From a speech by a famous
I agree that these people are a
matter of great concern to us. I
fear that one day, through their
mistakes or ours, great troubles
may occur. The ones who come
here are usually the most stupid
of their nation. Few
our language, so we cannot
communicate with them through
our newspapers. Their priests
and religious leaders seem to
have little influence over them.
They are not used to freedom
and do not know how to use it
And now they are coming to our
country in great numbers. Few of
their children know English….
Unless the stream of these people
can be turned away from their
country to other countries, they will
soon outnumber us so that we will
not be able to save our language
or our government….
However, I am not in favor of
keeping them out entirely. All that
seems necessary is to distribute
them more evenly among us and
set up more schools that teach
English. In this way, we will
preserve the true heritage of our
Who gave this speech
been told to
go fly a kite!
1870-1920 – 20 million Europeans
arrived in the United States.
Prior to 1890, most came from western and
1890’s – More come from southern and
eastern Europe through “golden door” in
search of the American Dream.
What’s the golden door?
The New Colossus
Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
- Emma Lazarus
Let's take a look at a web site with some more
Immigration to the U.S.: 1820-2001
U.S. immigrants by region of birth
Foreigners entering and exiting the U.S.
Fiscal year 2001
The long-term fiscal impact of one immigrant
U.S. Population by race and ethnic group
1970, 2000, and 2050
Push and Pull Factors
Push Factor: A reason for emigrating
from one country to another.
Pull Factor: A reason for immigrating to
one country from another.
Push and Pull Factors,
Many came to escape religious persecution.
Many Jews driven out of Russia by pogroms.
Others left Europe because of rising
population. (Push? Pull?)
Meant less land for farming, and also more
competition for industry jobs. Jobs in the America
were supposed to be plentiful (Push? Pull?).
Push and Pull Factors,
Many in Europe, especially France,
Germany, and Italy, sought more
independent lives after becoming caught up
in the spirit of reform and revolt. (Push?
Chinese immigrants came to build the
railroad and seek gold after it was
discovered in 1848. (Push? Pull?)
California Gold Rush
Push and Pull Factors,
1880-1920 – West Indies (Jamaica,
Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc.) send
260,000 because of job scarcity in
their countries. (Push? Pull?)
Mexicans came to seek jobs and
also escape political turmoil.
So…can there be a combination of
push and pull factors that
Give examples of Northern
and Western European
Why were Eastern and
Southern European nations so
Give examples of
Eastern and Southern
What regions saw a
Trip across Atlantic by steamship = 1
Crossing the Pacific from Asia took 3
Many traveled in cargo holds below
ship’s waterline and shared immensely
Disease spread easily.
Arrived from Atlantic to Ellis Island.
After initial joy, many felt loneliness,
homesickness, and anxiety of not knowing
whether or not they’d be admitted to the U.S.
20% detained for one day before being
inspected, but only 2% were forced out.
Had to pass a physical examination, then a
government inspector checked if people could
read in their own language and were able to
Also had to have $25 or more on them.
1892-1943 – Ellis Island was chief
immigration station in the U.S.
More than 16 million immigrants passed
Boat view of Ellis Island – 1906
Cross your fingers!!!
West coast equivalent to Ellis Island.
Located in San Francisco Bay.
Much more stringent requirements and
Chinese often housed like prisoners, so
revolt in 1919.
WHY WAS ANGEL ISLAND DIFFERENT
THAN ELLIS ISLAND?????
Culture Shock – Confusion and anxiety
resulting from immersion in a culture whose
ways of thinking and acting are not understood.
Many immigrants had stuff stolen from con
men taking advantage of them.
In response to culture shock, many sought out
people with similar cultures and VOILA!!! We
United States traditionally known as the
great Melting Pot/Salad Bowl.
Which do you think is more accurate? Salad
Bowl or Melting Pot?
However, some refused to “melt into the
pot” and held fast to their customs.
This caused much resentment among
Favors natural born or 1st wave immigrants
1880s wanted to restrict immigration
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act – bans entry to all Chinese
except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and
“Here, come help us build railroads, and then we’ll keep the
rest of you out!!”
Teach only American culture in schools
Wanted to establish literacy tests for entry: targeted
2nd wave of immigrants
But really, how much do “native” Americans actually
know about American Government?
Take a look at this JayWalking clip about the Supreme
Examples of Nativism include:
Chinese Exclusion Act
What are these?
Fears that led to anti-Chinese sentiments
extended to Japanese and other Asians in
1906 – San Francisco Board of Education
segregates all Chinese, Japanese, and
Koreans into Asian schools.
Anti-American riots erupt in Japan, which
caused President Teddy Roosevelt to
persuade the San Francisco authorities to
withdraw the order.
In exchange, under the Gentlemen’s Agreement of
1907-1908, Japan’s government agreed to limit
emigration to the U.S.
Following the Civil War, many African-
Americans were denied acceptance to
white colleges and universities.
Led to emergence of all-black institutions.
W.E.B. Du Bois – 1895 – First African
American to receive a doctorate from Harvard.
Encouraged the top 10% of the African-American
community to engage in liberal education and
immerse themselves in mainstream American life in
hope of inclusion.
Need to have well-educated leaders in the black
ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL
Booker T. Washington
Born a slave in Virginia
Graduated from Hampton Institute
Sought to have African-Americans acquire
useful labor skills and, instead, prove their
This, he believed, would end racism.
Founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial
Institute, which aimed to enable black
graduates to teach and to do:
“No race can prosper till it learns that there
is as much dignity in tilling a field as in
writing a poem.”
In 1880 about 72% of the population lived
on farms. By 1910 that figure was down
to 54%. Today it is about 3%.