LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL

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					                           LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL

                                       Program of Study
                                                           2008-2009

                                                   SCHOOL COMMITTEE
                                                              Paul Avella
                                                             Charles Ellis
                                                           Michael Fontanella
                                                            Nancy Mizzoni
                                                             Shawna Stea




                                                      ADMINISTRATION
                                                      John J. Buckey, Principal
                                                Anthony J. Loprete, Assistant Principal




                                                       Littleton High School
                                                     Telephone: 978-952-2555
                                                    Main Office: Extension 1100
                                                  Website: http://www.littletonps.org




All Littleton Public School programs, activities and employment opportunities are offered without regard to race, color, sex, religion,
national origin, sexual orientation and disability. Anyone with concerns regarding perceived violations of this policy should contact
Dianna Peterson, Director of Pupil Personnel Services at (978) 468-8951.


                                                LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL
                                                         56 KING STREET
                                                LITTLETON, MASSACHUSETTS 01460
                                                               (978) 952-2555

John J. Buckey
Principal

February 6, 2007

Dear Students & Parents:

Preparing our annual Program of Study requires significant collaboration and thoughtful planning by the entire school community. Faculty
members add new courses and also eliminate or redefine others. Department heads, the administration, the director of curriculum and your
teachers all consider programmatic changes carefully, with the best interest of students in mind. I encourage you to peruse the information
carefully and then to request additional information and clarification from teachers, counselors, and departmental leaders.

You should have a schedule with 30 credits. The Program of Study includes the credits for each course. Your guidance counselor will have mor
information on how to design your schedule in terms of courses and alternatives in meeting our distribution and graduation requirements and th
Commonwealth’s time on learning requirement.

In addition to the course selections, our school offers a wide range of co-curricular activities including competitive team sports, performing art
groups, student government and many special interest clubs. I encourage you to participate in these important activities, as they will provide yo
with different perspectives, challenges, and opportunities to meet other students.

Please remember that the scheduling process does not always produce the desired end result. You may encounter situations where courses ar
cancelled due to low enrollments or conflicts developed during the scheduling process that require you to make other choices. We will do our bes
to develop a a schedule to honor your requests and one that has the fewest number of conflicts possible. It is our goal to have your schedul
completed for you prior to leaving for summer break. If achieved that would provide you the opportunity to make changes to your schedule befor
leaving, and virtually eliminate changes over the summer and when we return in the fall.

It is our goal for students to consider selecting the most personally challenging and rewarding academic program possible. We encourage
students to carefully consider the various courses offered, as well as the different levels within the same course, and to ask questions when
uncertain. Students should consider obligations outside of school and balance their course selections with this information in mind. We
look forward to working together as you plan your future.

Sincerely,

John J. Buckey




                                                              2
                          LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL
                                       Alone We Achieve…Together We Succeed


                                           Mission Statement
The closely-knit community of Littleton High School is dedicated to maximizing the intellectual, social, physical, and
emotional growth of all its students. In our pursuit of educational excellence, we maintain a safe environment where all
students feel valued, respect themselves, develop a caring and compassionate attitude, use their minds effectively in
learning and decision-making, and understand and appreciate the diversity and interdependence of all people. We believe
that, provided the opportunity, every student, with effort, can and will meet high standards of achievement. To that end,
students, teachers, administrators, support personnel, parents, and the community work in partnership to help students to
become life-long learners and self-reliant, responsible, productive citizens in a constantly changing world.




                                Expectations for Student Learning
ACADEMIC EXPECTATIONS

      READ FOR COMPREHENSION & UNDERSTANDING

      WRITE EFFECTIVELY

      COMMUNICATE CLEARLY

      PROBLEM SOLVE CREATIVELY


CIVIC EXPECTATION

      COMMUNITY SERVICE LEARNING


SOCIAL EXPECTATION

      CO-CURRICULAR PARTICIPATION




COURSE SELECTION
                                                    3
All students, in all grades, are to be scheduled in six classes per semester. Requests for an exception will be examined
on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration what the student’s parent, counselor and building principal believe is in the
student’s best educational interest.

