Japan and Their Economy - PowerPoint by rio17490


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									    Sui -Tang – Song
   and their tributaries
Japan, Korea and Vietnam
•   Block printing
•   Porcelain
•   Mechanical clock (water)
•   Movable Type
•   Gunpowder
•   Paper money
•   Magnetic compass
•   Rice (champas or wet rice)
•   bridges
                      Early Dynasties
• Shang Dynasty1766-1122
• Zhou Dynasty1122-221
   – Last 400yrs - warring states
• Qin Dynasty 221 -206 BCE
   –   Shi huangdi (1st emperor)
   –   Legalist philosophy
   –   First coinage, writing system,
   –   Censorship
   –   Lasts 15 years
• China- in 2,000 years - 23 dynasties - 9 important ones
 Han Dynasty
• classical era
   – Confucian based society
   – Merit system-bureaucrats
   – Paper & porcelain invented
• For 400 years after fall of Han - time of
  great troubles…
   – Buddhism becomes popular in this period
         Post-Han China
• Period of the Six Dynasties (220-
  – Bureaucracy collapsed
  – Buddhism gained strength, replacing
  – Non-Chinese nomads rule much Chinese
          Era of Division vrs. Sui-Tang
•   Era of Division:
     – dominated by political division among many small warring states often ruled by
        nomadic invaders
     – period of Buddhist dominance
         • growth of monastic movement;
     – loss of imperial centralization
     – loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy

• Sui-Tang:
     – return to centralized administration,
     – unified empire
     – reconstruction of bureaucracy
     – reconstruction of Confucian scholar-gentry at expense of
       both Buddhists and aristocracy
     – restoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state
            Sui Dynasty (589-618CE)
• Sui dynasty established by Wendi
   – Lowered taxes
   – Established granaries – stable, cheap food supply
• Yangdi replaced his father, Wendi
   – Brought scholar-gentry back into the administration
   – Built the Grand Canal which connected the south to the north allowing
     the south to proved grains to the north It also provided a method to get
     troops to the northern regions close to Korea
       • Added on during the Tang and Ming dynasties but continued the connection
   – Expensive construction
       • New capital at Loyang
       • Canals to link the empire (started the Grand Canal eventual linkage of north
         and south China
   – Failed to conquer Korea and then defeated by Turkic nomads, led to
     widespread revolts
   – Assassinated in 618CE
    Tang Dynasty (618-918)
• Sui unite China -
  rule for 30 years
• Tang
  – Increased
  – Heavy
    dependence on
   Tang Dynasty (618-907CE)
• Li Yuan won control of China
• First emperor & minister (Wei Zheng)- model of good
• Imperial power and moral restraint in theory - in practice
  hard to maintain
• Tang armies extend to Afghanistan, dominating nomads
  on boarders
   – Used Turkic nomads in military, assimilate into
      Chinese culture
   – Great Wall is repaired
• Trade & commerce grow
• Printing
• Arts- focus on landscape/nature
• Gun powder
• Woodblock printing
• Capital city Chang’an (eternal peace) 24 mile walled city
• Artistic / commercial & invention continues in Song era
                             Empress Wu
• Ruled for 50 years - 705
     – Biggest challenge deal with scholar/gentry
       and old aristocrats
     – Economy remained strong!

• Econ- equal land system
• Civil exam system
     – Blow to noble class
     – Social mobility
•   Confucianism as official philosophy = cultural
    literacy uniting China
• Buddhism - backlash
     – Around 845...
