and
that could contaminate isolated locations.                      gardening products. Illegal dumping at landfills can also
                                                                cause serious contamination.          Improperly designed
Drum Recycling - Drum recycling facilities clean used           landfills can result in a higher likelihood of surface soil
drums for reuse. These facilities typically sort the            and groundwater contamination as well as trap explosive
drums by chemical compatibility, then wash, rinse, and          levels of methane gas and hydrogen sulfide in the soil. A
leak-test the drums. As necessary, drum recycling               draft site profile has been developed for EPA, “Technical
facilities repair the dents and repaint the drums. Soil         Approach to Characterizing and Cleaning Up
and groundwater contamination at these facilities may           Brownfields Sites: Municipal Landfills and Illegal
result from the leaking and spilling of residual chemicals      Dumps,” February 2001
and oils. The variety of chemicals stored in drums
makes characterizing the potential contaminants difficult       Manufactured Gas/Coal Facilities - Manufactured gas has
-- these contaminants could include acids, bases,               been produced as a fuel source from coal and oil since
corrosives, reactive chemicals, flammable materials, and        the early 1800s. Typically, the coal or oil is heated and
oils. Spillage of paint, paint thinners, and solvents can       the resulting volatilized gases are distilled to produce
also contaminate a drum recycling facility.                     natural gas. Depending on the specific process design,
                                                                various byproducts can be recovered, including
Gas Stations - Gas stations consist of pump islands,            anthracene, benzene, cresol, naphthalene, paraffin,
underground storage tanks (UST) for storing the fuel,           phenol, toluene, and xylenes. Waste products from
small storage areas, and service areas (which typically         manufactured gas operations include coal fines, coal tar,
contain either hydraulic lifts or pits) for changing            cyanide salts, hydrogen sulfide gas, and wastewater.
automobile engine oil and other maintenance activities.         Leakage and spillage from storage drums or tanks may
Gasoline and diesel fuel are transferred from bulk tank         contaminate surface and subsurface soils, sediments,
trucks to large USTs. Spills at the transfer areas and          surface water, and groundwater.


Metal Plating/Finishing - Metal plating operations              contaminated with solvents such as formaldehyde and
improve a product’s performance (e.g. durability,               toluene. Furthermore, due to the age of some of these
corrosion resistance) or appearance. Metal components           facilities, asbestos-containing materials may be found in
are first cleaned (using solvents and/or water-based            abandoned buildings and demolition debris.
detergents) in degreaser units to remove dirt and oils
from manufacturing operations. The metal components             Paint Shops/Auto Body Repair - Paint shops and auto
are subsequently etched, plated, and finished in a series       body repair shops fix truck and automobile body parts or
of vats or baths. Spillage from plating and cleaning            paint various plastic and metal products. Damaged auto
operations, and leakage or overfills from storage tanks         body parts are replaced or repaired with fillers, then
and process vats, may contaminate the concrete floors           sanded, primed, and painted. These shops may also use
and underlying soils.      Groundwater may also be              cutting torches, welding equipment, solvents and
contaminated by heavy metals, cyanide, and solvents.            cleaners, fiberglass, various polymers and epoxy
For more detailed information, see “Technical                   compounds, and sand or grit blasting operations.
Approaches to Characterizing and Cleaning Up Metal              Gasoline and diesel from vehicle fuel tanks, solvents,
Finishing Sites under the Brownfields Initiative,”              cleaners, acids, and paints may leak or spill to
EPA/625/R-98/006, December, 1999.                               contaminate underlying soils and groundwater. Typical
                                                                c o n t am i n a nt s i n c l u d e t o lu e n e , a c e t o n e ,
Oil Production/Distribution/Recycling Facilities - Oil          perchloroethylene, xylene, gasoline and diesel fuel,
production facilities consist of oil drilling, refining,        carbon tetrachloride, and hydrochloric and phosphoric
storing, transferring, transporting, and recycling              acid.
facilities. Typical raw materials inputs at these facilities
include crude, fuel, and motor oils, as well as waste oils.     Rail Yards - Rail yards may consist of any combination
The production processes at these facilities may                of track and switching areas, engine maintenance
contaminate soils with oil sludges, acids, and waste oil        buildings, engine fueling areas, bulk and container
additives and co-contaminants such as PCBs. In some             storage and transfer stations, and storage areas for
cases, disposal pits may contain thick tarry sludges with       materials used in track and engine maintenance.
very high pH values. Groundwater and deeper soil may            Materials used at rail yards include diesel fuel, paint,
be contaminated with metals and lighter oil fractions           solvents and degreasing agents, PCB oils, and creosote.
such as BTEX.          The location and severity of             Spills, leaks, or direct dumping to the soil of these
contamination depend on the processes used and the age          compounds may contaminate the soil and groundwater.
of the facility.                                                Chemical spills and leaks from loading and unloading
                                                                tanker and freight cars can also contaminate the rail yard.
Ordnance Sites - Ordnance sites typically include               Due to the variety of chemicals carried by railroads,
facilities that manufacture, assemble, store, or dispose a      virtually any type of chemical could be present at a
variety of military munitions such as bombs, shells,            former rail yard. A draft site profile has been developed
grenades, mines, rifle rounds, and specialty explosives.        for EPA “Technical Approaches to Characterizing and
In some cases, these facilities are not clearly identified      Cleaning Up Brownfields Sites: Railroad Yards,”
and may be located in isolated areas. Some sites date to        February, 2001.
before World War I. Many of these sites were highly
specialized; correspondingly, the chemicals used were           Wood Preservers - Wood preserver sites typically consist
highly specialized.         Raw materials, chemical             of wood preparation facilities, chemical storage tanks,
intermediates, final products, and waste materials are          chemical treatment areas (including high pressure vessels
common contaminants at such sites.               Potential      in many cases), drip or drying areas, and wood storage
contaminants include di- and tri-nitro substituted              areas. The wood is treated with preservative chemicals
phenols and benzenes, nitroglycerin, metals, ethers,            either by dipping the wood into a chemical bath or by
formaldehyde, and ammoniated compounds.                         injecting the chemicals into the wood under pressure.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO) may also be buried along              Storage tanks at wood preserver sites could contain
with other waste materials. Groundwater may be                  creosote, pentachlorophenol, or chrome-copper-arsenate


(CCA) solutions for wood treatment, which could enter
        The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) is available online at
the environment if these tanks were overfilled or leaked.
    EPA’s homepage - TRI data is a
Contaminated water squeezed from the wood during
             database tabulating the release of chemicals into the
processing and retort sludge may have spilled on the
         environment; including the volume of toxic chemicals
ground, causing soil and groundwater contamination.
          used at sites and the types of emissions and wastes
As treated wood is transferred from the treatment area to
    generated. TRI data can be searched online, obtained on
the drying areas, chemicals may drip onto the soil and
       CDs, or reports can be downloaded.
contaminate the soil and groundwater.          Likewise,

drippage at drying areas, especially in older operations
     The next chapter describes the initial process of site
where pressure treatment may not have been used, could
       assessment and due diligence.
result in soil contamination. Runoff from site soils

could also contaminate nearby surface waters. 
               Low-Risk and High-Risk Sites
                                                              EPA has developed guidelines (Federal Register
Some other types of brownfields sites include:
               97-23831) that determine whether a site contains
                                                              contaminants that pose high or low risks to nearby
�   Automobile Repair
                                        populations and environments.
�   Cement Plants

�   Dry Cleaners
                                             A high-risk site is one that is found to be highly
�   Electronics Manufacturing
                                contaminated and poses a significant risk to human health
�   Iron and Steel Manufacturing
                             or the environment. Generally, these sites are not feasible
�   Machine Tool Industry
                                    candidates for a brownfields redevelopment project.
�   Meat Packaging Plants
                                    Instead these sites may be addressed through Superfund
�   Mining Sites/Mining Wastes
                               clean-up activities.
�   Pesticide Facilities

�   Plastics 
                                                Low-risk sites contain lower levels of contamination and
�   Power Generating Facilities/Utilities
                    thus pose a significantly lower risk to surrounding
�   Print Shops
                                              populations and the environment. Most brownfields sites
�   Pulp and Paper Mills
                                     are considered low risk sites.
�   Quarries

�   Radiation (mining/refining and research facilities)

�   Tanning

�   Textile Mills

�   Tire Reclamation

Other Resources
The descriptions of the various processes associated
with brownfields sites are intended to provide only an
overview. Industry specific profiles listed in Chapter 1
of this document, provide further information for some
specific brownfields sites.

Additional information for certain industrial processes,
chemical usage, and waste generation can be found in
the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
(OECA) Sector Notebooks. These documents are
available at OECA’s web page -


                                              Chapter 3
                              Phase I Site Assessment and Due Diligence

Site assessment and due diligence provide initial
information regarding the feasibility of a brownfields
redevelopment project. A site assessment evaluates the
health and environmental risks of a site and the due
diligence process examines the legal and financial risks.
These two assessments help the planner build a
conceptual framework of the site, which will develop
into the foundation for the next steps in the
redevelopment process.

Site assessment and due diligence are necessary to fully
address issues regarding the environmental liabilities
associated with property ownership. Several federal and
state programs exist to minimize owner liability at
brownfields sites and facilitate cleanup and
redevelopment. Planners and decision-makers should
contact their state environmental or regional EPA office
for further information.

The Phase I site assessment is generally performed by an
environmental professional.      Cost for this service
depends upon size and location of the site, and is usually
around $2,500. A site assessment typically identifies:

� Potential contaminants that remain in and around a
� Likely pathways that the contaminants may move;
� Potential risks to the environment and human health
    that exist along the migration pathways.

Due diligence typically identifies:
                                                                  Role of EPA and State Government
� Potential legal and regulatory requirements and                 A brownfields redevelopment project is a partnership
  risks;                                                          between planners and decision-makers (both in the
� Preliminary cost estimates for property purchase,               private and public sector), state and local officials, and
  engineering, taxation and risk management; and                  the local community. State environmental agencies are
� Market viability of redevelopment project.                      often key decision-makers and a primary source of
                                                                  information for brownfields projects. In most cases,
This chapter begins with background information on the            planners and decision-makers need to work closely with
role of the EPA and state government in brownfields               state program managers to determine their particular
redevelopment. The remainder of the chapter provides a            state's requirements for brownfields development.
description of the components of site assessment and the          Planners may also need to meet additional federal
due diligence process.


requirements. While state roles in brownfields programs           �	 Ensure that voluntary response actions protect
vary widely, key state functions include:                             human health and the environment. Examples of
                                                                      ways to determine protectiveness include:
�	 Overseeing the brownfields site assessment and                     conducting site-specific risk assessments to
  cleanup process, including the management of                        determine background contaminant concentrations;
  voluntary cleanup programs;                                         determining maximum contaminant levels for
� Providing guidance on contaminant screening levels;                 groundwater; and determining the human health risk
  and                                                                 range for known or suspected carcinogens. Even if
� Serving as a source of site information, as well as                 the state VCP does not require the state to monitor a
  legal and technical guidance.                                       site after approving the final voluntary contaminant
                                                                      management plan, the state may still reserve the
The EPA works closely with state and local                            right to revoke the cleanup certification if there is an
governments to develop state Voluntary Cleanup                        unsatisfactory change in the site's use or additional
Programs (VCP) to encourage, assist, and expedite                     contamination is discovered.
brownfields redevelopment. The purpose of a state VCP
is to streamline brownfields redevelopment, reduce
transaction costs, and provide liability protection for               Penobscot River, Old Town, Maine
past contamination. Planners and decision-makers                      A Brownfields Success Story:
should be aware that state cleanup requirements vary
significantly; brownfields managers from state agencies               A contaminated site where a Lily-Tulip
should be able to clarify how their state requirements                Company paper plate and cup plant used to
relate to federal requirements.                                       be located will soon be a recreational area
                                                                      with a playground, bandstand, running and
EPA encourages all states to have their VCPs approved                 biking paths and a winter skating rink.
via a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), whereby                        EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response,
EPA transfers control over a brownfields site to that               Brownfields.­
state (Federal Register 97-23831). Under such an                    doc/ss_oldtn.htm
arrangement, the EPA does not anticipate becoming
involved with private cleanup efforts that are approved           �
by federally recognized state VCPs (unless the agency             �	 Provide resources needed to ensure that voluntary
determines that a given cleanup poses an imminent and                 response actions are conducted in an appropriate
substantial threat to public health, welfare or the                   and timely manner. State VCPs must have adequate
environment). EPA may, however, provide states with                   financial, legal, and technical resources to ensure
technical assistance to support state VCP efforts.                    that voluntary cleanups meet these goals. Most state
                                                                      VCPs are intended to be self-sustaining. Generally,
To receive federal certification, state VCPs must:                    state VCPs obtain their funding in one of two ways:
                                                                      planners pay an hourly oversight charge to the state
�	 Provide for meaningful community involvement.                      environmental agency, in addition to all cleanup
    This requirement is intended to ensure that the                   costs; or planners pay an application fee that can be
    public is informed of and, if interested, involved in             applied against oversight costs.
    brownfields planning. While states have discretion            �
    regarding how they provide such opportunities, at a           Provide mechanisms for the written approval of
    minimum they must notify the public of a proposed             voluntary response action plans and certify the
    contaminant management plan by directly                       completion of the response in writing for submission to
    contacting local governments and community groups             the EPA and the voluntary party.
    and publishing or airing legal notices in local media.


�	 Ensure safe completion of voluntary response                           provides a general overview of the brownfields site,
   actions through oversight and enforcement of the                       likely contaminant pathways, and related health and
   cleanup process.                                                       environmental concerns.
�	 Oversee the completion of the cleanup and
   long-term site monitoring. In the event that the use                      Facility Information
   of the site changes or is found to have additional                        Facility records are often the best source of information
   contamination, states must demonstrate their ability                      on former site activities. If past owners are not initially
   to enforce cleanup efforts via the removal of cleanup                     known, a local records office should have deed books
   certification or other means.                                             that contain ownership history. Generally, records
                                                                             pertaining specifically to the site in question are
Performing A Phase I Site Assessment                                         adequate for site assessment review purposes. In some
The purpose of a Phase I site assessment is to identify
                     cases, however, records of adjacent properties may also
the type, quantity, and extent of possible contamination
                    need to be reviewed to assess the possibility of
at a brownfields site. Financial institutions typically
                     contaminants migrating from or to the site, based on
require a site assessment prior to lending money to
                         geologic or hydrogeologic conditions. If the brownfields
potential property buyers to protect the institution's role
                 property resides in a low-lying area, in close proximity
as mortgage holder. In addition, parties involved in the
                    to other industrial facilities or formerly industrialized
transfer, foreclosure, leasing, or marketing of properties
                  sites, or downgradient from current or former
recommend some form of site evaluation. A site
                              industrialized sites, an investigation of adjacent
assessment should include:2
                                                 properties is warranted.
� A review of readily available records, such as

    former site use, building plans, records of any prior                    In addition to facility records, American Society for
    contamination events;                                                    Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard 1527 identifies
�	 A site visit to observe the areas used for various                        other useful sources of information such as historical
    industrial processes and the condition of the                            aerial photographs, fire insurance maps, property tax
    property;                                                                files, recorded land title records, topographic maps,
�	 Interviews with knowledgeable people, such as site                        local street directories, building department records,
    owners, operators, and occupants; neighbors; local                       zoning/land use records, maps and newspaper archives
    government officials; and                                                (ASTM, 1997).
�	 A report that includes an assessment of the
    likelihood that contaminants are present at the site.                    State and federal environmental offices are also possible
�                                                                            sources of information. These offices may provide
A site assessment should be conducted by an                                  information such as facility maps that identify activities
environmental professional, and may take three to four                       and disposal areas, lists of stored pollutants, and the
weeks to complete. Information on how to review                              types and levels of pollutants released. State and federal
records, conduct site visits and interviews, and develop a                   offices may provide the following types of facility level
report during a site assessment is provided below.                           data:
Exhibit 3-1 shows a flow chart representing the site
assessment process. A clear division of tasks for the                        �	 The state offices responsible for industrial waste
environmental professional and oversight groups should                           management and hazardous waste should have a
be determined at the outset of the project.                                      record of any emergency removal actions at the site
Review Records                                                                   (e.g., the removal of leaking drums that posed an
A review of readily available records helps identify                             "imminent threat" to local residents); any Resource
likely contaminants and their locations. This review                             Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permits
                                                                                 issued at the site; notices of violations issued; and
                                                                                 any environmental investigations.
          The elements of a site assessment presented here are based
in part on ASTM Standards 1527 and 1528.


Exhibit 3-1. Flow Cha rt of the S ite Assessme nt Pro cess.

�	 The state office responsible for discharges of                         city halls may have fire insurance maps3 or other
   wastewater to water bodies under the National                          historical maps or data that indicate the location of
   Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)                         hazardous waste storage areas at the site.
   program will have a record of any permits issued for
   discharges into surface water at or near the site. The          �	 Local waste haulers may have records of the
   local publicly owned treatment works (POTW) will                       facility's disposal of hazardous or other wastes.
   have records for permits issued for indirect
   discharges into sewers (e.g., floor drain discharges            � Utility records.
   into sanitary drains).
                                                                   � Local building permits.
�	 The state office responsible for underground storage
   tanks may also have records of tanks located at the             Requests for federal regulatory information are
   site, as well as records of any past releases.                  governed by the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA),
                                                                   and the fulfilling of such requests generally takes a
�	 The state office responsible for air emissions may be           minimum of four to eight weeks. Similar freedom of
   able to provide information on potential air                    information legislation does not uniformly exist on the
   pollutants associated with particular types of onsite           state level; one can expect a minimum waiting period of
   contamination.                                                  four weeks to receive requested information (ASTM,
�	 EPA's Comprehensive Environmental Response,
   Compensation, and Liability Information System                  Identifying Contaminant Migration Pathways
   (CERCLIS) of potentially contaminated sites should              Offsite migration of contaminants may pose a risk to
   have a record of any previously reported                        human health and the environment. A site assessment
   contamination at or near the site. For information,             should gather as much readily available information on
   contact the Superfund Hotline (800-424-9346).                   the physical characteristics of the site as possible.
                                                                   Migration pathways, such as through soil, groundwater,
�	 EPA Regional Offices can provide records of sites               and air, depend on site-specific characteristics such as
   that have released hazardous substances.                        geology and the physical characteristics and chemical
   Information is available from the Federal National              properties of the individual contaminants (e.g., mobility,
   Priorities List (NPL); lists of treatment, storage, and         solubility, and density). Information on the physical
   disposal (TSD) facilities subject to corrective action          characteristics of the general area can play an important
   under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act                role in identifying potential migration pathways and
   (RCRA); RCRA generators; and the Emergency                      focusing on the environmental sampling activities, if
   Response Notification System (ERNS). Contact                    needed.
   EPA Regional Offices for more information.
                                                                   Topographic, soil and subsurface, and groundwater data
�	 State environmental records and local library                   are particularly important:
    archives may indicate permit violations or
    significant contamination releases from or near the            Topographic Data. Topographic information helps
    site.                                                          determine whether the site may be subject to
                                                                   contamination from or the source of contamination to
�	 Residents who were former employees may be able                 adjoining properties. Topographic information will help
    to provide information on waste management                     identify low-lying areas of the facility where rain and
    practices. These reports should be substantiated.              snowmelt (and any contaminants in them) may collect

�	 Local fire departments may have responded to
    emergency events at the facility. Fire departments or             3
                                                                          Fire insurance maps show, for a specific property, the
                                                                locations of such items as UST’s, buildings, and areas where
                                                                chemicals have been used for certain industrial processes.


and contribute both water and contaminants to the                  While the purpose of such surveys is to test soils for
underlying aquifer or surface runoff to nearby areas. The          compaction, bedrock, and water table, general
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of                 information gleaned from such reports can support the
the Interior has topographic maps for nearly every part            environmental site assessment process. Though local
of the country. These maps are inexpensive and                     soil maps and other general soil information can be used
available through the following address:                           for screening purposes such as in a site assessment,
                                                                   site-specific information will be needed in the event that
USGS Information Services
                                         cleanup is necessary.
Box 25286

Denver, CO 80225
                                                  Groundwater Data. Professionals should obtain general
                  groundwater information about the site area, including:

Local USGS offices may also have topographic maps.                 � State classifications of underlying aquifers;
                                                                   � Depth to the groundwater tables;
Soil and Subsurface Data. Soil and subsurface soil                 � Groundwater flow direction and rate;
characteristics determine how contaminants move in the             � Location of nearby drinking water and agricultural
environment. For example, clay soils limit downward                  wells; and
movement of pollutants into underlying groundwater but             � Groundwater recharge zones in the vicinity of the
facilitate surface runoff. Sandy soils, on the other hand,           site.
can promote rapid infiltration into the water table while
inhibiting surface runoff. Soil information can be                 This information can be obtained from several local
obtained through a number of sources:                              sources, including water authorities, well drilling
                                                                   companies, health departments, and Agricultural
�	 The Natural Resource Conservation Service and                   Extension and Natural Resource Conservation Service
   Cooperative Extension Service offices of the U.S.               offices.
   Department of Agriculture (USDA) are also likely to
   have soil maps.                                                 Identifying Potential Environmental and Human
�	 Local planning agencies should have soil maps to                Health Concerns
   support land use planning activities. These maps                Identifying possible environmental and human health
   provide a general description of the soil types                 risks early in the process can influence decisions
   present within a county (or sometimes a smaller                 regarding the viability of a site for cleanup and the
   administrative unit, such as a township).                       choice of cleanup methods used. A visual inspection of
�	 Well-water companies are likely to be familiar with             the area will usually suffice to identify onsite or nearby
   local subsurface conditions, and local water districts          wetlands and water bodies that may be particularly
   and state water divisions may have well-logging and             sensitive to releases of contaminants during
   water testing information.                                      characterization or cleanup activities. Professionals
�	 Local health departments may be familiar with                   should also review available information from state and
   subsurface conditions because of their interest in              local environmental agencies to ascertain the proximity
   septic drain fields.                                            of residential dwellings, industrial/commercial
�	 Local construction contractors are likely to be                 activities, or wetlands/water bodies, and to identify
   familiar with subsurface conditions from their work             people, animals, or plants that might receive migrating
   with foundations.                                               contamination; any particularly sensitive populations in
                                                                   the area (e.g., children; endangered species); and
Soil characteristics can vary widely within a relatively           whether any major contamination events have occurred
small area, and it is common to find that the top layer of         previously in the area (e.g., drinking water problems;
soil in urban areas is composed of fill materials, not             groundwater contamination).
native soils. Geotechnical survey reports are often
required by local authorities prior to construction.