A college preparatory curriculum consists of a MINIMUM OF FOUR ACADEMIC courses (English, mathematics, social
studies, science, foreign language) each of the four high school years. The more selective the college one has in mind, the
more rigorous the academic load should be, both in course difficulty and in number of classes taken.

High school students have a range of choices in their course work, subject to the graduation credit and distribution
requirements. To keep many options for further education and career choices open, students are encouraged to take the most
appropriately challenging program possible. Experience indicates that most students make career choices after their high
school years; therefore, the school encourages students to select courses from a wide range of disciplines.

In choosing their programs, students should work closely with their guidance counselors, parents, and teachers. Parents who
have questions about program and course selections are urged to call the Guidance Department to schedule a conference.
Every effort will be made by school personnel to see that program requirements are met, but the final responsibility for
meeting these requirements for promotion and graduation rests with the student and his/her parent(s) or guardian(s).

Once the school opens in the fall, it is expected that each student will continue with the schedule that has been developed
during the course selection process. Any minor adjustments must take place during the first two weeks of school, via
communication with the guidance counselors. A good education depends on a full 90 day (semester) or 180 day (full year)
presence in a class. Course changes requested after the two week add/drop period are strongly discouraged. Guidance
Counselor, Department Head, Teacher and possibly Assistant Principal input will be required to affect such a change.
Littleton High School does not accept course change based on personal incompatibility between a student and teacher.

Any student who withdraws from a course after first quarter will receive a grade of withdraw pass/WP or withdraw
failing/WF. If a senior drops or withdraws from a class after transcripts have been sent out to colleges, Littleton High School
will notify all colleges of the change in the student’s schedule.


COURSE LOAD
All students are required to select and maintain enrollment in a minimum of six, 5-credit courses or their equivalent, and carry
a minimum of 30 credits. Any exception to this minimum requirement must be approved by the principal. Students must
carry a full course load to be eligible to participate in co-curricular activities such as: athletics, drama, student government, or
any team, club or squad. Seniors are required to carry 30 credits in their senior year, regardless of the credits earned in
previous years. The high school principal may grant an exemption after consultation with the student and the student’s
guidance counselor.

Beginning with the 9th grade, progress toward graduation depends upon the accumulation of credits. One hundred (110)
credits are required for graduation. Students' programs are checked to make certain that each student will have adequate
credits to progress with his/her class. Although every effort is made to ensure the students have adequate credits, meeting
requirements is the responsibility of each student and his/her parent(s) or guardian(s). Students should know their credit total
to date and be certain that they have sufficient credits for promotion as well as appropriate courses in the distribution
requirements.




COURSE CHANGES
    1. Course changes should be completed within the first two weeks of a course.

                                                         4
   2. Courses dropped after the first two weeks will appear on the transcript as either ―W‖ (withdrawal) or ―WF‖
      (withdrawal while failing).
   3. Academic credit will be awarded when the student transfers to a different level of the same course.
   4. Exceptions to these procedures may be made at the discretion of the principal.


GRADUATING FROM LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL
               1. Graduation from LITTLETON HIGH SCHOOL implies that students have satisfactorily completed an
               approved course of study and that they have passed The Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System
               (MCAS) and/or other requirements established by the school district.
               2. One hundred (110) credits, with specific departmental requirements, are needed to receive a diploma
               from Littleton High School.
               3. Only approved courses will be accepted for graduation. Course work taken anywhere but at Littleton
               High School must be approved in advance to avoid loss of credit through misunderstanding. Approval must
               be granted by the principal.
               4. Students who are away for a term or year to participate in a student exchange program or otherwise study
               abroad may receive credit towards graduation when: 1)study plans are approved by the principal in advance;
               and 2) the institution where the study occurred submits a record of the student’s work. In these instances, the
               principal and the student’s guidance counselor will evaluate the work and assign credit for it according the
               standards prevailing at Littleton High School.
               5. Prior credit earned from accredited schools is transferable, with the following exceptions: doctrinal
               religion courses; driver's education; service activities such as teacher, office, or library assistant.
               6. Students enrolling in summer school for make-up credit must have prior written approval from a Littleton
               High School counselor. Students may enroll in a maximum of two courses per summer in an accredited
               summer school program.

