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					  The immigration debate


The history of immigration in the United
                 States
 The history of the present King of Great Britain is a
  history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
  having in direct object the establishment of an
  absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let
  Facts be submitted to a candid world.
 …He has endeavoured to prevent the population of
  these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws
  for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass
  others to encourage their migrations hither, and
  raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
Early years
 6,000 a year   (numbers are uncertain)

 French refugees (slave revolt in Haiti)
 After 1820 federal records were kept
   Irish (famine of 1845-1849)
   .5 million Germans

 1850 first census to ask for “place of birth”
    90% of population was native born
Timeline of US immigration laws
 1776 - Unrestricted
 1795 - Naturalization Act - Citizenship limited to "free white
    persons" residing in the US who renounce allegiance to former
    country
   1798 - Alien & Sedition Acts - President is given the right to
    expel "aliens" deemed dangerous to country (only lasted a few
    years)
   1850s - Emergence of "Know Nothing Party" seeking to "purify"
    the nation by restricting immigration and altering citizenship
    requirements (lasted less than 10 years)
   1882 - Chinese Exclusion Act - Fear of competition from
    Chinese workers led to prevention of any further Chinese
    entering the US
   1885 - Contract Labor Laws - Prohibited contracts for cheap
    foreign labor
 1892 - Ellis Island, NY set up to regulate immigration
 1917 - Immigration Act of 1917 - Further restrictions on
    immigration, expanding the classes of foreigners excluded from
    US. It imposed a literacy test and designated an Asiatic Barred
    Zone.
   1921 - Congress establishes first quota system for immigrants
   1924 - National Origins Act reduced quotas of immigrants
    deemed "less desirable", such as Russian (Jews) and Italians
    (Catholics)
   1942 - Bracero program
   1948 - Displaced Persons Act
   1952 - Immigration and Nationality Act - Consolidation of
    immigration laws and abolished Asian Barred Zone.
   1953 - Refugee Relief Act
   1954 - Operation Wetback
 1965 - Immigration and Nationality Act - national origin quotas
    abolished, annual limit imposed on visas for immigrants
   1980 - Refugge Act increased overall refugee quotas
   1986 - Immigration Reform and Control Act granted lawful
    permanent residency to over 2.7 million undocumented
    immigrants
   1990 - Immigration Act established categories of employment
    and placed cap of number of non-immigrant workers
   1992 - Chinese Student Protection
   1996 - Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility
    Act - imposted strict penalties against illegal immigration and
    expanded definition of deportable offenses



                          Selected text taken from www.ailf.org
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
 1848
 Concluded the Mexican War
 Citizenship for residents
    60,000 New Mexico
    4,000 California
The 20th. Century
 Mexican Revolution (1911-1929) drove close
  to 1 million refugess across a porous border.
 Some returned during the Great Depression.
The Evian Conference
 July 1938
 Failed to pass resolution protecting Jews in
  Germany.
  resistance
 “In the past 50 years, polling data have charted a
  deepening opposition to immigration, linked in
  part, it appears, to economic concerns.”




                National Academy of Science study: Smith, James P. & Barry
                Emondston, eds., “The New Americans: Economic,
                Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration” (1997)
Countries with the largest number of immigrants
in the US

Country                 Population in 2004
Total foreign born      34,860,000
Mexico                   8,544,600
China                    1,594,600
Phillipines              1,413,200
India                    1,244,200
Cuba                     1,011,200
Vietnam                    997,800
El Salvador                899,00
Dominican Republic        791,600
We are a nation of immigrants
because…
 56 million people
 20% of the population is either a first
  generation immigrant or has one or both
  immigrant parents.




