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					            The African Country of
                   Rwanda




http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn=Africa&cid=133&cn=Rwanda




                               By Lisa L. Robin
                               CWI 1, Period 4
                                   Dec. 16, 2008
                                              Location
                                                  Rwanda is a small
                                                  country in East Africa,
                                                  near the center of the
                                                  Region.




http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/africa.html




                                                         http://www.fhi.net/images/voc/rwanda-map.gif
                             Relative Location

                                              • Separated from the
                                                Democratic Republic of
                                                the Congo by Lake Kivu
                                                and the Ruzizi River valley
                                                to the west
                                              • Bounded on the north by
                                                Uganda, to the east by
                                                Tanzania, and to the
http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/africa.html
                                                south by Burundi
    Exact Location of the Capitol of
               Rwanda
• The exact location of
  Kigali, the capitol of
  Rwanda is:
   – Latitude: 1° 59„ South
   – Longitude: 30° 05„ East




                     http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategy/e-applications/E-government/Rwanda/kigali.jpg
           Did You Know?
• More than two-thirds of all Rwandans
  belong to Christian churches.
• Rwandan children often fashion soccer
  balls out of plastic bags bundled together
  with twine.




                 •http://www.interaction.org/images/campaign//Soccer-Orphans.gif
                  Background
• Ethnic Twa (Batwa)
  were likely the original
  inhabitants.

• Hutu farmers became
  firmly established by the
  10th century and Tutsi
  pastoralists arrived after   http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Batwa_Uganda.jpg

  the 14th century.
         Background            (Continued)

• Germany colonized Rwanda in 1899.
• Belgium took control during WWI (1916).
  – The Belgians restructured the political and
    economic systems in a way that increased
    socio-economic divisions between
    tribes/peoples.


• Hutu leaders protested against the Tutsi
  monarchy
               Place~ The Land
• Called the “land of a
  thousand hills”
   – dominated by
     mountain ranges and
     highland plateaus.

• covers 10,170 square
  miles of central Africa in
  the Great Lakes
  Region.
                               http://www.reliefweb.int/mapc/afr_east/index.html
                 Place ~ Climate
• Rwanda's high altitude
  allows for a more
  moderate climate.

• The average annual
  temperature of 66°F
  (19°C) varies little
  between rainy and dry
  seasons.

• The northwest highlands
  tends to have a cooler
  climate, while the east is
  warmer.
                               http://www.odyssei.com/images/maps/big/rwanda.jpg
Climate Chart of Kigali




http://www.africaguide.com/country/rwanda/info.htm
         Place ~ The People
• Rwanda's 8.4 million inhabitants live in an
  area smaller than the U.S. state of Maryland.

• French, Kinyarwanda, and English are
  Rwanda's official languages.

• Christianity was introduced in the early 20th
  century by European missionaries.
    Place ~The People (Continued)
• Rwandans are often
  perceived as reserved
  and stoic.

• They are mindful of their
  public appearance and
  behavior.

• Rwandans value respect
  for others, especially
  elders and those in
  authority.
                              http://travel.webshots.com/album/370875661EoKFRM
    Place ~ Customs and Courtesies

• Greetings are extremely important.


• Younger persons must greet older
  persons first, and women greet
  men first.

• At the end of a social visit, a host
  accompanies the guests to the
  fence or road.

                                         http://www.triplepundit.com/pages/sustainable-
                                               coffee-agriculture-002657.php
           Place ~ Greetings
• Common verbal greetings include:
  – Muraho (Hello, it's been a while)
  – Mwaramutse (Good morning)
  – Mwiriwe (Good afternoon/evening)
  – The initial greeting is usually followed by
    Amakuru? (How's the news?) or, among close
    friends, Bite se? (How are things going?).
  – The typical response is Ni meza (Fine) or Ni meza
    cyane (Very fine).
             Place ~ Education

• In theory, all
  Rwandan children,
  beginning at age
  seven, have access
  to six mandatory
  years of primary
  schooling.

• To enter secondary
  school, students must
  pass a national exam.


                          http://www.ptpi.org/graphics/Rwanda-School.gif
  Education
Rwanda vs. U.S.




      http://online.culturegrams.com/world/create_compare_graph.php
            Place ~ Government
• Presidential lead Republic
   – Palu Kagame is the current
     president (First Tutsi)

• According to the 2003
  constitution, the president and
  the prime minister must belong
  to different political parties.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Kagame



• The constitution also requires
  that women fill 24 seats in the
  National Assembly
             Place ~ Economy
                              Tea growers in Kitabi
• Agriculture dominates
  Rwanda's economy.

• The Goal for 2020 is to
  emerge from under-
                                100% high-quality Arabica coffee
  development and poverty
  status by achieving
  economic growth.
• Prime coffee growing
  regions
                          http://www.rwandagateway.org/article.php3?id_article=75&lang=
           Economy
         Rwanda vs. U.S.




http://online.culturegrams.com/world/create_compare_graph.php
Human-Environmental Interactions

• Agricultural expansion is limited by the
  lack of fertile soil.