Tang Xuanzong (The Profound Emperor) and Consort Yang
      Decline of Tang - Losing the Mandate of
• Xuanzong                • Other reasons for decline
                                –   751 - loss to Arabs at Talas
  – (Empress Wu’s grandson)
  – Patron of arts              – Equal land system
                                  breaks down
  – Decline due to lack
    of morality?                – Poor attention to canal &
                                  irrigation systems
  – Blame consort-
    during rebellion,           – Nomadic attacks
    soldiers want her         • Moral: China’s view
    head - he gives it to       – Centralization = unity =
    them                          peace (stability)
  – He abdicates                – Decentralization = civil
     East Asian Cultural Sphere under the Tang
• The influence of Chinese civilization spread throughout East
  Asia as neighboring countries study and borrow from Chinese
• Sinicification
• Korea (Silla), Japan, and what is today Vietnam share in
  Chinese culture and the four countries are united by
   – Confucian thought and social and political values
   – Buddhism (in forms developed and refined in China after its origination in
   – literary Chinese and its writing system which becomes the language of
     government and that used by the elites of these societies to
     communicate among themselves
       Song Dynasty (969-1279CE)
• Rise - 907 960 saw the fragmentation of China into five northern
  dynasties and ten southern kingdoms until Song unify
• Taizu reunited China under the Song
    – Failed to defeat border nomads – sets legacy of weakness
• Politics
    – Not as strong politically or militarily as the Tang
    – Strong support of Confucian values
        • Neo-Confucianism – emphasis on high morality, hostility to foreign
          influence, stress on tradition (stifled innovation), authority of men
   – Scholar-gentry class dominates
      • abuses in civil service exam develop
   – Paper money
   – Arts & commerce
   – 11C Needle compass (3rd century - South pointer)
     elements of Tang-Song economic prosperity
• The full incorporation of southern China into the
  economy as a major food-producing region, center
  of trade
• commercial expansion with West, southern Asia,
  southeast Asia
• establishment of Chinese merchant marine
• development of new commercial organization and
  credit techniques
  – Use of paper money during the Song Era
• improved agricultural productivity with expansion of
  acreage, greater production per acre
• expanded urbanization throughout China.
 Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE
• Northern Song (960-1127)
  Based in Kaifeng
• Southern Song (1127-1279)
  Based in Hangzhou

  Move South due to barbarian pressure from
   the North
         Wang Anshi (1021-1086)
• Instituted reforms in:
   –   Education
   –   Agriculture
   –   Taxes
   –   Military Conscription
• Government Financial Records
• Public Welfare Institutions
• These reforms were controversial, and met with much
  resistance which limited their efficacy.
  Urbanization and changing the
   nature of cities from Tang to
• As in previous dynasties, the Song's largest cities
  were its capitals — Kaifeng during the Northern Song
  and Hangzhou after the dynasty was confined to the
  South, (1127-1279).
• But unlike previous capitals such as the Tang
  dynasty's Changan, the Song capitals did not have
  walled off wards. Instead, they boasted a lively street
  life, with markets, shops, and restaurants about
  which we know in surprising detail. Kaifeng did have
  an external wall, but its population spilled beyond it.
  The wall we see in the scroll has lost its military
  purpose, but its gate — seen here — still forms an
  impressive entrance into the city.
          Commercialization & paper
•   Helping to grease the
  wheels of trade was the
  world's first paper money.
• The basic unit of payment
  was copper coins strung on
  a string, but these were
  heavy and cumbersome for
  use in large-scale
• The Song solution was to
  print paper money — Marco
  Polo's report of this was
  met with incredulity in the
      Rural markets to city
• Some of the products on sale in this city depicted in
  the scroll would have come from nearby farms, but
  others came from far away.
• Then, as still often now, donkeys did much of the work
  in the North. For heavy transport there were wagons
  and large wheelbarrows, while camels linked China to
  the world beyond the deserts.
• Water transport, however, has always been far
  cheaper than going over land. The South, with its
  many rivers and waterways, had an advantage in this
  respect, but northern cities too were served by water
  transport. Here we see men unloading bales of grain.
• International maritime trade also flourished during this
  time. Quanzhou in the Fujian region became a major
  center of trade with Southeast and South Asia, as well
  as with Korea and Japan.
            Increasing population
• New developments in rice cultivation, especially the
  introduction of new strains (champa) from what is
  now Central Vietnam, spectacularly increased rice
• As a result the population, which had never before
  exceeded 60 million, grew to 100 million by 1127.