Such general environmental information may be                         pay particular attention to information on private
obtained by contacting the U.S. Army Corps of                         wells in the area downgradient of the facility
Engineers, state environmental agencies, local planning               because they may be vulnerable to contaminants
and conservation authorities, the U.S. Geological                     migrating offsite even when the public municipal
Survey, and the USDA Natural Resource Conservation                    drinking water supply is not vulnerable. Local health
Service. State and local agencies and organizations can               departments often have information on the locations
usually provide information on local fauna and the                    of private wells.
habitats of any sensitive and/or endangered species.
                                                                  Both groundwater pathways and surface water pathways
For human health information, professionals can                   should be evaluated because contaminants in
contact:                                                          groundwater can eventually migrate to surface waters
                                                                  and contaminants in surface waters can migrate to
�	 State and local health assessment organizations.               groundwater.
   Organizations such as health departments, should
   have data on the quality of local well water used as a         Conducting a Site Visit
   drinking water source as well as any human health              In addition to collecting and reviewing available
   risk studies that have been conducted. In addition,            records, a site visit can provide important information
   these groups may have other relevant information,              about the uses and conditions of the property and
   such as how certain types of contaminants might                identify areas that warrant further investigation (ASTM,
   pose a health risk during site characterization.               1997). During a visual inspection, the following should
   Information on exposures to particular contaminants            be noted:
   and associated health risks can also be found in
   health profile documents developed by the Agency               � Current or past uses of abutting properties that may
   for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry                          affect the property being evaluated;
   (ATSDR). In addition, ATSDR may have conducted                 � Evidence of hazardous substances migrating on- or
   a health consultation or health assessment in the                  off-site;
   area if an environmental contamination event                   �   Odors;
   occurred in the past. Such an event and assessment             �   Wells;
   should have been identified in the site assessment             �   Pits, ponds, or lagoons;
   records review of prior contamination incidents at             �   Surface pools of liquids;
   the site. For information, contact ATSDR's Division            �   Drums or storage containers;
   of Toxicology (404-639-6300).                                  �   Stained soil or pavements;
                                                                  �   Corrosion;
�	 Local water and health departments. During the site            �   Stressed vegetation;
    visit (described below), when visually inspecting the         �   Solid waste;
    area around the facility, professionals should                �   Drains, sewers, sumps, or pathways for off-site
    identify any residential dwellings or commercial                  migration; and
    activities near the facility and evaluate whether             �   Roads, water supplies, and sewage systems;
    people there may come into contact with                       �   Pipes, vents, or utilities suggesting underground
    contamination along one of the migration pathways.                storage tanks.
    Where groundwater contamination may pose a
    problem, professionals should identify any nearby             Conducting Interviews
    waterways or aquifers that may be impacted by                 Interviewing the site owner, site occupants, and local
    groundwater discharge of contaminated water,                  officials can help identify and clarify the prior and
    including any drinking water wells downgradient of            current uses and conditions of the property. They may
    the site, such as a municipal well field. Local water         also provide information on other documents or
    departments will have a count of well connections to          references regarding the property. Such documents
    the public water supply. Professionals should also            include environmental audit reports, environmental


permits, registrations for storage tanks, material safety          Additional sections of the report might include a
data sheets, community right-to-know plans, safety                 recommendations section for a site investigation, if
plans, government agency notices or correspondence,                appropriate. Some states or financial institutions may
hazardous waste generator reports or notices,                      require information on specific substances such as lead
geotechnical studies, or any proceedings involving the             in drinking water or asbestos.
property (ASTM, 1997). Personnel from the following
local government agencies should be interviewed: the               Due Diligence
fire department, health agency, and the agency with                The purpose of the due diligence process is to determine
authority for hazardous waste disposal or other                    the financial viability and extent of legal risk related to a
environmental matters. Interviews can be conducted in              particular brownfields project. The concept of financial
person, by telephone, or in writing.                               viability can be explored from two perspectives, the
                                                                   marketability of the intended redevelopment use and the
ASTM Standard 1528 provides a questionnaire that may               accuracy of the financial analysis for redevelopment
be appropriate for use in interviews for certain sites.            work. Legal risk is determined through a legal liability
ASTM suggests that this questionnaire be posed to the              analysis. Exhibit 3-2 represents the three-stage due
current property owner, any major occupant of the                  diligence process.
property (or at least 10 percent of the occupants of the
property if no major occupant exists), or "any occupant            Market Analysis
likely to be using, treating, generating, storing, or          To gain an understanding of the marketability of any
disposing of hazardous substances or petroleum                 given project, it is critical to relate envisioned use(s) of
products on or from the property" (ASTM, 1996). A              a redeveloped brownfields site to the state and local
user's guide accompanies the ASTM questionnaire to             communities in which it is located. Knowing the role of
assist the investigator in conducting interviews, as well      the projected use of the redevelopment project in the
as researching records and making site visits.                 larger picture of economic and social trends helps the
                                                               planner determine the likelihood of the project’s
Developing a Report                                            success. For example, many metropolitan areas are
Toward the end of the site assessment, professionals           adopting a profile of economic activity that parallels the
should develop a report that includes all of the important     profile of the Detroit area dominated by the auto
information obtained during record reviews, the site           manufacturing industry. New York, Northern Virginia
visit, and interviews. Documentation, such as references       and Washington, DC, for example, are becoming known
and important exhibits, should be included, as well as         a s t e l e c o m mu n i c a t i o ns h u b s ( B ro w n f i e ld s
the credentials of the environmental professional who          Redevelopment: A Guidebook for Local Governments &
conducted the environmental site assessment. The report        Communities, International City/County Management
should include all information regarding the presence or       Association, 1997). Ohio is asserting itself as a plastics
likely presence of hazardous substances or petroleum           research and development center, and even smaller
products on the property and any conditions that               communities, such as Frederick, Maryland, a growing
indicate an existing, past, or potential release of such       center for biomedical research and technology are
substances into property structures or into the ground,        marketing themselves with a specific economic niche in
groundwater, or surface water of the property (ASTM,           mind.
1997). The report should include the environmental
professional's opinion of the impact of the presence or            The benefits of co-locating similar and/or
likely presence of any contaminants, and a findings and            complementary business activities can be seen in
conclusion section that either indicates that the                  business and industrial parks, where collaboration
environmental site assessment revealed no evidence of              occurs in such areas as facility use, joint business
contaminants in connection with the property, or                   ventures, employee support services such as on-site
discusses what evidence of contamination was found                 childcare, waste recycling and disposal, and others. For
(ASTM, 1997).                                                      the brownfields redevelopment planner, this contextual


Exhibit 3-2. Flow Cha rt of the D ue D iligence Process

information provides opportunities for creative thinking            development plans, providing an informed basis for the
and direction for collaborative planning related to                 planner to determine whether or not to pursue the
various possible uses for a particular site and their               project. Ultimately the plan for remediation and use
likelihood of success.                                              should contain as few financial unknowns as possible.

The long-term zoning plan of the jurisdiction in which              While costs related to the environmental aspects of the
the brownfields site is located provides an important               project need to be considered throughout the process,
source of information. Location of existing and planned             other cost information is also critical, including the price
transportation systems is a key question for any                    of purchase and establishment of legal ownership of the
redevelopment activity. Observing the site’s proximity              site, planning costs, engineering and architectural costs,
to other amenities will flesh out the picture of the                hurdling zoning issues, environmental consultation,
attraction potential for any given use.                             taxation, infrastructure upgrades, and legal consultation
                                                                    and insurance to help mitigate and manage associated
Assessing the historic characteristics of the site that may         risks.
influence the project is an important consideration at the
neighborhood level. Gaining an understanding of the                 In a property development initiative, where “time is
historic significance of a particular building might lead           money,” scheduling is a critical factor influencing the
the community developer toward rehabilitation, rather               financial feasibility of any development project. The
than new construction on the site. Sensitivity regarding            timeframe over which to project costs, the expected
local affinities toward existing structures can go far to           turnaround time for attaining necessary permit
win a community’s support of a redevelopment project.               approvals, and the schedule for site assessment, site
                                                                    investigation and actual cleanup of the site, are some
Understanding what exists and what is planned provides              aspects of the overall schedule of the project.
part of the marketability picture. Particularly for smaller         Throughout the life of the project, the questions of,
brownfields projects, knowing what is missing from the              ‘how much will it cost,” and, “how long will it take,”
local community fabric can be an equally important                  must be tracked as key interacting variables.
aspect of the market analysis. Whether the “hub” of the
area’s economic life is light industry or an office                 Financing brownfields redevelopment projects presents
complex or a recreational facility, numerous other                  unique difficulties.        Many property purchase
services are needed to support the fabric of community.             transactions use the proposed purchase as collateral for
Restaurants and delicatessens, for instance, complement             financing, depending upon an appraiser’s estimate of the
many larger, more central attractions, as do many other             property’s current and projected value. In the case of a
retail, service and recreational endeavors. A survey of             brownfields site, however, a lending institution is likely
local residents will inform the planner of local needs.             to hesitate or simply close the door on such an
                                                                    arrangement due to the uncertain value and limited
Financial Analysis                                                  resale potential of the property. Another problem that
The goal of a financial analysis is to assess the financial         the developer may face in seeking financing is that
risks of the redevelopment project. A Phase I Site                  banks fear the risk of additional contamination that
Assessment will give the planner some indication of the             might be discovered later in the development process,
possible extent of environmental contamination to the               such as an underground plume of groundwater
site. Financial information continues to unfold with a              contamination that travels unexpectedly into a
Phase II Site Investigation. The process of establishing            neighboring property. Finally, though recent legislative
remedial goals and screening remedial alternatives                  changes may soften these concerns, many banks fear
requires an understanding of associated costs.                      that their connection with a brownfields project will put
Throughout these processes increasingly specific cost               them in the “chain of title” and make them potentially
information informs the planner’s decision-making                   liable for cleanup costs (Brownfields Redevelopment: A
process.    The planner’s financial analysis should,                Guidebook for Local Governments & Communities,
therefore, serve as an ongoing “conversation” with


International City/County Management Association,
                several changes have occurred in the law defining
                                                          liability related to brownfields site contamination and
A local appraiser can assist with estimation of property
         cleanup. New legislation has generally been directed to
values before and after completion of the project, as
            mitigating the strict assignment of liability established
well as evaluation of resale potential. 
                         by the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
                                                                  Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or
Some of the more notable brownfields redevelopment                “Superfund”), enacted by Congress in 1980. While
successes have been financed through consortiums of               CERCLA has had numerous positive effects, it also
lenders who agree to spread the risk. Public/private              represents barriers to redeveloping brownfields, most
financing partnerships may also be organized to finance           importantly the unknown liability costs related to
brownfields redevelopment through grants, loans, loan             uncertainty over the extent of contamination present at a
guarantees, or bonds. Examples of projects employing              site. Several successful CERCLA liability defenses
unique revenue streams, financing avenues, and tax                have evolved and the EPA has reformed its
incentives related to brownfields redevelopment are               administrative policy in support of increased
available in Lessons from the Field, Unlocking                    brownfields redevelopment. In addition to legislative
Economic Potential with an Environmental Key, by                  attempts to deal with the disincentives created by
Edith Perrer, Northeast Midwest Institute, 1997. Certain          CERCLA, most states have developed Voluntary
states, such as New Jersey, have placed a high priority           Cleanup or similar Programs with liability assurances
on brownfields redevelopment, and are dedicating                  documented in agreements with the EPA (Brownfields
significant state funding to support such initiatives. By         Redevelopment: A Guidebook for Local Governments &
contacting the appropriate state department of                    Communities, International City/County Management
environmental protection, developers can learn about              Association, 1997).
opportunities related to their particular proposal.
                                                                  Another opportunity for risk protection for the developer
Legal Liability Analysis                                          is environmental insurance. Evaluation of the need and
The purpose of legal analysis is to minimize the legal            availability of environmental insurance policies that can
liability associated with the redevelopment process. The          be streamlined to satisfy a wide range of issues should
application and parameters of zoning ordinances, as well          be part of the analysis of legal liability. Understanding
as options and limitations on use need to be clear to the         whether historical insurance policies have been retained,
developer. The need for a zoning variance and the                 as well as the applicability of such policies, is also a
political climate regarding granting of variances can be          dimension of the legal analysis.
generally ascertained through discussions with the local
real estate community. Legal counsel can help the                 Understanding tax implications, including deductibility
developer clarify property ownership, and any legal               or capitalization of environmental remediation costs, is a
encumbrances on the property, e.g. rights-of-way,                 feature of legal liability analysis. Also, federal, state or
easements. An environmental attorney can also assist              local tax or other financial incentives may be available
the planner/developer to identify applicable regulatory           to support the developer’s financing capacity.
and permitting requirements, as well as offer general
predictions regarding the time frames for attaining these         Conclusion
milestones throughout the development process. All of             If the Phase I site assessment and due diligence
the above legal concerns are relevant to any land                 adequately informs state and local officials, planners,
purchase.                                                         community representatives, and other stakeholders that
                                                                  no contamination exists at the site, or that contamination
Special legal concerns arise from the process of                  is so minimal that it does not pose a health or
redeveloping a brownfields site.    Those concerns                environmental risk, those involved may decide that
include reviewing federal and local environmental                 adequate site assessment has been accomplished and the
requirements to assess not only risks, but ongoing                process of redevelopment may proceed.
regulatory/permitting requirements. In recent years,


In some cases where evidence of contamination exists,
stakeholders may decide that enough information is
available from the site assessment and due diligence to
characterize the site and determine an appropriate
approach for site cleanup of the contamination. In other
cases, stakeholders may decide that additional testing is
warranted, and a Phase II site investigation should be
conducted, as described in the next chapter.


                                                   Chapter 4

                                           Phase II Site Investigation

Data collected during the Phase I site assessment may
conclude that contaminant(s) exist at the site and/or that
further study is necessary to determine the extent of
contamination.     The purpose of a Phase II site
investigation is to give planners and decision-makers
objective and credible data about the contamination at a
brownfields site to help them develop an appropriate
contaminant management strategy. A site investigation
is typically conducted by an environmental professional.
This process evaluates the following types of data:

�   Types of contamination present;

�   Cleanup and land reuse goals;

�   Length of time required to reach cleanup goals;

�   Post-treatment care needed; and

�   Costs.

A site investigation involves setting appropriate data
quality objectives based upon brownfields
redevelopment goals, using appropriate screening levels
for the contaminants, and conducting environmental
sampling and analysis.

Data gathering in a site investigation may typically
include soil, water, and air sampling to identify the
types, quantity, and extent of contamination in these
various environmental media. The types of data used in
a site investigation can vary from compiling existing site
data (if adequate), to conducting limited sampling of the
site, to mounting an extensive contaminant-specific or
site-specific sampling effort. Professionals should use
knowledge of past facility operations whenever possible              Various environmental companies provide site
to focus the site evaluation on those process areas where            investigation services. Additional information regarding
pollutants were stored, handled, used, or disposed.                  selection of a site investigation service can be found in
These will be the areas where potential contamination                Assessing Contractor Capabilities for Streamlined Site
will be most readily identified. Generally, to minimize              Investigations (EPA/542-R-00-001, January 2000).
costs, a site investigation begins with limited sampling
(assuming readily available data does not adequately                 This chapter provides a general approach to site
characterize the type and extent of contamination on the             investigation; planners and decision-makers should
site) and proceed to more comprehensive sampling if                  expand and refine this approach for site-specific use at
needed (e.g., if the initial sampling could not identify the         their own facilities.
geographical limits of contamination). Exhibit 4-1
shows a flow chart of the site investigation process.


Exhibit 4-1. Flow Cha rt of the S ite Investiga tion Pr ocess

Setting Data Quality Objectives                                    screening levels for contaminants in soil, water, and/or
While it is not easy, and probably impossible, to                  air. Screening levels are risk-based benchmarks that
completely characterize the contamination at a site,               represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental
decisions still have to be made. EPA’s Data Quality                media that do not pose an unacceptable risk. Sample
Objectives (DQO) process provides a framework to                   analyses of soils, water, and air at the facility can be
make decisions under circumstances of data uncertainty.            compared with these benchmarks. If onsite contaminant
  The DQO process uses a systematic approach that                  levels exceed the screening levels, further investigation
defines the purpose, scope, and quality requirements for           will be needed to determine if and to what extent
the data collection effort. The DQO process consists of            cleanup is appropriate. If contaminant concentrations
the following seven steps (EPA 2000):                              are below the screening level, for the intended use, no
                                                                   action is required.
�	 State the problem. Summarize the contamination
    problem that will require new environmental data,              Some states have developed generic screening levels
    and identify the resources available to resolve the            (e.g., for industrial and residential use), and EPA's Soil
    problem and to develop the conceptual site model.              Screening Guidance (EPA/540/R-96/128) includes
                                                                   generic screening levels for many contaminants. Generic
�	 Identify  the decision that requires new                        screening levels may not account for site-specific factors
    environmental data to address the contamination                that affect the concentration or migration of
    problem.                                                       contaminants. Alternatively, screening levels can be
                                                                   developed using site-specific factors. While site-specific
�	 Identify the inputs to the decision. Identify the               screening levels can more effectively incorporate
    information needed to support the decision and                 elements unique to the site, developing site-specific
    specify which inputs require new environmental                 standards is a time- and resource-intensive process.
    measurements.                                                  Professionals should contact their state environmental
                                                                   offices and/or EPA regional offices for assistance in
�	 Define the study boundaries. Specify the spatial and            using screening levels and in developing site-specific
   temporal aspect of the environmental media that the             screening levels.
   data must represent to support the decision.
�	 Develop a decision rule. Develop a logical “if                  Risk-based screening levels are based on calculations
   ...then ...” statement that defines the conditions that         and models that determine the likelihood that exposure
   would cause the decision-maker to choose among                  of a particular organism or plant to a particular level of a
   alternative actions.                                            contaminant would result in a certain adverse effect.
�	 Specify limits on decision errors. Specify the                  Risk-based screening levels have been developed for tap
   decision maker’s acceptable limits on decision                  water, ambient air, fish, and soil. Some states or EPA
   errors, which are used to establish performance                 regions also use regional background levels (or ranges)
   goals for limiting uncertainty in the data.                     of contaminants in soil and Maximum Contaminant
�	 Optimize the design for obtaining data. Identify the            Levels (MCLs) in water established under the Safe
   most resource-effective sampling and analysis                   Drinking Water Act as screening levels for some
   design for generating data that are expected to                 chemicals. In addition, some states and/or EPA regional
   satisfy the DQOs.                                               offices have developed equations for converting soil
                                                                   screening levels to comparative levels for the analysis of
Please refer to Data Quality Objectives Process for                air and groundwater.
Hazardous Waste Site Investigations (EPA 2000) for
more detailed information on the DQO process.                      When a contaminant concentration exceeds a screening
                                                                   level, further site assessment activities (such as sampling
Establish Screening Levels                                         the site at strategic locations and/or performing more
During the initial stages of a site investigation,                 detailed analysis) are needed to determine whether: (1)
professionals should establish an appropriate set of               the concentration of the contaminant is relatively low


and/or the extent of contamination is small and does not          technologies are available to perform these activities, as
warrant cleanup for that particular chemical, or (2) the          discussed below.
concentration or extent of contamination is high, and
that site cleanup is needed (See Chapter 5, Contaminant           Levels of Sampling and Analysis
Management, for more information.)                              There are two levels of sampling and analysis: screening
                                                                and contaminant-specific. Professionals are likely to use
Using EPA's soil screening guidance for an initial              both levels at different stages of the site investigation.
brownfields investigation may be beneficial if no
industrial screening levels are available or if the site          �	 Screening. Screening sampling and analysis use
may be used for residential purposes. However, it should              relatively low-cost technologies to take a limited
be noted that EPA's soil screening guidance was                       number of samples at the most likely points of
designed for high-risk, Tier I sites, rather than                     contamination and analyze them for a limited
brownfields, and conservatively assumes that future                   number of parameters. Screening analyses often test
reuse will be residential. Using this guidance for a non-             only for broad classes of contaminants, such as total
residential land use project could result in overly                   petroleum hydrocarbons, rather than for specific
conservative screening levels.                                        contaminants, such as benzene or toluene. Screening
                                                                      is used to narrow the range of areas of potential
 Salt Lake City, Utah
                                                contamination and reduce the number of samples
 A Brownfields Success Story:
                                        requiring further, more costly, analysis. Screening is
                                                                      generally performed on site, with a small percentage
 A site that contained an abandoned gas station,                      of samples (e.g., generally 10 percent) submitted to
 office space parking, and horse stable has been                      a state-approved laboratory for a full organic and
 transformed into the Utah Jazz’s new stadium, the                    inorganic screening analysis to validate or clarify
 Delta Center. This site will be the location for the                 the results obtained.
 2002 Winter Olympics figure skating competition.
 The new arena employs 1,452 people and                               Some geophysical methods are used in site
 generates approximately $1 million in tax                            assessments because they are noninvasive (i.e., do
 increment revenue annually.                                          not disturb environmental media as sampling does).
                                                                      Geophysical methods are commonly used to detect
                                                                      underground objects that might exist at a site, such
United States Conference of Mayors, Recycling America’s Land.         as USTs, dry wells, and drums. The two most
A National Report on Brownfields Redevelopment - Volume 3.
February, 2000.                                                       common and cost-effective technologies used in         geophysical surveys are ground-penetrating radar
                                                                      and electromagnetics. Table C-1 in Appendix C
                                                                      contains an overview of geophysical methods. For
In addition to screening levels, EPA regional offices and             more information on screening (including
some states have developed cleanup levels, known as                   geophysical) methods, please refer to Subsurface
corrective action levels. If contaminant concentrations               Characterization and Monitoring Techniques: A
are above corrective action levels, a cleanup action must             Desk Reference Guide (EPA/625/R-93003a).
be pursued. Screening levels should not be confused
with corrective action levels; Chapter 5, Contaminant             �	 Contaminant-specific.    For a more in-depth
Management, provides more information on corrective                   understanding of contamination at a site (e.g., when
action levels.                                                        screening data are not detailed enough), it may be
                                                                      necessary to analyze samples for specific
Conduct Environmental Sampling and Data                               contaminants. With contaminant-specific sampling
Analysis                                                              and analysis, the number of parameters analyzed is
Environmental sampling and data analysis are integral                 much greater than for screening-level sampling, and
parts of a site investigation process. Many different                 analysis includes more accurate, higher-cost field


    and laboratory methods. Samples are sent to a                 Field versus Laboratory Analysis
    state-approved laboratory to be tested under rigorous         The principal advantages of performing field sampling
    protocols to ensure high-quality results. Such                and field analysis are that results are immediately
    analyses may take several weeks. For some                     available and more samples can be taken during the
    contaminants, innovative field technologies are as            same sampling event; also, sampling locations can be
    capable, or nearly as capable, of achieving the               adjusted immediately to clarify the first round of
    accuracy of laboratory technologies, which allows             sampling results, if warranted. This approach may
    for a rapid turnaround of the results. The principal          reduce costs associated with conducting additional
    benefit of contaminant-specific analysis is the high          sampling events after receipt of laboratory analysis.
    quality and specificity of the analytical results.            Field assessment methods have improved significantly
                                                                  over recent years; however, while many field
Increasing the Certainty of Sampling Results                      technologies may be comparable to laboratory
Statistical Sampling Plan. Statistical sampling plans use         technologies, some field technologies may not detect
statistical principles to determine the number of samples         contamination at levels as low as laboratory methods,
needed to accurately represent the contamination                  and may not be contaminant-specific. To validate the
present. With the statistical sampling method, samples            field results or to gain more information on specific
are usually analyzed with highly accurate laboratory or           contaminants, a small percentage of the samples can be
field technologies, which increase costs and take                 sent for laboratory analysis. The choice of sampling and
additional time. Using this approach, professionals can           analytical procedures should be based on Data Quality
consult with regulators and determine in advance                  Objectives established earlier in the process, which
specific measures of allowable uncertainty (e.g., an 80           determine the quality (e.g., precision, level of detection)
percent level of confidence with a 25 percent allowable           of the data needed to adequately evaluate site conditions
error).                                                           and identify appropriate cleanup technologies.