• Farmers have to use the limited space
  carefully and effectively.

• Overgrazing of livestock is harming the
  soil.
Human-Environmental Interactions
              ~ Current Issues
• Deforestation
  results from
  uncontrolled cutting
  of trees for fuel.
• Overgrazing; soil
  exhaustion; soil
  erosion
• Widespread
  poaching of wild
  animals

                         http://www.pulitzercenter.org/openitem.cfm?id=280#
                 Movement

• Many Rwandan‟s
  moved to the
  Highlands for refuge
  during the colonial-
  era slave trade.




                         http://www.bc.edu/schools/cas/aads/DiasporaMap.html
       Movement ~ Transportation

• The average Rwandan
  walks or rides a bicycle
  for local transportation.

• Buses and minivans
  travel paved roads
  between major cities.


                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_in_Rwanda
        Movement ~ Communication
• To keep in touch, many
  Rwandans write letters and
  listen to the radio.
• Numerous weekly and
  bimonthly newspapers are
  available.
• One television station
  broadcasts in Kigali.
• Some urban residents and
  most government offices
  have phones.



                               http://www.proudly-rwandan.com/images/mtnmap.jpg
                                             Regions
                                                      Rwanda is divided into five
                                                      Political provinces and
                                                      Subdivided into thirty
                                                      districts.
                                                      The provinces are:
                                                      • North Province
                                                      • East Province
                                                      • South Province
                                                      • West Province
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Rwanda_Provinces
                                                      • Kigali Province
                                                      Provinces_of_Rwanda
Altitudinal Regions in Rwanda
  Land suitability classification




           http://www.minagri.gov.rw/map.php3?id_document=53&id_article=60
            Current Event / Issue
• There has been much conflict between the
  Tutsi and Hutu peoples in Rwanda for decades.

• A peace accord was agreed upon in 1993 but
  peace was shattered in April 1994.

• This attack marked the beginning of a 100-day, well-
  organized genocidal rampage in which hundreds of
  thousands of Tutsi and moderate Hutu were murdered.

• http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3594187.stm
Rwandan Refugee Camps in
   Great Lakes Region




http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/SKAR-64GBF2?OpenDocument
  Current Event / Issue            (Continued)

• In October 2005, the International Criminal
  Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) began hearing
  the defense of Theoneste Bagosora.
  – He and three codefendants are charged with
    genocide, war crimes, and crimes against
    humanity.
  Current Event / Issue                      (Continued)

• The legacy of genocide
  has left an indelible mark
  upon the people.
• But many Rwandans are
  optimistic that with a new
  a stable government in       http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images
  power, their path toward
  normalcy and
  reconciliation will
  continue.



                                     www.worldvision.com.au
                 Rwanda ~ A Summary
•   A small country in East Africa
•   Twa (Batwa) were likely the original inhabitants
•   Colonized by Germany in 1899.
•   Belgium took control during WWI (1916).
     – The Belgians rule caused divisions between the two main
       tribes/peoples (Hutu and Tutsi).
•   Much conflict between the Tutsi and Hutu peoples decades.
     – A genocide began in April of 1994 ~ 100 days of murder
     – hundreds of thousands of Tutsi and moderate Hutu were murdered by
       radical Hutu.
•   The “land of a thousand hills.”
•   Moderate climate
•   Most are Catholic
•   Agricultural economy
•   Rwandans are optimistic that with a new a stable government in
    power the country will continue to heal and become stronger
                      Quick Quiz
                         True or False
1.   Kigali is the capital city of Rwanda.
     True
2.   Tutsi were the original inhabitants of present-day Rwanda.
     False
3.   Rwanda is dominated by mountain ranges and highland
     plateaus.
     True
4.   In Rwanda, younger persons must greet older persons
     first, and women greet men first.
     True
5.   In rural areas, the mail is delivered to people by a mail
     truck.
     False
                       Works Consulted
CountryWatch Rwanda. 2005 CountryWatch In.16 Dec. 2008
     http://search.countrywatch.com/cw_searchresults.aspx?searchTerm=rwanda

Rwanda. About.com. 2006. 31 May 2006 http://geography.
    about.com/library/maps/blrwanda.htm

"Rwanda." CultureGrams. 2008. ProQuest LLC and Brigham Young
     University. Kentridge High School, Kent, Wa. 31 May
     2006 http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=1&wmn
     =Africa&cid=133&cn=Rwanda

Rwanda. Portals to the World. 2006. 31 May 2006
    http://www.loc.gov/rr/international/portals.html

World Factbook Rwanda. 4 Dec 2008 Central Intelligence Agency. 16 Dec.
     2008 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world factbook/geos/rw.html

				
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