• The population continued to increase until it reached
  perhaps 120 million in the 13th century. The highest
  concentrations of people were in the rice-lands of the
  south, which was to remain China's economic
  heartland, linked to the North by the Grand Canal.
• Rice supports population increase because it yields
  more nutrition per land unit than any other grain. Rice
  was used primarily as food but was also used to brew
  the wine consumed in homes and taverns.
            rise of mercantile class
• By the end of the Song, 2/3 to
  3/4 of the Chinese population
  is concentrated below the
• The Grand Canal, built during
  the Sui Dynasty, connects the
  Yangtze and the Yellow
  rivers, facilitating the
  transport of agricultural
  production from the south to
  the north and helping to unify
  the economy of China.
• The Song saw an impressive development of iron and
  steel production for agricultural tools, as well as for
  such new developments as chains for suspension
  bridges and drill bits for the sinking of wells with
  bamboo serving as natural pipe.
• Meanwhile steel tips increased the effectiveness of
  Song arrows also equipped with flame-throwers and
  "crouching tiger catapults" for throwing bombs. Gun-
  powder was also used to good effect in mining.
• The Chinese were also world leaders in ship-building
  including water-tight compartments and stern-post
  rudders. They navigated with the aid of (south-
  pointing) compasses, another Chinese invention.
Footbinding: indicator of
change of role of women
Regional and age differences in role of women
• The emergence of a new ideal of the "willow-
  waisted woman," a stronger advocacy against
  widow remarriage, the presence of some bound
  feet in Southern Song all suggest a decline in
  status of women.
• However, the control women gained over
  property, their ability to inherit, their control of
  family budgets, and of their children's education
  show that older women were not without
• Made refinements in the ideal of
  the universal man
  – combined the qualities of scholar,
    poet, painter, and statesman
  – Song intellectuals sought answers
    to all philosophical and political
    questions in the Confucian Classics.
  – This renewed interest in the
    Confucianism coincided with the
    decline of Buddhism
     • Seen as offering few practical
       guidelines for the solution of political
       and other mundane problems.
• The Song Neo-Confucian philosophers, finding a certain purity in the
  originality of the ancient classical texts, wrote commentaries on them.
   – The most influential of these philosophers was Zhu Xi ( b1130-
      1200), whose synthesis of Confucian thought and Buddhist, Taoist,
      and other ideas became the official imperial ideology from late Song
      times to the late nineteenth century.
• As incorporated into the examination system, Zhu Xi's philosophy
  evolved into a rigid official creed, which stressed the one-sided
  obligations of obedience and compliance of subject to ruler, child to
  father, wife to husband, and younger brother to elder brother.
• The effect was to inhibit the societal development of premodern China,
  resulting both in many generations of political, social, and spiritual
  stability and in a slowness of cultural and institutional change up to the
  nineteenth century.
• Neo-Confucian doctrines also contributed to the development of
  intellectual life in Korea, Vietnam and Japan as these doctrines take a
  dominant role.
                              •   Army Area Handbook on China, written by Rinn-Sup Shinn and Robert L. Worden.
         Growth of new class
• In place of the hereditary aristocracy, which
  was unable to survive the turbulence
  accompanying and following the fall of the
  Tang dynasty, there developed a broader
  elite that, ideally, based its wealth on land
  ownership, its prestige on learning, and its
  political clout on access to office and office
• Not a merchant class as was on the rise in
  Western Europe
          Increased learning
• The emergence of this class had much to do with
  the Song dynasty's commitment to rule by civilian
  bureaucrats (at the expense of the military)
  chosen by examination.
• In a society in which most people were illiterate,
  or at best semi-literate, the elite stood out by
  virtue of their reading and writing skills.
• Male learning was particularly stressed since it
  gave access to the examinations.
