16Th Amendment - Download as Excel by qnw10522

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									                                                        Flashcards for 11R


Greece/ Rome                            direct/ representative democracy
Magna Carta                             Limited power of Monarch, Citizens given certain rights
John Locke                              Natural Rights, Social Contract, Right to Revolution
Montesquieu                             separation of powers, checks and balances
mercantilism                            goods for the mother country
mayflower compact                       growth of representative democracy
consent of the governed                 for the people by the people
house of burgesses                      growth of representative democracy
town meetings                           growth of representative democracy
French and Indian War                   Ohio river valley
Albany Plan of Union                    potential unification of colonies (loss of local control)
Thomas Paine                            Common Sense, England is too far away to rule
British actions leading to Revolution   Sugar Act, Quartering Act, Boston Massacre, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts
No taxation without Representation      colonial assemblies are the only ones who actually represented colonists
Declaration of Independence             Justification, 3 parts (Locke, grievances, U.S.)
Battle of Saratoga                      French alliance
Articles of Confederation               power to the states, too weak, Northwest Ordinance(+)
Shay's Rebellion                        example of weakness of Articles of Confederation
Federalism                        Separation of State and Federal powers
Reserved powers                   State powers
Delegated Powers                  Federal powers
Concurrent powers                 Shared state and federal powers
Constitutional Convention         Strengthen powers of federal government
Great Compromise                  Representation
Bicameral                         2 houses
3/5 compromise                    slave population and taxation
Legislative Branch                Make laws, declare war, approve appointments and treaties
Senate                            2 per state, approve all executive decisions (treaties…)
House of Representatives          Representation by population, closest to people, revenue bills
Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)   interpret laws, judicial review (constitutionality)
Flexibility                       Elastic clause, amendments, judicial review
Elastic clause                    Congress can make all laws necessary and proper, implied power
Amendment                         change to the constitution
Executive Branch                  Enforce laws, commander in chief, propose laws
                                  indirect method of election, did not trust common man, can win
Electoral college                 without popular vote
checks and balances               each branch can ensure no other branch abuses their power
ratification                      approval of a document, law or amendment
Bill of Rights                    protect people form abuse of the federal govt.
Amendment 1                       freedom of expression; speech, religion, assembly, petition
Amendment 2                       freedom to bear arms
Amendment 3                       no quartering act
Amendment 4-8                     rights of the accused
Amendment 9- 10                   rights not written are still protected, implied powers
Preamble                          the purpose of the constitution, 6 promises
George Washington                      Sets precedent, Cabinet, foreign policy, 2 term limit, open trade
Unwritten Constitution                 Cabinet, judicial review, political parties, lobbying, 2 term limit
                                       Neutrality, no permanent political alliances with foreign nations, farewell
Traditional Foreign Policy             address, isolation
Cabinet                                Advisors to the president (unwritten constitution)
Political Parties (unwritten const.)   provide candidates, funds, ideas and solutions
lobbying                               attempt to influence passage of legislation (laws)
Federalist                             Hamilton, strong central govt., rich business owners, Pro-British
Anti-Federalist                        Jefferson, strong state power, common man, agriculture, pro-French
Chief justice John Marshall            increase power of federal government, Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison                     Judicial Review, strengthen Supreme Court's power
Judicial Review                        interpret the laws according to the Constitution
McCulloch V. Maryland                  states can not tax Federal govt., strengthen federal govt.
Gibbons v. Ogden                       Federal govt. controls interstate commerce, strengthen federal govt.
