Epa Fuel Economy by gza74461

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									Overview of
EPA’s Clean Fuel
& Vehicle Programs

 CAI-Asia: Developing Fuel Quality
 Roadmaps in Asia

                       John Guy US EPA Office of
                       Transportation and Air Quality

                                 Manila, Philippines
                                 May 22-23, 2006
Presentation Overview
   Transportation & the                         Need for Fuel Sulfur
    Economy/Environment                           control

   Some EPA Roadmaps                            Projections for the
                                                  Clean Fuel and Vehicle
   EPA Clean Fuel &                              Programs
    Vehicle Programs                               – Diesel PM & NOx
                                                     Reductions
                                                   – Benefits
                                                   – Costs & Benefits

                 U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality         2
Transportation and the Economy




   Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics   3
Inclusive Process

   Careful cost and benefit analysis
   Industry, state, environmental,
    emission control stakeholders at the
    table
   Temporary provisions and transitional
    allowances as needed
   Development of new industry:
    emission control companies

              U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality   4
Transportation and the Environment
         Emission Trends




                                     4
                                     Growth In Transportation
                                     Offsets Gains from Cleaner Vehicles

                               3.5
Highway VMT (trillion miles)




                               3.0

                               2.5

                               2.0

                               1.5

                               1.0

                               0.5

                               0.0




                                           Calendar Year
                                       Source: U.S. Department of Transportation – Bureau of Transportation Statistics
                                                                                                                         5
Past Fuel Standards
 1974   Unleaded Gasoline

 1980   Gasoline Sub-Sim

 1991   Gasoline Summer RVP Limits (9.0 and 7.8)

 1992   Winter Oxyfuels Program (39 cities)

 1993   Highway diesel fuel sulfur control (500 ppm)

 1995   Phase 1 RFG and Anti-dumping

 1995   Gasoline Detergent Additives
        Fuel and Fuel Additives Registration
 1996   Prohibition on lead

 2000   Phase 2 RFG

 2002   Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSAT1)

 2004   Tier 2 Gasoline Sulfur Control (30 ppm avg, 80 cap)

                      U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality   7
 New Fuel Standards
2006   Ultra-low Sulfur Highway Diesel Fuel (15 ppm)

2007   Nonroad, Locomotive and Marine Diesel Fuel (500 ppm)

2010   Ultra-low Sulfur Nonroad Diesel Fuel (15 ppm)

2011   MSAT2 (Gasoline benzene)

2012   Ultra-low Sulfur Locomotive and Marine Diesel Fuel (15 ppm)




                    U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality   8
      Highway + Nonroad Diesel Fuel Sulfur Specs*
   HWY                10/1993                          06/2006                            01/2010
   NR                                                            6/2007                         6/2010          6/2012          6/2014



                                                                       >80%                                           All
                                      Highway                         15 ppm                                        Highway
                                       Diesel                                                                       15 ppm
                                      500ppm

      All
                                                                                                                    NR 15 ppm
     Diesel
                                                                    <20% 500 ppm
   ~3400 ppm
                                                                          NR, L&M Diesel                  L&M
                                                                                                         500 ppm              L&M 15ppm
                                                                             500 ppm

                                 All Off-Highway Diesel                   Small & Credit ~3400            Small & Credit
                                                                                                                                    Small 15 ppm
                                       ~3400 ppm                                                            500 ppm

                                                                           HHF ~3400ppm                     HHF ~3400ppm

                                                           U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and fuel sulfur
* This figure is intended to illustrate the timeline for the final highway and nonroad diesel Air Quality control programs.              9
  It is not drawn to exact scale. Refer to 40 CFR Part 80 for specific program dates.
    EPA Clean Fuel & Vehicle
    Programs
   Tier 2 Standards (1999 rulemaking)
     –   Gasoline sulfur control (30 ppm avg / 80 ppm max, 2006 for most refiners)
     –   77-95% lower light-duty vehicle standards (beginning in 2004)
     –   Same standards for light trucks and cars; gasoline and diesel

   Heavy-Duty 2007 Standards (2000 rulemaking)
     –   Diesel sulfur control (15 ppm maximum, beginning in June 2006)
     –   90% lower heavy-duty gasoline & diesel vehicle standards
     –   PM filter forcing standards, NOx catalyst based standards

   Nonroad Tier 4 Standards (2004 rulemaking)
     –   Diesel sulfur control (2 steps - 500 ppm in 2007, 15 ppm in 2010)
     –   90-95% lower emission standards - based on highway technology

   Diesel Retrofit (ongoing)
     –   Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel enables diesel PM retrofits
     –   Realize substantial air quality and health benefits earlier