• The majority of examination candidates failed, but
  studying for the examinations produced men
  throughout the land who were educated in the
  same classic texts.
    decline of Buddhism in the later
      Tang and Song dynasties
• Restoration of imperial government implied
  strengthening of traditional schools of
  Confucianism and resuscitation of scholar-
• Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign
  innovation in China;
• convinced emperors that monastic control of
  land represented an economic threat;
• persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.
       Tang and the Song dynasties
        Similarities and differences
• Similarities:
   – continued intellectual and political dominance of Confucian
   – growth of bureaucracy essential to imperial administration.
• Differences:
   – smaller in size
   – unable to control nomadic dynasties of the north
   – payment of tribute to nomadic states
   – military decline with subjection of aristocracy to scholar-
   – failure of Wang Anshi's reforms led to military defeat.
    extension of Chinese culture to its satellite
      civilizations differed from other global
• Chinese culture extended only within semi-
  closed East Asian cultural system
• unlike Islam that spread from the Middle East
  to Africa and to South and Southeast Asia
• unlike common cultural exchanges between
  Islam and post-classical West
• East Asian cultural exchange occurred in semi-
  isolation from other global cultures.
      Splintering of North & Southern Song
• Heavy dependence on
  growth of civilian
  government at expense
  of military
  –   By 1127, the Song court could not push
      back the Northern nomadic invaders
  – Surrounded by north ‘empires’

• Invasion of Mongols from
  North 1279
  – Start of Yuan (Mongol Dynasty)
                              Mongols and Europe
•   Russia in Bondage
     – Russia fell under rule of the Khanate of the Golden Horde
     – Mongol conquest of Russia reduced the Russian princes to tribute-payers.
          • Payments fell heavily on the peasants
          • Peasants reduced to serfdom.
          • Some Russian cities (Moscow), recovered fortunes by increased trade
     – Rise of Moscow
          •   Moscow profited as tribute collector for Mongol overlords.
          •   Head of the Orthodox Church in Russia selected Moscow as his capital.
          •   In 1380, the princes of Moscow turned against the Mongols
          •   Led an alliance that defeated the Mongols at the battle of Kulikova.
          •   Victory broke the hold of the Mongols on Russia
          •   Nomads continued to make raids into the 15th century.
     – Mongol conquest of Russia ensured changes
          •   Central position of Moscow and the Orthodox Church
          •   Changes in Russian military organization
          •   Revised the political concepts of Russian rulers
          •   Mongol dominance cut Russia off from western Europe both politically and culturally.
•   Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from Europe
     – First Christian reaction to Mongol invasions was positive.
          •   They were convinced Mongols were potential allies against the Muslims
          •   Assault on Russia proved that optimism was a miscalculation
          •   Successful conquest of Hungary alerted Europe to danger of Mongols
          •   Mongol hordes withdrew to Asia to resolve the succession crisis
     – Lithuanians defeated Mongol return
  The Great Exchange during Mongolian
          From                   From                    From                 From
         Europe              Southwest Asia            South Asia            East Asia

Honey                    Textiles                 Spices             Gunpowder
Horses                   Rugs                     Gems               Firearms
Glassware                Incense                  Perfumes           Rockets
Slaves                   Finished iron products   Textiles           Magnetic compass
                         Finished gold products                      Porcelain
                                                                     Maritime Technology
                                                                     Paper Making

Christian missionaries   Muslim merchants         Indian merchants   Buddhist religious objects
Italian merchants        Nestorian merchants      Indian diplomats   Chinese bureaucrats
European diplomats       Muslim diplomats                            Chinese artists, artisans
                                                                     East Asian diplomats

                         Sugarcane                                   Black Death
• Determined to keep power out of the hands of
  the military, the Song rulers reduced the
  status of its military men.
• No longer could officials move between the
  civil and military services, and sometimes
  soldiers were even tattooed to keep them
  from deserting.