John Adams                             Alien and sedition act violate bill of rights, start of nullification
Jefferson                              Anti-federalist, purchase Louisiana, loose interpretation
Monroe Doctrine                        no interference in western hemisphere by Europe, neutrality/ isolation
War of 1812                   Patriotism- National Anthem, War Hero; Andrew Jackson
manifest destiny              Westward expansion
Westward expansion            Purchase (bought), Annexation (taken), Ceded (given)
Andrew Jackson                Spoils system, Kitchen Cabinet, Tariff Crisis
Spoils system                 give jobs to supporters
Tariff Crisis                 south states want to Nullify tariff
nullify                       cancel a law
Worcester v. Georgia          Indian Removal Act is unconstitutional, Jackson doesn't enforce ruling
Trail of Tears                Indian Removal from Georgia to reservations west of Miss. River
Dawes Act                     Indians are forced to assimilate to "white culture"
Homestead act                 160 acres of land given away, increase settlement of west
National Road/ Erie Canal     Assist in opening the West to settlement
Transcontinental railroad     connected east and west coast, ends the "frontier"
Household v. Market Economy   America begins an industrial revolution
Fredrick Douglas              Runaway slave, abolitionist, Autobiography
John Brown's Raid             attempted slaver uprising at Harper's Ferry Maryland
Abolitionist                  people who worked for the end of slavery
urban/ rural                  city/ farmland
Protective tariff             tax on imports to increase price of foreign goods, + north, - south
Slavery Compromises           attempt to find a balance in Senate, slave or free state
popular sovereignty           people in state/territory vote for decision
Dred Scott v. Sanford         legalizes Slavery through out America, nullifies all Compromises
Major issues in 1860          extension of slavery, tariff, states rights
Abraham Lincoln on slavery           No extension of slavery in territories, south feels he's an abolitionist
secession                            leaving the union to create own government.
North: Civil War                     larger population, manufacturing, and money
South: Civil War                     war fought in the South, stronger war generals
Election of 1860                     Lincoln wins, south secesseds
Draft riots                          Lincoln's suspension of the writ of habeas corpus
Emancipation Proclamation            freed all slaves living in states of rebellion
Gettysburg address                   Lincoln's recommitment to democracy and the end of the war
total war                            "leave nothing behind"- General Sherman
Lincoln/Johnson's reconstruct plan   10% plan, loyalty oaths for a pardon, as quickly as possible
Radical Repub. Reconstruct plan      punish south; military districts, 14th amendment
Johnson's impeachment                attempt by Rad. Rep. For soft southern policy, not removed by 1 vote
13th amendment                       FREE, abolished slavery
14th Amendment                       Citizens, gave due process to all citizens, takes power from the states
15th amendment                       right to vote for all males 21 and over
black codes                          restrictions on freedman's rights, unconstitutional due to 14th amend.
Jim crow laws                        southern segregation laws
Plessey v. Ferguson                  legalizes segregation in U.S., "Separate but equal" clause
Voting restrictions                  poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clause
W.E.B Dubois                         immediate equality, leadership from educated "top ten"
Booker T. Washington                 Eventual equality found though hard work and economic stability
Klu Klux Klan                        White supremacy group, use violent techniques
Election of Hayes                    ends reconstruction, by removing military districts
Industrialization                   Increase in manufacturing and production of goods
sole proprietorship                 single owner, all the risk
partnership                         2 or more owners, all the risk
corporation                         stockholders own the company, easy way to gain capital
stockholder                         buy stock to own a portion of company, allow board to run day to day
monopolies, trusts, pools           goal- control all of industry, reduce competition
captain of industry                 gives money back through charity
robber baron                        uses any means to gain wealth and control
unions                              workers join together for protection, goals: short hours, more $, safety
Knights of Labor                    allowed all workers to join, wants to change society
American Federation of Labor(AFL)   only skilled workers, use strikes and collective bargaining
