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Increase Fuel Economy - Excel

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									Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                                  Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-       Policy               Reduction            Existing Programs           Policy Strategy            Policy Strategy        Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation                   Presidential       Policy                  References/Notes
                             category   Recommendation       Strategy                                         Direct Costs               Indirect Costs         Benefits                 Barriers                         Implementation     Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Action
                    PASSENGER VEHICLES
                             Travel alternatives
                                         Increase Usage of Existing Technology
                                                            Use the internet Telework; Webinars and           Training, equipment,       Digital divide         Reduction of passenger Resistance from                    Executive Order,                          *See paper for in-
                                                            to reduce        teleconferencing; E-             cost of internet                                  vehicle miles traveled and employers, the digital         Budgetary,                                depth
                                                            number of trips  government                       subscription                                      therefore less GHG         divide                         Directive,                                recommendation
                                                            for work and                                                                                        emissions                                                 Legislative                               analysis
                                                            administrative
                                                            type activities

                                        Encourage greater use of current public transportation systems
                                                           Equalize transit Commuter Choice Tax          Decrease parking                If parking costs       Putting transit and driving Altering perception that      Executive Order,                          *See paper for in-
                                                           and parking      Benefits                     benefits to that of             exceed benefits,       on par with one another. public transportation is         Directive,                                depth
                                                           benefits                                      transit will cause a cost       people will look for                               a system for the poor,        Budgetary,                                recommendation
                                                                            Currently, companies         to people who drive             alternative                                        old, young and infirmed       Leadership,                               analysis
                                                                            utilizing this program offer                                 transportation.                                    and not having                Legislative
                                                                            eligible employees $205                                                                                         mainstream appeal; see
                                                                            per month for parking v.                                                                                        as being "socialist"
                                                                            $105 per month for transit
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pricing public
                                                                                                                                                                                            transportation and
                                                                                                                                                                                            driving in the same way




                                                             Offer tax credit     Commuter Choice Tax         Cost of the tax credit     Cost to those          Increased use of public     Increase complexity of        Legislative        Congressional bill
                                                             for people who       Benefits                                               consumers on the       transit                     the tax code; setting                            to approve credit
                                                             commute by                                                                  "fee" side of the                                  standards to incent
                                                             public               Tax free transit benefits                              policy                                             people who are                                   Change in the IRS
                                                             transportation                                                                                                                 currently not taking                             Tax code
                                                                                                                                                                                            transit
                                                             Offer reduced        Off-peak hours on           Cost of difference                                Redistribution of rider     Employers giving         Leadership
                                                             fares for transit    commuter trains, buses,     between full fare and                             loads makes transit         flexible schedules;
                                                             use during off-      and subways                 reduced fare                                      experience less crowded     transit must be able to
                                                             peak hours                                                                                         and therefore more          provide adequate
                                                                                                                                                                pleasant;                   service during off-hours

                                                                                                                                                                                            Because fares are set
                                                                                                                                                                                            locally, would be difficult
                                                                                                                                                                                            to start regulating
                                                                                                                                                                                            federally


                                                             Replace drivers      El Salvador, India          Cost of smart card         Potential cost to      Use of a Smart card         Implementation timeline Directive                Congressional Bill     suggest as pilot
                                                             licenses with                                    technology and data        integrate data         makes for an integrated     will depend upon driver                          to approve             program in large cities
                                                             "smart cards"        Comprehensive national      collection;                gathering and          transit system and allows   license renewal process                          regulation
                                                             that contain         ID and drivers license                                 sharing mechanism      agencies to collect
                                                             travel data and                                  Implementation cost                               accurate ridership data     Resistance due to                                Would require
                                                             act as a transit                                                                                                               perceived loss of                                cooperation from
                                                             pass                                                                                                                           privacy                                          State Secretaries,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             transit authorities,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and law
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             enforcement


                                                             Offer incentive,     In SAFETEA-LU there are Cost of incentive                                     Reduces Federal             Requires buy-in from          Legislative        Congressional Bill     see
                                                             such as a tax        provisions for private                                                        pressure to fund public     private sector and                               to approve             http://www.apta.com/g
                                                             credit, to           investment in tollways,                                                       transportation              political sector                                 incentive              overnment_affairs/apt
                                                             encourage            freight..                                                                                                                                                                         atest/testimony060720
                                                             private                                                                                                                                                                                                .cfm; TOD related;
                                                             investment in        diversify loan and                                                                                                                                                                look at TIFIA and SIBs
                                                             public               investment options to
                                                             transportation       cover transportation cost