               7. A student may repeat a course that s/he has taken and passed, but it will not be for credit. Although both
               grades will be recorded, only the higher grade will be used in computing the G.P.A. (grade point average).

               8. The high school Guidance Department will provide information and counseling for all students to enable
               them to develop a schedule of courses that will meet requirements for colleges, vocational schools, or any
               post-high school program selected by the student and his/her parents.



                                              Promotion Requirements:
                                     For entrance to:      Grade 10       27.5 credits
                                                           Grade 11         55 credits

                                                           Grade 12       82.5 credits

                                     For graduation:                       110 credits

DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENTS
We establish minimum course requirements in seven different areas. These courses form a central curriculum that all students
must pursue in order to graduate from Littleton High School.

Working closely with their child and their child's guidance counselor, families are encouraged to develop a tentative
four-year program which will meet these requirements, challenge the student, and accommodate his or her particular interests.
This program should be reviewed each spring prior to preliminary registration for the following year, in order to determine if
it is still appropriate.
                                                       5
Subject                 Littleton High     Required by             Recommended by         Recommended by most
                        School             Massachusetts State     most 4-year            selective colleges*
                        Graduation         colleges and            colleges
                        Requirements       universities
                        20 credits         20 credits              20 credits             20 credits -honors level
English                                                                                   classes
                        15 credits         15 credits through      15 credits             20 credits including
Mathematics             through            Algebra II              through                Trigonometry and
                        Algebra II                                 Algebra II.            Analytical Geometry
                        15 credits to      15 credits to include   15 credits to          20 credits to include US
Social Sciences         include 2 yrs      US History              include US History     History, World History
                        of US History                                                     and Economics
                        15 credits         15 credits with lab     15-20 credits          15-20 credits including
Science                 with lab                                   including biology      biology and chemistry or
                                                                   and chemistry or       physics
                                                                   physics
                        10 credits in      10 credits in the       10-15 credits in the   15 credits in the same
Foreign Language        the same           same language           same language          language
                        language
Wellness/Health         7.5 credits

Fine/Practical          5 credits                                  Fine or performing     Fine or performing arts
Arts/New Media                                                     arts
Electives               22.5 credits       10 credits              Electives that         Electives that enrich your
                                                                   enrich your            academic program
                                                                   academic program
                                                                                                                       Recomm
endations are based on the minimum requirements for college admission.

*Students seeking admissions to highly competitive institutions should consider as many honors level and Advanced
Placement (AP) classes as possible, complete 4 years of the same foreign language, pursue calculus and advanced levels of
course work in science.


COMMUNITY SERVICE
LHS Community Service Learning: Beginning with the class of 2012, fifty (50) hours of service over four years needs to be
completed prior to May 1st of the year of graduation. The classes of 2011, 2010, and 2009 will be required to complete
thirty-six (36) hours.


COURSE CANCELLATION
Courses with insufficient enrollment are subject to cancellation at the discretion of the administration. The administration also
reserves the right to limit course and section size, thus deferring some students’ requests.




LEVELS OF INSTRUCTION
Advanced Placement (AP) — These exacting courses follow an Advanced Placement curriculum that prepares the student
      to take the AP exam. These courses are suitable for the intellectually mature student who is ready to engage in
      intensive college-level work. Colleges may grant credit and/or advanced placement to those students who perform
      satisfactorily on the exam(s).

                                                         6
Honors (H)—These rigorous courses provide accelerated instruction and enrichment experiences for those students who
      exhibit both exceptional ability and motivation in a particular subject area.

College Preparatory (CP)—These challenging courses provide students with the instruction and experience(s) he/she will
       need to successfully manage the challenges of a four-year college.

GRADE POINT AVERAGE
Beginning in the 2008-2009 academic year, all grade point averages are a simple, unweighted average based upon a four-point
scale. Littleton High School does not use grade point averages to calculate class rank. Reports on the school profile and on
students' transcripts may include information on grade and GPA distribution within the class.
                                              Grade        Grade Point
                                              A+              4.30
                                              A               4.00
                                              A-              3.67
                                              B+              3.33
                                              B               3.00
                                              B-              2.67
                                              C+              2.33
                                              C               2.00
                                              C-              1.67
                                              D+              1.33
                                              D               1.00
                                              D-              0.67
                                              F                 0


Grade point average is calculated at the end of grades 10 and 11. GPA is calculated for Seniors at the end of Semester I and
again at the end of Semester II.

