International performance Measurement Verification Protocol

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					International performance
Measurement & Verification Protocol

           Satish Kumar (Skumar@lbl.gov)
           Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


           U.N. Energy Workshop
           United Nations Building, New York City
           February 1-2, 2000



           IPMVP Web Site: www.ipmvp.org
           IPMVP - Target Audience

              Facility Energy Managers, particularly public
               buildings
              ESCOs (Energy Service Companies)
              WASCOs (Water Service Companies)
              Development Banks
              Finance Firms
              Utility DSM Managers
              Building Managers
              State and Municipalities



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           IPMVP - Objectives

                Reduce transaction costs by providing international,
                 industry standard approach and methodologies to measure
                 and verify energy savings and GHG emissions


                Replace multiple, incompatible protocols with single
                 consensus approach


                Increase reliability and level of savings


                Project bundling and pooled financing


                Provide a way to update the standard for future needs

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           IPMVP - Scope

                Addressing the M&V needs of parties in energy and water
                 efficiency projects
                Providing industry consensus M&V options with varying
                 levels of accuracy and cost for:
                     Baseline and project installations conditions
                     Long-term energy and water savings performance
                Providing techniques for calculating “whole-facility” savings,
                 individual technology savings, and stipulated savings
                Defining procedures which are:
                     Consistently applicable to similar projects
                     Internationally accepted, impartial and reliable
                Defining a basis for GHG emissions calculations in building
                 energy efficiency projects

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           IPMVP - Int’l Participating Organizations
             •   Instituto Nacional de Eficiência Energética, Brazil (INEE)
             •   Bulgarian Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Bulgaria (Eneffect)
             •   Canadian Association of Energy Service Companies, Canada (CAESCO)
             •   Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resources Canada (NRC)
             •   Beijing Energy Efficiency Center, China (BECON)
             •   Electric Power Research Institute, China (EPRI)
             •   State Economic & Trade Commission, China
             •   Stredisko pro efektivní vyuzívání energie, Czech Republic (SEVEn)
             •   Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia,Mexico (CONAE)
             •   Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico,
                 Mexico (FIDE)
             •   Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Poland (FEWE)
             •   Center for Energy Efficiency, Russia (CENEf)
             •   Tata Energy Research Institute, India (TERI )
             •   Ministry Of International Trade and Industry, Japan (MITI)
             •   Swedish Natioanl Board for Technical and Urban Development, Sweden (NUTEK)
             •   Association for the Conservation of Energy, United Kingdom (ACE)
             •   Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Ukraine (ARENA)


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           IPMVP - US Participating Organizations

             • Association of Energy Engineers (AEE)
             • Association of Energy Services Professionals (AESP)
             • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
               (ASHRAE)
             • American Water Works Association (AWWA)
             • Building Owners Mangaement Association (BOMA)
             • Department of Energy (DOE)
             • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
             • National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO)
             • National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC)
             • National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO)
             • National Realty Committee




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           Uses of M&V

               Determine energy savings (Level, Persistence, and
                Variability)
               Integrated with commissioning can provide feedback on
                performance of ECMs
               Long term feedback for on-going fine-tuning of ECMs
               Documentation for evaluating (and justifying) future ECMs
               Enhances Indoor Environmental Quality
               Basis for documenting emissions reductions and securing
                credits



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           Benefits of Good M&V

          Initial savings level                    120
          Persistence of savings




                                    % Realization
          Variability                              100

                                                     80

                                                     60

                                                     40

                 Good M&V                            20
                 Poor M&V                             0
                                                          0            5              10
                                                              Years post-completion


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           M&V - Engineering Need

                Measurement of energy use (pre- and post-EEM
                 installation)

                Verification of the potential to generate savings in future -
                 persistence

                Quantify energy savings
             
                 Energy Saved = Epre - Epost




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           M&V - Contractual Need

              Define risk and relate it to required accuracy
              Mitigate risk
                  Reduce uncertainties
              Allocate risk
                  Share of financial institution
                  Share of ESCO
                  Share of client
              Common thread - M&V




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           The Mechanics of Financing

                             Performance
           Energy Service                       Government
              Provider                            Agency
                              Government
                               Contract
     Project                   Payments
     Financing
                               Portion of
                          Government Payments


              Financier

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           Benchmarking Performance


                         Cars     Lighting
                                  System

           Performance   MPG      Lumen/Watt
           Metric

           Actual        Miles        kWh
           Savings       Driven



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           Ways to Calculate Energy Savings

              Agreed-upon stipulations
              Engineering calculations
              Metering and monitoring
              Utility meter billing analysis
              Computer simulations, (example: DOE-2 analysis)




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           Sources of Uncertainty