                                                             Invest more in                                   Cost of re-directing       Devising system for Reduces number of              Potential resistance          Executive Order,                          *See paper for in-
                                                             transit operations                               funding to transit from    creating investment environmental impact           from the political sector,    Budgetary,                                depth
                                                             and expansion                                    other funding areas        criteria            studies (eliminate cost of     as well as from               Directive,                                recommendation
                                                                                                                                                             this study and related         industries that rely on       Legislative                               analysis
                                                                                                                                                             procedural expense)            funding going to
                                                                                                                                                                                            highway improvements




                                                                                                                                                          1
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                         Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-       Policy              Reduction            Existing Programs       Policy Strategy          Policy Strategy      Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation              Presidential        Policy                 References/Notes
                             category   Recommendation      Strategy                                     Direct Costs             Indirect Costs       Benefits                 Barriers                    Implementation      Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Action
                    PASSENGER VEHICLES
                             Travel alternatives
                                         Encourage greater use of current public transportation systems
                                                            Award bonus          The Chicago Climate     Implementing cap-and-                         Gives transit an            There is debate about    Budgetary,                                *See paper for in-
                                                            points to transit in Exchange is one of many trade system                                  advantage over other        how cap-and- trade       Legislative                               depth
                                                            a cap-and-trade existing examples of a cap-                                                industries                  systems should be                                                  recommendation
                                                            system               and-trade program                                                                                 structured                                                         analysis
                                                                                                                                                       Money will be re-invested
                                                                                                                                                       in continuous
                                                                                                                                                       improvement of
                                                                                                                                                       transportation options
                                                            Tie transportation                           Gathering baseline       Loss of funding to   Paradigm shift to           Needing to shift current Legislative         Congressional Bill
                                                            funding to                                   data to develop policy   cities that do not   performance based           operation model for                          to authorize
                                                            potential CO2                                                         reduce emissions     funding                     funding                                      regulation
                                                            emissions
                                                            reductions

                                                            Update fleets to                             Transit agencies (with Loss of revenue to     Decreased GHG             Financial burden to        Executive Order     Ultimately, a       Travel Matters
                                                            include greater                              federal and local funds, oil industry         emissions                 transit agencies in                            Congressional Bill
                                                            use of alternative                           other investment) incur                                                 implementing fleet                             would need to
                                                            fuel and                                     cost of keeping transit                       Potentially easier access upgrades.                                      authorize a
                                                            advanced vehicle                             functional and update                         to GHG fuels for the                                                     mandate to
                                                            technologies that                            fleet                                         public                                                                   increase use of low
                                                            have lower GHG                                                                                                                                                      GHG fuels
                                                            emissions



                                        Multi-modal design to include bike paths, parking, and pedestrian walkways
                                                           Focus on first                              Development of transit Making first suburbs     Beneficial community       Current funding         Executive Order                             Brookings Institute
                                                           suburbs                                     and public centers;    more affordable          members seeking "city      structures and formulas                                             report on First Suburbs
                                                                                                       related to transit-                             centers", easier access to                                                                     by Tony Downs
                                                                                                       oriented development                            options other than driving
                                                                                                       practices




                                                            Implement the     Examples exist in see      Cost of incorporating                         Increased mobility          Local zoning codes and Legislative,          Congressional
                                                            idea of "complete California, Florida, and   complete streets idea                                                     current planning       Budgetary             approval of budget
                                                            streets" -- roads Kentucky                   into transportation                                                       standards                                    that would included
                                                            that                                         project, and then the                                                                                                  funding based upon
                                                            accommodate all                              cost to implement the                                                                                                  inclusion of
                                                            transit modes-                               idea                                                                                                                   complete streets
                                                            walking, biking,                                                                                                                                                    requirement
                                                            streetcar, rail,
                                                            and car                                                                                                                                                             Congressional Bill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                approving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                implementation of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                concept