            Schmidley, Dianne, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population
            Reports, Series P23-206, “Profile of the Foreign-Born Population
            in the United States: 2000”, U.S. Government Printing Office,
            Washington, D.C., 2001.
Some definitions
 Citizen : sworn loyalty to a nation
 Naturalization: process by which citizenship is
  conferred
      period of continuous residence and physical presence in the
       United States;
      residence in a particular USCIS District prior to filing;
      an ability to read, write, and speak English;
      a knowledge and understanding of U.S. history and
       government;
      good moral character;
      attachment to the principles of the U.S. Constitution; and,
      favorable disposition toward the United States.
…Some definitions
 Resident : intending to stay
 Undocumented : lacking permission
 Illegal : prohibited by law or accepted rules
 Guest worker : foreign labor hired on temporary or
  permanent basis (Federal Guestworker Program)
 Economic migrant: guest worker, foreign worker
 Resident alien: foreign national living and working in
  the United States
 Refugee : seeking asylum to escape persecution
 …Some definitions
 Documents : official papers that prove the existence
    of relationships and facts
   “Green cards”: Lawful Permanent Residency
   Visa : allows the bearer to apply for entry, does not
    grant the right to enter the US (BCBP)
   Citizenship : membership in a political community
   Border : geographic boundaries of political entities.

    WASHINGTON October 1, 2006. (Washington Post) -- The Senate gave
    final approval last night to legislation authorizing the construction of 700
    miles of double-layered fencing on the U.S.-Mexico border, shelving
    President Bush's vision of a comprehensive overhaul of U.S. immigration
    laws in favor of a vast barrier.
Alien
 Any person not a citizen or national of the
  United States (USCIS)
     National: a person owing permanent
      allegiance to a state

                                strange
                               unknown
                         dissimilar opposed
                      inconsistent incongrous
                         adverse not native
       Creature
         from                   outsider
      outer space              outlander
It all depends on your point of
view
 Emigrate
 Immigrate
 migrate
Something to think about
 What is the best way to describe the
  immigration history of the US?
 What is the current image of the immigrant?
  Why?
 In terms of “ups” and “downs” where are we
  in the historic cycles of immigration?
                                                      U.S. Population
                                                  Native and Foreign-born


300,000,000




250,000,000




200,000,000




150,000,000




100,000,000




 50,000,000




         0
              1850   1860   1870   1880   1890   1900   1910   1920   1930   1940   1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000
                                   Foreign Born Population as Percentage of Total Population


16.0




14.0




12.0




10.0

                                                                                                                       U.S.
                                                                                                                       SOUTH
 8.0
                                                                                                                       S. Atlantic
                                                                                                                       N.C.

 6.0




 4.0




 2.0




 0.0
       1850   1860   1870   1880   1890   1900   1910   1920   1930   1940   1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000
               Foreign-born Population as a Percentage of Total Population
                   from Decennial Census and post-2000 ACS estimates

16



14



12


                                                                                    U.S.
10
                                                                                    SOUTH

 8
                                                                                    S. Atlantic


 6                                                                                  N.C.



 4



 2



 0
 1850   1880            1910                   1940                   1970   2000
              Estimated Foreign-born Population as Percentage of Estimated Total Poplulation


0.14




0.12




 0.1




0.08                                                                                                  U.S.
                                                                                                      South
                                                                                                      South Atlantic
0.06                                                                                                  N.C.




0.04




0.02




  0
       2000     2001               2002                2003               2004                 2005

    October 1, 2006

 Congress okays 700 mile border fence with
    Mexico

    WASHINGTON October 1, 2006. (Washington Post) -
    - The Senate gave final approval last night to
    legislation authorizing the construction of 700 miles of
    double-layered fencing on the U.S.-Mexico border,
    shelving President Bush's vision of a comprehensive
    overhaul of U.S. immigration laws in favor of a vast
    barrier.
Resources on line
 http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/
         Latino studies program at Indiana Univerisity
 http://www.cis.org/ (Center for Immigration Studies)
        “Pro-immigrant low-immigration think tank”

 http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/immigration/about/lisa.htm
  (L.I.S.A. Longitudinal Immigrant Student Adaption
  Study at NYU)
 http://www.ccis-
  ucsd.org/PUBLICATIONS/working_papers.htm
         (working papers of Center for Comparative Immigration Studies at
          University of California at San Diego)

 http://hapi.ucla.edu (Hispanic American
  Periodicals Index)
         Database of Latin American journal articles

				
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