Use of Lower-cost Technologies with Higher Detection              Sample Collection Technologies
Limits to Collect a Greater Number of Samples. This               Sample collection technologies vary widely, depending
approach provides a more comprehensive picture of                 on the medium being sampled and the type of analysis
contamination at the site, but with less detail regarding         required, based on the Data Quality Objectives (see the
the specific contamination. Such an approach would not            section on this subject earlier in this document). For
be recommended to identify the extent of contamination            example, soil samples are generally collected using
by a specific contaminant, such as benzene, but may be            spoons, scoops, and shovels, while subsurface sampling
an excellent approach for defining the extent of                  is more complex. The selection of a subsurface sample
contamination by total organic compounds with a strong            collection technology depends on the subsurface
degree of certainty.                                              conditions (e.g., consolidated materials, bedrock), the
                                                                  required sampling depth and level of analysis, and the
Site Investigation Technologies                                   extent of sampling anticipated. If subsequent sampling
This section discusses the differences between using              efforts are likely, installing semipermanent well casings
field and laboratory technologies and provides an                 with a well-drilling rig may be appropriate. If limited
overview of applicable site investigation technologies.           sampling is expected, direct push methods, such as cone
In recent years, several innovative technologies that             penetrometers, may be more cost-effective. The types of
have been field-tested and applied to hazardous waste             contaminants will also play a key role in the selection of
problems have emerged. In many cases, innovative                  sampling methods, devices, containers, and preservation
technologies may cost less than conventional techniques           techniques.
and can successfully provide the needed data. Operating
conditions may affect the cost and effectiveness of               Groundwater contamination should be assessed in all
individual technologies.                                          areas, particularly where solvents or acids have been
                                                                  used. Solvents can be very mobile in subsurface soils;
                                                                  and acids, such as those used in finishing operations,


increase the mobility of metal compounds.
Groundwater samples should be taken at and below the
water table in the surficial aquifer. Cone penetrometer
technology is a cost-effective approach for collecting
these samples. The samples then can be screened for
contaminants using field methods such as:

�      pH meters to screen for the presence of acids;
�      Colorimetric tubes to screen for volatile
       organics; and
�      X-ray fluorescence to screen for metals.

Tables C-2 through C-4 in Appendix C list more
information on various sample collection technologies,
including a comparison of detection limits and costs.

The following chapter describes various contaminant
management strategies that are available to the


                                                Chapter 5

                                         Contaminant Management

The purpose of this chapter is to help planners and
decision-makers select an appropriate remedial
alternative.    This section contains information on
developing a contaminant management plan and
discusses various contaminant management options,
from institutional controls and containment strategies,
through cleanup technologies. Finally, this chapter
provides an overview of post-construction issues that
planners and decision-makers need to consider when
selecting alternatives.

The principal factors that will influence the selection of
a cleanup technology include:

•   Types of contamination present;
•   Cleanup and land reuse goals;
•   Length of time required to reach cleanup goals;
•   Post-treatment care needed; and
•   Budget.

The selection of appropriate remedy options often
involves tradeoffs, particularly between time and cost.
A companion document, Cost Estimating Tools and
Resources for Addressing Sites Under the Brownfields
Initiative (EPA/625/R-99/001 April 1999), provides
information on cost factors and developing cost
estimates. In general, the more intensive the cleanup
approach, the more quickly the contamination will be
mitigated and the more costly the effort. In the case of
brownfields cleanup, both time and cost can be major
concerns, considering the planner’s desire to return the
facility to reuse as quickly as possible. Thus, the                definition not Superfund sites; that is, brownfields sites
planner may wish to explore a number of options and                usually have lower levels of contamination present and,
weigh carefully the costs and benefits of each.                    therefore, generally require less extensive cleanup
                                                                   efforts than Superfund sites. Nevertheless, all potential
Selection of remedial alternatives is also likely to               pathways of exposure, based on the intended reuse of
involve the input of remediation professionals. The                the site, must be addressed in the site assessment and
overview of technologies cited in this chapter provides            cleanup; if no pathways of exposure exist, less cleanup
the planner with a framework for seeking, interpreting,            (or possibly none) may be required.
and evaluating professional input.
                                                                   Some regional EPA and state offices have developed
The intended use of the brownfields site will drive the            corrective action levels (CALs) for different chemicals,
level of cleanup needed to make the site safe for                  which may serve as guidelines or legal requirements for
redevelopment and reuse. Brownfields sites are by                  cleanups. It is important to understand that screening


levels (discussed in “Performing a Phase II Site                  Institutional Controls
Assessment” above) are different from cleanup (or                 Institutional controls are mechanisms that help control
corrective action) levels. Screening levels indicate              the current and future use of, and access to, a site. They
whether further site investigation is warranted for a             are established, in the case of brownfields, to protect
particular contaminant. CALs indicate whether cleanup             people from possible contamination.           Institutional
action is needed and how extensive it needs to be.                controls can range from a security fence prohibiting
Planners should check with their state environmental              access to certain portions of the site to deed restrictions
office for guidance and/or requirements for CALs.                 imposed on the future use of the facility. If the overall
                                                                  management approach does not include the complete
Evaluate Remedial Alternatives                                    cleanup of the facility (i.e., the complete removal or
If the site investigation shows that there is an                  destruction of onsite contamination), a deed restriction
unacceptable level of contamination, the problem will             will likely be required that clearly states that hazardous
have to be remedied. Exhibit 5-1 shows a flow chart of            waste is being left in place within the site boundaries.
the remedial alternative evaluation process.                      Many state brownfields programs include institutional
Establishing Remedial Goals
The first step in evaluating remedial alternatives is to          Containment Technologies
articulate the remedial goals. Remedial goals relate very         The purpose of containment is to reduce the potential for
specifically to the intended use of the redeveloped site.         offsite migration of contaminants and possible
A property to be used for a plastics factory may not need         subsequent exposure to people and the environment.
to be cleaned up to the same level as a site that will be         Containment technologies include engineered barriers
used as a school. Future land use holds the key to                such as caps and liners for landfills, slurry walls, and
practical brownfields redevelopment plans. Knowledge              hydraulic containment. Often, soils contaminated with
of federal, state, local or tribal requirements helps to          metals can be solidified by mixing them with
ensure realistic assumptions. Community surroundings,             cement-like materials, and the resulting stabilized
as seen through a visual inspection will help provide a           material can be stored on site in a landfill. Like
context for future land uses, though many large                   institutional controls, containment technologies do not
brownfields redevelopment projects have provided the              remove the contamination, but rather mitigate potential
catalyst to overall neighborhood refurbishment.                   risk by limiting access to it.
Available funding and timeframe for the project are also
very significant factors in defining remedial goals.              For example, if contamination is found underneath the
                                                                  floor slab at a facility, leaving the contaminated
Developing a List of Options                                      materials in place and repairing any damage to the floor
Developing a list of remedial options may begin with a            slab may be justified. The likelihood that such an
literature search of existing technologies, many of which         approach will be acceptable to regulators depends on
are listed in Exhibit D-1 of this document. Analysis of           whether potential risk can be mitigated and managed
technical information on technology applicability                 effectively over the long term. In determining whether
requires a professional remediation specialist. However,          containment is feasible, professionals should consider:
general information is provided below for the
community planner/developer in order to support                   � Depth to groundwater. Professionals should be
informed interaction with the remediation professional.             prepared to prove to regulators that groundwater
Remedial alternatives fall under three categories,                  levels will not rise and contact contaminated soils.
institutional controls, containment technologies, and             � Soil types. If contaminants are left in place, native
cleanup technologies. In many cases, the final remedial             soils will be an important consideration. Sandy or
strategy will involve aspects of all three approaches.              gravelly soils are highly porous, which enable
                                                                    contaminants to migrate easily. Clay and fine silty
                                                                    soils provide a much better barrier.


Exhibit 5-1. Flow Cha rt of the R emedial Alternative E valua tion Pr ocess

Surface water control. Professionals should be prepared             Maintenance requirements associated with in situ
to prove to regulators that stormwater cannot infiltrate            technologies depend on the technology used and vary
the floor slab and flush the contaminants downward.                 widely in both effort and cost. For example,
�	 Volatilization of organic contaminants. Regulators               containment technologies such as caps and liners will
    are likely to require that air monitors be placed               require regular maintenance, such as maintaining the
    inside the building to monitor the level of organics            vegetative cover and performing periodic inspections to
    that may be escaping upward through the floor and               ensure the long-term integrity of the cover system.
    drains.                                                         Groundwater treatment systems will require varying
                                                                    levels of post-cleanup care and verification testing. If an
Cleanup Technologies                                                in situ system is in use at the site, it will require regular
Cleanup technologies may be required to remove or                   operations support and periodic maintenance to ensure
destroy onsite contamination if regulators are unwilling            that the system is operating as designed.
to accept the levels of contamination present or if the
types of contamination are not conducive to the use of              Table D-1 in Appendix D presents a comprehensive list
institutional controls or containment technologies.                 of various cleanup technologies that may be appropriate,
Cleanup technologies fall broadly into two                          based on their capital and operating costs, for use at
categories--ex situ and in situ, as described below.                brownfields sites. In addition to more conventional
                                                                    technologies, a number of innovative technology options
�	 Ex Situ. An ex situ technology treats contaminated               are listed.
    materials after they have been removed and
    transported to another location. After treatment, if            Screening and Selection of Best Remedial Option
    the remaining materials, or residuals, meet cleanup             When screening management approaches at brownfields
    goals, they can be returned to the site. If the                 sites, planners and decision-makers should consider the
    residuals do not yet meet cleanup goals, they can be            following:
    subjected to further treatment, contained on site, or
    moved to another location for storage or further                �	 Cleanup approaches can be formulated for specific
    treatment. A cost-effective approach to cleaning up                 contaminant types; however, different contaminant
    a brownfields site may be the partial treatment of                  types are likely to be found together at brownfields
    contaminated soils or groundwater, followed by                      sites, and some contaminants can interfere with
    containment, storage, or further treatment off site.                certain cleanup techniques directed at other
                                                                        contaminant types.
�	 In Situ. In situ technologies treat contamination in
    place and are often innovative technologies.                    �	 The large site areas typical of some brownfields can
    Examples of in situ technologies include                            be a great asset during cleanup because they
    phytoremediation, bioremediation, soil flushing,                    facilitate the use of land-based cleanup techniques
    oxygen-releasing compounds, air sparging, and                       such as landfilling, landfarming, solidification, and
    treatment walls. In some cases, in situ technologies                composting.
    are feasible, cost-effective choices for the types of
    contamination that are likely at brownfields sites.             �	 Consolidating similar contaminant materials at one
    Planners, however, do need to be aware that cleanup                 location and implementing a single, large-volume
    with in situ technologies is likely to take longer than             cleanup approach is often more effective than using
    with ex situ technologies. Several innovative                       several similar approaches in different areas of the
    technologies are available to address soils and                     site. At iron and steel sites for example, metals
    groundwater contaminated with organics, such as                     contamination from the blast furnace, the
    solvents and some PAHs, which are common                            ironmaking area, and the finishing shops can be
    problems at brownfields sites.                                      consolidated and cleaned up using
                                                                        solidification/stabilization techniques, with the
                                                                        residual placed in an appropriately designed landfill


   with an engineered cap. Professionals should                     �	 A clear delineation of environmental concerns at the
   investigate the likelihood that such consolidation                  site. Areas should be discussed separately if the
   may require prior regulatory approval.                              management approach for one area is different than
                                                                       that for other areas of the site. Clear documentation
�	 Some mixed contamination may require                                of existing conditions at the site and a summarized
   multicomponent treatment trains for cleanup. A                      assessment of the nature and scope of contamination
   cost-effective solution might be to combine                         should be included.
   consolidation and treatment technologies with                    �	 A recommended management approach for each
   containment where appropriate. For example, soil                    environmental concern that takes into account
   washing techniques can be used to treat a mixed soil                expected land reuse plans and the adequacy of the
   matrix contaminated with metals compounds (which                    technology selected.
   may need further stabilization) and PAHs; the soil               � A cost estimate that reflects both expected capital
   can then be placed in a landfill. Any remaining                     and operating/maintenance costs.
   contaminated soils may be subjected to chemical                  � Post-construction maintenance requirements for the
   dehalogenation to destroy the polycyclic aromatic                   recommended approach.
   hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination.                                 �	 A discussion of the assumptions made to support the
                                                                       recommended management approach, as well as the
�	 Groundwater contamination may contain multiple                      limitations of the approach.
   constituents, including solvents, metals, and PAHs.
   If this is the case, no in situ technologies can address         Planners and decision-makers can use the framework

   all contaminants; instead, groundwater must be                   developed during the initial site evaluation (see the

   extracted and treated. The treatment train is likely             section on "Site Assessment") and the controls and

   to be comprised of a chemical precipitation unit to              technologies described below to compare the

   remove the metals compounds and an air stripper to               effectiveness of the least costly approaches for meeting

   remove the organic contaminants.                                 the required management goals established in the Data

                                                                    Quality Objectives. These goals should be established

Selection of the best remedial option results from                  at levels that are consistent with the expected reuse

integrating management alternatives with reuse                      plans. Exhibit 5-2 shows the remedy implementation

alternatives to identify potential constraints on reuse.            plan development process.

Time schedules, cost, and risk factors must be
considered. Risk minimization is balanced against                   A remedy implementation plan should involve

redevelopment goals, future uses, and community needs.              stakeholders in the community in the development of the

The process of weighing alternatives rarely results in a            plan. Some examples of various stakeholders are:

plan without compromises in one or several directions.
                                                                    �   Industry;

Develop Remedy Implementation Plan                                  �   City, county, state and federal governments;

The remedy implementation plan, as developed by a                   �   Community groups, residents and leaders;

professional environmental engineer, describes the                  �   Developers and other private businesses;

approach that will be used to contain and clean up                  �   Banks and lenders;

contamination. In developing this plan, planners and                �   Environmental groups;

decision-makers should incorporate stakeholder                      �   Educational institutes;

concerns and consider a range of possible options, with             �   Community development organizations;

the intent of identifying the most cost-effective                   �   Environmental justice advocates;

approaches for cleaning up the site, considering time               �   Communities of color and low-income; and

and cost concerns. The remedy implementation plan                   �   Environmental regulatory agencies.

should include the following elements:
                                                                    Community-based organizations represent a wide range

                                                                    of issues, from environmental concerns to housing


issues to economic development. These groups can often
be helpful in educating planners and decision-makers in
the community about local brownfields sites, which can
contribute to successful brownfields site assessment and
cleanup activities. In addition, state voluntary cleanup
programs require that local communities be adequately
informed about brownfields cleanup activities. Planners
can contact the local Chamber of Commerce, local
philanthropic organizations, local service organizations,
and neighborhood committees for community input.
Representatives from EPA regional offices and state and
local environmental groups may be able to supply
relevant information and identify other appropriate
community organizations. Involving the local
community in brownfields projects is a key component
in the success of such projects.

Remedy Implementation
Many of the management technologies that leave
contamination onsite, either in containment systems or
because of the long periods required to reach
management goals, will require long-term maintenance
and possibly operation. If waste is left onsite, regulators
will likely require long-term monitoring of applicable
media (e.g., soil, water, and/or air) to ensure that the
management approach selected is continuing to function
as planned (e.g., residual contamination, if any, remains
at acceptable levels and is not migrating). If long-term
monitoring is required (e.g., by the state) periodic
sampling, analysis, and reporting requirements will also
be involved. Planners and decision-makers should be
aware of these requirements and provide for them in
cleanup budgets. Post-construction sampling, analysis,
and reporting costs can be substantial and therefore need
to be addressed in cleanup budgets.


Exhibit 5-2. Flow Cha rt of the R emedy Implem entation Plan Dev elopment Pr ocess


                                                     Chapter 6
Brownfields redevelopment contributes to the                        When used appropriately, the process described in this
revitalization of communities across the U.S. Reuse of              document will help to ensure that a good strategy is
these abandoned, contaminated sites spurs economic                  developed and implemented effectively.
growth, builds community pride, protects public health,
and helps maintain our nation's "greenfields," often at a           Once the site has been assessed and stakeholders agree
relatively low cost. This document provides brownfields             that cleanup is needed, planners, professionals and
planners and decision-makers with an overview of the                decision-makers will need to determine a remedy option.
issues likely to be encountered in brownfields                      The guidance in this document provides a framework for
redevelopment and technical methods that can be used                the planner to gain a general understanding of the
to achieve successful site assessment and contaminant               various remedy options. The remedy depends largely on
management, which are two key components in the                     the type and level of contamination present, land reuse
brownfields redevelopment process.                                  goals, and the budget available. Certain cleanup
                                                                    technologies are used onsite, while others require offsite
While the general guidance provided in this document                treatment. Also, in certain circumstances, containment
will be applicable to many brownfields projects, it is              of contamination onsite and the use of institutional
important to recognize that no two brownfields sites will           controls may be important components of the cleanup
be identical, and planners and decision-makers will need            effort. Finally, planners will need to include budgetary
to base site assessment and contaminant management                  provisions and plans for post-cleanup and
activities on the conditions at their particular site. Some         post-construction care if it is required at the brownfields
of the conditions that may vary by site include: the type           site. By developing a technically sound site assessment
of contaminants present, the geographic location and                and cleanup approach that is based on site-specific
extent of contamination, the availability of site records,          conditions and addresses the concerns of all project
hydrogeological conditions, and state and local                     stakeholders, planners and decision-makers can achieve
regulatory requirements. Based on these factors, as well            brownfields redevelopment and land reuse goals
as financial resources and desired timeframes, planners             effectively and safely.
and decision-makers will find different assessment and
contaminant management approaches appropriate.

Consultation with state and local environmental officials
and community leaders, as well as careful planning early
in the project, will assist planners and decision-makers
in developing the most appropriate site assessment and
contaminant management approaches. Planners will also
likely require the assistance of environmental engineers.
A site assessment strategy should be developed by
consensus with all stakeholders and address:

� The type and extent of any contamination present at
  the site;
� The types of data needed to adequately assess the
� Appropriate sampling and analytical methods for
  characterizing contamination; and
� An acceptable level of data uncertainty .


                                                  Appendix A

ASTM       American Society for T esting and M aterials

BTEX       Benzene, T oluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene

CER CLIS   Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System

DQO        Data Quality Objective

EPA        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

NPDES      National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

O&M        Operations and Maintenance

ORD        Office of Research and Development

OSWER      Office of Solid W aste and E mergenc y Respo nse

PAH        Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon

PCB        Polychlorinated B iphenyl

PCP        Pentachlorophenol

RCRA       Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

SVE        Soil Vapor Extraction

SVOC       Semi-Volatile Organic Compound

TCE        Trichloroethylene

TIO        Technology Innovation Office

TPH        Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon

UST        Underground Storage Tank

VCP        Voluntary Cleanup Program

VOC        Volatile Organic Compo und


                                                          Appendix B
Air Spa rging In air sparging, air is injected into the ground            vacuum. Bioventing can be effective in cleaning up releases of
below a contaminated area, forming bubbles that rise and carry            petroleum products, such as gasoline, jet fuels, kerosene, and
trapped and dissolved contaminants to the surface where they              diesel fuel. See also Bioremediation.
are captured by a soil vapor extraction system. Air sparging
                                                                          Bo rehole A borehole is a hole cut into the ground by means of
may be a good choice of treatment techno logy at sites
                                                                          a drilling rig.
contaminated with solve nts and other volatile organic
compounds (VOCs). See also Volatile Organic Compound.                     Bo rehole Geophysics Borehole geophysics are nuclear or
                                                                          electric techno logies u sed to identify the physical
Air Stripping Air stripping is a treatment method that
                                                                          characteristics of geo logic formatio ns that are intersected by a
removes or "strips" VOCs from contaminated groundwater or
surface water as air is forced through the water, causing the
compounds to evaporate. See also Volatile Organic                         Brownfields Brownfields sites are abandoned, idled, or
Compound.                                                                 under-used industrial and commercial facilities where
                                                                          expansion or red evelo pme nt is com plicated by real or
American Society for Testing and M aterials (ASTM) The
                                                                          perceived environmental contamination.
ASTM sets standards for many services, including methods of
sampling and testing of hazardou s waste, and media                       BTEX BTE X is the term used for benzene, toluene,
contaminated with hazardous waste.                                        ethylbenzene, and xylene--vo latile aromatic compounds
                                                                          typically found in petroleum products, such as gasoline and
Aquifer An aquifer is an underground rock formation
                                                                          diesel fuel.
composed of such materials as sand, soil, or gravel that can
store ground water and sup ply it to wells and springs.                   Cadmium Cadmium is a heavy metal that accumulates in the
                                                                          enviro nment. See also H eavy M etal.
Aromatics Aromatics are organic com pou nds that contain
6-carbon ring structures, such as creosote, toluene, and pheno l,         Carbon Adsorption Carbon adsorption is a treatment method
that often are foun d at dry cleaning and electro nic assembly            that remo ves co ntaminants from groundwater or surface water
sites.                                                                    as the water is forced through tanks containing activated
Baseline Risk Assessment A baseline risk assessment is an
assessment conducted before cleanup activities begin at a site            Chemical Dehalogenatio n Chem ical dehaloge nation is a
to identify and evaluate the threat to human health and the               chemical process that remo ves halogens (usually chlorine)
environm ent. After cleanup has been completed, the                       from a chem ical contaminant, rendering the co ntaminant less
information obtained during a baseline risk assessment can be             hazardo us. The chemical dehalogenation process can be
used to determine whether the cleanup levels were reached.                applied to common halogenated co ntaminants such as
                                                                          polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (DDT ), and certain
Bedrock Bedrock is the rock that underlies the soil; it can be
                                                                          chlorinated pesticides, which may be present in soil and oils.
perm eable or non-permeable. See also Confining Layer and
                                                                          The treatment time is short, energy requirements are moderate,
                                                                          and operation a nd maintenance costs are relatively low. This
Bioremediation Bioremediation refers to treatment processes               technology can be brought to the site, eliminating the need to
that use microorganisms (usually naturally occurring) such as             transport hazardous wastes. See also Polychlorinated
bacteria, yeast, or fungi to break down hazardous substances              Bip henyl.
into less toxic or nontoxic substances. Bioremediation can be
                                                                          Cleanup Cleanup is the term used for actions taken to deal
used to clean up contaminated soil and water. In situ
                                                                          with a release or threat of release of a hazardous substance that
bioremediation treats the con taminated soil or groundw ater in
                                                                          could affect humans and /or env ironm ent.
the location in which it is found . For ex situ bioreme diation
proce sses, contaminated soil must be excavated or                        Co lorimetric Colorimetric refers to chemical reaction-based
groundwater pumped before they can be treated.                            indicators that are used to produce com pou nd reactions to
                                                                          individual com pou nds, or classes of compounds. The
Bioventing Bioventing is an in situ cleanup technology that
                                                                          reactions, such as visible color changes or other easily noted
combines soil vapor extraction methods with bioremediation.
                                                                          indications, are used to detect and quantify contaminan ts.
It uses vapor extraction wells that induce air flow in the
subsurface through air injectio n or through the use o f a


