Immigration From a speech by a famous American: I agree that these people are a matter of great concern to us. I fear that one day, through their mistakes or ours, great troubles may occur. The ones who come here are usually the most stupid of their nation. Few understand… our language, so we cannot communicate with them through our newspapers. Their priests and religious leaders seem to have little influence over them. They are not used to freedom and do not know how to use it properly…… And now they are coming to our country in great numbers. Few of their children know English…. Unless the stream of these people can be turned away from their country to other countries, they will soon outnumber us so that we will not be able to save our language or our government…. However, I am not in favor of keeping them out entirely. All that seems necessary is to distribute them more evenly among us and set up more schools that teach English. In this way, we will preserve the true heritage of our country! Who gave this speech ??????? Maybe he should have been told to go fly a kite! Immigration 1870-1920 – 20 million Europeans arrived in the United States. Prior to 1890, most came from western and northern Europe. 1890’s – More come from southern and eastern Europe through “golden door” in search of the American Dream. What’s the golden door? The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!" - Emma Lazarus Immigration Let's take a look at a web site with some more immigration information. Immigration Graphs coming up… Immigration to the U.S.: 1820-2001 U.S. immigrants by region of birth 1960s-1990s Foreigners entering and exiting the U.S. Fiscal year 2001 The long-term fiscal impact of one immigrant 1996 U.S. Population by race and ethnic group 1970, 2000, and 2050 Push and Pull Factors Push Factor: A reason for emigrating from one country to another. Pull Factor: A reason for immigrating to one country from another. Push and Pull Factors, cont’d. Many came to escape religious persecution. (Push? Pull?) Many Jews driven out of Russia by pogroms. Others left Europe because of rising population. (Push? Pull?) Meant less land for farming, and also more competition for industry jobs. Jobs in the America were supposed to be plentiful (Push? Pull?). Push and Pull Factors, cont’d. Many in Europe, especially France, Germany, and Italy, sought more independent lives after becoming caught up in the spirit of reform and revolt. (Push? Pull?) Chinese immigrants came to build the railroad and seek gold after it was discovered in 1848. (Push? Pull?) California Gold Rush Push and Pull Factors, cont’d. 1880-1920 – West Indies (Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc.) send 260,000 because of job scarcity in their countries. (Push? Pull?) Mexicans came to seek jobs and also escape political turmoil. (Push? Pull?) So…can there be a combination of push and pull factors that contribute? Give examples of Northern and Western European nations: Why were Eastern and Southern European nations so low? Give examples of Eastern and Southern European nations: What regions saw a decline? Welcome Home! Trip across Atlantic by steamship = 1 week. Crossing the Pacific from Asia took 3 weeks. Many traveled in cargo holds below ship’s waterline and shared immensely crowded quarters. Disease spread easily. Welcome Home!: Ellis Island Arrived from Atlantic to Ellis Island. After initial joy, many felt loneliness, homesickness, and anxiety of not knowing whether or not they’d be admitted to the U.S. 20% detained for one day before being inspected, but only 2% were forced out. Had to pass a physical examination, then a government inspector checked if people could read in their own language and were able to work. Also had to have $25 or more on them. Welcome Home!: Ellis Island…cont’d. 1892-1943 – Ellis Island was chief immigration station in the U.S. More than 16 million immigrants passed through it. Boat view of Ellis Island – 1906 Cross your fingers!!! Welcome Home!: Angel Island West coast equivalent to Ellis Island. Located in San Francisco Bay. Much more stringent requirements and detainment. Chinese often housed like prisoners, so revolt in 1919. WHY WAS ANGEL ISLAND DIFFERENT THAN ELLIS ISLAND????? Welcome Home!: Culture Shock Culture Shock – Confusion and anxiety resulting from immersion in a culture whose ways of thinking and acting are not understood. Many immigrants had stuff stolen from con men taking advantage of them. In response to culture shock, many sought out people with similar cultures and VOILA!!! We have enclaves!! Difficulties United States traditionally known as the great Melting Pot/Salad Bowl. Which do you think is more accurate? Salad Bowl or Melting Pot? However, some refused to “melt into the pot” and held fast to their customs. This caused much resentment among “natives”. Nativism Favors natural born or 1st wave immigrants 1880s wanted to restrict immigration 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act – bans entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. “Here, come help us build railroads, and then we’ll keep the rest of you out!!” Teach only American culture in schools Wanted to establish literacy tests for entry: targeted 2nd wave of immigrants But really, how much do “native” Americans actually know about American Government? Take a look at this JayWalking clip about the Supreme Court… Nativism, cont’d. Examples of Nativism include: Chinese Exclusion Act Gentlemen’s Agreement Immigration Quotas What are these? The Gentlemen’s Agreement Fears that led to anti-Chinese sentiments extended to Japanese and other Asians in early 1900s. 1906 – San Francisco Board of Education segregates all Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans into Asian schools. Anti-American riots erupt in Japan, which caused President Teddy Roosevelt to persuade the San Francisco authorities to withdraw the order. In exchange, under the Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907-1908, Japan’s government agreed to limit emigration to the U.S. Anti-“others” Attitudes Extend… Following the Civil War, many African- Americans were denied acceptance to white colleges and universities. Led to emergence of all-black institutions. Anti-“others” Attitudes Extend…, cont’d. W.E.B. Du Bois – 1895 – First African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard. Encouraged the top 10% of the African-American community to engage in liberal education and immerse themselves in mainstream American life in hope of inclusion. Need to have well-educated leaders in the black community. ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL Anti-“others” Attitudes Extend…, cont’d. Booker T. Washington Born a slave in Virginia Graduated from Hampton Institute Sought to have African-Americans acquire useful labor skills and, instead, prove their economic worth. This, he believed, would end racism. Anti-“others” Attitudes Extend…, cont’d. Founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, which aimed to enable black graduates to teach and to do: Agricultural work Domestic work Mechanical work “No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem.” In 1880 about 72% of the population lived on farms. By 1910 that figure was down to 54%. Today it is about 3%.
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