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					Immigration
From a speech by a famous
American:
I agree that these people are a
matter of great concern to us. I
fear that one day, through their
mistakes or ours, great troubles
may occur. The ones who come
here are usually the most stupid
of their nation. Few
understand…
our language, so we cannot
 communicate with them through
 our newspapers. Their priests
 and religious leaders seem to
 have little influence over them.
 They are not used to freedom
 and do not know how to use it
 properly……
 And now they are coming to our
 country in great numbers. Few of
 their children know English….
Unless the stream of these people
 can be turned away from their
 country to other countries, they will
 soon outnumber us so that we will
 not be able to save our language
 or our government….
However, I am not in favor of
 keeping them out entirely. All that
 seems necessary is to distribute
 them more evenly among us and
 set up more schools that teach
 English. In this way, we will
 preserve the true heritage of our
 country!
Who gave this speech
???????

          Maybe he
          should have
          been told to
          go fly a kite!
Immigration

  1870-1920 – 20 million Europeans
   arrived in the United States.
    Prior to 1890, most came from western and
     northern Europe.
    1890’s – More come from southern and
     eastern Europe through “golden door” in
     search of the American Dream.
      What’s the golden door?
               The New Colossus
      Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
  With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
 Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
     A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
     Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
      Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
    The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
  With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
  Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
   Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
       I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

                                   - Emma Lazarus
Immigration

  Let's take a look at a web site with some more
   immigration information.
Immigration Graphs
coming up…
  Immigration to the U.S.: 1820-2001
  U.S. immigrants by region of birth
            1960s-1990s
  Foreigners entering and exiting the U.S.
            Fiscal year 2001
  The long-term fiscal impact of one immigrant
            1996
  U.S. Population by race and ethnic group
            1970, 2000, and 2050
Push and Pull Factors
  Push Factor: A reason for emigrating
   from one country to another.
  Pull Factor: A reason for immigrating to
   one country from another.
Push and Pull Factors,
cont’d.
  Many came to escape religious persecution.
   (Push? Pull?)
    Many Jews driven out of Russia by pogroms.
  Others left Europe because of rising
   population. (Push? Pull?)
    Meant less land for farming, and also more
     competition for industry jobs. Jobs in the America
     were supposed to be plentiful (Push? Pull?).
Push and Pull Factors,
cont’d.
  Many in Europe, especially France,
   Germany, and Italy, sought more
   independent lives after becoming caught up
   in the spirit of reform and revolt. (Push?
   Pull?)
  Chinese immigrants came to build the
   railroad and seek gold after it was
   discovered in 1848. (Push? Pull?)
    California Gold Rush
Push and Pull Factors,
cont’d.
 1880-1920 – West Indies (Jamaica,
  Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc.) send
  260,000 because of job scarcity in
  their countries. (Push? Pull?)
 Mexicans came to seek jobs and
  also escape political turmoil.
  (Push? Pull?)
 So…can there be a combination of
  push and pull factors that
  contribute?
Give examples of Northern
and Western European
nations:


Why were Eastern and
Southern European nations so
low?
Give examples of
Eastern and Southern
European nations:




What regions saw a
decline?
Welcome Home!

  Trip across Atlantic by steamship = 1
   week.
  Crossing the Pacific from Asia took 3
   weeks.
  Many traveled in cargo holds below
   ship’s waterline and shared immensely
   crowded quarters.
    Disease spread easily.
Welcome Home!:
Ellis Island
  Arrived from Atlantic to Ellis Island.
    After initial joy, many felt loneliness,
     homesickness, and anxiety of not knowing
     whether or not they’d be admitted to the U.S.
    20% detained for one day before being
     inspected, but only 2% were forced out.
       Had to pass a physical examination, then a
        government inspector checked if people could
        read in their own language and were able to
        work.
       Also had to have $25 or more on them.
Welcome Home!:
Ellis Island…cont’d.
  1892-1943 – Ellis Island was chief
   immigration station in the U.S.
    More than 16 million immigrants passed
     through it.
            Boat view of Ellis Island – 1906
                 Cross your fingers!!!
Welcome Home!:
Angel Island
  West coast equivalent to Ellis Island.
  Located in San Francisco Bay.
  Much more stringent requirements and
   detainment.
    Chinese often housed like prisoners, so
     revolt in 1919.
  WHY WAS ANGEL ISLAND DIFFERENT
   THAN ELLIS ISLAND?????
Welcome Home!:
Culture Shock
  Culture Shock – Confusion and anxiety
   resulting from immersion in a culture whose
   ways of thinking and acting are not understood.
  Many immigrants had stuff stolen from con
   men taking advantage of them.
  In response to culture shock, many sought out
   people with similar cultures and VOILA!!! We
   have enclaves!!
Difficulties

  United States traditionally known as the
   great Melting Pot/Salad Bowl.
    Which do you think is more accurate? Salad
     Bowl or Melting Pot?
  However, some refused to “melt into the
   pot” and held fast to their customs.
    This caused much resentment among
     “natives”.
   Nativism
 Favors natural born or 1st wave immigrants
 1880s wanted to restrict immigration
    1882 Chinese Exclusion Act – bans entry to all Chinese
     except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and
     government officials.
    “Here, come help us build railroads, and then we’ll keep the
     rest of you out!!”
 Teach only American culture in schools
 Wanted to establish literacy tests for entry: targeted
  2nd wave of immigrants
 But really, how much do “native” Americans actually
  know about American Government?
    Take a look at this JayWalking clip about the Supreme
     Court…
Nativism, cont’d.

  Examples of Nativism include:
    Chinese Exclusion Act
    Gentlemen’s Agreement
    Immigration Quotas
      What are these?
The Gentlemen’s
Agreement
  Fears that led to anti-Chinese sentiments
   extended to Japanese and other Asians in
   early 1900s.
  1906 – San Francisco Board of Education
   segregates all Chinese, Japanese, and
   Koreans into Asian schools.
  Anti-American riots erupt in Japan, which
   caused President Teddy Roosevelt to
   persuade the San Francisco authorities to
   withdraw the order.
    In exchange, under the Gentlemen’s Agreement of
     1907-1908, Japan’s government agreed to limit
     emigration to the U.S.
Anti-“others” Attitudes
Extend…
  Following the Civil War, many African-
   Americans were denied acceptance to
   white colleges and universities.
    Led to emergence of all-black institutions.
Anti-“others” Attitudes
Extend…, cont’d.
  W.E.B. Du Bois – 1895 – First African
   American to receive a doctorate from Harvard.
    Encouraged the top 10% of the African-American
     community to engage in liberal education and
     immerse themselves in mainstream American life in
     hope of inclusion.
       Need to have well-educated leaders in the black
        community.
       ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL
Anti-“others” Attitudes
Extend…, cont’d.
  Booker T. Washington
    Born a slave in Virginia
    Graduated from Hampton Institute
    Sought to have African-Americans acquire
     useful labor skills and, instead, prove their
     economic worth.
    This, he believed, would end racism.
Anti-“others” Attitudes
Extend…, cont’d.
   Founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial
    Institute, which aimed to enable black
    graduates to teach and to do:
      Agricultural work
      Domestic work
      Mechanical work
   “No race can prosper till it learns that there
    is as much dignity in tilling a field as in
    writing a poem.”
 In 1880 about 72% of the population lived
  on farms. By 1910 that figure was down
  to 54%. Today it is about 3%.

				
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