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation,                         conductive properties, such as ferrous and nonferrous metals.
and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) CERCLIS is                       The secondary magnetic field is then used to detect and
a database that serves as the official inventory of Superfund               measure b uried deb ris.
hazardous waste sites. CERCL IS also contains information
                                                                            Emergency Removal An emergency removal is an action
about all aspects of hazardous w aste sites, from initial
                                                                            initiated in response to a release of a hazardous substance that
discovery to deletion from the National Priorities List (NPL).
                                                                            requires on-site ac tivity within hours of a d etermination that
The database also maintains information about planned and
                                                                            action is appropriate.
actual site activities and financial information entered by EPA
regional offices. CER CLIS record s the targets and                         Emerging Technology An em erging technology is an
acco mplishments of the Superfund program and is used to                    innovative technology that currently is und ergoing bench-scale
report that information to the EP A Ad ministrator, Congress,               testing. During bench-scale testing, a small version of the
and the public. See also National Priorities List and Superfund.            technology is built and tested in a laboratory. If the technology
                                                                            is successful during bench-scale testing, it is demonstrated on a
Confining Layer A confining layer is a geological formation
                                                                            small scale at field sites. If the technology is successful at the
characterized by low permeability that inhibits the flow of
                                                                            field demo nstrations, it often will be used full scale at
water. S ee also Bedrock and Permeability.
                                                                            contaminated waste sites. The techno logy is co ntinually
Contaminant A co ntaminant is any p hysical, chemical,                      improved as it is used and evaluated at different sites. See also
biolo gical, or radiological substance or matter present in any             Estab lished T echnology and Innov ative T echnology.
med ia at concentrations that m ay result in adverse effects on
                                                                            Engineered Control An en gineered co ntrol, such as ba rriers
air, water, or soil.
                                                                            placed between contamination and the rest of a site, is a
Data Quality Objective (DQO) DQ Os are qualitative and                      method of managing environmental and health risks.
quantitative stateme nts specified to ensure that data of known             Engineered controls ca n be used to limit exposure pathways.
and appro priate quality are ob tained. The DQ O pro cess is a
                                                                            Established Technology An established technology is a
series of planning step s, typically conducted d uring site
                                                                            technology for which cost and performance inform ation is
assessment and investigatio n, that is designed to ensure that
                                                                            readily available. Only after a technology has been used at
the type, quantity, and q uality of environmental data used in
                                                                            many different sites and the results fully docume nted is that
decision-making are appropriate. The DQO pro cess involves a
                                                                            technology considered established. The most frequently used
logical, step-by-step procedure for determining which of the
                                                                            established technologies are incineration, solidification and
complex issues affec ting a site are the mo st relevant to
                                                                            s ta biliz a tion, a n d pump-and -treat tech nolo gies fo r
planning a site investigation befo re any d ata are collected.
                                                                            groundwater. See also Emerging Technology and Innova tive
Disposal Disp osal is the final placement or destruction of                 Techno logy.
toxic, radioactive or other wastes; surplus or banned pesticides
                                                                            Exposure Pathway An exposure pathway is the route of
or other chemicals; polluted soils; and drums containing
                                                                            contaminants from the source of contamination to potential
hazardous materials from removal actions or accidental
                                                                            contact with a medium (air, soil, surface water, or
release. Disposal may be accomp lished through the use of
                                                                            groundwater) that represents a potential threat to huma n health
approved secure landfills, surface impoundments, land
                                                                            or the environment. Determining whether exposure pathways
farming , deep well injec tion, oc ean d ump ing, or inc ineration.
                                                                            exist is an essential step in cond ucting a baseline risk
Dua l-Phase Extraction Dual-phase extraction is a technology                assessm ent. See also B aseline Risk A ssessment.
that extracts contaminants simu ltaneously from soils in
                                                                            Ex Situ The term ex situ or "mov ed fro m its original plac e,"
saturated and unsaturated zones by applying soil vapor
                                                                            means excavated or removed.
extraction techniques to contaminants trapped in saturated
zone so ils.                                                                Filtration Filtration is a treatm ent pro cess that remo ves solid
                                                                            matter from water by passing the water through a porous
Electrom agn etic (EM ) Geophysics EM geop hysics refers to
                                                                            medium, such as sand or a manufactured filter.
technologies used to detect spa tial (lateral and vertical)
differences in subsurface electromagnetic characteristics. The              Flame Ionization Detector (FID) An FID is an instrument
data collected provide information about subsurface                         often used in conjunction with gas chromatography to measure
enviro nments.                                                              the change of signal as analytes are ionized by a hyd rogen-air
                                                                            flame. It also is used to detect ph enols, phthalates,
Electrom agn etic (EM ) Induction EM induction is a
                                                                            polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), VO Cs, and petroleum
geophysical techno logy used to ind uce a magn etic field
                                                                            hydrocarbons. See also Polyaromatic Hydrocarbo ns and
beneath the earth's surface, which in turn causes a secondary
                                                                            Volatile Organic Co mpo unds.
magnetic field to form around nearby objects that have


Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy A Fourier transform                     Hydrogeology Hyd rogeology is the study o f groundwater,
infrared spectroscope is an analytical air monitoring tool that                 including its origin, occurrence, movement, and quality.
uses a laser system chem ically to ide ntify contaminan ts.
                                                                                Hydrology Hydrology is the science that deals with the
Fumigant A fumigant is a pesticide tha t is vapo rized to kill                  prop erties, movement, and effects of water found on the earth's
pests. T hey often are used in b uildings and greenhouses.                      surface, in the soil and rocks beneath the surface, and in the
Furan Furan is a colorless, volatile liqu id compo und used in
the synthesis of organic compounds, especially nylon.                           Ignitability Ignitable wastes can create fires unde r certain
                                                                                conditions. Examples include liquids, such as solvents that
Gas Chromatography Gas chromatography is a technology
                                                                                readily catch fire, and friction-sensitive substances.
used for investigating an d assessing soil, water, and soil gas
contamination at a site. It is used for the analysis of VOCs and                Immunoassay Immunoassay is a technology used to measure
semivolatile organic compound s (SVOC ). The technique                          compound-specific reactio ns (generally co lorime tric) to
identifies and quantifies organic compounds on the basis of                     individual comp ounds o r classes of compounds. T he reactions
molecular weight, characteristic fragmentation patterns, and                    are used to detect and quantify contaminants. The technology
retention time. Recent advances in gas chromatography                           is available in field-portable test kits.
considered innovative are portable, weather-proof units that
                                                                                Incineration Incineration is a treatme nt technology that
have self-contained power supplies.
                                                                                involves the burning of certain types of solid, liquid, or
Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) GPR is a technology that                         gaseous materials under controlled conditions to destroy
emits pulses of electromagnetic energy into the ground to                       hazardous waste.
measure its reflection and refraction by subsurface layers and
                                                                                Infrared Monitor An infra red m onitor is a device used to
other features, such as buried deb ris.
                                                                                monitor the heat signature of an object, as well as to sam ple
Groundwater Groundwa ter is the water found beneath the                         air. It may b e used to detect buried o bjec ts in soil.
earth's surface that fills pores between such materials as sand,
                                                                                Inor gan ic Compound An inorganic comp ound is a compound
soil, or gravel and that often supplies wells and springs. See
                                                                                that generally does not contain carbon atoms (although
also Aquifer.
                                                                                carbonate and bicarbonate compo unds are notable exceptions),
Hazardous Substance A hazardous substance is any material                       tends to be soluble in water, and tends to react o n an ionic
that pose s a threat to public health or the environment. Typical               rather than on a molecular basis. Examples of ino rganic
hazardous substances are materials that are toxic, corrosive,                   compounds include vario us acid s, potassium hydroxide, and
ignitable, explo sive, or chem ically reactive. If a certain                    metals.
quantity of a hazardous substance, as establishe d by E PA , is
                                                                                Innovative Technology An innovative technology is a process
spilled into the water or otherwise emitted into the
                                                                                that has been tested and used as a treatment for hazardous
enviro nment, the release must be reported . Und er certain
                                                                                waste or other contaminated materials, but lacks a long history
federal legislation, the term excludes petroleum, crude oil,
                                                                                of full-scale use and information ab out its co st and how well it
natural gas, natural gas liquids, or synthetic gas usab le for fuel.
                                                                                works sufficient to su ppo rt pred iction of its performance under
Heavy M etal Heavy me tal refers to a group of toxic metals                     a variety of operating conditions. An innovative technology is
including arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver,                     one that is undergoing pilot-scale trea tability studies that are
and zinc. Heavy metals often are prese nt at industrial sites at                usually conducted in the field or the laboratory; require
which operations have included battery recycling and metal                      installation of the technology; and provide perfo rmance, co st,
plating.                                                                        and design objectives for the technology. Innovative
                                                                                technologies are being used under many Federal and state
H i g h - F r e q u e n c y E l e c tr o m a g n e tic (E M) Sound in g
                                                                                cleanup programs to treat hazardous wastes that have been
High-frequency EM sounding, the technology used for
                                                                                imprope rly release d. Fo r exam ple, inno vative techno logies are
non-intrusive geophysical exploration, projects high-frequency
                                                                                being selected to m anage con tamination (primarily petroleum)
electromagnetic radiation into subsurface layers to d etect the
                                                                                at some leaking underground storage sites. See also Emerging
reflection and refraction of the radiation by various layers of
                                                                                Techno logy and Establishe d T echnology.
soil. Unlike ground-penetrating radar, which uses pulses, the
technology uses co ntinuous waves of rad iation. See also                       In Situ The term in situ, "in its original place," or "on-site",
Gro und-P enetrating Radar.                                                     means unexcavated and unmoved. In situ soil flushing and
                                                                                natural attenuation are examples of in situ treatment methods
Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is an organic compound
                                                                                by which contaminated sites are treated without digging up or
containing only hydrogen and carbon, often occurring in
                                                                                removing the contaminants.
petro leum, natural ga s, and c oal.


In Situ Oxidation In situ oxidation is an innovative treatment              Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) LUST is the
technology that oxidizes co ntaminants that are disso lved in               acronym for "leaking underground storage tank." See also
ground water and converts them into inso luble com pound s.                 Underground Storage Tank.

In Situ Soil Flushing In situ soil flushing is an innovative                M agnetrometry Magnetrometry is a geo physical technology
treatment techno logy that floods contaminated soils beneath                used to detect disruptio ns that me tal objects cause in the earth's
the ground surface with a solution that moves the contaminants              localized magnetic field.
to an area from which they can be removed. T he technology
                                                                            M ass Spectrometry M ass spectrometry is an analytical
requires the drilling of injection and extra ction wells on site
                                                                            process by which molecules are broken into frag ments to
and redu ces the need for excavation, handling, or
                                                                            determine the concentrations and mass/charge ratio of the
transportation of hazardo us substances. Contaminants
                                                                            fragments. Innovative mass spectroscopy units, developed
considered for treatment by in situ soil flushing include heavy
                                                                            through modification of large laboratory instruments, are
metals (such as lead, copper, and zinc), aromatics, and PC Bs.
                                                                            sometimes portable, weatherproof units with self-contained
See also A romatics, Heavy Metal, and Polychlorinated
                                                                            powe r supplies.
Bip henyl.
                                                                            M edium A me dium is a spec ific enviro nment -- air, water, o r
In Situ Vitrification In situ vitrification is a soil treatment
                                                                            soil -- which is the subject of regulatory concern and activities.
technology that stabilizes metal and other inorganic
contaminants in place at temperatures of approximately 3000•                M ercury M ercury is a heavy metal that can accumulate in the
F. Soils and sludges are fused to form a stable glass and                   environment and is highly toxic if breathed or swallowed.
crystalline structure with very low leaching charac teristics.              Mercury is found in thermometers, measuring devices,
                                                                            pharmaceutical and agricultural chem icals, chem ical
Institutional Controls An institutional control is a legal or
                                                                            manufacturing, and electrical equipment. See also Heavy
institutional measure which subjects a property owner to limit
activities at or access to a particular property. T hey are used to
ensure protection of human health and the environment, and to               Mercury Vapor Analyzer A mercury vapor analyzer is an
expedite property reuse. Fe nces, p osting or warning signs, and            instrument that provides real-time measurem ents of
zoning and deed restrictions are examples of institutional                  concentrations of mercury in the air.
                                                                            M ethane Methane is a colorless, nonpoisonous, flammable
Integrated Risk Information S ystem (IRIS) IRIS is an                       gas created by anaerobic decomposition of o rganic
electro nic database that contains EP A's latest descriptive and            comp ounds.
quantitative regula tory inform atio n about chemical
                                                                            M igration Pathway A migration p athway is a potential path
constituents. Files on chem icals ma intained in IRIS contain
                                                                            or route of contaminants from the source of contaminatio n to
information related to both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic
                                                                            contact with human populations or the environment. Migration
health effects.
                                                                            pathw ays include air, surface water, groundwater, and land
Landfarming Landfarming is the spreading and incorporation                  surface. The existence and identification of all potential
of waste s into the so il to initiate bio logical treatment.                migration pathways must be considered during assessment and
                                                                            characterization of a waste site.
Landfill A sanitary landfill is a land disposal site for
nonhazardous solid wastes at which the waste is spread in                   M ixed W aste Mixed waste is low-level radioactive waste
layers compacted to the smallest practical volume.                          contaminated with hazardo us waste that is regulate d under the
                                                                            Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Mixed
Laser-Induced Fluorescence/Cone P enetromete r
                                                                            waste can be disposed only in compliance with the
Laser-induced fluoresc ence/cone pene trometer is a field
                                                                            requirements under RCRA that govern disposal of hazardous
screening metho d that coup les a fiber optic-based chemical
                                                                            waste and with the RCRA land disposal restrictions, which
sensor system to a cone penetrometer mounted on a truck. The
                                                                            require that waste be treated before it is disp osed of in
technology can be used for investigating and assessing soil and
                                                                            appro priate landfills.
water contam ination.
                                                                            M onitoring W ell A mo nitoring well is a well drilled at a
Lead Lead is a heavy metal that is haza rdous to health if
                                                                            specific locatio n on o r off a hazardous waste site at which
breathed or swallowed. Its use in gasoline, paints, and
                                                                            groundwater can be samp led at selected depths and studied to
plumbing compounds has been sharply restricted or eliminated
                                                                            determine the direction of groundwater flow and the types and
by Federal laws and regulations. Se e also H eavy M etal.
                                                                            quantities of contaminants present in the groundwater.


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)                     repel, any pest. Pesticides ca n accumula te in the food chain
NPDES is the prim ary permitting program under the Clean                    and/or co ntaminate the environment if misused .
W ater Act, which regulates all d ischarges to surface water. It
                                                                            Pheno ls A phenol is one o f a group of o rganic compounds that
prohibits discharge of pollutants into waters of the United
                                                                            are byproducts of petroleum refining, tanning, and textile, dye,
States unless EP A, a state, or a tribal governm ent issues a
                                                                            and resin manufacturing. Low concentrations o f phenols cause
special permit to do so.
                                                                            taste and odor problems in water; higher concentrations may
National Priorities List (NPL) The N PL is EPA 's list of the               be ha rmful to huma n health or the environment.
most serious uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites
                                                                            Photoionization Detector (PID) A PID is a nondestructive
identified for possible long-term cleanup under Superfund.
                                                                            detector, often used in conjunction with gas chrom atography,
Inclusion of a site on the list is based primarily on the score the
                                                                            that measures the change of signal as analytes are ionized by
site receives under the Hazard Ranking System (HRS). Money
                                                                            an ultraviolet lamp. The PID is also used to detect VOC s and
from Superfund can be used for cleanup only at sites that are
                                                                            petroleum hydrocarbons.
on the NP L. EP A is required to update the NPL at least once a
year.                                                                       Phytoremediation Phyto reme diation is an inno vative
                                                                            treatment techno logy that uses plants and trees to clean up
Natural Attenuation Natural attenuation is an approach to
                                                                            contaminated soil and water. P lants can break down, or
cleanup that uses natural processes to contain the spread of
                                                                            degrade, organic pollutants or stabilize metal contaminants by
contamination from chemical spills and reduce the
                                                                            acting as filters or traps. Phytoremediation can be used to
concentrations and am ounts of po llutants in contaminated soil
                                                                            clean up metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil,
and groundwater. Natural subsurface processes, such as
                                                                            polyaromatic hydro carbons, an d land fill leachates. Its use
dilution, volatilization, biodegradation, adsorption, and
                                                                            generally is limited to sites at which concentrations of
chemical reactions with subsurface materials, reduce
                                                                            contaminants are relatively low and co ntamination is found in
concentrations of contaminants to acceptable levels. An in situ
                                                                            shallow soils, streams, and groundwater.
treatment method that leaves the contaminants in place while
those processes occur, natural attenuation is be ing used to                Plasma High-Temperature Metals Recovery Plasma
clean up petroleum contamination from leaking underground                   high-temperature meta ls recovery is a thermal treatment
storage tanks (LU ST ) acro ss the co untry.                                process that purges contaminants from solids and soils such as
                                                                            metal fumes and organic vapors. The vapors can be burned as
Non-Point Source The term no n-point sourc e is used to
                                                                            fuel, and the metal fumes can be recovered and recycled. This
identify sources of pollution that are diffuse and do not have a
                                                                            innovative treatment technology is used to treat contaminated
point of origin or that are not introduced into a receiving
                                                                            soil and groundwater.
stream from a specific outlet. Commo n non-point sources are
rain water, runoff from agricultural lands, industrial sites,               Plume A plume is a visible or measurable emission or
parking lots, and timber operations, as well as escaping gases              discharge of a co ntaminant from a given point of origin into
from pipe s and fittings.                                                   any medium. The term also is used to refer to measurable and
                                                                            potentially harmful radiation leaking from a damaged reactor.
Operation and Maintenance (O&M) O& M refers to the
activities conducted at a site, following remedial a ctions, to             Point Source A point source is a stationary location or fixed
ensure that the cleanup methods are working properly. O&M                   facility from which pollutants are discharged or emitted; or any
activities are conducted to maintain the effectiveness of the               single, identifiable discharge point of pollution, such as a pipe,
cleanup and to ensure that no new threat to human health or                 ditch, or smokestack.
the e nv iro nm en t a rises. O &M may include such activities as
                                                                            Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) PCBs are a group of toxic,
groundwater and air monitoring, inspection and maintenance
                                                                            persistent chem icals, pro duced by chlorination o f biphe nyl,
of the treatment equipment remaining on site, and maintenance
                                                                            that once were used in high voltage electrical transformers
of any security measures o r institutional controls.
                                                                            because they conducted heat well while being fire resistant and
Or gan ic Chemical or Compound An organic chemical or                       good electrical insulators. These contaminants typically are
compo und is a substance produced by animals or plants that                 generated from metal degreasing, printed circuit board
contains mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.                               cleaning, gasoline, and wood preserving processes. Further
                                                                            sale or use of PCBs was banned in 1979.
Permea bility Permeab ility is a characteristic that represents a
qualitative description of the relative ease with which rock,               Polyaroma tic Hydrocarbon (PAH) A PAH is a chemical
soil, or sediment will transmit a fluid (liquid or gas).                    compo und that contains more than one fused benzene ring.
                                                                            They are com monly found in petroleum fuels, coal produ cts,
Pesticide A pesticide is a sub stance or mixture of substances
                                                                            and tar.
intended to prevent or mitigate infestation by, or destroy or


Pump and T reat P ump and tre at is a general term used to                Site Assessment A site assessment is an initial environmental
describe cleanu p me thods that invo lve the pumping of                   investigation that is limited to a historical records search to
groundwater to the surface for treatment. It is one of the mo st          determine ownership of a site and to identify the kinds of
common methods of treating polluted aquifers and                          chemical processes that were carried out at the site. A site
groundwater.                                                              assessment includes a site visit, but does not include any
                                                                          sampling. If such an assessment identifies no significant
Radioactive Wa ste Rad ioactive waste is any waste that em its
                                                                          concerns, a site investigation is not necessary.
energy as rays, waves, or streams of energ etic particles.
Sources of such wastes include nuclear reactors, research                 Site Investigation A site investigation is an investigation that
institutions, and ho spitals.                                             includes tests performed at the site to confirm the location and
                                                                          identity environmental hazards. The assessment includes
Radionuclide A radionuclide is a radioactive element
                                                                          preparation of a report that includes recommendations for
characterized according to its atomic mass and atomic number,
                                                                          cleanup alternatives.
which can be artificial or naturally occurring. Radionuclides
have a long life as soil or water pollutants. Radionuclides               Sludge Sludge is a semisolid residue from air or water
cannot be destroyed or degraded; there fore, ap plicab le                 treatment processes. Residues from treatment of metal wastes
technologies involve separation, concentration and volume                 and the mixture of waste and soil at the bo ttom o f a waste
reduction, immobilization, or vitrification. S ee also                    lagoon are examples of sludge, which can be a hazardous
Solidification and Stabilization.                                         waste.

