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					                                    RTV 3007 • Study Guide • Third Exam

Below are items that you should know in preparation for the third exam (Dec. 16, 5:30-7:30 p.m. in 1064 Weimer)
covering structure/operations, regulation, programming and ratings. The exam will consist of 70 multiple choice and
true/false questions (350 points), covering material discussed in class (along with the packet and videos) as well as
Chapters 6, 7, 9 and 11 of Principles of Electronic Media. Please review material in the packet and video handouts first,
then proceed to the book (especially where noted). In some cases, where indicated, material will be drawn directly from
videos or articles that we discussed in class (links have been provided to nearly all of these). There will be a special study
session in 1064 Weimer on Dec. 11, from 3:00-5:00 p.m.

    General structural characteristics
   1.  What is the relationship and differences between a broadcast network and a station?
   2.  Why are stations and cable systems considered outlets?
   3.  Why aren’t broadcast and cable networks considered outlets? What are the characteristics of a broadcast station?
   4.  What are the differences between broadcast and cable networks in how they are distributed? Which typically pays
       money to have their programming distributed and which receives money for distributing their programming (via
       program access fees)?
   5. What is the degree of network ownership of stations?
   6. As discussed in class and on page 123 of the text, what various entities does Disney own in terms of networks,
       programming and outlets?
   7. As discussed in class and on page 122 of the text, what various entities does AOL-Time Warner own in terms of
       networks, programming and outlets?
   8. What is horizontal and vertical integration? How are Disney and AOL-Timer striving for horizontal and vertical
       integration? What are examples of each?
   9. In terms of a general business model, what three main goals do broadcast stations, broadcast networks and basic
       cable networks aim to accomplish?
   10. What are the business objectives of cable television systems?
   11. In general terms, what are the television viewing habits during prime time? Even though it offers more networks,
       why doesn't cable have a huge audience share advantage over broadcast networks (within prime time)?
   12. How do cable-advertising revenues compare to that of broadcast television? How are the broadcast television
       advertising revenues broken down? What does cable advertising consist of?

    Broadcast stations
   13. What is the selling price of a VHF TV station in a very large urban area (e.g. San Francisco)? How does this
       compare to radio stations in similarly sized markets (urban areas)?
   14. What are the different station ownership types and what do they entail?
   15. What is the difference between a group owner and a network owned and operated group of stations?
   16. What is the largest Radio group? Is their ownership dependent upon national and/or local markets? Why?
   17. Why is programming a large expense for TV affiliates? What type of programming does most of this expense go
   18. What are the two types of network affiliations concerning broadcast stations? What station in Florida recently
       became a “true independent?”
   19. What is the FCC license and why is it required? How long does a station have before renewing its license? How
       frequently does the FCC revoke a license? May such licenses be sold/transferred? What role does the FCC play
       when there is a change in ownership or control of a broadcast station?
                                                                                                                        Fall ’08- 2

20. Are there any national ownership limits in radio? As discussed in class, what are the local the ownership rules in
    radio that apply to one of the nation’s largest markets? What does this mean for a group radio owner like Clear
21. As discussed during class, what percentage of television households (whether watching or not) may the combined
    signals of a group owner’s TV stations reach nationally? What are the local ownership rules in television that apply
    to one of the nation’s largest markets? What provision does a group owner have to meet when acquiring another TV
    station in the same market?

Cable Television
22.   What are MSOs?
23.   What is the national, horizontal ownership restriction and who does it apply to besides cable MSOs?
24.   What is the vertical programming restriction with respect to cable MSOs?
25.   How much annual revenue does the cable industry generate overall? What are the sources of cable revenues?
      Which one of these is the largest?
26.   What are some of the expenses cable operators face?
27.   How much expense may be attributed to program access fees and what type of network does this normally cover?
28.   What are franchise fees and what is the maximum percentage of such costs?
29.   How does local and federal regulation both govern cable operators?
30.   What are some of the programming constraints that may be contained in local franchise agreements? How does
      must-carry or retransmission consent work and how does it influence the array of programs a cable operator offers to
31.   In general, what types of programming does a cable system offer and how does this compare to a local station?