injunctions                         court order to stop (usually a strike) brought on by business owners
strikes                             stoppage of work, turn violent causing public dislike of unions
laissez faire                       government does not become involved in business, hands off
social Darwinism                    survival of the fittest, best will succeed, best will succeed
urbanization                        shift of population towards the city, closer to jobs, cause crime and sickness
old immigrants                      western and northern Europe
new immigrants                      eastern and southern Europe, Asia
push                                reason to leave country, persecution, famine, taxation, war
pull                                reason to come to a country, jobs, freedom, family, opportunity
nativism                            hatred towards new immigrants because loss of jobs, crime, not assimilating
social pluralism                    many different cultures in one area
assimilation                        adaptation to culture in new country (becoming American)
muckrakers                       use of journalism, political cartoons, and books to expose problems
Jacob Riis                       Book "the Jungle", meatpacking industry
Thomas Nast                      political cartoons about Boss Tweed, criticize political machines
settlement house                 place for immigrants to gain assistance upon arrival to America
Jane Adams                       Hull House in Chicago
Sherman Anti-Trust act           makes illegal any restriction of competition, used against unions
Clayton Anti-Trust Act           makes unions legal, monopolies and trusts illegal
Theodore Roosevelt (TR)          Progressive President, "Square Deal", Conservation, Big Stick, trustbuster
Square Deal                      make government, society, and business equal for all
Federal meat Inspection act      inspection of all meat factories, by T.R. and "the Jungle"
Pure food and drug act           labeling of all foods and drugs along with federal government inspection
Interstate Commerce Commission   regulation of all interstate trade, railroad rates lowered
Federal Reserve Act              Regulation of American currency , interest rates and inflation
Conservation                     protection of natural resources, Tar's largest accomplishment
populists                        farmer's political party, goals: free silver, gov't regulation of railroad and banks
3rd party                        minority view, ideas adapted by large party, never win major election
farmer complaints                railroad rates, bank interest rates, low prices of farm goods
William Jennings Bryan           populist party candidate for President, Cross of Gold" speech
Free silver                      backing of federal money by silver rather than gold
William Taft                     Hand picked by T.R., Progressive President, trustbuster, not as strong as T.R.
Bull Moose Party                 T.R.'s progressive 3rd party, attempt at third term
Woodrow Wilson                   Progressive President, WWI
Initiative, Referendum, Recall   attempts to allow for more democracy, give power back to the people
16th Amendment                   income tax
17th amendment                   direct election of senators
primary                          political party members vote for nomination of candidate for positions in gov't
imperialism                           acquisition of lands for natural resources, markets, and military support/safety
Alfred T. Mahan                       encouraged imperialism for protection throughout pacific
Spanish American War                  removal of Spain from Cuba, protection of U.S. interests, gain resources/land
Sinking of U.S.S. Maine               initiates U.S. involvement in Cuba, influences public opinion for war
Yellow Journalism                     Exaggeration of news events to sell papers, effects public opinion
Panama Canal                          opened for miltary & markets from atlantic to pacific, support panama revolution
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doct.   "Big Stick policy", international police force of Western hemisphere, U.S. Navy
Dollar Diplomacy                      Taft's use of $ instead of military to influence Latin America
Latin American relations              distrust and hosility towards United States for involvment and abuses
Good Neighbor Policy                  FDR wants cooperation with Western Hemisphere
Open Door Policy                      Allows U.S. to trade with China, removes European sphere of influence
Causes of WWI                MAIN: militarism, alliances, imperalism, nationalism, assasination of Archduke
U.S. enters WWI              german violation of neutrality of seas, sinking of lusitania
Zimmerman Telegram           German offer to mexico of alliance in exchange for land back in U.S.