Radon Rad on is a colorless, naturally occurring, radio active,           Slurry -Pha se Bioremediation Slurry-phase bio-remediation,
inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium               a treatme nt technology that can be use d alone or in
atoms. See also Radioactive Waste and Radionuclide.                       conjunction with other biological, chemical, and physical
                                                                          treatments, is a process through which organic contaminants
Release A release is any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring,
                                                                          are converted to innoc uous compo unds. Slurry-phase
emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, leaching, dumping,
                                                                          bioremediation can b e effective in treating various
or dispo sing into the environm ent of a hazardous or to xic
                                                                          semi-vo latile organic carb ons (S VO Cs) and no nvolatile
chemical or extremely hazardous substance, as defined under
                                                                          orga nic com pou nds, as well a s fu els, creo sote ,
RCRA. See also Resource C onservation and R ecovery Act.
                                                                          pe n ta c hlo rop he no ls ( P C P ) , a nd P C B s . See a l so
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) RCRA                        Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Semi-Volatile Organic Carbon.
is a Federal law enacted in 1976 that established a regulatory
                                                                          Soil Bo ring Soil boring is a process by which a soil sample is
system to track hazardous substances from their generation to
                                                                          extracted from the ground for chemical, biological, and
their disposal. The law requires the use of safe and secure
                                                                          analytical testing to determine the level of contamination
procedures in treating, transporting, storing, and disposing of
                                                                          prese nt.
hazardous substances. RCRA is designed to prevent the
creation of new , uncontrolled ha zardous waste sites.                    Soil Gas Soil gas consists of gaseous elements and compounds
                                                                          that occur in the small spaces b etween p articles o f the earth
Risk Communication Risk communication, the exchange of
                                                                          and soil. Such gases can m ove through or leave the soil or
information about health o r enviro nmental risks among risk
                                                                          rock, depending on chang es in pressure.
assessors, risk managers, the local com munity, ne ws media
and interest groups, is the process of informing members of the           Soil Washing Soil washing is an innovative treatment
local community about environmental risks associated with a               technology that uses liquids (usually water, sometimes
site and the steps that are being taken to mana ge those risks.           combined with chemical additives) and a mechanical process
                                                                          to scrub soils, removes hazardous contaminants, and
Saturated Zone The saturated zone is the area beneath the
                                                                          concentrates the contaminants into a smaller volume. The
surface of the land in which all openings are filled with water
                                                                          technology is used to treat a wide range of contaminants, such
at greater than atmospheric pressure.
                                                                          as metals, gasoline, fuel oils, and pesticides. Soil washing is a
Seism ic Reflection and Refraction Seismic reflection and                 relatively low-co st alternative for separating waste and
refraction is a technology used to examine the geophysical                minimizing volume as necessary to facilitate subsequent
features of soil and bed rock, such as d ebris, buried ch annels,         treatment. It is often used in com bination with other treatment
and other features.                                                       technologies. The technology can be brought to the site,
                                                                          thereby eliminating the need to transport hazardous wastes.
Sem i-Vo latile Organic Compound (SVOC) SVOCs,
composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms, have                     Solidification and Stab iliz ation Solidification and
boiling points greater than 200• C. Common SVOCs include                  stabilization are the proc esses of remo ving wastewater from a
PC Bs and pheno l. See also Polychlo rinated Biphenyl.                    waste or changing it chemically to make the w aste less


perm eable and susceptible to transport by water. Solidification           collected for further treatment or destruction, typically by an
and stabilization technologies can immobilize many heavy                   air emissio ns treatm ent system . The technolog y is most
metals, certain radionuclides, and selected organic co mpo unds,           effective at treating VO Cs, SV OC s and other o rganic
while decreasing the surface area and permeability of many                 contaminants, such as PCBs, polyaromatic hydrocarbons
types of sludge, con taminated soils, and solid wastes.                    (PAH s), and p esticides. It is effective in separating organics
                                                                           from refining wastes, coal tar wastes, waste from wood
Solvent A solvent is a substance, usually liquid, that is capa ble
                                                                           treatment, and paint wastes. It also can separate solvents,
of dissolving or dispersing one o r more o ther substances.
                                                                           pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, and fuel oils from contaminated
Solvent Extraction Solvent extraction is an innovative                     soil. See also Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon, Polychlorinated
treatment technology that uses a solvent to separate or remove             Bip henyl, Semivolatile Organic Compo und, and V olatile
hazardous organic co ntaminants from o ily-type wastes, soils,             Organic Compound.
sludges, and sediments. T he technology does not destroy
                                                                           Total Petroleum H ydroca rbon (TP H) TP H refers to a
contaminants, but concentrates them so they can be recycled or
                                                                           measure of concentration or mass of petroleum hydrocarbon
destroyed more easily by another technology. Solvent
                                                                           constituents present in a given amount of air, soil, or water.
extraction has been shown to be effective in treating
sediments, sludges, and soils that contain primarily organic               Toxicity Toxicity is a quantification of the degree of danger
contaminants, such as PC Bs, V OC s, halogenated organic                   posed by a substance to animal or plant life.
comp ounds, and p etroleum wastes. Su ch co ntaminants
                                                                           Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) The
typically are generate d from metal d egrea sing, printed circ uit
                                                                           TCLP is a testing procedure used to identify the toxicity of
board cleaning, gasoline, and wood preserving processes.
                                                                           wastes and is the most commonly used test for determining the
Solvent extraction is a transportable technology that can be
                                                                           degree of mobilization offered by a solidification and
brought to the site. See also Polychlorinated Biphenyl and
                                                                           stabilization process. U nder this pro cedure, a waste is
Volatile Organic Compound.
                                                                           subjected to a process designed to mo del the leaching effects
Surfactant Flushing Surfactant flushing is an innovative                   that would o ccur if the waste was disposed of in a RCRA
treatment techno logy used to treat contaminated groundwater.              Subtitle D municipal landfill. See also Solidification and
Surfactant flushing of NAP Ls increases the solubility and                 Stabilization.
mob ility of the contaminants in water so that the NAPLs can
                                                                           Toxic Substance A toxic substance is a chemical or mixture
be biod egrad ed m ore easily in an aquifer or recovered for
                                                                           that may present an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the
treatment aboveground.
                                                                           enviro nment.
Surface Wa ter Surface water is all water naturally open to the
                                                                           Treatment W all (also Passive T reatmen t W all) A treatment
atmosphere, such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams, and seas.
                                                                           wall is a structure installed underground to treat contaminated
Superfund Superfund is the trust fund that provides for the                groundwater found at hazardous waste sites. Treatment walls,
cleanup of significantly hazardous substances released into the            also called passive treatment walls, are put in place by
enviro nment, regardless o f fault. The Superfund was                      constructing a giant trench across the flow path of
established under Comprehensive Environmental Response,                    contaminated groundwater and filling the trench with one of a
Compensation, and Liab ility Act (CERC LA) and subsequent                  variety of materials carefully selected for the ability to clean
amendm ents to CERCLA . The term Superfund is also used to                 up specific types of contaminan ts. As the contam inated
refer to cleanup programs designed and conducted under                     groundwater passes through the treatment wall, the
CER CLA and its subsequent amend ments.                                    contaminants are trap ped by the treatment wall or transformed
                                                                           into harmless substances that flow out of the wall. The major
Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
                                                                           advantage of using tre atment walls is that they are passive
S A R A is the 1986 act amending Co mpr ehen sive
                                                                           systems that treat the contaminan ts in place so the property can
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
                                                                           be put to productive use while it is being cleaned up.
(CERCLA) that increased the size of the Superfund trust fund
                                                                           Treatment walls are useful at some sites contaminated with
and established a p reference for the development and use of
                                                                           chlorinated solvents, metals, o r radio active contam inants.
permanent remedies, and provided new enforcement and
settleme nt tools.                                                         Underground Storage Tank (UST) A UST is a tank located
                                                                           entirely or partially underground that is designed to hold
Thermal Deso rption Thermal desorption is an innovative
                                                                           gasoline or o ther petroleum products or chem ical solutions.
treatment techno logy that heats soils contaminated with
hazardous wastes to temperatures from 200• to 1,000• F so that             Unsaturated Zone The unsaturated zon e is the area between
contaminants that have low boiling points will vaporize and                the land surface and the uppermost aquifer (or saturated zone).
separate from the soil. The vaporized contam inants are then               The soils in an unsaturated zone may contain air and water.


Vadose Zone The vadose zone is the area between the surface
of the land and the aquifer water table in which the moisture
content is less than the saturation point and the pressure is less
than atmospheric. The op enings (pore spa ces) also typically
contain air or other gases.

Vapor Vapor is the gaseous pha se of any substance tha t is
liquid or solid at atmospheric temp eratures and p ressures.
Steam is an example of a vapor.
Vo latile Organic Compound (VOC) A V OC is one o f a
group of carb on-co ntaining c omp ound s that evaporate readily
at room temperature. Examples of volatile organic compounds
include trichloro ethane , trichloro ethylene, benzene, toluene,
ethylbenzene, and xylene (B TE X). T hese contam inants
typically are generated from metal d egrea sing, printed circ uit
board cleaning, gasoline, and wood preserving processes.
Volatilization Vo latilization is the pro cess of transfer of a
chemical from the aqueous or liquid phase to the gas phase.
Solubility, molecular weight, and vapo r pressure of the liquid
and the nature of the gas- liquid affect the rate of
Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP) A VCP is a formal
means established by many states to fac ilitate assessm ent,
cleanup, and redevelopment of brownfields sites. VCPs
typically address the identification and cleanup of potentially
contaminated sites that are not on the N ational Priorities List
(NPL ). Under VCP s, owners or developers of a site are
encouraged to approach the state voluntarily to work out a
process by which the site can be readied fo r development.
M any state VCP s provide technica l assistance, liability
assurances, and funding suppo rt for such efforts.
Wa stewater Wastewater is spent or used water from an
individual home, a community, a farm, or an industry that
contains dissolved or suspended m atter.
W ater Table A water table is the boundary between the
saturated and unsaturated zones beneath the surface of the
earth, the level of ground water, and generally is the level to
which water will rise in a well. See also Aquifer and
Groundw ater.
X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer An x-ray fluorescence
analyzer is a self-contained, field-po rtable instrume nt,
consisting of an energy dispersive x-ray source, a detector, and
a data processing system that detects and quantifies individual
metals or groups of metals.


                                                                  Appendix C

                                                              Testing Technologies

    Table C-1.        Non-Invasive Assessment Technologies

                  Applications                                     Strengths                             Weaknesses                      Typical Costs1

Infrared Thermography (IR/T)

�   Locates buried USTs.                           �	 Able to collect data on large areas very   �	 Cannot be used in rainy       �	 Depends upon volume of
�   Locates buried leaks from USTs.                   efficiently. (Hundreds of acres per           conditions.                      data collected and type of
�   Locates buried sludge pits.                       flight)                                    �	 Cannot be used to                targets looked for.
�   Locates buried nuclear and nonnuclear          �	 Able to collect data on long cross            determine depth or            �	 Small areas <1 acre:
    waste.                                            country pipelines very efficiently            thickness of anomalies.          $1,000-$3,500.
�   Locates buried oil, gas, chemical and sewer       (300-500 miles per day.)                   �	 Cannot determine what         �	 Large areas>1,000 acres:
    pipelines.                                     �	 Low cost for analyzed data per acre           specific anomalies are           $10 - $200 per acre.
�   Locates buried oil, gas, chemical and sewer       unit.                                         detected.
    pipeline leaks.                                �	 Able to prescreen and eliminate clean      �	 Cannot be used to detect a
�   Locates water pipelines.                          areas from further costly testing and         specific fluid or
�   Locates water pipeline leaks.                     unneeded rehabilitation.                      contaminant, but all items
�   Locates seepage from waste dumps.              �	 Able to fuse data with other                  not native to the area will
�   Locates subsurface smoldering fires in            techniques for even greater accuracy          be detected.
    waste dumps.                                      in more situations.
�   Locates unexploded ordinance on hundreds       �	 Able to locate large and small leaks in
    or thousands of acres.                            pipelines and USTs. (Ultrasonic
�   Locates buried landmines.                         devices can only locate small, high
                                                      pressure leaks containing ultrasonic
                                                   �	 No direct contact with objects under
                                                      test is required. (Ultrasonic devices
                                                      must be in contact with buried
                                                      pipelines or USTs.)
                                                   �	 Has confirmed anomalies to depths
                                                      greater than 38 feet with an accuracy
                                                      of better than 80%.
                                                   � Tests can be performed during both
                                                      daytime and nighttime hours.
                                                   � Normally no inconvenience to the

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

�    Locates buried USTs.                          �	 Can investigate depths from 1              � Cannot be used in highly       �	 Depends upon volume of
�    Locates buried leaks from USTs.                  centimeter to 100 meters+ depending          conductive environments          datacollected and type of
�    Locates buried sludge pits.                      upon soil or water conditions.               such as salt water.              targets looked for.
�    Locates buried nuclear and nonnuclear         �	 Can locate small voids capable of          � Cannot be used in heavy        � Small areas <1 acre:
     waste.                                           holding contamination wastes.                clay soils.                      $3,500 - $5,000
�    Locates buried oil, gas, chemical and sewer   �	 Can determine different types of           � Data are difficult to          � Large areas > 10 acres:
     pipelines.                                       materials such as steel, fiberglass or       interpret and require a lot      $2,500 - $3,500 per acre
�    Locates buried oil and chemical pipeline         concrete.                                    of experience.
     leaks.                                        �	 Can be trailed behind a vehicle and
�    Locates water pipelines.                         travel at high speeds.
�    Locates water pipeline leaks.
�    Locates seepage from waste dumps.
�    Locates cracks in subsurface strata such as


Electromagnetic Offset Logging (EOL)

�   Locates buried hydrocarbon pipelines          � Produces 3D images of hydrocarbon         �	 Small dead area around       �	 Depends upon volume of
�   Locates buried hydrocarbon USTs.                  plumes.                                    well hole of approximately      data collected and type of
�   Locates hydrocarbon tanks.                    �   Data can be collected to depth of 100      8 meters.                       targets looked for.
�   Locates hydrocarbon barrels.                      meters.                                 �	 This can be eliminated by    �	 Small areas < 1 acre:
�   Locates perched hydrocarbons.                 �   Data can be collected from a single,       using 2 complementary           $10,000 - $20,000
�   Locates free floating hydrocarbons.               unlined or nonmetal lined well hole.       well holes from which to     �	 Large areas > 10 acres:
�   Locates dissolved hydrocarbons.               �   Data can be collected within a 100         collect data.                   $5,000 - $10,000 per acre
�   Locates sinker hydrocarbons.                      meter radius of a single well hole.
�   Locates buried well casings.                  �   3D images can be sliced in horizontal
                                                      and vertical planes.
                                                  �   DNAPLs can be imaged.

Magnetometer (MG)

�	 Locates buried ferrous materials such as       �	 Low cost instruments can be be used      �	 Non-relevant artifacts can   � Depends upon volume of
    barrels, pipelines, USTs, and buckets.           that produce results by audio signal       be confusing to data            data collected and type of
                                                     strengths.                                 analyzers.                      targets looked for.
                                                  �	 High cost instruments can be used that   � Depth limited to 3 meters.    � Small areas < 1 acre:
                                                     produce hard copy printed maps of                                          $2,500 - $5,000
                                                     targets.                                                                 � Large areas > 10 acres:
                                                  �	 Depths to 3 meters. 1 acre per day                                         $1,500 -$2,500 per acre
                                                     typical efficiency in data collection.
        Cost based on case study data in 1997 dollars.


Table C-2.                           Soil and Subsurface Sampling Tools

   Technique/Instrumentation              Soil      Ground     Relative Cost per Sample                         Sample Quality

 Drilling Methods

 Cable Tool                                X             X
   Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will most likely be altered

 Casing Advancement                        X             X
   Most expensive              Soil properties will likely be altered

 Direct Air Rotary with Rotary Bit         X             X
   Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will most likely be altered

 Downhole Hammer

 Direct Mud Rotary                         X             X
   Mid-range expensive         Soil properties may be altered

 Directional Drilling                      X             X
   Most expensive              Soil properties may be altered

 Hollow-Stem Auger                         X             X
   Mid-range expensive         Soil properties may be altered

 Jetting Methods                           X             X
   Least expensive             Soil properties may be altered

 Rotary Diamond Drilling                   X             X
   Most expensive              Soil properties may be altered

 Rotating Core                             X
                 Mid-range expensive         Soil properties may be altered

 Solid Flight and Bucket                   X             X
   Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will likely be altered


 Sonic Drilling                            X             X
   Most expensive              Soil properties will most likely not be altered

 Split and Solid Barrel                    X
                 Least expensive             Soil properties may be altered

 Thin-Wall Open Tube                       X
                 Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will most likely not be altered

 Thin-Wall Piston/l                        X
                 Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will most likely not be altered

 Specialized Thin Wall

 Direct Push Methods

 Cone Penetrometer                         X	            X    Mid-range expensive         Soil properties may be altered

 Driven Wells                                            X    Mid-range expensive         Soil properties may be altered

 Hand-Held Methods

 Augers                                    X             X
   Least expensive             Soil properties may be altered

 Rotating Core                             X
                 Mid-range expensive         Soil properties may be altered

 Scoop, Spoons, and Shovels                X
                 Least expensive             Soil properties may be altered

 Split and Solid Barrel                    X
                 Least expensive             Soil properties may be altered

 Thin-Wall Open Tube                       X
                 Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will most likely not be altered

 Thin-Wall Piston                          X
                 Mid-range expensive         Soil properties will most likely not be altered

 Specialized Thin Wall

 Tubes                                     X
                 Least expensive             Soil properties will most likely not be altered

Most commonly used field techniques


  Table C-3. Groundwater Sampling Tools

    Technique/Instrumentation              Contaminants1    Relative Cost per Sample                        Sample Quality

Portable Groundwater Sampling Pumps

Bladder Pump	                           SVOCs, PAHs,       Mid-range expensive         Liquid properties will most likely not be altered

Gas-Driven Piston Pump	                 SVOCs, PAHs,       Most Expensive	             Liquid properties will most likely not be altered by
                                        metals                                         sampling

Gas-Driven Displacement Pumps	          SVOCs, PAHs,       Least expensive	            Liquid properties will most likely not be altered by
                                        metals                                         sampling

Gear Pump	                              SVOCs, PAHs,       Mid-range expensive         Liquid properties may be altered

Inertial-Lift Pumps	                    SVOCs, PAHs,       Least expensive             Liquid properties will most likely not be altered

Submersible Centrifugal Pumps	          SVOCs, PAHs,       Most expensive              Liquid properties may be altered

Submersible Helical-Rotor Pump	         SVOCs, PAHs,       Most expensive              Liquid properties may be altered

Suction-Lift Pumps (peristaltic)	       SVOCs, PAHs,       Least expensive             Liquid properties may be altered

Portable Grab Samplers

Bailers	                                VOCs, SVOCs,       Least expensive             Liquid properties may be altered

                                        PAHs, metals

Pneumatic Depth-Specific Samplers	      VOCs, SVOCs,       Mid-range expensive         Liquid properties will most likely not be altered

                                        PAHs, metals

Portable In Situ Groundwater Samplers/Sensors

Cone Penetrometer Samplers	             VOCs, SVOCs,       Least expensive             Liquid properties will most likely not be altered
                                        PAHs, metals

Direct Drive Samplers	                  VOCs, SVOCs,       Least expensive             Liquid properties will most likely not be altered
                                        PAHs, metals

Hydropunch	                             VOCs, SVOCs,       Mid-range expensive         Liquid properties will most likely not be altered
                                        PAHs, metals

Fixed In Situ Samplers

Multilevel Capsule Samplers	            VOCs, SVOCs,       Mid-range expensive         Liquid properties will most likely not be altered
                                        PAHs, metals

Multiple-Port Casings	                  VOCs, SVOCs,       Least expensive             Liquid properties will most likely not be altered
                                        PAHs, metals

Passive Multilayer Samplers             VOCs               Least expensive             Liquid properties will most likely not be altered

  Bold       Most commonly used field techniques

  VOCs       Volatile Organic Carbons

  SVOCs      Semivolatile Organic Carbons

             Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

  Table C-4.       Sample Analysis Technologies



Technique/                    Analytes   Soil   Ground   Gas   Relative       Relative        Application**        Produces
Instrumentation                                 Water          Detection      Cost per                            Quantitative
                                                                              Analysis                               Data


Laser-Induced Breakdown        Metals     X                      ppb       Least expensive    Usually used in    Additional effort
Spectrometry                                                                                      field             required

Titrimetry Kits                Metals     X       X              ppm       Least expensive    Usually used in    Additional effort
                                                                                                laboratory          required

Particle-Induced X-ray         Metals     X       X              ppm         Mid-range        Usually used in    Additional effort
Emissions                                                                    expensive          laboratory          required

Atomic Adsorption              Metals    X*       X      X       ppb       Most expensive     Usually used in          Yes
Spectrometry                                                                                    laboratory

Inductively Coupled            Metals    X*       X      X       ppb       Most expensive     Usually used in          Yes
Plasma--Atomic Emission                                                                         laboratory

Field Bioassessment            Metals     X       X                        Most expensive     Usually used in           No

X-Ray Fluorescence             Metals     X       X      X       ppm       Least expensive    Laboratory and      Yes (limited)

PAHs, VOCs, and SVOCs

Laser-Induced Fluorescence     PAHs       X       X              ppm       Least expensive    Usually used in    Additional effort
(LIF)                                                                                             field             required

Solid/Porous Fiber Optic       VOCs      X*       X      X       ppm       Least expensive   Immediate, can be   Additional effort
                                                                                               used in field        required

Chemical Calorimetric Kits    VOCs,       X       X              ppm       Least expensive    Can be used in     Additional effort
                              SVOCs,                                                               field,           required
                               PAHs                                                           usually used in

Flame Ionization Detector      VOCs      X*       X*     X       ppm       Least expensive   Immediate, can be          No
(hand-held)                                                                                    used in field

Explosimeter                   VOCs      X*       X*     X       ppm       Least expensive   Immediate, can be          No
                                                                                               used in field

Photo Ionization Detector     VOCs,      X*       X*      X      ppm       Least expensive   Immediate, can be          No
(hand-held)                   SVOCs                                                            used in field

Catalytic Surface Oxidation    VOCs      X*       X*      X      ppm       Least expensive    Usually used in           No

Near IR Reflectance/Trans      VOCs       X                    100-1,000     Mid-range        Usually used in    Additional effort
Spectroscopy                                                     ppm         expensive          laboratory          required

Ion Mobility Spectrometer      VOCs,     X*       X*      X    100-1,000     Mid-range        Usually used in          Yes
                               SVOCs                              ppb        expensive          laboratory

Raman Spectroscopy/SERS        VOCs,      X       X      X*       ppb        Mid-range        Usually used in    Additional effort
                               SVOCs                                         expensive          laboratory          required


 Infrared Spectroscopy	            VOCs,         X         X          X      100-1,000          Mid-range           Usually used in      Additional effort
                                   SVOCs                                       ppm              expensive             laboratory            required

 Scattering/Absorption Lidar        VOCs        X*         X*         X      100-1,000          Mid-range           Usually used in      Additional effort
                                                                               ppm              expensive             laboratory            required

 FTIR Spectroscopy                  VOCs        X*         X*         X         ppm             Mid-range           Laboratory and       Additional effort
                                                                                                expensive               field               required

 Synchronous Luminescence/         VOCs,        X*         X                     ppb            Mid-range           Usually used in      Additional effort
 Fluorescence                      SVOCs                                                        expensive          laboratory, can be       required
                                                                                                                      used in field

 Gas Chromatography (GC)           VOCs,        X*          X         X          ppb            Mid-range           Usually used in             Yes
 (can be used with numerous        SVOCs                                                        expensive          laboratory, can be
 detectors)                                                                                                           used in field

 UV-Visible                         VOCs        X*          X         X          ppb            Mid-range           Usually used in      Additional effort
 Spectrophotometry                                                                              expensive             laboratory            required

 UV Fluorescence                    VOCs         X          X         X          ppb            Mid-range           Usually used in      Additional effort
                                                                                                expensive             laboratory            required

 Ion Trap	                         VOCs,        X*         X*         X          ppb          Most expensive        Laboratory and              Yes
                                   SVOCs                                                                                field


 Chemical Reaction- Based          VOCs,         X          X                   ppm          Least expensive        Usually used in             Yes
 Test Papers                       SVOCs,                                                                               field

 Immunoassay and                   VOCs,         X          X                   ppm          Least expensive        Usually used in      Additional effort
 Calorimetric Kits                 SVOCs,                                                                          laboratory, can be       required
                                    Metals                                                                            used in field

VOCs     Volatile Organic Compounds
SVOCs    Semivolatile Organic Compounds (may be present in oil and grease)

PAHs     Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

X*       Indicates there must be extraction of the sample to gas or liquid phase

**	      Samples sent to laboratory require shipping time and usually 14 to 35 days turnaround time for analysis. Rush orders cost an additional amount per


                                                                                        Append ix D
                                                                           Cleanup Technologies

Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies
                                                                                    Conta minants
Applicable                                                                          Tre ated by th is
Technology        Technology Description                                            Technology           Limitations                                                 Co st


Capping           •	   Used to cover buried waste materials to prevent              •	 MetalsCyanide     •   Costs associated with routine sampling and              •	   $11 to $40 per
                       migration.Consist of a relatively impermeable material                                analysis may be high.Long-term maintenance                   square foo t.1
                       that will minim ize rainfall infiltration.W aste materials                            may be required to ensure impermeability.May
                       can be left in place.Requires periodic inspections and                                have to be replaced after 20 to 30 years of
                       routine monitoring.Contaminant migration must be                                      operation.May not be effective if groundwater
                       mon itored perio dically.                                                             table is high.