              Errors associated with input parameters
              Biases in calculation algorithms
              Missing site-specific weather data
              Meter accuracy
              Short/long-term data extrapolation
              Sampling error




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Defining the Baseline

   Are existing conditions at facility stable?
       Operating conditions, e.g. occupancy
       Maintenance
   Is the load variable or constant?
   Can variables affecting load be identified?
   How long does the baseline have to be measured?
   What is the term of the contract
Adjusting the Baseline

   Most baselines are not really constant and thus the
    baseline is usually defined as a “model”
   Define (before the fact) what influences the baseline
    and when will it be modified, e.g.:
       Existing lighting, thermal, indoor environment quality
        conditions
       Typical vs. actual weather
       Typical vs. actual occupancy
   Define how baseline will be adjusted, e.g.
       lighting levels to conform to IES standards
       thermal comfort parameters to comply with ASHRAE 55
      Three Typical Time Periods

                                                   Installation Period
  1,000,000



      750,000
kWh




      500,000


                             Baseline Period                    Performance Period
      250,000
           Jan-93   Jul-93     Jan-94     Jul-94     Jan-95     Jul-95    Jan-96
       Actual vs. Baseline Scenarios

                                                                                 Actual
                                                  Installation Period            Baseline
  1,000,000



      750,000
kWh




      500,000


                             Baseline Period                   Performance Period
      250,000
           Jan-93   Jul-93     Jan-94    Jul-94     Jan-95     Jul-95   Jan-96
           M&V Options in the IPMVP

              Option A: stipulated baseline and savings
                  Verified equipment performance (Watts, kW/ton)
              Option B: measured/stipulated baseline, verified
               performance
                  Estimating tool calibrated with end-use data
              Option C: comparison of similar buildings with and
               without ECMs using whole building data (hourly or
               monthly)
                  Utility billing analysis
              Option D: stipulated baseline, verified performance
                  Simulation model calibrated with whole building data


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           Overview of M&V Options - 1

                Option A (1-5% of project construction cost)
                     Properly defined baseline conditions
                     Focuses on physical assessment of equipment changes
                     Reliance on historical data for operational factors (run time
                      hours etc.)
                     Use of spot or short-term measured data to estimate
                      performance factors
                Option B (3-10% of project construction cost)
                     Properly defined baseline conditions
                     Verifying energy and cost data obtained during term of
                      agreement
                     Use of long-term or continuously measured data for both
                      performance (Watts, kW/ton) and operational factors
                     M&V can be performed at the equipment or system level and
                      goes on for the term of the project
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           Overview of M&V Options - 2

                Option C (2-5% of project construction cost)
                     Properly defined baseline conditions
                     Savings are determined at the “whole-building” level
                     Reliance on a combination of utility billing analysis and sub-
                      metered data for calculations.
                Option D (1-3% of project construction cost)
                     Properly defined baseline conditions
                     Savings are determined through simulation of individual
                      system or “whole-building”
                     Simulation model is calibrated with hourly or monthly utility
                      billing data and/or end-use metering
                     Used for new buildings and complex existing building systems




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           Examples - Lighting Retrofits (Efficiency
           & Control Improvements)
                                                            Pre-ECM
                           5000


                           4000                                              Post-ECM
           Power (Watts)




                           3000


                           2000


                           1000




                                   0    2    4    6     8      10      12    14   16    18   20   22   24
                                                                      HOUR

                                  Figure 1: Pre- and post-retrofit power consumption profile

                    kWhsavings = (kWpre – kWpost) x (hrspre – hrspost)
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           Sample Example - Load Reduction

              Pre-retrofit Conditions
                  Building - 100,000 sq. ft.
                  Initial Lighting Load = 3 watts per sq. ft.
                  Assumed lighting energy to heat conversion = 80%
                  Cooling Load = 240 kW or 67 tons.
              Post-retrofit (Energy Efficient Lighting) conditions
                  Initial Lighting Load = 1.2 watts per sq. ft.
                  Cooling Load = 96 kW or 27 tons.
              Cooling Load Reduction = 144kW or 40 tons




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           IPMVP Uses

              ESCO industry standard
              Federal buildings through FEMP
              Adoption by states
              By multi-lateral development banks as a key design
               element in large scale energy efficiency loans
              For determining reduction of greenhouse gasses




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           IPMVP Translation

              Bulgarian
              Chinese
              Czech
              Japanese
              Korean
              Polish
              Portuguese
              Russian
              Spanish
              Ukrainian

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           How to Get a Copy of IPMVP

              For hard copies, call Energy Efficiency and
               Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC)
                  1800-DOE-EREC
              Electronic download (in Word and PDF)
                  www.ipmvp.org/download.html
              For miscellaneous information
                  SKumar@lbl.gov
                  202-484-0884 x110




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