Broadcast Networks & Station Affiliates
32. What does a broadcast television network depend upon to distribute its programming?
33. Why are television networks efficient for national advertisers and local stations?
34. What is the general definition of a network?
35. What are the different types of broadcast networks and what do they entail?
36. What does the broadcast television network offer to an affiliate (station)? What does the network receive in return?
37. What is the nature of the broadcast-affiliate relationship in terms of compensation? How may the network
    compensate the affiliate? What obligations does a station have who enjoys an affiliate relationship with a broadcast
    network? What is an affiliate contract? What does a station receive from the network?
38. What are two of the typical network-affiliate disputes that exist and what do they entail?
39. What does WCYB represent with respect to network affiliations? What has TV-20 / WCJB done locally in
    Gainesville that follows in the footsteps of WCYB?
40. Why does WJXT in Jacksonville represent a test-case for the rest of the country?

Cable Networks
41. What do cable networks depend upon to distribute its programming?
42. What are basic cable networks? What are pay-cable networks?
43. May one entity own both cable and broadcast networks?
44. What is the role of the cable network and cable operator in terms of compensation? How do basic cable networks
    enjoy two revenue streams?
45. What are pay cable networks and how are they supported?
46. What challenges are facing pay networks (e.g. premium channels like HBO) and how are they responding?
47. What are pay-per-view programs (PPV)? What do buying percentages reveal about PPV consumers?
                                                                                                                        Fall ’08- 3

  Note some regulation questions appear in the structure section above (e.g. ownership rules). All of the
  below material (questions 48-59) is contained in Ch. 11.
  48. What is the FCC responsible for?
  49. How many commissioners are there at the FCC? How are they appointed?
  50. In general, how does the FCC regulate broadcast indecency? What is the definition of indecency? What is the so-
      called safe harbor?
  51. How many broadcast indecency complaints did the 2004 Super Bowl receive? Who was fined eventually for airing
      this broadcast?
  52. Do the same indecency regulatory standards apply both to local stations and cable systems?
  53. Under Sec. 312(a), what may candidates running for federal office request from stations?
  54. What does Section 315 equal opportunities entail and what are the exemptions under the rule (types of programs
      where equal opportunities doesn’t apply)? Can stations censor material that falls under equal opportunities?
  55. What are the children’s television rules regarding advertising and the airing of programming?
  56. Does the First Amendment protect obscenity and may it be aired by broadcasters or cable operators?
  57. What is defamation and libel? Why does it matter if the person defamed in a story is a pubic figure?
  58. What are the four privacy torts that allow parties to bring civil lawsuits against the media?
  59. What is copyright? What rights does copyright provide to the copyright holder? How does copyright apply to the
      playing of recorded music on radio and TV (e.g. music licensing)? Why was Napster shut down and what lessons
      were learned from the Napster case?

   As discussed in class/packet:
  60. What are the main purposes of programs?
  61. Where do broadcast TV networks get their programs? In the past, how much have they produced on their own?
  62. With respect to television stations (network affiliates), what is the difference between how network and syndicated programs
       are distributed? See Figure 7.1 in Ch. 7 of the text for further illustration as well as the note packet.
  63. Within the broadcast network program process work for primetime shows, what is a treatment and how is this different from
       a script? What is a pilot?
  64. What is the success rate of new shows (what percentage of shows are cancelled within their first season)?
  65. When is the fall network lineup announced and shown? When does the second season begin?
  66. Concerning primetime broadcast network programming (shows that air on ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX), according to year 2000
       figures, what was the average cost of a 30-minute situation comedy? 60-minute drama? 60-minute reality show? What are
       these average costs for these types of programs in 2006?
  67. In general what is the relation between program costs and what broadcast networks will pay producers for a primetime
       program? What is this called? How do the producers recover this?
  68. What is the main goal concerning programming strategies?