 Sheet Piling     •    Steel or iron sheets are driven into the ground to form      •    Not             •   Not effective in the absence of a continuous            •    $8 to $17 per
                       a subsurface barrier.Low-cost containment                         contaminant-        aquitard.C an leak at the intersection of the she ets        squa re foo t.2
                       method .Used p rimarily for shallow aquifers.                     spec ific           and the aq uitard or throug h pile wall joints.

 Gro ut Curtain   •    Grout curtains are injected into subsurface soils and        •    Not             •   Difficult to ensure a complete curtain without          •    $6 to $14 per
                       bedrock.Forms an impe rmeable barrier in the                      contamina nt-       gaps through which the plume can escape;                     square fo ot. 2
                       subsurface.                                                       specific            however new techniques have improved
                                                                                                             continuity of curtain.


  Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                                  Conta minants
Applicable                                                                        Tre ated by th is
Technology       Technology Description                                           Technology           Limitations                                                   Co st

Slurry W alls    •	   Used to contain contaminated gro und w ater, land fill      •	 Not               •	 Contains contaminants only within a specified              •	   Design and
                      leachate, divert contaminated groundwater from                 con tam inant-       area.S oil-be nton ite backfills are not able to                installation costs
                      drinking water intake, divert uncontaminated                   specific             withstand attack by stro ng acids, bases, salt                  of $5 to $7 per
                      groundwater flow, or provide a barrier for the                                      solutions, and some organic chemicals.Potential                 square foot (1991
                      groundwater treatment system.Consist of a vertically                                for the slurry walls to deg rade or de teriorate                dollars) for a
                      excavated slurry-filled tren ch.T he slurry hydraulically                           over time.                                                      stand ard so il-
                      shores the trench to prevent co llapse and form s a                                                                                                 ben tonite w all in
                      filtercake to reduce groundwater flow.Often used                                                                                                    soft to medium
                      where the waste mass is too large for treatment and                                                                                                 soil. 3Ab ove costs
                      where soluble and mobile constituents pose an                                                                                                       do not include
                      imminent threat to a source of drinking threat to a                                                                                                 variable co sts
                      sourc e of drinking water.O ften constructed of a soil,
                                                                                                                                                                          required for
                      bentonite, and water mixture.
                                                                                                                                                                          chem ical analyses,
                                                                                                                                                                          feasibility, or
                                                                                                                                                                          com patibility

Ex Situ

Excavation/Off   •    Removes contaminated material to an EPA approved            •   Not              •   Generation of fugitive emissions may be a                 •    $270 to $460 per
site Disposal         landfill.                                                       con tam inant-       problem during operations.The distance from                    ton.2
                                                                                      specific             the contaminated site to the nearest disposal
                                                                                                           facility will affect cost.Depth and composition
                                                                                                           of the media requiring excavation must be
                                                                                                           considered.Transportation of the soil through
                                                                                                           pop ulated areas ma y affe ct com mu nity
                                                                                                           acce ptab ility.Disp osal o ption s for ce rtain w aste
                                                                                                           (e.g., mixed waste or transuranic waste) may be
                                                                                                           limted. There is currently only one licensed
                                                                                                           dispo sal facility for radioa ctive a nd m ixed waste
                                                                                                           in the U nited States.


 Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                                 Conta minants
Applicable                                                                       Tre ated by th is
Technology     Technology Description                                            Technology           Limitations                                                Co st

Comp osting    •	   Controlled microbiological process by which                  •	 SVO Cs.           •   Substantial space is required. Excavation of           •	   $190 or greater
                    biodegradable hazardo us materials in soils are                                       contam inated soils is required and m ay cau se             per cubic yard for
                    converted to innocuous, stabilized                                                    the uncontrolled release of VOCs.Composting                 soil volumes of
                    byprod ucts.Typically occurs at temperatures ranging                                  results in a volumetric increase in material and            app roxima tely
                    from 50° to 55 °C (1 20° to 13 0°F).M ay be app lied to                               space required for treatment.Metals are not                 20,0 00 cubic
                    soils and lagoon sediments.Maximum degradation                                        treated by this method and can be toxic to the              yards. 3Costs will
                    efficiency is achieved by maintaining m oisture                                       microorganisms.The distance from the                        vary with the
                    content, pH, oxygenation, temperature, and the                                        con tam inated site to the nearest disposal facility        am oun t of soil to
                    carbon-nitrogen ratio.                                                                will affect co st.                                          be treated, th e soil
                                                                                                                                                                      fraction of the
                                                                                                                                                                      com post,
                                                                                                                                                                      availability of
                                                                                                                                                                      amendments, the
                                                                                                                                                                      type of
                                                                                                                                                                      contaminant and
                                                                                                                                                                      the type o f process
                                                                                                                                                                      design employed.

Chemical       •    Red uction /oxidation (R edo x) reactions c hemically        •   MetalsCyanide    •   Not cost-effective for high contaminant                •    $190 to $660 per
Oxidation/          convert hazardous contaminants to nonhazardous or                                     concentrations because of the large amounts of              cubic meter of
Reduction           less toxic compounds that are more stable, less mobile,                               oxidizing agent required.Oil and grease in the              soil. 3
                    or inert.Redox reactions involve the transfer of                                      me dia shou ld be m inimized to optim ize proce ss
                    electrons from one com pound to another.The oxidizing                                 efficiency.
                    agents commonly used are ozone, hydrogen peroxide,
                    hypochlorite, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide.

Soil Washing   •    A wa ter-based process for scrubb ing excavated soils        •   SV OC sM etals   •   Fine soil particles may require the addition of a      •    $120 to $200 per
                    ex situ to remo ve co ntaminants.Remo ves co ntaminants                               polymer to remove them from the washing                     ton o f soil. 3Cost is
                    by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution,                                fluid.Complex waste mixtures make formulating               dependent upon
                    or by conc entrating them into a smaller volume o f soil                              washing fluid d ifficult.H igh h um ic con tent in          the targ et wa ste
                    through particle size separation, gravity separation, and                             soil m ay require pretreatm ent.T he w ashin g fluid        quantity and
                    attrition scrubbing.Systems incorporating most of the                                 produces an aqueous stream that requires                    concentration.
                    removal techniques offer the greatest promise for                                     treatm ent.
                    app lication to soils co ntam inated with a wid e var iety
                    of m etals and o rganic co ntam inants.


  Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                                Conta minants
Applicable                                                                      Tre ated by th is
Technology     Technology Description                                           Technology           Limitations                                                Co st

Thermal        •   Low temp erature s (20 0°F to 90 0°F) are used to            •   VOCsPCBsPA       •   Can not b e used to treat hea vy m etals, with         •   $50 to $300 per
Desorption         remove organic contaminants from soils and                       Hs                   exception of m ercury.Contam inants of concern             ton of
                   sludges.Off-gases are collected and treated. Requires                                 must have a low boiling point.Transportation               soil. 3Transportatio
                   treatment system after heating chamber.Can be                                         costs to off-site facilities can be expensive.             n charges are
                   performed on site or off site.                                                                                                                   add itional.

Incineration   •   High temp erature s 870 ° to 1,2 00° C (1 400 °F to          •   VO CsP CB sdio   •   Only on e off-site incinerator is permitted to burn    •   $200 to $1,000 per
                   2,200oF) are used to volatilize and comb ust hazardous           xins                 PCB s and d ioxins. Specific feed size and                 ton of soil at off-
                   wastes.The destruction and removal efficiency for                                     materials handling requirements that can affect            site
                   properly operated incinerators exceeds the 99.99%                                     applicability or cost at specific sites.Metals can         incinerators.$1,50
                   requirement for hazardous waste and can be operated                                   produce a bottom ash that requires stabilization           0 to $6,000 per
                   to meet the 99.9999% requirement for PCBs and                                         prior to disposal.Volatile metals, including lead,         ton o f soil for soils
                   dioxins.Com mercial incinerator designs are rotary                                    cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, leave the                   con tam inated with
                   kilns, equipped with an afterburner, a quench, and an                                 com bustion unit with the flue gases and require           PCBs or
                   air pollution control system.                                                         the installation of gas cleaning systems for               dioxin s.3Mobile
                                                                                                         rem ova l.Metals can rea ct with othe r elem ents in       units that can
                                                                                                         the feed stream, such as chlorine or sulfur,               ope rate onsite
                                                                                                         forming more volatile and toxic compounds                  redu ce soil
                                                                                                         than the o riginal species.                                transportation

UV Oxidation   •   Destruction process that oxidizes constituents in            •   VO Cs            •   The aqueous stream being treated must provide          •   $0.10 to $10 per
                   wastewater by the addition of strong oxidizers and                                    for good transmission of UV light (high                    1,000 gallons are
                   irradiation with U V light.Practically an y organ ic                                  turbidity causes interference).Metal ions in the           treated.3
                   contaminant that is reactive with the hydroxyl radical                                wastewater may limit effectiveness.VOC s may
                   can potentially be treated. The ox idation reactions are                              volatilize before oxidation can occur. Off-gas
                   achieved throu gh th e syn ergistic action of U V light in                            may require treatment.Costs may be higher than
                   combination with ozone or hydrogen peroxide.Can be                                    competing technologies because of energy
                   config ured in b atch or co ntinuo us flow mo dels,                                   requiremen ts.Handling and storage of ox idizers
                   depending on the throughput rate under consideration.                                 require special safety precautions.Off-gas may
                                                                                                         requ ire treatm ent.


  Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                              Conta minants
Applicable                                                                    Tre ated by th is
Technology      Technology Description                                        Technology           Limitations                                              Co st

Pyrolysis       •   A thermal treatment technology that uses chemical         •   MetalsCyanide.   •   Specific feed size and materials handling            •   Capital and
                    decomp osition induced in o rganic materials by heat in       PAHs                 requirements affect applicability or cost at             ope rating cos ts
                    the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis transforms hazardous                              spe cific sites.R equ ires drying of th e so il to       are e xpe cted to
                    organic materials into gaseo us compo nents, sm all                                achieve a low soil moisture content                      be approxim ate ly
                    amounts of liquid, and a solid residue (coke)                                      (<1% ).H ighly abrasive fe ed can pote ntia lly          $330 per m etric
                    containing fixed carbon and ash.                                                   dam age the proce ssor unit.High m oisture               ton ($300 per
                                                                                                       content increases treatment costs.Treated                ton).3
                                                                                                       m edia containing heavy m etals ma y require
                                                                                                       sta biliza tion .May produce com bustible
                                                                                                       gases, including carbon monoxide,
                                                                                                       hydrogen and methane, and other
                                                                                                       hydrocarbons.If the off-gases are cooled,
                                                                                                       liquids condense, producing an oil/tar
                                                                                                       residue and c ontam inated water.

Precipitation   •   Involves the conversion of soluble heavy metal            •   Metals.          •   Contamination source is not removed.The              •   Capital costs are
                    salts to insoluble salts th at w ill                                               presence of multiple metal species may                   $85 ,000 to
                    precipitate.Precipitate can be physical methods                                    lead to removal difficulties.Discharge                   $115,000 for 20
                    such as clarification or filtration.Often used as a                                standard may necessitate further treatment               to 65 gpm
                    pretreatment for other treatment technologies                                      of effluent.Metal hydroxide sludges must                 precipitation
                    whe re the pres enc e of m etals w ould interfere with                             pass TCLP criteria prior to land                         system s.Prima ry
                    the treatment processes.Primary method for                                         disposal.Treated water will often require pH             capital cost
                    treating metal-laden industrial wastewater.                                        adju stm ent.                                            factor is design
                                                                                                                                                                costs are $0.30
                                                                                                                                                                to $0.70 per
                                                                                                                                                                1,000.3 Sludge
                                                                                                                                                                disposal may be
                                                                                                                                                                estim ated to
                                                                                                                                                                ope rating cos ts
                                                                                                                                                                by $0.50 per
                                                                                                                                                                1,000 gallons


 Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                         Conta minants
Applicable                                                               Tre ated by th is
Technology      Technology Description                                   Technology          Limitations                                          Co st

Liquid Phase    •   Groundwater is pumped through a series of            •   Low levels of   •   The presence of multiple contaminants can        •   $1.20 to $6.30
Carbon              vessels containing activated carbon, to which            metals.VOCs.        affect process performance.Metals can foul           per 1,000
Adsorption          dissolved contaminants adsorb.Effective for              SVOC s.             the system.Costs are high if used as the             gallons treated
                    polishing water discharges from other remedial                               prim ary treatm ent on wa ste s tream s with         at flow rates of
                    technologies to attain regulatory compliance.Can                             high contaminant concentration levels.Type           0.1 m gd.C osts
                    be quickly installed.High contaminant-removal                                and pore size of the carbon and operating            dec reas e with
                    efficiencies.                                                                temperature will impact process                      increasing low
                                                                                                 performance.Transport and disposal of                rates and
                                                                                                 spent carbon can be expensive.Water                  concentrations.3
                                                                                                 soluble compounds and sm all molecules               Costs a re
                                                                                                 are not adsorbed well.                               dependent on
                                                                                                                                                      waste stream
                                                                                                                                                      flow rates, type
                                                                                                                                                      of co ntam inant,
                                                                                                                                                      and timing

Air Stripping   •   Contaminants are partitioned from groundwater        •   VOCs.           •   Potential for inorganic (iron greater than 5     •   $0.04 to $0.20
                    by greatly increasing the surface area of the                                ppm, hardness greater than 800 ppm) or               per 1,000
                    contaminated water exposed to air.Aeration                                   biological fouling of the equipment, requiring       gallons.3A major
                    methods include packed towers, diffused                                      pretreatm ent of gro undw ate r or periodic          operating cost of
                    aeration, tray aeration, and spray aeration.Can be                           column cleaning.Consideration should be              air strippers is
                    operated co ntinuously or in a batch m ode, where                            given to the Henry’s law constant of the             the electricity
                    the air stripper is intermittently fed from a                                VOCs in the water stream and the type and            required for the
                    collection tank.The batch mode ensures                                       amount of packing used in the                        groundwater
                    consistent air stripper performance and greater                              tower.Com pounds with low volatility at              pum p, the sum p
                    efficiency tha n co ntinuo usly operate d un its                             am bient tempe rature m ay require                   discharge pump,
                    because mixing in the storage tank eliminates any                            preheating of the groundwater.Off-gases              and the air
                    inconsistencies in feed water composition.                                   may require treatment based on mass                  blower.
                                                                                                 em ission rate and sta te and fed eral air
                                                                                                 pollution laws.

In Situ


 Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                           Conta minants
Applicable                                                                 Tre ated by th is
Technology    Technology Description                                       Technology          Limitations                                            Co st

Natural       •	   Natural subsurface processes such as dilution,          •	 VOCs             •   Intermediate degradation products may be           •   Not available
Attenuation        volatilization, biodegradation, adsorption, and                                 more m obile and more toxic than original
                   chemical reactions with subsurface media can                                    con tam inants.Contam inants m ay m igrate
                   reduce conta m inant c oncentratio ns to acc eptab le                           before th ey deg rade .Th e site m ay hav e to
                   levels.Consideration of this option requires                                    be fenced and may not be available for
                   modeling and evaluation of contaminant                                          reuse un til hazard levels are
                   degradation rates and pathways.Sampling and                                     reduced.Source areas may require removal
                   analyses must be conducted throughout the                                       for natural attenuation to be
                   process to confirm that degradation is proceeding                               effective.Modeling contaminant degradation
                   at sufficient rates to meet cleanup                                             rates, and sam pling and analysis to confirm
                   objectives.Nonhalogenated volatile and                                          modeled predictions extremely expensive.
                   semivolatile organic compounds.

Soil Vapor    •    A vacuum is applied to the soil to induce               •   VOCs            •   Tight or very moist content (>50%) has a           •   $10 to $50 per
Extraction         controlled air flow and remove contaminants from                                reduced permeability to air, requiring higher          cubic meter of
                   the unsaturated (vadose) zone of the soil.The gas                               vacuum s.Large scre ened intervals are                 soil.3Co st is site
                   leaving the soil may be treated to recover or                                   requ ired in extrac tion we lls for so il with         specific
                   destroy the contaminants.The continuous air flow                                highly variable permeabilities.Air emissions           depending on
                   prom otes in situ biodeg rada tion of low-volatility                            m ay re quire treatm ent to e lim inate possible       the size of the
                   orga nic com pou nds that m ay be p resent.                                     harm to the public or environment.Off-gas              site, the nature
                                                                                                   treatment residual liquids and spent                   and amount of
                                                                                                   activated carbon may require treatment or              contamination,
                                                                                                   disposal.Not effective in the saturated zone.          and the hydro-
                                                                                                                                                          setting, which
                                                                                                                                                          affect the
                                                                                                                                                          number of wells,
                                                                                                                                                          the blower
                                                                                                                                                          capacity and
                                                                                                                                                          vacuum level
                                                                                                                                                          required, and
                                                                                                                                                          length of tim e
                                                                                                                                                          requ ired to
                                                                                                                                                          remediate the
                                                                                                                                                          significantly adds
                                                                                                                                                          to the cos t.


  Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                              Conta minants
Applicable                                                                    Tre ated by th is
Technology        Technology Description                                      Technology          Limitations                                         Co st

Soil Flushing     •   Extraction of c onta m inants from the soil with        •   Meta ls         •   Low -perm eab ility soils are difficult to      •   The m ajor factor
                      water or other aqueous solutions.Accomplished                                   treat.Surfactants can adhere to soil and            affectin g cost is
                      by passing the extraction fluid through in-place                                reduce effective soil porosity.Reactions of         the separation of
                      soils using injection or infiltration                                           flushing fluids with soil can reduce                surfactants from
                      processes.Extraction fluids must be recovered                                   contaminant mobility.Potential of washing           recovered
                      with extraction wells from the underlying aquifer                               the contaminant beyond the capture zone             flushing fluid.3
                      and recycled when possible.                                                     and the introduction of surfactants to the

Solidification/   •   Reduces the mobility of hazardous substances            •   Meta ls         •   Depth of contam inants m ay lim it              •   $50 to $80 per
Stabilization         and contaminants through chemical and physical          •   limited             effectiveness.Future use of site may affect         cubic meter for
                      m ean s.Se eks to trap or im m obilize co ntam inants       effectiveness       containment m aterials, which could alter the       shallow
                      within their “host” medium, instead of removing             for VOCs and        ability to maintain imm obilization of              applications.$19
                      them through chemical or physical treatment.Can             SVOC s.             contaminants.Some processes result in a             0 to $330 per
                      be used alone or combined with other treatment                                  significant increase in volum e.Effective           cubic meter for
                      and disposal methods.                                                           m ixing is m ore d ifficult than for ex s itu       deeper
                                                                                                      applications.Confirmatory sampling can be           applications.3Co
                                                                                                      difficult.                                          sts fo r cem ent­
                                                                                                                                                          techniques vary
                                                                                                                                                          acc ording to
                                                                                                                                                          materials or
                                                                                                                                                          reagents used,
                                                                                                                                                          the ir availability,
                                                                                                                                                          project size, and
                                                                                                                                                          the chemical
                                                                                                                                                          nature of the
                                                                                                                                                          con tam inant.


 Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                              Conta minants
Applicable                                                                    Tre ated by th is
Technology     Technology Description                                         Technology          Limitations                                            Co st

Air Sparging   •   In situ technology in which air is injected under          •   VOCs            •   De pth of con tam inants and sp ecific s ite       •   $50 to $100 per
                   pressure below the water table to increase                                         geology must be considered.Air flow                    1,000 gallons of
                   groundwater oxygen concentrations and enhance                                      through the saturated zone may not be                  groundwater
                   the ra te of b iologica l degrada tion of con tam inants                           uniform.A permeability differential such as a          treated.3
                   by naturally occurring microbes.Increases the                                      clay layer above the air injection zone can
                   mixing in the saturated zone, which increases the                                  reduce the effectiveness.Vapors may rise
                   conta ct b etw een groundw ate r an d soil. A ir                                   through the vadose zone and be released
                   bubbles traverse horizon tally and vertically                                      into the atm osphere.In creased pressure in
                   through the soil column, creating an underground                                   the vadose zon e can build up vapors in
                   stripper that removes contaminants by                                              basements, which are generally low-
                   volatilization.Air bubbles travel to a soil vapor                                  pressure areas.
                   extraction system.Air sparging is effective for
                   facilitating extraction of deep contamination,
                   contamination in low-permeability soils, and
                   contamination in the saturated zone.

Passive        •   A permeable reaction wall is installed inground,           •   MetalsVOCs      •   Th e system requ ires contro l of pH levels.       •   Capital costs for
Treatment          across the flow path of a contaminant plume,                                       W hen pH levels within the passive                     thes e pro jects
W alls             allowing the wate r portion of the plum e to                                       treatment wall rise, it reduces the reaction           range from
                   passively move through the wall.Allows the                                         rate and can inhibit the effectiveness of the          $25 0,00 0 to
                   passage of water while prohibiting the movement                                    wall.Depth and width of the plume. For                 $1,000,000.3Ope
                   of contaminants by employing such agents as                                        large-scale plumes, installation cost may be           rations and
                   iron, c helato rs (liga nds selecte d fo r their                                   high.Cost of treatment m edium                         maintenance
                   specificity for a given metal), sorbents, microbes,                                (iron).Biological activity may reduce the              cos ts
                   and othe rs.Contam inants are typically com pletely                                perm eability of the wall.W alls m ay lose their       approxim ate ly 5
                   degraded by the treatm ent wa ll.                                                  reactive capacity, requiring replacement of            to 10 times less
                                                                                                      the reactive medium.                                   than capital

Chem ical      •   Destructio n process that ox idize s constitu ents in      •   VOCs            •   The addition of oxidizing compounds m ust          •   Depends on
Oxidation          groundwater by the addition of strong                                              be hydraulically controlled and closely                mass present
                   oxidizers.Practically any organic contaminant that                                 monitored.Metal additives will precipitate out         and
                   is re active with the hydroxyl ra dical can poten tially                           of solution and remain in the                          hydrogeologic
                   be treated.                                                                        aquifer.Handling and storag e of oxidizers             conditions.3
                                                                                                      require special safety precautions.


 Exhibit D-1 Table of Cleanup Technologies (continued)

                                                                               Conta minants
Applicable                                                                     Tre ated by th is
Technology       Technology Description                                        Technology          Limitations                                             Co st

Bioventing       •   Stimulates the natural in-situ biodegradation of          •   VOCs.           •   Low s oil-g as perm eability.H igh water table      •   $10 to $70 per
                     volatile organ ics in soil by providing oxygen to                                 or saturated soil layers.Vapors can build up            cubic meter of
                     existin g soil m icroorganism s.O xygen com m only                                in basements within the radius of influence             soil.3Cost
                     supplied through dire ct a ir injection .Uses low air                             of air injection wells.Low soil moisture                affected by
                     flow ra tes to provide on ly enough o xygen to                                    content may limit biodegradation by drying              contaminant type
                     sustain m icrobial activity.Volatile com pounds are                               out the soils.Low temperatures slow                     and
                     biodegraded as vapors and move slowly through                                     remediation.Chlorinated solvents may not                concentration,
                     the biologically active soil.                                                     degrade fully under certain subsurface                  soil perm eability,
                                                                                                       con ditions.Vap ors m ay nee d trea tm ent,             well spacing and
                                                                                                       dep end ing on em ission level an d state               num ber,
                                                                                                       regulations.                                            pumping rate,
                                                                                                                                                               and off-gas
                                                                                                                                                               treatm ent.