                                        Increase access to and support travel alternatives
                                                            Expand car      Example program is IGO       Upfront and long-term    Changing insurance Research shows that           Insurance; making         Executive Order,                         *See paper for in-
                                                            sharing         in Chicago, which used       costs of starting,       practices (pay-as- people who are carshare       carsharing programs       Leadership                               depth
                                                                            CMAQ funds to purchase       managing, insuring,      you drive)         members give up cars at       profitable so that                                                 recommendation
                                                                            low emission vehicles        and marketing a car                         a higher rate than            people/entities invest in                                          analysis
                                                                                                         sharing program                             nonmembers; affordable        them; creating an
                                                                                                                                                     and convenient                ownership mentality
                                                                                                                                                     transportation option that
                                                                                                                                                     complements use of
                                                                                                                                                     transit and other modes

                                                                                                                                                       Decrease in number of
                                                                                                                                                       vehicles purchased and
                                                                                                                                                       lowering of VMT




                                                            Provide              Carpools and vanpool    Constructing, and/or   Cost of incentive      Increased mobility and                               Legislative,        Congressional Bill
                                                            incentives for       programs exist under    increasing the number,                        access to distant                                    Budgetary           to approve
                                                            carpooling and       Commuter Benefits       HOV lanes                                     resources coupled with a                                                 incentive code
                                                            vanpooling           program                                                               reduction in congestion
                                                                                                         Cost to manage
                                                                                                         carpool and vanpool
                                                                                                         incentives and program
                                                                                                         structures




                                                                                                                                                2
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                       Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-       Policy             Reduction            Existing Programs       Policy Strategy        Policy Strategy       Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation              Presidential     Policy                 References/Notes
                             category   Recommendation     Strategy                                     Direct Costs           Indirect Costs        Benefits                 Barriers                    Implementation   Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Action
                    PASSENGER VEHICLES
                             Land use
                                        Plan for denser, mixed use, more efficient communities
                                                            Reduce the                                  Cost to implement new Buildings may be       Increases emphasis on       Local zoning codes and Leadership                               See Don Shoup's work
                                                            parking                                     regulation            less marketable to     walking and other transit   funding practices
                                                            requirements for                                                  people interested in   modes, which potentially
                                                            new buildings                                                     multiple parking       leads to greater            People's demand for
                                                                                                                              spots                  investment in the area      multiple parking

                                                                                                                                                     Reduces car congestion



                                                           Adopt Smart                                  Site specific          Marketing,            Increases emphasis on       Local zoning codes and Leadership         Congressional Bill
                                                           Growth                                                              education, and        walking and other transit   funding practices                         mandating
                                                           standards for                                                       incorporation of      modes, which potentially                                              incorporation of
                                                           local and regional                                                  Smart Growth          leads to greater                                                      principles into new
                                                           planning                                                            principles into       investment in the area                                                projects
                                                                                                                               planning models
                                                                                                                                                     Reduces car congestion



                                                           Support Transit-     Multiple case studies   site specific          Marketing,            Increases emphasis on       Local zoning codes and Executive Order,                         *See paper for in-
                                                           Oriented                                                            education, and        walking and other transit   funding practices      Budgetary,                               depth
                                                           Development                                                         incorporation of      modes, which potentially                           Leadership,                              recommendation
                                                                                                                               Smart Growth          leads to greater                                   Directive                                analysis
                                                                                                                               principles into       investment in the area
                                                                                                                               planning models
                                                                                                                                                     Reduces car congestion



                                                           Support                                      site specific          Marketing,            Increases emphasis on       Local zoning codes and
                                                           Infill/brownfield                                                   education, and        walking and other transit   funding practices
                                                           development                                                         incorporation of      modes, which potentially
                                                                                                                               Smart Growth          leads to greater
                                                                                                                               principles into       investment in the area
                                                                                                                               planning models
                                                                                                                                                     Reduces car congestion