   Know and be able to apply the following broadcast network programming strategies (items 87-100):
  69.        strip
  70.        block
  71.        strong lead-in
  72.        checker boarding
  73.        hammock
  74.        tentpoling (see text)
  75.        bridging (see text)
  76.        front-loading
  77.        cross-over
  78.        spin-off
  79.        seamless programming
  80.        repurposing
  81.        counter programming
  82.        stunting
                                                                                                                              Fall ’08- 4

83. What are the three main types of syndicated programming? Which two are more prevalent today?
84. How does syndication work?
85. What are the characteristics of off-network syndication? Why is it important to producers? How many episodes must be
    attained before syndication can occur? What entities buy off-network syndication?
86. What is first-run syndication and what do they typically consist of? What type of outlet typically buys first-run syndication?
87. How may a station pay for syndicated programming? What is barter syndication and what are some of its advantages and
88. Based upon the Paramount sales tape, what are well-known examples of first-run syndicated programs? What are well-
    known examples of off-network syndicated programs?
89. As discussed in class, what recent trends have occurred in distributing current as well as old episodes of network TV series
    programming through video on demand? Where might one obtain these programs (through what sources)? What is the price
    of downloading a current show like Lost or Desperate Housewives to your i-pod?
90. As discussed in class, why are reality shows like American Idol extremely profitable for a broadcast network? On average,
    what did a 30-second spot cost during American Idol last year? On average how much do reality shows (for broadcast
    networks) cost to produce?
91. As discussed in class, why might reality shows and serials not perform as well in syndication compared to a typical drama
    or comedy?

 As discussed in Ch. 7 of the text:
92. As discussed in the text, what are the different types of prime television network program formats (e.g. situation comedy) and
     non prime-time program formats (e.g. daytime dramas)?
93. As discussed in the text, what’s a TV or radio day part? What are the day parts in radio? What is a radio hot clock? What
     are the day parts in TV, specifically daytime, prime access, prime time and late night?
94. As discussed in the text, is syndication available in radio? Is a program like Paul Harvey available to radio stations on
     syndicated or network basis?

From the Video “Getting to Know GenX-Next” A very low resolution quicktime copy of the DVD is also available at: If you're on campus or have a really fast broadband connection, a high
resolution quicktime version is available at:
95. In his dance video featuring clips from around the world, how many different locations did Matt visit? How did the initial
    making of this video come about? How was this video distributed?
96. What is Current TV? What type of network is it? How much of Current TV is user-generated? Typically how long are
    these user-generated segments?
97. According to the panel, how does creating and distributing video content for Internet differ from traditional television?
98. What do each of the panelists suggest to the broadcast networks?

 From the Wired article “The Rise and Fall of the Hit"
99. Besides offering piracy, what have new technologies including the Internet offered to music fans and media consumers?
100. What effect has this had on the music industry as well as Hollywood in producing hits and blockbusters?
101. What does the author, Chris Anderson, mean when he writes "the hierarchy of attention has inverted - credibility now rises
     from below?"

 From the Wired article "His Space"
102. Why did News Corp. and Rupert Murdoch acquire MySpace?
103. What is the new imperative that's discussed at the beginning of this article? What two challenges does
     Murdoch/News Corp face with MySpace?
104. As discussed at the end of the article, how is MySpace different from the old media school of thought "audiences as
     consumers?" Where might News Corp's acquisition of MySpace strike gold?
                                                                                                                   Fall ’08- 5

 As discussed in class/packet:
105. What do ratings provide an estimate of? What else do ratings tell us?
106. How is the basis for ratings measurement different between radio and television?
107. What is a probability (random) sample and why is it important to ratings?
108. Who uses ratings and why (know all the varied parties and uses of ratings)?
109. What third-parties carry out the gathering and reporting of ratings in radio and television?
110. Why are ratings referred to as the market system? What are the markets called in radio and television?
111. How frequent are ratings gathered in radio and television (local and network)? When do sweeps occur?
112. Who are the sweeps important to and why are they significant?
113. What is the definition of a rating, share and cume? How does a rating differ from a share? Which one is larger than the
     other? When are the above measurements typically used?
114. What are diaries and how do they work? In what markets and ratings is such a technique used? What are the advantages and
     disadvantages of using diaries?
115. What are people meters and how do they work? In what markets and ratings is such a technique used? What are the
     advantages and disadvantages of using meters?
116. What is the portable people meter (PPM)?
117. What are the main criticisms of ratings systems?