• The Song were effective militarily due more to
  new technology than military skills
North & Southern Song
          Tang & Song Influence on East Asia
• The influence of Chinese civilization spreads
  throughout East Asia as neighboring countries
  study and borrow from Chinese civilization
  – Korea, Japan, and what is today Vietnam
• Confucian thought and social and political
• Buddhism
• Literary Chinese and its writing system which
  becomes the language of government and that
  used by the elites of these societies to
  communicate among themselves.
      East Asian Rimlands
Early Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
  Japan In the Middle Ages
          Taika Reforms (Tang)
   Nara (influence from Tang Dynasty)
         Fujiwara Heian (Koyoto)
     Kamkura (city) Minomoto (clan)
           Mongolians assault
        Oda Nobunaga (1534-82)
ONIN WARS Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98)
     Tokugawa during Renaissance
• Yamato – 300 – 700
   • Prince Shotoku (574-622)
   • 17 Article Constitution
• The Taika Reforms - (645)
• Nara Period (710-794)
• Heian / Fujiwara Period (794-1185)
   • Heian is Koyoto
• Kamakura Shogunate / Feudal Period (1185-1333)
   • Gempi Wars
      • Civil War between Taira and Minamoto clans
      • Bakufu (tent or military government)
      • Yoritomo Minamoto
      • Kamakura is new city (near Tokyo)
• Mongols (1274) & (1282)
   • Kamikaze
    Yamato Period (300-700)
• Imperial Family establishes
  Hegemony around 300
• Emperor as a Religious Figure
 • Amaterasu the Sun-God
• Adoption of Chinese Writing / Record
• Religious Expansion
   • Amaterasu & Shintoism
   • Buddhism
          From Prehistoric to Empire
• Main islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and
  • Prehistoric Japan
      • Marriage of Izanagi and Izanami
      • Amaterasu
      • Jomon people, 10,000 years ago
         • Yayoi culture
• Yamamoto state
  •   Shotoku Taishi (572-622)
  •   Buddhism
  •   Shinto
  •   Disease (small pox)
      The Taika Reforms - (645)
• Complete Imperial and Bureaucratic System -
  Tang model
• Absolutist Rulers - Sons of Heaven
• Outlaw Private Ownership of Land
• Equal-Field System / Income Taxation
• Chinese Language reinforced - dynastic
  histories, literature
• Buddhist Construction Projects
• Nara Period (710-784)
  • Chinese state model
  • Weakness
• Heian (Kyoto) Period (794-1185)
  • Fujiwara clan
  • Decentralized political system
    • shoen farmland
  • Emergence of the samurai (military
    • bushido warrior code
• Kamakura Shogunate (1185-1333)
   • Minamoto Yoritomo (1142-1199)
      • bakufu (tent government)
      • shogun (general)
      • Shogunate system
   • Mongols
      • Khubilai Khan demands tribute, 1266
      • Invasion at Kyushu
          • kamikaze (Divine Wind)
   • Ashikaga shogun
      • power to local landed aristocracy
      • Onin War (1467-1477)
• Edo period (modern era)
            Japanese Economic and Social Structures
• Noble control of land, wealth in agriculture
   • Commerce slow to develop
• Daily life
   • Aristocracy
      • Samurai, minor nobility
      • Bushido
   • Masses
      • Agricultural
             • genin, landless laborers
             • eta, hereditary workers
             • shoen, several villages
             • women
          Japanese Societal Roles
     Nara      Heian        Kamakura
• Japanese women may have had a certain level of equality with men in early Japan,
  but later practices make it clear that women were considered subordinate to men.
    – Men could, for example, divorce their wives for specious reasons, such as talking too
      much or being jealous.
    – Although women did not possess the full legal and social rights of men, they played an
      active role at various levels of society.
    – Aristocratic women were prominent at court, and some became known for their artistic
      or literary talents.
        • During much of the history of early Japan, aristocratic men believed that prose fiction was
          merely ―vulgar gossip,‖ and therefore beneath them. Consequently, from the ninth to the
          twelfth centuries, women were the most productive writers of prose fiction in Japanese.