                                                                                                                                             3
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                                  Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-         Policy              Reduction            Existing Programs            Policy Strategy          Policy Strategy     Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation               Presidential      Policy                 References/Notes
                             category     Recommendation      Strategy                                          Direct Costs             Indirect Costs      Benefits                 Barriers                     Implementation    Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Action
                    PASSENGER VEHICLES
                             Incentives
                                          Create market demand for travel alternatives
                                                            Make "smart        See Portland's example of        Developing marketing     Expense for         With better information     Creating delivery         Directive         Regulatory (what      Smart trips reduce
                                                            trips" information smart trips                      materials on different   customizing         readily available that      method and                                  information has to    VMT 9-11 percent
                                                            available when                                      transportation options   information         compares the costs and      implementation                              be made available
                                                            people renew                                        and programs                                 availability of                                                         and in what format
                                                            their Drivers                                                                                    transportation options,                                                 to consumers)
                                                            License                                             Employees to answer                          people make different
                                                                                                                questions and provide                        choices
                                                                                                                information on transit
                                                                                                                options




                                                              Offer parking                                     Cost of handling and     Marketing and       Reduces use of personal Resistance to the idea        Executive Order                         *See paper for in-
                                                              cash-out benefits                                 providing cash-out       educational         vehicle for work trips                                                                        depth
                                                                                                                alternative              materials                                                                                                         recommendation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           analysis
                                                              Federal support      Location Efficient      Developing and        Education and               People can afford to live   Federal assistance may Leadership           Convene
                                                              of Live Near         Mortgages and Baltimore marketing of mortgage incentives for of           closer to where they work   still not offset the                        conference of
                                                              Your Work and        City's Live Near Your   products              lenders to use              and/or don't need to        housing prices of a                         lenders and transit
                                                              Location Efficient   Work Program                                  mortgage products           operate a car               neighborhood to make it                     agencies regarding
                                                              Home Buyer's                                                                                                               affordable                                  possibility of
                                                              Assistance           values location, proximity                                                                                                                        implementation
                                                                                   and access to travel
                                                                                   options


                                                              Find the "right      Pasadena proposed study Cost of changing              Cost to analyze     Reduction of VMT            Local zoning and          Directive         Task Dept. of
                                                              price" for curb                              meters                        what is the right                               parking requirements                        Transportation to
                                                              parking that                                                               price                                                                                       conduct study
                                                              discourages
                                                              driving
                                                              Implement            Successful examples exist Establishing fee            Cost to drivers     Reduction of VMT and        Resistance from cities,   Budgetary,                              *See paper for in-
                                                              congestion           across the country (for    collection system                              congestion; decrease        drivers, auto and oil     Legislative,                            depth
                                                              pricing on roads     example in California) and                                                wear and tear on the        industries, lack of       Directive                               recommendation
                                                                                   in the world (for example,                                                roads                       existing infrastructure                                           analysis
                                                                                   London)

                                                              Increase gas and                                  Cost to vehicle owners                                                   No current tax standard Legislative         Congressional Bill    American Petroleum
                                                              diesel tax                                                                                                                                                                                   Institute
                                                              Tax incentives                                    Cost of tax credit       Marketing and       Reduction of VMT and                                  Legislative,      Congressional
                                                              offered to                                                                 educational         congestion; decrease                                  Budgetary         approval of budget
                                                              businesses that                                                            materials to        wear and tear on the                                                    that includes
                                                              offer                                                                      employers           roads                                                                   incentive
                                                              telecommuting
                                                              options and flex
                                                              scheduling




                                                                                                                                                         4
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                               Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-         Policy             Reduction          Existing Programs          Policy Strategy            Policy Strategy       Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation             Presidential     Policy                  References/Notes
                             category     Recommendation     Strategy                                      Direct Costs               Indirect Costs        Benefits                 Barriers                   Implementation   Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Action
                    FUEL ECONOMY
                             Regulation
                                          Increase fuel economy
                                                             Increase CAFE      Passenger vehicles mpg is Cost to manufacturers       Potential cost to    Decreases fuel              Protests from            Directive                               *See paper for in-
                                                             standards          27.5                      in adjusting vehicles to    consumers if         dependence by reducing      Automobile industry and                                          depth
                                                                                                          adhere to new               manufacturers        frequency of gas fillups.   possible resistance from                                         recommendation
                                                                                Light truck (under        standards, and cost of      increase sale prices                             the political sector                                             analysis
                                                                                8500lbs.) is 22.5         standard                    to recoup costs
                                                                                (reviewed annually)       implementation.