   Locomotive and Marine Diesel Standards (rulemaking in process)
     –   Marine diesel sulfur control (15 ppm maximum) in 2012
     –   Considering requiring same technologies as on-highway and nonroad
     –   Proposed rulemaking in 2006
                                U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality    10
      Why Focus on Sulfur?
        Some Data On Fuel Effects
100
                                 PM
80
      Percent
60    improvement
      in NOx and PM
40                               NOx

20

 0

-20
      T95      PolyAromatics   Cetane           Sulfur
                                        ultra-low sulfur enabled
                                              technologies      7
Need for Fuel Sulfur Control
   Sulfur is a catalyst poison

   Removing sulfur, much like removing lead from gasoline,
    allows for maximum catalyst efficiency

   Reductions in fuel sulfur provide immediate PM reductions

   Tier 2 / Low Sulfur Gasoline
     – New Tier 2 vehicles have near zero running emissions
     – Existing vehicles see significant improvement from the new fuel

   Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel (Highway and Nonroad)
     – Enables PM filters that can eliminate 99% of carbonaceous PM
     – Enables advanced NOx catalysts giving 90+% reductions
     – Immediate benefits from in-use fleet

                       U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality   12
     Enabling Near Zero Emission Levels




                                 Source: Corning Inc.



Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPFS)
can eliminate 99% of solid particles (soot & metals)
can eliminate >90% of semi-volatile hydrocarbons

                                                        9
 Clean Fuel and Vehicle Programs
                        Diesel PM Reductions
            400,000

            350,000

            300,000
                                      Baseline – absent new standards
            250,000
PM (tons)




            200,000

            150,000

            100,000

             50,000                                                            …?
                                Highway
                 0
                 2000    2005     2010       2015        2020           2025        2030
                                     Calendar Year
                                                                                           11
Clean Fuel and Vehicle Programs
                                      NOx Reductions

                      16

                      14

                      12
                                                    Baseline – absent new standards
NOx Tons (millions)




                      10

                       8

                       6

                       4
                                                                                         …?
                       2
                                        Gasoline Highway
                       0
                       1990   1995   2000    2005        2010       2015    2020      2025    2030
                                                    Calendar Year

                                                                                                     12
              Benefits of Clean
           Fuel & Vehicle Programs
premature deaths



chronic bronchitis


       hospital
      admissions


   lost work days                              over 3 million


                     0     10,000    20,000    30,000       40,000
                         # prevented annually (in 2030)
                                                                     13
           Costs & Benefits of
      Clean Fuel & Vehicle Programs
                        cost
Tier 2 Light-duty                              Total Cost: $11 billion
    Highway                       benefit      Total Benefits: $175 billion



2007 Heavy-duty
   Highway




Tier 4 Nonroad



                    0      20         40        60          80        100

                               $ Billion Annually in 2030
                                                                              14
Estimated Refiner Capital
& Per-Gallon Costs
Program                     Capital Cost                                Cent/Gallon
                             ($billion)
Tier 2 / Gasoline                      4.3                                 1.9
Sulfur

Highway Diesel                                                              5
Fuel

Nonroad Diesel                         7.5                                  4
Fuel

                    U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality                 18
                                Clean                         Clean
   Clean                                                       Air
   Fuels                       Vehicles


• Around the world, people are increasingly exposed to substantial public
  health hazards posed by diesel & gasoline vehicles

• The solution is in clean fuels and clean vehicles – remove the sulfur to
  enable PM and NOx catalysts

• Clean fuels also open the door for retrofits to accelerate benefits and
  prove-out new technologies
                                                                             15
For More Information...
   Contact: John Guy
    phone: (202) 343-9276
    e-mail: guy.john@epa.gov

   Tier 2 / Gasoline Sulfur information:
    http://www.epa.gov/otaq/tr2home.htm

   Highway and Nonroad diesel information:
    http://www.epa.gov/diesel/

               U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality   20
    Desulfurization Technology
    & Cost Analysis Methodology
   Desulfurization technology projections
     – Gasoline
            Rulemaking assumed fixed bed, catalytic distillation and adsorption
             technologies;
            Some are now also considering membrane technology
     – Diesel Fuel
            Conventional technology for nearly all 15 ppm highway diesel fuel
            Advanced technology for a large percentage of 15 ppm NRLM diesel fuel

   Cost analysis methodology
     – Gasoline
            Based on 30 ppm sulfur average at refinery gate
            Assumed new “grassroots” units for all refineries
     – Diesel fuel
            Based on ~7 ppm sulfur average at refinery gate
            Assumed 80% revamped units / 20% new “grassroots” units


                           U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality       21

								
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