Cognitiive Ch 4

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Cognitiive Ch 4 Powered By Docstoc
					Encoding Process
   A. Coding Simple Information
   B. Encoding More Complex Information
   C. Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking
   How we encode to-be-
    information makes a
    huge difference in how
    well we remember it.
Assume two children of equal mental ability trying
  to study 25 new words.
Susan                      MARRY

e.g., “familiar”….”f, a,     E.g. “familiar”-fam, i,
m, i…”                        liar
She does this for the 25       She also does it six
words 6 times each.             times for each word
   Typical kind of
    rehearsal Susan
    engaged in is called
    maintenance rehearsal
    (Craik, 1979).

e.g. Rehearsing a phone
  number and forgetting
  it few minutes after
   Maintenance
    Rehearsal can enhance
    long term memory but
    it is quite effortful and
   The to-be-
    information is related
    to other information.
 1. Meditation
 2. Imagery
 3. Mnemonics
   Meditation involves
    tying difficult-to-
    remember items to
    something more
 Nonsense Syllable:
 Meaningful Syllable:
   This involves using
imagery in learning new
It requires two provisions:
 1. The imagery value of various materials
   E.g., The word “Car” can easily lead to an image
    than the word “Truth”
  2. Individual difference in the ability to form images
    (Ahsen, 1987)
   The word "mnemonics" comes from the
    Greek mneme ("memory") and mnemon
    ("mindful"), and the Greek goddess of
    Memory was Mnemosyne (pronounced "ne-
   i. Acronym
   ii. Acrostic
   iii. Rhyme-keys (the peg method)
   iv. Loci Method
   V. Keyword method
   Vi. Image name technique
   Vii. Chaining
 Acronym - an invented combination of
  letters with each letter acting as a cue to an
  idea you need to remember.
 BRASS is an acronym for how to shoot a rifle-
  - Breath, Relax, Aim, Sight, Squeeze.
   Acrostic - an invented sentence where the
    first letter of each word is a cue to an idea you
    need to remember.
   E.g.
    EVERY GOOD BOY DESERVES FUN is an acrostic
      to remember the order of the G-clef notes on
      sheet music-- E,G,B,D,F.
   Rhyme-Keys - a 2-step memory process:
   Memorize key words that can be associated
    with numbers (one-bun, two-shoe, three-
   Create an image of the items you need to
    remember with key words. (A bun with
    cheese on it will remind me of dairy
   Food groups:
   Dairy products: one-bun-cheese on a bun.
   Meat, fish, and poultry: two-shoe-livestock
    with shoes.
   Grains: three-tree-sack of grain hanging from
   Fruit and vegetables: four-door- opening a
    door and walking into a room stocked with
    fruits and vegetables.
• Loci Method- Imagine placing the items you
  want to remember in specific locations in a
  room with which you are familiar.
  To remember presidents:
  Place a dollar bill (George Washington) on the
   door. Walk into the room and see Jefferson
   reclining on a sofa and Nixon eating out of
   the refrigerator.
• Keyword Method- Select the foreign words
  you need to remember, then identify an
  English word that sounds like the foreign one.
  Now imagine an image that involves the key
  word with the English meaning of the foreign
   In Spanish, the word "cabina" means phone
    booth. Invent an image of a cab trying to fit
    in a phone booth. When you see the word
    "cabina," you should be able to recall this
    image and thereby retrieve the meaning
    "phone booth."
• Image-Name Technique- invent a
  relationship between the name and the
  physical characteristics of the person.
  e.g., Shirley Temple - her curly (rhymes with
   "Shirley") hair around her temples.
   Chaining- Create a story where each word or
    idea you have to remember will cue the next
    idea you need to recall.
   E.g.,
   Napoleon, ear, door, Germany
   Story: Napoleon had his ear to the door to
    listen to the Germans in his beer cellar.

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