Biodegradation   •   Indigenous or introduced microorganisms                   •   VOCs.           •   Cleanup goals m ay not be attain ed if the soil     •       $30 to $100 per
                     degrade organic contaminants found in soil and                                    matrix prevents sufficient mixing.Circulation               cubic meter of
                     grou ndw ater.U sed suc ces sfully to rem ediate                                  of water-based solutions through the soil                   soil.3Cost
                     soils, s ludges, a nd gro undw ate r.Especially                                   may increase contaminant mobility and                       affected by the
                     effective for remediating low-level residual                                      necessitate treatment of underlying                         natu re an d de pth
                     conta m ination in conjun ctio n with source re m oval.                           groundw ater.                                               of the
                                                                                                   •   Injection wells may clog and prevent                        contaminants,
                                                                                                       adequate flow rates.Preferential flow paths                 use of
                                                                                                       may result in nonuniform distribution of                    bioaugmentation
                                                                                                       inje cte d flu ids.Sh ould not be used fo r clay,           or hydrogen
                                                                                                       highly layered, or heterogeneous subsurface                 peroxide
                                                                                                       environm ents.High conc entrations of heavy                 addition, and
                                                                                                       metals, highly chlorinated organics, long                   groundwater
                                                                                                       chain hydrocarbon s, or inorganic salts are                 pumping rates.
                                                                                                       likely to be toxic to microorganisms.Low
                                                                                                       temperatures slow
                                                                                                       bioremediation.Chlorinated solvents may
                                                                                                       not degrade fully under certain subsurface


                                                                               Conta minants
 Applicable                                                                    Tre ated by th is
 Technology         Technology Description                                     Technology          Limitations                                        Co st

 Oxygen             •   Based on Fenton’s Reagent Chemistry.Stimulates         •   TPHsVOCs        •   Low soil permeability limits dispersion.Low    •   Relatively low
 Releasing              the natural in situ biodegradation of petroleum                                soil moisture limits reaction time.Low             cost in
 Com pounds             hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater by                                        tem pera tures slow reac tion.N ot cost-           applications on
                        providing oxygen to existing                                                   effective in the presence of unusually thick       small areas of
                        microorganisms.Oxygen supplied through the                                     layers o f free prod uct.                          contamination.
                        controlled dispersion and diffusion of active                                                                                     Cost depends on
                        reagents, suc h as hydrogen peroxide.Active                                                                                       size of treatment
                        reagents are injected into the affected area using                                                                                area and amount
                        semi-permanent injection wells.                                                                                                   of contaminant
                                                                                                                                                          present as free
                                                                                                                                                          prod uct.
1. Interagency Cost Workgroup, 1994.
2. Costs of Remedial Actions at Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste Sites, U.S. EPA, 1986.
3. Federal Rem ediatio n Technology Roundtable. Http://

UST = underground storage tank

SVOCs = semi-volatile organic compounds

VOCs = volatile organic compounds

PAH s = polyaromatic hydrocarbons

PC Bs = polychlorina ted biphenyls

TP H = total petroleum hydrocarbons


                                                                          Appendix E
                                                                          Works Cited
A "PB" publication number in parentheses indicates that the                                U.S. EPA . 1996. Site Characterization and M onitoring: A
document is available from the National Technical Information                              B ibliogra phy o f E P A I n f or m at io n R es o ur ce s ( E PA
Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161,                               542-B-96 -001).
(703-487-46 50).                                                                           U.S. EPA . 1996. Soil Screening Guidance (540/R -96/128).
Site Assessment                                                                            U.S. EPA. 1995. Clor-N-Soil PCB Test Kit L2000 PCB/Chloride
ASTM. 1997. Standard P ractice for Environmental Site
                                     Analyzer (EPA 54 0-MR -95-518, EPA 540-R-95-518 ).
Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Proce ss.
                              U.S. EPA. 1995. Contract Laboratory Program: Volatile Organics
American Society for Testing Materials (AST M E 1527-97 ).
                                Analysis of Ambient Air in Canisters Revision VC AA01.0
ASTM. 1996. Standard P ractice for Environmental Site
                                     (PB9 5-96352 4).
Assessments: Transaction Screen Process. American Society for
                             U.S. EPA. 1995. Contract Lab Program: Draft Statement of Work
Testing Materials (ASTM E152 8-96).
                                                       for Quick Turnaround A nalysis (PB95 -963523 ).
A STM. 1995. G uide for Developing Conceptual Site Models for
                             U.S. E P A . 1 9 95 . E n vi ro G ard PCB Test Ki t ( EPA
Contaminated Sites. American Society for Testing and Materials
                            540-M R-95-517, EP A 540-R-95 -517).
(AST M E 1689-95 ).
                                                                       U.S. EPA. 1995. Field Analytical Screening Program: PCB
ASTM. 199 5. Provisio nal Standard G uide fo r Acc elerated Site
                          Method (EPA 5 40-M R-95-521, EP A 540-R-95 -521).
Characterization for Confirmed or Suspected Petro leum Releases.
                          U.S. EPA. 1995. PC B M ethod, Field Analytical Screening
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM PS3-95).
                                 Program (Innovative T echnology Evaluation R epo rt) (EPA
Data Quality Ob jectives Pro cess for Hazardous W aste Site
                               540-R-95-521, PB96-130026); Demonstration Bulletin (EPA
Investigations (EPA 2000)
                                                                 540-M R-95-521).
                                                                                           U.S. EP A. 19 95. P rofile of the Iron and S teel Ind ustry (EPA
G o - E n v i r o n m e n t a l S o l u t i o n s . N . D . h t t p : / / w w w .

                                                                                           310-R-95-005 ).

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 1995. Rapid Optical Screen Tool (ROST TM) (EPA
Geoprobe Systems, Inc. 1998. Rental Rate Sheet. September 15.

                                                                                           540-M R-95-519, EP A 540-R-95 -519).
Robba t, Albert, Jr. 199 7. Dynamic W orkp lans and Field

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 1995. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund.
Analytics: The Keys to Cost Effective Site Characterization and

Cleanup. Tufts University under Coop erative Agreement with the

                                                                                           Catalog/E PA 540 R9513 2.html.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. October.

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 1994. Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated
U.S. EPA.            200 0. Assessing Contractor Capabilities for

                                                                                           Sediments (ARCS ) Program (EP A 905-R-94 -003).
Streamlined Site Investigations (EPA/542-R-00-001)

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 1994. Characterization of Chromium-Contaminated
U.S. EPA . 1999 . Cost Estimating Tools and Resources for

                                                                                           Soils Using Field-Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PB 94-2104 57).
Addressing Sites Under the Brownfields Initiative (EPA/625/R-

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 19 94. D evelo pme nt of a B attery-O perated P ortab le

                                                                                           Synchronous Luminescence Spectrofluorometer (PB 94-1700 32).
U.S. EP A. 19 97. E xpedited Site Assessment Tools for

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 19 94. E nginee ring Fo rum Issue: Considerations in
Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Regulators and

                                                                                           Deciding to Treat Contaminated Unsaturated Soils In Situ (EPA
Consultants (EPA 510-B -97-001).

                                                                                           540-S-94-500 , PB94 -177771 ).
U.S. EP A. 19 97. F ield Analytical an d Site Characterization

                                                                                           U.S. EPA . 1994. SITE Program: An Engineering Analysis of the
Technologies, Summary of App lications (EPA -542-R-97-011).

                                                                                           Demo nstration Program (E PA 54 0-R-94-530).
U.S. EP A. 1997. Road M ap to Understanding Innovative

                                                                                           U.S. EPA . 1993. Data Q uality Objectives Process for Superfund
Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup.

                                                                                           (EPA 540-R-93-071 ).
OSW ER. (PB 97-1448 10).

                                                                                           U.S. EPA . 1993. Conference on the Risk Assessment Paradigm
U.S. EPA. 1997. The Tool Kit of Technology Information

                                                                                           After 10 Years: Policy and Practice, Then, Now, and in the
Resources for Brownfields Sites. OSW ER. (PB 97-1448 28).

U.S. EPA. 1996. Consortium for Site Characterization

                                                                                           http://www m/Catalog/EP A600R 930 39.html.
Technology: Fact Sheet (EPA 542-F-96-012).

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 1993. Guidance for Evaluating the Technical
U.S. EPA. 1996. Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (FPXRF),

                                                                                           Impracticability of Ground W ater Restoration. OSW ER directive
T echnolo g y Verification Program: Fact Sheet ( E PA
542-F-96-009 a).
                                                                          U.S. EPA. 1993. Guide for Conducting Treatability Studies
U.S. EP A. 19 96. Po rtable Gas Chromatograph/Mass
                                        Under CERCLA: Biodegradation Remedy Selection (EPA
Spectrometers (GC/MS), Technology Verification Program: Fact
                              540-R-93-519 a, PB94 -117470 ).
Sheet (EPA 5 42-F-96-009c).

                                                                                           U.S. EPA . 1993. Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring
U.S. EP A. 19 96. S ite Characterization Analysis Penetrometer

                                                                                           Techniques (EP A 625-R-93 -003a&b ).
System (SCAPS) LIF Sensor (EPA 540-MR-95-520, EPA 540

                                                                                           U.S. EPA. 1992. Characterizing Heterogeneous Wastes: Methods

                                                                                           and Recom mendations (March 26 -28,1991) (PB 92-2168 94).


U.S. EPA. 1992. Conducting Treatability Studies Under RCRA
                                  Los Alamos National Laboratory. 1996 . A Com pendium of Co st
(OSWER Directive 9380.3-09FS, PB92-963501)
                                                  D a ta f o r E n v i r o n m e n t al R e m e d ia tion T echn ol og i e s
U.S. E PA. 1 992 . Guidance for Data Useability in Risk
                                     (LA-UR-96 -2205).
Assessment (Part A) (9285.7-09A).
                                                           Oak Ridge National Laboratory. N.D. Treatability of Hazardous
U.S. EPA. 1992. Guide for Conducting Treatability Studies
                                   Chemicals in Soils: Volatile and Semi-Volatile Organics
Under C ERC LA: Final (EPA 54 0-R-92-071A , PB93 -126787 ).
                                 (ORN L-6451).
U.S. EPA. 1992. Guide for Conducting Treatability Studies
                                   Robbat, Albert, Jr. 19 97. D ynamic W orkp lans and Field
Under CERCLA: Soil Vapor Extraction (EPA 540-2-91-019a&b,
                                   Analytics: The K eys to Cost Effective Site Characterization and
PB 92-2272 71 & P B92 -224401 ).
                                                            Cleanup. Tufts Un iversity under Coop erative Agreement with the
U.S. EPA. 1992. Guide for Conducting Treatability Studies
                                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. October.
Under CERCLA: Soil Washing (EPA 540-2-91-020a&b,
                                            U.S. EP A. 19 99. T echnical Ap proaches to Characterizing and
PB 92-1705 70 & P B92 -170588 ).
                                                            Cleaning Up M etal Finishing Sites under the Brownfields
U.S. EPA. 1992. Guide for Conducting Treatability Studies
                                   Initiative. (EPA/625/R-98/006)
Under CERC LA: Solvent Extraction (EPA 540-R-92-016a,
                                       U.S. EPA . 1997. Road Map to Understanding Innovative
PB 92-2395 81).
                                                                             Technology Options for Brownfields Investigation and Cleanup.
U.S. EPA. 1992. Guide to Site and Soil Description for
                                      OSW ER. PB 97-1448 10).
Hazardous W aste Site Characterization, Volume 1 : Metals
                                   U.S. EPA. 1997. The Tool Kit of Technology Information
(PB9 2-14615 8).
                                                                            Resources for Brownfields Sites. OSW ER. (PB 97-1448 28).
U.S. EPA . 1992. International Symposium on Field Screening
                                 U.S. EPA. 1996. Bioremediation Field Evaluation: Champion
Method s for Hazardous W astes and Toxic Chemicals (2nd),
                                   International Supe rfund Site , Lib b y , M o n t a n a ( E PA
Proceedings. Held in Las Vegas, Nevada on February 12-14,
                                   540-R-96-500 ).
1991 (P B92 -125764 ).
                                                                      U.S. EPA. 1996. Bibliography for Innovative Site Clean-Up
U.S. EPA. 1992. Sampling of Contaminated Sites
                                              Technologies (EP A 542-B -96-003).
(PB9 2-11043 6).
                                                                            U.S. EPA. 1996. Bioremediation of Haza rdous W astes: Research,
U.S. EPA. 1991. Ground Water Issue: Characterizing Soils for
                                Develop ment, and F ield Evaluations (EPA 540-R-95-532,
Hazardo us Waste Site Assessment (PB-91-921 294).
                                           PB 96-1307 29).
U.S. EPA. 1991. Guide for Conducting Treatability Studies
                                   U.S. EPA . 1996. Citizen's Guides to Understanding Innovative
Under C ERC LA: Aerobic B iodegradation Remedy Screening
                                    Treatment Techno logies (EPA 542 -F-96-013):
(EPA 540-2-91-013 a&b, PB 92-1090 65 & P B92 -109073 ).
                                     Bioremediation (EPA 542-F-96-007, EPA 542-F-96-023) In
U.S. EPA . 1991. Interim Guidance for Dermal Expo sure
                                      addition to screening levels, EPA regional offices and some states
Assessment (EPA 60 0-8-91-011A).
                                                            have developed cleanup levels, known as corrective action levels;
U.S. EPA. 1990. A New Approach and Methodologies for
                                        if contaminant concentrations are above co rrective action levels,
Characterizing the Hydrogeologic Properties of Aquifers (EPA
                                cleanup must be pursued . The section on "Performing a Phase II
600-2-90-002 ).
                                                                             Site Assessment" in this document provides more information on
U.S. EPA. 1986. Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual
                                   screening levels, and the section on "Site Cleanup" provides more
(EPA 540-1-86-060 ).
                                                                        information on corrective action levels.
U.S. EPA. N.D. Status Report on Field Analytical Technologies
                               C h e m i c a l D e ha loge n a ti on (E P A 5 4 2 -F -9 6 -0 0 4 , E P A
Utilization: Fact Sheet (no publication number available).
                                   In Situ Soil Flushing (EPA 542-F-96-006, EPA 542-F-96-022)
Vendor Field Analytical and Characterization Technologies
                                   Innovative Treatment Te chnologies for Contam inated Soils,
System (Vendor FACTS), Version 1.0 (Vendor FACTS can be
                                     Sludges, Sediments, and              Debris (EPA 542-F-96-001, EPA
downloaded from the Internet at or from
the CLU-IN W eb site at
                                                 Phytoremediation (EPA 542-F-96-014, EPA 542-F-96-025)
The Whitman Companies. Last modified October 4, 1996.
                                       Soil Vapor Extraction and Air Sparging (EPA 542-F-96-008,
Environmental Due Diligence. http://www.whitmanco.
                                          EPA 542-F-96-024)
com /dilgnce 1.html.
                                                                        Soil Washing (EPA 542-F-96-002, EPA 542-F-96-018)
Site Cleanup                                                                                 Solvent Extraction (EPA 542-F-96-003, EPA 542-F-96-019)
ASTM. N.D. New Standard Guide for Remediation by Natural
                                    Thermal Desorption (EPA 542-F-96-005, EPA 542-F-96-021)
Attenuation at Petroleum Release Sites (ASTM E50.01 ).
                                      Treatment Walls (EPA 542-F-96-016, EPA 542-F-96-027)
Brownfields Redevelopmen t: A G u id ebook for Local
                                        U.S. EPA. 1996. Clea ning Up the Nation's W aste Sites: Markets
Go vernm ents & Com munities, International City/County
                                     and Technology Trends (1996 Edition) (EPA 542-R-96-005,
Management Association, 1997
                                                                PB 96-1780 41).
F e d e r a l R e g i s te r . S e p te m b e r 9 , 199 7. www.acc ess.
                     U.S. EPA. 1996. Comp leted North American Innovative
gpo .gov/su _do cs/a ces/ac es14 0.htm l, v o l .6 2 , n o .174 , p.
                        Technology Demo nstration Projects (EPA 542-B-96-002,
                                                                                PB 96-1531 27).
F e d e r a l Rem edia t io n             T e c h n o l o g y R o u n d t a b l e .
         U.S. EP A. 1996. Cone Penetrometer/Laser Induced Fluorescence
http://www atrix/top _pa ge.html.
                                               (LIF) Technology Verification Program: Fact Sheet (EPA
Interagency Cost Workgroup. 1994. Historical Cost An alysis
                                 542-F-96-009 b).
System. Version 2.0.


U.S. EPA. 1996. EPA Directive: Initiatives to Promote                      U.S. EPA. 1995. Emerging Technology Program (EPA

Innovative Technologies in Waste Management Programs (EPA                  540-F-95-502 ).

540-F-96-012 ).                                                            U.S. EPA . 1995. ET I: Environmental Technology Initiative

U.S. EP A. 1996. Errata to Guide to EPA materials on                       (document order form) (EP A 542-F-95-00 7).

Underground Storage Tanks (EP A 510-F-96-00 2).                            U.S. EPA . 1995. Federal Publications on Alternative and

U.S. EP A. 19 96. H ow to Effectively Recover Free Product at              Innovative Treatment Techno logies for Corrective Action and

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites: A G uide fo r State                Site Remediation , Fifth Ed ition (EPA 542-B-95-004,

Regulators (EPA 51 0-F-96-001; Fact Sheet: EPA 5 10-F-96-005).             PB 96-1450 99).

U.S. EPA. 1996. Innovative Treatment Technologies: Annual                  U.S. EP A. 19 95. F ederal Remediation Technologies Roundtable:

Status Report Database (ITT Database).                                     5 Years of Coo peration (EPA 54 2-F-95-007).

U.S. EPA . 1996. Introducing TAN K Race r (EPA 5 10-F96-001 ).             U.S. EP A. 1995. Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance

U.S. EPA. 199 6. M arket Op portunities for Innovative S ite               for Remediation Projects (EPA 542-B-95 -002, PB 95-1829 60).

Cleanup Techno logies: S outheastern States (EPA 542-R-96-007,             U.S. EPA. 1995. In Situ Metal-Enhanced Abiotic Degradation

PB 96-1995 18).                                                            Process Technology, Environmental Technologies, Inc.:

U.S. EPA. 1996. Recent Developments for In situ Treatment of               Demo nstration Bulletin (EPA 540 -MR-95 -510).

Metal-Contaminated Soils (EPA 5 42-R-96-008, P B96 -153135 ).              U.S. EPA. 1995. In Situ Vitrification Treatment: Engineering

U.S. EP A. 19 96. R eview of Intrinsic Bioreme diation of TCE in           Bulletin (EPA 540-S-94-50 4, PB9 5-12549 9).

Groundwater at Pica tinny Arsenal, New Jersey and St. Joseph,              U.S. EPA. 1995. I ntrinsic Bioattenuation for Subsurface

Michigan (EP A 600-A-95 -096, PB 95-2529 95).                              Restoration (book chapter) (EPA 6 00-A-95-112, P B95 -274213 ).

U.S . EPA. 1996. State Policies Concerning the Use of Injectants           U.S. EPA . 1995. J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Biorem ediatio n

for In Situ Groundwater Remediation (EPA 542-R-96-001,                     Technology for Treatment of TNT-Contamin ated S oils:

PB 96-1645 38).                                                            Innovative Technology Evaluation Repo rt (EPA 540 -R-95-529);

U.S. EPA. 1995. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies (EPA                 Site Technology Capsule (EPA 540-R-95-529 a).

542-R-95-001 , PB95 -201711 ).                                             U.S. EPA . 1995. Lessons Learned About In Situ Air Sparging at

U.S. EPA. 1995. Accessing Federal Data Bases for Contaminated              the Denison A venue Site, C leveland, Ohio (Project Report),

Site Clean-Up Technologies, Fourth Edition (EPA 542-B-95-005,              Assessing U S T Corrective Action Te c hnologies ( EPA

PB 96-1416 01).                                                            600-R-95-040 , PB95 -188082 ).

U.S. EPA. 1995. Bioremediation Field Evaluation: Eielson Air               U.S. EP A. 1995 . Microbial Activity in Subsurface Samples

Force Base, Alaska (EP A 540-R-95 -533).                                   Before and During Nitrate-Enhanced Bioremediation (EPA

U.S. E PA. 1 995 . Biorem ediation Field Initiative Site Profiles:         600-A-95-109 , PB95 -274239 ).

Champion Site, Libby, MT (EP A 540-F-95-506a)                              U.S. EPA. 1995. Musts for UST S: A Summary of the Regulations

Eielson Air Force Base, AK (EPA 540-F-95-506b)                             for Underground T ank Systems (EPA 51 0-K-95-002).

Hill Air Force Base Superfund Site, UT (EPA 5 40-F-95-506c)                U.S . EPA. 1995. Natural Attenuation of Trichloroethene at the

Public Service Company of Colorado (EPA 540-F-95-506d)                     St. Joseph, Michigan, Superfund Site (EPA 600 -SV-95-001).

Escambia W ood P reserving Site, FL (EPA 540-F-95-506g)                    U.S. EPA. 1995. New Yo rk State Multi-Vendor Bioremed iation:

Reilly Tar and Chem i ca l C o rp o ra ti on , M N (E P A                  Ex-S itu Biovault, ENSR Consulting and Engineering/Larson

540-F-95-506 h)                                                            Engineers: Demonstration Bulletin (EPA 5 40-M R-95-525).

U.S. EPA. 1995. Bioremediation Final Performance Evaluation                U.S. EPA. 1995. Process for the Treatment of Volatile Organic

of the Prepared Bed Land Treatment System, Champion                        Carbon and Heavy-Metal-Contaminated Soil, International

International Superfund Site, Libby, Montana: Volume I, Text               Technology Corp.: Emerging Technology Bulletin (EPA

(EPA 600-R-95-156a); Volume II, Figures and Tables (EPA                    540-F-95-509 ).

600-R-95-156 b).                                                           U.S. EPA . 1995. Progress in Reducing Imped iments to the Use of

U.S. EP A. 19 95. B iorem ediatio n of Petroleum Hyd rocarbons: A          Innovative Remediation Techno logy (EPA 542-F-95-008,

Flexible, Variable Speed Technology (EPA 600-A-95-140,                     PB 95-2625 56).

PB 96-1390 35).                                                            U.S. EPA. 1995. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Handbook

U.S. EPA. 1995. Combined Chemical and Biological Oxidation                 (PB9 5-96330 7-ND 2).

of Slurry Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EPA                      U.S. EPA. 1995. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Handbook

600-A-95-065 , PB95 -217642 ).                                             Fact Sheet (PB95 -963312 -NDZ).

U.S. EP A. 19 95. C ontam inants and Remedial O ptions at Selected         U.S . EPA. 1995. Remediation Case Studies: Bioremediation

Metal Contaminated Sites (EPA 5 40-R-95-512, P B95 -271961 ).              (EPA 542-R-95-002 , PB95 -182911 ).