Selective Service Act        men must register from draft
Espionage and Sedition act   illegal to say or act against government during wartime
Schneck v United States      supreme court ruling of limitation of speech, "clear and present danger"
Wilson's 14 Points           plan for world peace, collective blame will prevent MAIN, League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles         ends WWI and causes WWII, punishes Germany, League of Nations created
U.S. Sovereignty             Senate refuses Treaty of Versailles feeling it will take away rights of America
League of Nations            world peace keeping organization, too weak to enforce rules (similar to AofC)
return to normalcy        neutrality and laissez faire
Warren G Harding          Teapot Dome Scandal, corruption in adminstration
Calvin Coolidge           Prosperity in economy
Roaring 20's              increase in economy and social change
Henry Ford                Automobile, assembly line production
Harlem Renaissance        explosion of African American culture: jazz, poetry, Langston Hughes
18th amendment            Prohibition of alcohol, illegal to produce, drink or distribute
bootleggers               produces and distributors of illegal alchol, rise of organized crime
speakeasies               illegal establishments of alcohol, proof of america's dislike of prohibition
21st Amendment            Repeal of prohibition
Flappers                  women revolt against conservative style, short hair and dresses
19th Amendment            women's suffrage (right to vote), 1919
scopes trial              monkey trial, darwins theory of evolution vs bible, urban vs rural values
Red Scare                 Bolshevick revolution in Russia brings fear of communist in U.S., many false claims
Increase nativism         Sacco and Vanzetti trial (anarchists were excuted), increase in KKK
Stockmarket speculation   increase in purchasing of stocks, feeling of can't miss oppurtunity
Causes of Great Depression        installment buying, stock market speculation, overproduction of farm goods
Stock Market Crash                more sellers than buyers Tuesday October 29th, 1929
President Hoover                  Blamed for Depression but was caused by 1920's
Hoover's trickle down economics   give money to business they will create jobs, does not work
hoovervilles                      homeless towns named after President Hoover,
Bonus Army                        WWI vets wanted pension checks, Hoover sent military to end protest
FDR's New Deal                    laws passed to create Relief, Reform and Recovery, Alphabet Soup programs
WPA                               Works Program adminstration, created jobs through out America
AAA                               Agricultrial Adjustment Act, paid farmers subsides to not farm
TVA                               Tennessee Valley authority, created irrigation and electricity
FDIC                              Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation,protects saving account investments
SSA                               Social Security Administration, creates pension for retired,keeps them spending $
Bank Holiday                      FDR closed all banks and only opened governemnt approved
Dust Bowl                         drought in great plains, causes more problems for farmers
Critics of New Deal               Supreme Court ruled against New Deal programs, unconsitutional, caused Debt
Schecter poultry Corp v. U.S.     New Deal program violates intrastate commerce
Court Packing Scheme              attempt to add justices in favor of N.D. programs, violated checks and balances
Wagner Act                        protection of labor unions right to collective bargain and organize
FDR's four terms                  violates unwritten constitution, 22nd amendment passed creating 2 term limit
Neutrality Acts    American policy during the outbreak of WWII
                   designed to avoid cause of US entrance into WWI
Cash and Carry policy
Lend Lease Act     FDR policy to provide weapons to the allies, Arsenal of Democracy
Pearl Harbor       Japanese surprise attack, US enters WWII, December 7, 1941
Domestic affairs    war boards, war bonds, rationing, govt. control of economy
Koremastu vs. US Japanese-American interment camps found legal by Supreme Court
Rosie the Riveter women were encouraged to support the war with work in the factories
D-Day              Allies enter France and begin push to Germany
Atomic Bomb        Truman decision to end the war quickly
Cold War
Containment
Berlin
NATO
Warsaw Pact
United Nations
Truman Doctrine
Marshall Plan
Sputnik
Korean War
GI bill of rights
Loyalty review boards
Mccarthyism
Alger Hiss/ Rosenbergs
Suburbanization
Interstate highway act
tensions between Democracy and communism
do no let communism spread outside Eastern Europe
Germany divided East (communism) and West Germany (democracy)
collective security agreement between democratic nations
collective security agreement between Communist nations
International peace keeping organization
containment, Given any aid to Greece and Turkey to avoid communism
containment, give economic support to avoid communism in Europe
soviet satellite reaches space first, begins space race
North (communist), south (democracy) US involved in containment
provided WWII veterans with low interest loans for education & homes
House Un-American Activities Committee, communism in govt.?
Senator Mccarthy labeled many govt. employees communist, televised
convicted for being communist spies in America
white flight, levittown ny assited with cars and Interstate highway act
Eisenhower passes act to increase miles of highway

								
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