DUAL ENROLLMENT PROGRAM
The Education Reform Act of 1993 gave authorization for the Dual Enrollment Program to be developed. Qualified
public high school students, (who have a minimum GPA of 3.0), can earn both high school and college credit through this
program by taking courses at Massachusetts State Universities, Colleges, and Community Colleges. These are courses
that are part of the regular credit-earning program of a college or university, and which are taken with the prior written
approval of the Principal for dual credit.
1. Students are eligible for university credit through the Dual Enrollment Program.
2. Students must be juniors or seniors.
3. All students requesting Dual Enrollment courses must have a valid reason for seeking dual enrollment. (The course is
not available at LHS and is relevant to post graduation plans.) Election of a course must be considered to be in the best
interest of the student.
4. Student’s discipline record may be considered in determining eligibility for the Dual Enrollment Program.
5. Students must have no more than four (4) unexcused absences in each class during the semester in which they apply for
the Dual Enrollment Program.
6. Class times are dictated by the college’s schedule.
7. No grades are assigned for first or third marking periods. This may impact rank in class.
8. A final grade is awarded at the completion of each course. This will coincide with second and fourth marking periods.
9. All students wishing to enroll due so at their own expense and must have each course approved in writing by the
Principal before enrollment.
10. The Principal has final approval on all requests for the Dual Enrollment Program.


REPORTING PROGESS
                                                      7
Report cards are issued four times during the school year.


   A+      97-99       B+     87-89      C+      77-79       D+    67-69        F    Below 59      P         Pass

    A      93-96       B      83-86       C      73-76       D     63-66       W     Withdraw     M        Medical

   A-      90-92       B-     80-82       C-     70-72       D-    60-62      AUD     Audit        I      Incomplete



ACADEMIC RECOGNITION
Principal’s List and Honor Roll recognition will be determined by ―letter grades‖.

Principal’s List:
Grades of A in all subjects

Honor Roll
Grades of A or B in all subjects



SUMMER SCHOOL CREDIT
Students must earn a minimum grade of 50% in the academic year course in order to participate in summer school.
To earn credit for the summer school course, students must earn a grade of at least 80% (B-). While summer school courses
may appear on the transcript, credit for a summer school course where a student received below an 80% will not be granted.




                                                       8
NATIONAL HONOR SOCIETY
   National Honor Society is a prestigious organization, ranking high among administrators, faculty members, students,
   parents, and residents of the school community. Its reputation for excellence is the result of years of commitment on
   the part of everyone involved. National Honor Society membership is often regarded as a valid indicator that the
   student will succeed in life and particularly in studying as the post-secondary education level. The Honor Society
   member has already exhibited academic achievement, leadership, honorable and admirable character, as well as
   service demonstrating that the member is willing to use talents and skills for the improvement of society. Through
   NHS chapter service activities, members maintain and extend the qualities that won them selection. Membership is
   thus both an honor and a commitment.

Leadership: A student who demonstrates leadership contributes ideas that improve the civic life of the school,
      exemplifies a positive attitude, and is able to delegate responsibilities and motivate others.

      Exercises positive influence on peers in upholding school ideals
      Inspires positive behavior in others
      Successfully holds school offices or positions of responsibility
      Is a leader in the classroom, at work, and in other school or community activities

Service: Service is generally considered to be those actions undertaken by the student which are done with or on behalf of
       others without any direct financial or material compensation to the individual performing the service.

      Volunteers and provides dependable and well organized assistance, is gladly available, and is willing to sacrifice
       to offer assistance
      Cheerfully and enthusiastically renders any requested service to the school
      Participates in some community service, for either a public or charitable organization. For example, volunteer
       services for the elderly, poor, or disadvantaged, or service activities through Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts or church
       groups

Candidates for National Honor Society must have completed the community service graduation
requirement prior to their application

Character: A person of character demonstrates the following six qualities: respect, responsibility, trustworthiness,
fairness, caring, and citizenship.