                                                                                Penalty for failing to meet Potential loss of
                                                                                CAFE standards              accumulated "credits"
                                                                                                            may result in
                                                                                Manufacturers can earn      manufacturers having
                                                                                CAFE “credits” to offset    to pay additional
                                                                                deficiencies in their CAFE penalty fees.
                                                                                performances.


                                                             Create CAFÉ        Light trucks, SUVs, and    Cost to manufacturers      Potential cost to    Reduces emissions for an    Protests from            Legislative      Congressional Bill
                                                             standards for      pick up trucks over        in creation of vehicles    consumers if         entire class of vehicles    automobile                                to authorize
                                                             vehicles over      8500lbs. do not have to    adhering to new            manufacturers                                    manufacturers                             creation of standard
                                                             8,500 lbs.         conform to mpg fuel        standard, and costs of     increase sale prices
                                                                                efficiency                 standard                   to recoup costs                                  Protests from car
                                                                                                           Implementation.                                                             dealers who may have
                                                                                                                                      Potential to have a                              products they could no
                                                                                                                                      fleet of vehicles                                longer sell
                                                                                                                                      already created but
                                                                                                                                      not allowed on the                               Potential Political
                                                                                                                                      road- so loss of                                 resistance
                                                                                                                                      income to
                                                                                                                                      manufacturers


                             Incentives
                                          Increase fuel economy
                                                             Implement a                                   Cost of implementation Cost to those          Neutral policy                Sector dependent         Leadership
                                                             feebate system                                                       consumers on the
                                                                                                                                  "fee" side of the
                                                                                                                                  policy
                                                             Tax credits for    The Energy Policy Act of Cost of the tax credit   Publicizing new        Encourages purchase of        Defining "low GHG"       Budgetary        Congressional
                                                             owners of low      2005 provides a credit for                        credit                 fuel efficient vehicles       standards                                 approval of tax
                                                             GHG vehicles       taxpayers who purchase                                                                                                                           credit and
                                                                                certain energy efficient                          Increase in oil prices                               Opposition from oil                       implementation by
                                                                                vehicles, including                               to compensate for                                    companies and vehicle                     the IRS
                                                                                Qualified Hybrid vehicles.                        potential loss                                       manufactures

                                                                                Program is set to end
                                                                                December 2010.



                                                             Tax credits for    Manufacturers of energy    Cost of the tax credit     Increase in oil prices Encourages production of Defining "low GHG"        Budgetary        Congressional
                                                             manufacturers of   efficient appliances are                              to compensate for fuel efficient vehicles       standards                                  approval of tax
                                                             low GHG            provided certain tax                                  potential loss                                                                             credit and
                                                             vehicles           credits; this might be                                                                                Opposition from oil                        implementation by
                                                                                applicable to auto                                                                                    companies                                  the IRS
                                                                                manufacturers




                                                                                                                                                    5
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                           Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-          Policy              Reduction            Existing Programs    Policy Strategy          Policy Strategy        Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation                Presidential      Policy             References/Notes
                             category      Recommendation      Strategy                                  Direct Costs             Indirect Costs         Benefits                 Barriers                      Implementation    Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Action
                    LOW GHG FUELS
                             Biofuels
                                           Increase use of
                                           Low GHG emitting
                                           alternative fuels

                                                               Support the use                           Cost to increase the     Potential impact on    Decrease use of 100%    Availability of fueling  Budgetary,                                *See paper for in-
                                                               and distribution                          number of fueling        land use practices     gasoline or diesel      stations; implementation Leadership,                               depth
                                                               of alternative                            stations                 that generate          decreases CO2 emissions timeframe;               Directive,                                recommendation
                                                               fuels                                                              alternative fuels                                                                                                 analysis
                                                                                                         Cost to increase
                                                                                                         production of fuel
                                                               Mandate use of City, state and federal    Cost to increase the     Potential impact on    Decrease use of 100%    Availability of fueling  Executive Order
                                                               alternative fuels examples on updating    number of fueling        land use practices     gasoline or diesel      stations; implementation
                                                               for federal, state, fleets                stations                 that generate          decreases CO2 emissions timeframe; capacity to
                                                               and local                                                          alternative fuels                              update flee
                                                               government                                Cost to increase
                                                               fleets                                    production of fuel