U.S. EPA . 1995. Develop ment of a Photothermal Detoxification             U.S. EP A. 19 95. R emediation Case Studies: Fact Sheet and

Unit: Emerging Technology Summary (EPA 540-SR-95-52 6);                    Order Form (E PA 542-F-95-003); Four Document Set

Emerging Techno logy Bulletin (EPA 5 40-F-95-505).                         (PB9 5-18290 3).

U.S. EPA. 1995. Electrokinetic Soil Processing: Emerging                   U.S. EPA. 1995. Remediation Case Studies: Groundwater

Technology Bulletin (EPA 540-F-95-504); ET Project Summary                 Treatment (EPA 542-R-95-003 , PB95 -182929 ).

(EPA 540-SR-93-51 5).                                                      U.S. EP A. 19 95. R emediation Case Studies: Soil Vapor

U.S. EPA . 1995. Emerging Ab iotic In Situ Remediation                     Extraction (EPA 54 2-R-95-004, PB 95-1829 37).

Technologies for Groundwater and Soil: Summary Report (EPA
542-S-95-001 , PB95 -239299 ).


U.S. EP A. 19 95. R emediation Case Studies: Thermal D esorption,             Chemical Oxidation Treatment (EPA 540-2-91-025)

Soil Washing, and In Situ Vitrification (EPA 542-R-95-005,                    In Situ Biodegradation Treatment (EPA 540-S-94-502,

PB 95-1829 45).                                                               PB94-190469)

U.S. EP A. 19 95. R emediation Techno logies S creen ing M atrix              In Situ Soil Flushing (EPA 540-2-91-021)

and Referenc e Guide, S econd E dition (PB 95-1 047 82; F act Sheet:          In Situ Soil Vapor Extraction Treatment (EPA 540-2-91-006,

E P A 542 - F-9 5 -002 ). Fed eral R eme diatio n T ec hnology                PB91-228072)

R o u n d t a b l e .        A l s o      s e e    I n t e r n e t :          In Situ Steam Extraction Treatment (EPA 540-2-91-005,

http://www atrix/top -page.html.                                  PB91-228064)

U.S. EPA. 1995. Removal of PC Bs fro m Contam inated Soil                     In Sit u V itrific a tion Tre a tme nt (EPA 540- S-94- 504,

Using the Cf Systems (trade name) Solvent Extraction Pro cess: A              PB95-125499)

Treatab ility Study (EPA 540-R-95-505, PB95-19903 0); Project                 M o b i l e / T r a n s p o r t a b l e I n c in e ra ti on T r ea tm e nt (E P A

Summary (EP A 540-SR -95-505).                                                540-2-90-014)

U.S. EPA . 1995. Review of Mathematical Modeling for                          Pyrolysis Treatment (EPA 540-S-92-010)

Evaluating Soil V apo r Extra ction Systems (EPA 540-R-95-513,                Rotating Biological Contactors (EPA 540-S-92-007)

PB 95-2430 51).                                                               Slurry Biodegradation (EPA 540-2-90-016, PB91-228049)

U.S. EPA . 1995. Selected Alternative and Innovative Treatment                Soil Washing Treatment (EPA 540-2-90-017, PB91-228056)

Technologies for Co rrective Action and Site Remediation : A                  Solidification/Stabilization of Organics and Inorganics (EPA

Bi bliograp h y o f E P A I n fo r m a ti o n R e s o u r c es (E P A         540-S-92-015)

542-B-95 -001).                                                               S o l v e n t E x t r a c ti o n T r ea t m e nt ( E P A 5 4 0 -S - 9 4 -5 0 3 ,

U.S. EPA. 1995. SITE Emerging Technology Program (EPA                         PB94-190477)

540-F-95-502 ).                                                               Supercritical Water Oxidation (EPA 540-S-92-006)

U.S. EPA. 199 5. Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE ) Enhancement                     T e c h n o l o g y P r e s e l e ct io n D at a R e q ui re m en ts (E P A

Technology Resource Guide Air Sparging, Bioventing,                           540-S-92-009)

Fracturing, Thermal Enhancements (EPA 5 42-B-95-003 ).                        T h e r m a l D e s o r p t i o n T r e a tm e n t ( E P A 5 4 0 - S -9 4 - 5 0 1,

U.S. EPA. 1995. Soil Vapor Extraction Implementation                          PB94-160603)

Expe riences ( OSW E R P ub lication 9 20 0 .5 -2 2 3 FS , EPA                U.S. EP A. 1994. Field Inv estigation of Effectivene ss of So il

540-F-95-030 , PB95 -963315 ).                                                Vapor Extraction Technology (Final Project Report) (EPA

U.S. EPA . 1995. Surfactant Injection for Ground W ater                       600-R-94-142 , PB94 -205531 ).

Remediation: State Regulators' Perspectives and Experiences                   U.S. EPA. 1994. Ground W ater Treatment Technologies

(EPA 542-R-95-011 , PB96 -164546 ).                                           Resource Guide (E PA 54 2-B-94-009, P B95 -138657 ).

U.S. EPA. 1995. Symposium on Bioremediation of Hazardous                      U.S. EPA. 1994. How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup

W astes: Research, D evelo pme nt, and Field E valuations,                    Techn ologies for Undergrou nd Storage Tank Sites: A G uide fo r

Abstracts: Rye Town Hilton, Rye Brook, Ne w Yo rk, August                     Corrective Action Plan Reviewers (EP A 51 0-B -94-0 03, S/N

8-10, 1995 (E PA 60 0-R-95-078).                                              055-000 -00499-4); Pamp hlet (EPA 510 -F-95-003).

U.S. EPA. 19 93-1 995 . Techno logy Resource G uides:.                        U.S. EPA . 1994. In Situ Steam Enhanced Reco very Process,

Bioremediation Resource Guide (EPA 542-B-93-004)                              Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc.: Innovative Technology

Groundwater Treatment Technology Resource Guide (EPA                          Evaluation Rep ort (E PA 540 -R-94 -510 , PB 95-2 718 54); Site

542-B-94-009, PB95-138657)                                                    Technology Cap sule (EPA 540 -R-94-510a, PB 95-2704 76).

Physical/Chemical Treatment Technology Resource Guide (EPA                    U.S. EPA . 1994. In Situ Vitrification, Geosafe Corporation:

542-B-94-008, PB95-138665)                                                    Innovative Technology Evaluation Report (EPA 540-R-94-520,

Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) Enhancement Technology Resource                   PB 95-2132 45); Demo nstration Bulletin (EPA 540 -MR-94 -520).

Guide: Air Sparging, Bioventing, Fracturing, and Thermal                      U.S. EPA. 1994. J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation

Enhancements (EPA 542-B-95-003)                                               Technology for Treatment of Dinoseb-Contaminated So ils:

Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) Treatment Technology Resource                     Innovative Technology Evaluation Repo rt (EPA 540 -R-94-508);

Guide (EPA 542-B-94-007)                                                      Demo nstration Bulletin (EPA 540 -MR-94 -508).

U.S. EP A. 19 95. W aste V itrification T hrough Electric M elting,           U.S. EPA. 1994. Literature Review Summary of M etals

Ferro Corporation: E merging T echnology Bulletin (EPA                        Extraction Processes Used to Remove Lead From Soils, Project

540-F-95-503 ).                                                               Summary (EP A 600-SR -94-006).

U.S. EPA. 199 4. Accessing EPA's Environmental Technology                     U.S. EPA. 199 4. No rtheast Reme diation M arketplace: B usiness

Programs (EP A 542-F-94-00 5).                                                Opportunities for Innova t i ve T e c hnologies (Summary

U.S. EPA. 1994. Bioremediation: A Video Primer (video) (EPA                   Proceedings) (EP A 542-R-94 -001, PB 94-1547 70).

510-V-94 -001).                                                               U.S. EPA. 1994. Physical/Chemical Treatment Technology

U.S. EPA . 1994. Bioreme diation in the Field Search System                   Resource Guide (E PA 54 2-B-94-008, P B95 -138665 ).

(EPA 540-F-95-507; Fact Sheet: EPA 540-F-94-506).                             U.S. EPA . 1994. Profile of Innovative Technologies and Vend ors

U.S. EP A. 19 94. C ontam inants and Remedial O ptions at                     for Waste Site Remediation (EPA 542-R-94-002 , PB95 -138418 ).

Solvent-Contaminated Sites (EPA 600-R-94-203 , PB95 -177200 ).                U.S. EPA. 199 4. Rad io Frequency He ating, KAI T echnolo gies,

U.S. EPA. 19 90-1 994 . EPA Enginee ring B ulletins:.                         Inc.: Innova tive Tec hnology Evalua tion Report (EPA

Chemical Dehalogenation Treatment: APEG Treatment (EPA                        540-R-94-528 ); Site Technology Capsule (EPA 540-R-94-528a,

540-2-90-015, PB91-228031)                                                    PB 95-2494 54).


U.S. EPA. 199 4. Regional Market Op portunities for Innovative
              U.S. EP A. 19 93. B iorem ediatio n Resourc e Guide and M atrix
Site Clean-up Technologies: Middle Atlantic States (EPA
                     (EPA 542-B-93 -004, PB 94-1123 07).
542-R-95-010 , PB96 -121637 ).
                                              U.S. EPA . 1993. Biorem ediation: Using the Land T reatment
U.S. EPA. 1994. Rocky Mountain Remediation Marketplace:
                     Concept (EP A 600-R-93 -164, PB 94-1079 27).
Business Opportunities for Innovative Technologies (Summ ary
                U.S. EPA. 1993. Fungal Treatment Technology: Demonstration
Proceedings) (EP A 542-R-94 -006, PB 95-1737 38).
                           Bulletin (EPA 540-M R-93-514).
U.S. EPA. 1994. Selected EPA Products and Assistance On
                     U.S . EPA. 1993. Gas-Phase Chemical Reduction Process, Eco
Alternative Cleanup Techn ologies (Includes Remediation
                     Logic International Inc. (EPA 540-R-93-522, PB95-100251, EPA
Guidance Docum ents Produced B y The W isconsin Department
                  540-M R-93-522).
of Natural Resources) (EPA 5 10-E-94-001 ).
                                 U.S. EPA. 199 3. HR UB OU T, H rubetz Environmental Services:
U.S. EPA. 1994. Soil Vapor Extraction Treatment Technology
                  Demo nstration Bulletin (EPA 540 -MR-93 -524).
Resource Guide (E PA 54 2-B-94-007).
                                        U.S. EP A. 19 93. H ydraulic Frac turing of Contaminated Soil, U.S.
U.S. EPA . 1994. Solid Oxygen Source for Bioremediation
                     EPA: Innova tive Tec hnology Evalua tion Report (EPA
Subsurface Soils (revised) (EPA 6 00-J-94-495, PB 95-1551 49).
              540-R-93-505, PB94-100161); Demonstration Bulletin (EPA
U.S. EPA. 1994. Solvent Extraction: Engineering Bulletin (EPA
               540-M R-93-505).
540-S-94-503 , PB94 -190477 ).
                                              U.S. EPA. 1993. HYPERVENTILATE: A software Guidance
U.S. EPA. 1994. Solvent Extraction Treatment System,
                        System Created for V apor Extra ction S ystems for Apple
Terra-Kleen Respo nse Group, Inc. (EPA 540-M R-94-521).
                     Macintosh and IBM P C-Compatible Computers (UST #107)
U.S. EPA. 1994. Status Reports on In Situ Treatment
                         (EPA 510-F-93-001); U ser's Manual (M acintosh disk included)
Techno logy D emo nstration and A pplications:.
                             (UST #102) (E PA 50 0-CB-92-00 1).
Altering Chemical Conditions (EPA 542-K-94-008)
                             U.S. EPA. 1993. In Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated Ground
Cosolvents (EPA 542-K-94-006)
                                               W ater (EPA 54 0-S-92-003, PB 92-2243 36).
Electrokinetics (EPA 542-K-94-007)
                                          U.S. EPA. 1993. In Situ Bioremediation of Contaminated
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Fracturing (EPA 542-K-94-005)
                       Unsaturated Subsurface Soils (EPA-S-93-501, PB 93-2345 65).
Surfactant Enhancements (EPA 542-K-94-003)
                                  U.S. EPA . 1993. In Situ Bioremediation of Ground W ater and
Thermal Enhancements (EPA 542-K-94-009)
                                     Geological M aterial: A Rev iew of Technologies (EPA
Treatment Walls (EPA 542-K-94-004)
                                          600-SR-93 -124, PB 93-2155 64).
U.S. EPA. 1994. Subsurface Volatization and Ventilation System
              U.S. EPA. 1993. In Situ Treatments of Contaminated
(SVV S): Innovative Technology Report (EPA 540-R-94-529,
                    Groundw ater: A n I n v e n to r y o f R e se a r c h and Field
PB 96-1 16488); Site Technology Capsule (EPA 540-R-94-529a,
                 Demo nstrations and Strategies for Improving Groundwater
PB 95-2561 11).
                                                             Remediation Techno logies (EPA 500 -K-93-001, PB 93-1937 20).
U.S. EPA. 1994. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation
                  U.S. EPA . 1993. Laboratory Story on the Use of Hot W ater to
(SITE) Program: T echnology Profiles, Seventh Edition (EPA
                  Recover Light Oily Wastes from Sands (EPA 600-R-93-021,
540-R-94-526 , PB95 -183919 ).
                                              PB 93-1679 06).
U.S. EP A. 19 94. T hermal Desorption System, Maxymillian
                   U.S. EPA. 1993. Low Temperature Thermal Aeration (LTTA)
Tec hnologies, Inc.: S i t e T e c h n o l o g y C a ps ul e ( E PA
         System, Smith Environmental Technologies Corp.: Applications
540-R94 -507a, PB 95-1228 00).
                                              Analysis Report (EPA 540-AR-93-504); Site Demonstration
U.S. EPA . 1994. Therm al Desorption Treatment: Engineering
                 Bulletin (EPA 540-M R-93-504).
Bulletin (EPA 540-S-94-50 1, PB9 4-16060 3).
                                U.S. EPA. 1993. M ission Statement: Federal Remediation
U.S. EP A. 19 94. T hermal De sorption U nit, Eco Logic
                     Technologies Round table (EPA 54 2-F-93-006).
International, Inc.: Application Analysis Report (EPA
                       U.S. EP A. 19 93. M obile Vo lume R eduction U nit, U.S. EPA:
540-AR -94-504).
                                                            A pplic a tions A n a l y si s R e po r t (E P A 5 4 0 - A R - 9 3 -5 0 8 ,
U.S. EPA . 1994. Therm al Enhancements: Innovative
                          PB 94-1302 75).
Technology Eva luation Report (EPA 54 2-K-94-009).
                          U.S. EP A. 19 93. O verview of U ST Rem ediatio n Op tions (EPA
U.S. EPA. 1994. The Use of Cationic Surfactants to M odify
                  510-F-93-029 ).
Aquifer Materials to Red uce the Mobility of Hydroph obic
                   U.S. EPA. 199 3. Soil Recycling Treatment, Toronto Harbour
Organic Com pounds (EP A 600-S-94-00 2, PB9 5-11195 1).
                     Comm issioners (EPA 540-AR-93 -517, PB 94-1246 74).
U.S. EPA. 1994. W est Coast Remediation Marketplace:
                        U.S. EP A. 19 93. S ynop ses of Federal Demonstrations of
Business Opportunities for Innovative Technologies (Summary
                 Innovative Site Remediation Technologies, Third Edition (EPA
Proceedings) (EP A 542-R-94 -008, PB 95-1433 19).
                           542-B-93 -009, PB 94-1445 65).
U.S. EPA. 1993. Accutech Pneum atic Fracturing Extraction and
               U.S. EPA. 1993. XTRAX M odel 200 Thermal Desorption
Hot Gas Injection, Phase I: Technology Evaluation Report (EPA
               System, OH M R emediation Services Corp.: Site Demonstration
540-R-93-509 , PB93 -216596 ).
                                              Bulletin (EPA 540-M R-93-502).
U.S. EPA. 1993. Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation
                 U.S. EPA . 1992. Aostra Soil-tech Anaerobic Thermal Process,
Process, Bio-Rem, Inc.: Demonstration Bulletin (EPA
                         Soiltech A TP Systems: Demonstration Bull et in (EPA
540-M R-93-527).
                                                            540-M R-92-008).
U.S . EP A. 19 93. B iogenesis So il Washing Techno logy:
                   U.S. EP A. 19 92. B asic Extractive Sludge T reatment (B .E.S.T .)
Demo nstration Bulletin (EPA 540 -MR-93 -510).
                              Solvent Extraction System, Ionics/Resources Conservation Co.:


A p plicatio n s Analysis Re p o rt (E P A 5 4 0 -A R-92-079,
                            U.S. EPA . 1992. Proceed ings of the Symposium on So il Venting

PB 94-1054 34); Demo nstration Summary (EP A 540-SR -92-079).
                            (EPA 600-R-92-174 , PB93 -122323 ).

U.S. EPA. 1992. Bioremediation Case Studies: An Analysis of
                              U.S. EPA. 1992. Soil/Sediment Washing System, Bergman USA:

Vendor Supplied Data (EPA 600-R-92-043, PB92-232339).U.S.
                                Demo nstration Bulletin (EPA 540 -MR-92 -075).

EPA. 1992. Bioremediation Field Initiative (EPA 540-F-92-012
                             U.S. EPA . 1992. TC E Rem oval From Co ntaminated Soil and

U.S. EPA. 1990. Enhanced Bioremediation Utilizing Hydrogen
                               Groundw ater (EPA 54 0-S-92-002, PB 92-2241 04).

Peroxide as a Supplemental Source of Oxygen: A Laboratory
                                U.S. EPA. 1992. Technology Alternatives for the Remediation of

and Field Study (EPA 6 00-2-90-006, PB 90-1834 35).
                                      PCB -Contaminated Soil and Sediment (EPA 5 40-S-93-506).

U.S. EPA. 1990. Guide to Selecting Superfund Remedial
                                    U.S. EPA. 1992. Workshop on Rem oval, Reco very, T reatment,

Actions (9355.0-27FS ).
                                                                  and Disposal of Arsenic and Mercury (EPA 600-R-92-105,

U.S. EP A. 19 90. S lurry Biodegradation: E nginee ring B ulletin
                        PB 92-2169 44).

(EPA 540-2-90-016 , PB91 -228049 ).
                                                      U.S. EPA. 1991. Biological Remedia tion of Contaminated

U.S. EP A. 19 90. S oil W ashing T reatment: Engineering Bulletin
                        Sediments, W ith Spe cial Empha sis on the Great Lakes: Report of

(EPA 540-2-90-017 , PB91 -228056 ).
                                                      a W orkshop (EP A 600-9-91-00 1).

U.S. EPA. 1989. Facilitated Transport (EPA 540-4-89-003,
                                 U.S. EP A. 19 91. D ebris W ashing System, RREL. T echnology

PB 91-1332 56).
                                                                          Evaluation Report (EPA 540-5-91-006 , PB91 -231456 ).

U.S. EPA. 1989. Guide on Remedial Actions for Contaminated
                               U.S. EPA . 1991. Guide to D ischarging CERCLA Aqueous

Ground W ater (9283.1-02FS).
                                                             W astes to Publicly Owned T reatment Works (933 0.2-13FS).

U.S. EP A. 19 87. C omp endium of Costs of Remedial
                                      U.S. EP A. 1991. In Situ Soil Vapo r Extraction: Engineering

Technologies at Hazardo us Waste Sites (EPA 6 00-2-87-087).
                              Bulletin (EPA 540-2-91 -006, PB 91-2280 72).

U.S. E PA. 1 987 . Data Q uality Objectives for R emed ial Response
                      U.S. EP A. 19 91. In Situ Steam E xtraction: Eng ineering Bulletin

Activities: Development Process (9355.0-07B)
                                             (EPA 540-2-91-005 , PB91 -228064 ).

U.S. EP A. 1986. Costs of Remedial Actions at Uncontrolled
                               U.S. EPA. 1991. In Situ Vapor Extraction and Steam Vacuum

Hazardo us Waste Sites (EPA/64 0/2-86/037).
                                              Stripping, A W D T e c h no lo g ie s ( E PA 5 4 0 -A 5- 9 1 -0 0 2 ,

U.S. EPA . N.D. Alternative Treatment Technology Information
                             PB 92-2183 79).

Center (ATTIC) (The ATTIC data base can be accessed by
                                   U.S. EPA . 1991. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Slurry-Phase

modem at (703) 908-213 8).
                                                               Biological Reactor for Creosote-Contaminated Soil (EPA

U.S. EPA . N.D. Clean Up Information (CLU -IN) Bulletin Board
                            540-A5-91-009, PB94-124039

System. (CLU-IN can be accessed by modem at (301) 589-8366
                               U.S. EPA. 1991. Slurry Biodegradation, International Technology

or by the Internet at
                                                Corporation (EP A 540-M R-91-009).

U.S. EP A. N .D. Initiatives to P romote Inn ovative Technology in
                       U.S. EPA. 1991. Understanding Bioremediation: A Guidebook

W aste Management Pro grams (OSW ER D irective 9308.0-25 ).
                              for Citizens (EPA 540-2-91-002 , PB93 -205870 ).

U.S. EP A and U niversity of Pittsburgh. N.D. Ground Water
                               U.S. EPA. 1990. Anaerobic Biotransformation of Co ntaminants in

Remediation Technologies Analysis Center. Internet address:
                              the Subsurface (EPA 60 0-M-90-02 4, PB9 1-24054 9).
                                                                    U.S. EPA. 1990. Chemical Dehalogenation Treatment, APEG

Vendor Information System for Innovative Treatment
                                       Tr eatm ent: E ngineering Bulletin ( E P A 5 4 0 - 2 -9 0 - 0 1 5,

Technologies (VISIT T), Version 4.0 (VISITT can be
                                       PB 91-2280 31).

downloaded from the Internet at or

from the CL U-IN Web site at http://clu-in.c

U.S. EPA . 1992. Carver Greenfield Process, Dehydrotech

C o r p o r a t i o n : A p p l i c a t i o n s A n a l y s is R ep o r t (E P A

540-AR-92-002, PB9 3-10115 2); Demonstration Summary (EPA

540-SR-92 -002).

U.S. EP A. 1992. Chemical Enhancements to Pump-and-Treat

Remediation (EPA 540-S-92-001, P B92 -180074 ).

U.S. EP A. 19 92. C yclone Furna ce V itrification Techno logy,

Babcock and Wilcox: Applications Analysis Report (EPA

540-AR -92-017, PB 93-1223 15).

U.S. EPA . 1992. Evaluation of Soil Venting Application (EPA

540-S-92-004 , PB92 -235605 ).

U.S. EPA . 1992. Excavation Te chniques and Foam Suppression

Methods, McCo ll Superfund Site, U.S. EPA : Applications

Analysis Report (EPA 540 -AR-92-015, PB 93-1001 21).

U.S. EPA . 1992. In Situ Biodegradation Treatment: Engineering

Bulletin (EPA 540-S-94-50 2, PB9 4-19046 9).

U.S. EP A. 19 92. L ow T emp erature Therma l Treatment System,

Roy F. W eston, Inc.: Applications Analysis Report (EPA

540-AR -92-019, PB 94-1240 47).