          Women often appear in the paintings of the period, along with men.
    – The women are doing the spring planting, threshing and hulling rice, and acting as
      salespersons and entertainers.
• Females learned to read and write at home, and they wrote diaries, stories, and
  novels to pass the time.
    – From this tradition appeared one of the world’s great novels, The Tale of Genji, which
      was written by Murasaki Shikibu around the year 1000
                       Feudal Japan
• Shogun over figure head emperor
• Warlords throughout the islands
• Served by Samuri
   – Role was to protect their lord
   – Not allowed to marry anyone beneath their social class
   – Ronin were warriors who were not tied to a specific warlord
• Peasants and craftsmen
• Agricultural
      •   genin, landless laborers
      •   eta, hereditary workers
      •   shoen, several villages
      •   women
• Merchants at the bottom of the social ladder
             Japanese Culture
• Blend indigenous and imported elements
   • Literature
      • Adapted Chinese writing system
      • Poetry and prose
          • Murasaki Shikibu, Tale of Genji, c. 1000
      • No, drama
   • Art and Architecture
      • Hand scrolls
      • Zen Buddhism
      • Landscape
      • Tea ceremony
   • Japan and the Chinese model
Japan, China, and Korea, 600-800
• Farming began about 2000 B.C.E.
• Chinese influence and rule
• Three Kingdoms (4th-7th centuries)
   • Silla -- dominant power (668)
      • Woodblock printing & later moveable type
   • Koguryo -- influenced by China, Buddhism, and Confucianism (early 10th
   • Paekche 1 – 475 ce capital city, Hansong, was over-run by by Koguryo
• Unification
   • Koryo dynasty
   • social structure
   • Buddhism
• Mongols 1231 conquest (corvée labor)
• Yi dynasty, 1392-1500 following the expulsion of the
  Mongolians and the fall of the Mongolian controlled Koguryo
• Irrigated agriculture in area of the Red River
• Sinification
   • Annam (northern Vietnam) later becomes Dai Viet with fall of the Song
     (Great Viet)
   • Economic and cultural integration with China during Tang and Song
   • Confucian system of government
• Champa
   • March to the south
   • Influenced by Malay and India as well as Chinese
   • Imported fast-maturing Champa rice to China
• Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism
• Society
       • Peasant masses
       • Trang sisters- merchants who demonstrate the
         matriarchal role of women in Dai Viet
                      Other Regions
• Connections between South Asia across the Indian ocean to
  Africa and eventually even Western Africa
   – Trade is stimulated by the collapse of the overland trade routes in
• Connected by Islamic religion
• Monsoons impact spread of religion
   – Junks of China are used as well as Dhows
       • Dhows had the lateen sails that could be turned to catch the wind, made
         of palm leaves or cotton
       • The dhows were made more seaworthy after a rudder was added and
         larger to hold more cargo
• Persian influenced language connected many of the regions
• Malacca, because of the Strait of Malacca is the principal
  passage from the Indian Ocean to South China Sea became
  a major port and a center of trade
   – Pirates dominated but the Ming dynasty crushed the Chinese pirates
     and the Muslim ruler of Malacca made trade agreements and made
     Malacca a major point of contact
  Islamic W. Sudan & Sub-Saharan Africa vs. South Asia
• 1230 Mali Empire founded
• 1324-1325 -Mansa Musa’s            • 1206 Delhi Sultanate
  pilgrimage to Mecca                  founded in India
                                        – Trade disrupted at first by
• Tuareg retake Mali and it               the Mongolians and shifted
  declines                                to the Indian Ocean
• Compared to Swahili coast as          – Exported cotton and indigo
  Kilwa became on of the most             to the Middle East and
  important trade city as gold was        Europe
  mined on the Zambezi River         • Delhi sultanate annexes
  near the Great Zimbabwe              Gujaret
• This gold was taken to coast and      – Used terror and high taxes
  across the Indian Ocean.                to control the population
  supplementing the mixed farming       – To keep their
  and cattle herding base            • 1398 -Timur (grandmother
                                       mogolian) sacks Delhi
                                     • Port (emporium) of Malacca
                                       at its peak
              Mali in the Western Sudan
• Islam spread to sub-Saharan Africa by a gradual process of peaceful
• Conversion was facilitated by commercial contacts.