                                                               Set targets for                           Cost to increase the     Potential impact on    Decrease use of 100%    There are limited              Executive Order
                                                               replacing                                 number of fueling        land use practices     gasoline or diesel      stations that are
                                                               gasoline with                             stations                 that generate          decreases CO2 emissions currently providing
                                                               blends of                                                          alternative fuels                              alternative fuels
                                                               biodiesel,                                Cost to increase
                                                               ethanol, and                              production of fuel                                                          Potential for increasing
                                                               biodiesel                                                                                                             emissions from other
                                                                                                                                                                                     criteria air pollutants



                                                               Tax carbon                                Cost to implement tax    Increase in gas     Incent change of reliance Opposition from oil       Budgetary               Congressional     see
                                                               content of fuels                                                   price to compensate on carbon rich fuels      industry, car dealerships                         approval of tax   http://www.wri.org/clim
                                                               and keep tax in                                                    for tax                                       and fueling stations                                                ate/pubs_description.c
                                                               special fund                                                                                                                                                                         fm?pid=4177
                                                               Incentivize                               Refining production       Potential impact on   Picking appropriate fuels, Political opposition that   Budgetary         Creation of
                                                               production of                             and developing            land use practices    considering overall        produce alternative                           incentive
                                                               biofuels based                            capacity for distribution that generate         impact                     fuels that do not meet
                                                               on GHG                                                              alternative fuels                                reduction potential
                                                               reduction                                                                                                            standard
                                                               potential while
                                                               reducing
                                                               incentives for oil
                                                               exploration
                             Electricity
                                           Support ongoing development of innovative technologies
                                                             Continue to                                 Cost to automakers for                          Support market           Expense and availability Executive Order,                         *See paper for in-
                                                             Investigate the                             conducting R&D,                                 penetration of a low GHG of vehicles; resistance Budgetary                                 depth
                                                             possibility of                              bringing new                                    vehicle                  from car manufactors                                              recommendation
                                                             plug-in hybrids                             technologies to market                                                   and the oil industry                                              analysis



                                                               Fund technology                           Cost of the research     Reduces funding for                                Protest from oil industry Budgetary
                                                               research in                                                        research in other                                  and auto manufacturers
                                                               creating better                                                    transportation areas
                                                               batteries and use
                                                               of flywheels



                             Hydrogen
                                           Support R&D for green hydrogen development as a fuel for vehicles
                                                             Provide federal                           Developing a                                      Long-term results could                                Budgetary         Legislation
                                                             funding for R&D                           distribution                                      greatly reduce emissions
                                                             of green                                  infrastructure; ongoing
                                                             hydrogen as a                             development of
                                                             car fuel                                  production system




                                                                                                                                                 6
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                               Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-       Policy               Reduction           Existing Programs            Policy Strategy          Policy Strategy      Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation                Presidential     Policy               References/Notes
                             category   Recommendation       Strategy                                         Direct Costs             Indirect Costs       Benefits                 Barriers                      Implementation   Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Action
                    FREIGHT
                              Truck
                                        Increase freight truck efficiencies
                                                             Adopt freight       Examples of measures         Cost of developing                            Account for reduction in   Resistance from Truck Budgetary,                                 *See paper for in-
                                                             truck efficiency    include idle reduction and   technology to increase                        GHG emissions              manufacturers;          Directive,                               depth
                                                             measures            use of wide-based tires      efficiency                                                               Implementation lag-time Leadership                               recommendation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        analysis

                                                             Increase use of                                  Cost of developing     Increase in oil prices Account for great          Availability of biofuels;   Leadership       Promotion and
                                                             biofuels for                                     technology to increase to compensate for reduction in GHG                Resistance from auto                         outreach; getting
                                                             trucks                                           efficiency             potential loss         emissions                  industry                                     more suppliers

                                                             Shift goods                                      Enhancing capacity of    Loss of revenue to   Decreased truck VMT      Potential competition   Leadership
                                                             movement from                                    rail to accommodated     trucking industry    and emissions; Reduction between Truck Unions
                                                             truck to rail                                    increase in goods                             of truck congestion      and Rail worker Unions;
                                                                                                              movement                                                               Resistance from
                                                                                                                                                                                     Truckers and truck
                                                                                                                                                                                     manufacturers;
                                                                                                                                                                                     Resistance from
                                                                                                                                                                                     homeowners near rail
                                                                                                                                                                                     tracks


                                                             Increase use of                                  Cost to Truck fleet                                                      Resistance from Truck       Directive
                                                             hybrid trucks                                    owners to purchase                                                       Fleet operators
                                                                                                              hybrid vehicles
                              Marine
                                        Increase freight marine efficiencies
                                                            Improve propeller                                 Cost of developing                            Decreases fuel             Resistance from part        Budgetary,
                                                            system, use of                                    technology to increase                        dependence                 manufacturers               Leadership
                                                            B20, reduce                                       efficiency
                                                            idling by
                                                            electrifying ports



                              Locomotive
                                       Increase freight locomotive efficiencies
                                                            Weight                                            Cost of developing                            Decreases fuel             Resistance from part        Budgetary,
                                                            reduction, switch                                 technology to increase                        dependence                 manufacturers               Leadership
                                                            to B20, better                                    efficiency
                                                            lubrication




                                                                                                                                                     7
Policy Recommendations and Strategies                                                                                         Complete Recommendation Set




                    Category Sub-       Policy              Reduction           Existing Programs       Policy Strategy           Policy Strategy          Policy Strategy Indirect Implementation             Presidential     Policy                  References/Notes
                             category   Recommendation      Strategy                                    Direct Costs              Indirect Costs           Benefits                 Barriers                   Implementation   Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Action
                    INTERCITY PASSENGER
                             High Speed Rail
                                       Create lower emission, innercity travel options
                                                          Support private                               Support cost and cost     May result in            Reduces number of short Opposition from travel      Budgetary,                              *See paper for in-
                                                          investment and                                to improve                increase to local        airplane trips, which in industry (aviation, bus    Directive                               depth
                                                          innovative                                    infrastructure            taxpayers to cover       turn reduces emissions   and motor coach                                                    recommendation
                                                          funding for the                                                         the infrastructure                                companies) that will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       analysis
                                                          development of                                                          costs                    Encourages use of        face potential income
                                                          high speed rail                                                                                  electricity rather than  loss
                                                                                                                                                           relying on fuel

                                                            Support                                     Infrastructure costs to   May result in            Increases multi-modal     Opposition from           Leadership                              Reconnecting
                                                            integrated Travel                           create travel hubs        increase to local        transport                 commuters, politicians;                                           America
                                                            Centers/Hubs at                                                       taxpayers to cover                                 lack of funding
                                                            airports that                                                         the infrastructure
                                                            include High                                                          costs                                              Integration among
                                                            Speed Rail, bus                                                                                                          departments
                                                            rapid transit,                                                        May displace prior
                                                            trains                                                                transit stations and
                                                                                                                                  therefore adversely
                                                                                                                                  affect commuters
                                                                                                                                  and/or businesses
                                                                                                                                  around those
                                                                                                                                  stations



                             Aviation
                                        Support use of alternative fuels and low GHG emission vehicles at airports
                                                            Use alternative                          Potential retrofitting of    Loss of income to oil Decrease in emissions        Federal Aviation           Legislative     Congressional Bill
                                                            fuels for airport                        airport equipment to         industry                                           Administration; Aviation                   mandating use of
                                                            equipment                                accommodate                                                                     industry; Protest from oil                 alternative fuels to
                                                                                                     alternative fuels                                                               industry and/or                            the Federal Aviation
                                                                                                                                                                                     equipment                                  Administration
                                                                                                                                                                                     manufacturers

                                                            Support research                            Cost of research                                                                                       Budgetary
                                                            for advanced
                                                            green air travel
                                                            technologies: .

                                                            Divert regional                             Increasing capacity       Loss of income to                                  Aviation industry;      Leadership
                                                            flights to high                             and frequency of high     aviation sector;                                   worker unions within
                                                            speed rail (see                             speed rail trains and     potential loss of jobs                             and associated with the
                                                            High Speed Rail)                            stations                                                                     Aviation industry




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