• In 1240 Sundiata (the Muslim leader of the Malinke people) established
  the kingdom of Mali.
    – Mali’s economy rested on agriculture and was supplemented by control of
      regional and trans-Saharan trading routes and by control of the gold mines of
      the Niger headwaters.
• The Mali ruler Mansa Kankan Musa (r. 1312–1337) demonstrated his
  fabulous wealth during a pilgrimage to Mecca.
    – When he returned to Mali, Mansa Musa established new mosques and
      Quranic schools.
• The kingdom of Mali declined and collapsed in the mid to late fifteenth
  century because of rebellions from within and attacks from without.
    – Intellectual life and trade moved to other African states, including the Hausa
      states and Kanem-Bornu.
            The Delhi Sultanate in India- 1206 -1526
• Between 1206 and 1236 the divided states of northwest India were defeated by
  violent Muslim Turkish conquerors under the leadership of Sultan Iltutmish, who
  established the Delhi Sultanate as a Muslim state.
    – Hindu and Buddhist temples were raided for their gold and jewels
    – Women were kidnapped and enslaved
    – Although the Muslim elite then settled down to rule India relatively peacefully, their
      Hindu subjects never forgave the violence of the conquest.
    – Hindus allowed to keep their religion if they paid a tax
• Iltutmish passed his throne on to his daughter, Raziya. Raziya was a talented ruler,
  but she was driven from office by men unwilling to accept a female monarch.
    – Under Ala-ud-din (r. 1296–1316) and Muhammad ibn Tughluq (r. 1325–1351), the
      Delhi Sultanate carried out a policy of aggressive territorial expansion that was
      accompanied (in the case of Tughluq) by a policy of religious toleration toward
      Hindus—a policy that was reversed by Tughluq’s successor.
    – Some Hindus were eventually incorporated into the administration as many from the
      ruling elite married Hindu women even through the brides had to convert to Islam
• In general, the Delhi sultans ruled by terror and were a burden on their subjects.
    – In the mid-fourteenth century internal rivalries between the south and north India as the
      Sufi tradition began to become influential and external threats undermined the stability
      of the Sultanate.
    – The weakened Sultanate was destroyed when Timur sacked Delhi in 1398 and he takes
      over the Sultanate
                  Mali and Delhi and their role in slavery
• Both states used Islamic administrative and military systems
• But while Islam in Mali grew gradually and peacefully, Delhi was created by
  the conquest of Turkish and Afghan Muslims.
• Long-distance trade was important to Mali’s government, but not to Delhi’s.
• Conversion to Islam increased the expansion of commercial contacts for
  Mali, whose links to the Sahara were important in its development
   – private Muslim traders were also important in the Delhi Sultanate.
• The prosperity of African and Asian tropical kingdoms led them both to
  participation in the slave trade.
• Millions of slaves were traded in this time frame, some even arriving in
    – Between the period of 800-1200 over 5 million Africans, mostly from the Zanj,
      had been traded to Arabic and South Asia
    – This practice increased beginning in 1200, as trade increased, totally perhaps as
      many as 9 million.
    – In comparison between 1500-1800 about 10 million Africans were taken to the
• The high supply of free labor led to the training of slaves for special
    – Some were in the military while others mined or did hard menial work.
    – Wealthy households used slaves as servants, entertainers, and concubines, or
      harem slaves.
             Slavery increased
• Slaves from Africa across the Indian Ocean to
  the Abbasid and later the Delhi Sultanate and
  on to China
• 2.5 million African slaves exported across the
  Sahar and Red Sea between 1200 and 1500,
  while more were shipped from the cities of the
  Swahili coast and the Zanj or Land of the

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