      Upholds principles of morality and ethics
      Demonstrates the highest standards of honest and reliability
      Regularly shows courtesy, concern, and respect for others
      Actively helps rid the school of bad influences or environment




                                                      9
LHS GUIDANCE PHILOSOPHY
The Littleton High School guidance program is a comprehensive, student-centered guidance program aimed at assisting
all students in achieving academic success. The guidance program is developmental, sequential, and focused on
attainment of specified student outcomes. As an integral part of the overall educational process, the program emphasizes
the concept of total growth and development.
The guidance curriculum is founded on the changing needs of the individual, family, school and community. The
Guidance and Counseling Program will be responsible for assisting all students in developing competencies needed for
educational, personal and vocational development. These competencies include processing information, communication
skills, use of technology, problem solving and teamwork. Guidance services are aligned to these competencies and are
delivered through a curriculum designed to meet the specific needs of high school students.
Littleton High School has selected Family Connection from Naviance to support our mission to provide an exemplary
guidance curriculum that enables our students and parents to be active participants in college and career planning.
Naviance Family Connection offers a comprehensive website that you and your student can use to help in making
decisions about colleges and careers. Naviance Family Connection is linked with Naviance Counselor’s Office, which we
use in our department to track and analyze data about college and career plans. Students and parents may access Naviance
at http://tcci.naviance.com/littletonhs or via the homepage of the LHS website. The guest password is lhs. Individual
student access codes may be obtained from a student’s counselor.
Guidance Seminar 11 – Building your Foundation                                                  1 Credit
       This one-term course is designed to introduce juniors to post-secondary planning and the college admissions
       process. Students will become skilled in the Naviance College and Career Management System, College
       Admissions Testing, Resume Building, Recommendations, Scholarships and other information relevant to post-
       secondary planning. By the end of the course, students will have participated in each step of the college application
       process and will have developed a list of viable post-secondary options to explore during the summer and fall prior
       to the Senior year. Classes will meet three times per week. The other two days will be directed study hall.

Guidance Seminar 12 – Stepping Into the Future                                                  1 Credit

       This one-term course will help you determine your final post-secondary plans. In this seminar, students will
       finalize their list of colleges and complete the application process. A major component of applying to college is
       making sure that the various sections of the application (which are mailed separately) all arrive at the college on
       time. This is a complex process, which we will help you coordinate throughout the year. Special attention will be
       given to the Common Application and online applications. The course will meet one day per week and the
       remaining four days will be a directed study hall.




ENGLISH
Philosophy
                                                     10
The ELA curriculum provides instruction in the areas of reading, writing, critical thinking, and oral communication in
alignment with the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks. The ELA department supports these core goals by focusing on the
following mutually supporting practices:

       drilling fundamentals of literacy: direct instruction in grammar, vocabulary, rhetorical concepts, literary concepts;
       developing and nuancing rhetorical skills: direct instruction and repeated practice in the disciplines of brainstorming,
        drafting and revision for various writing situations (exam writing, formal critical analysis, oral reports, writing in the
        workplace, creative writing);
       developing and nuancing reading and interpretive skills: posing critical and comparative questions to model and
        develop comprehension and close analysis of both classic and contemporary cultural texts and cultural issues; direct
        instruction in research skills required to access and document authoritative information that speaks to critical questions.

We mean for all Littleton High School graduates, upon completion of the ELA curriculum, to have developed appreciation for
and demonstrated achievement in the power and pleasure of articulacy, supported by sound interpretive and communication
skills that will be crucial to their becoming skilled, thoughtful, and engaged participants in a democratic society and
marketplace.

All ELA students will be exposed to a wide variety of literary and non-literary writing genres. Those students who elect to take
ELA Honors courses will receive more comprehensive grounding in the historical development and landmark texts of Western
literary culture than will students in ELA College Preparatory courses. ELA Honors courses are designed for students who do
not merely appreciate, but actively love literature, read avidly and well on their own, and strive not just for competence, but
marked expertise in writing. Honors and AP courses will be distinguished from College Preparatory courses by higher
expectations in vocabulary development, reading load, writing load, analytical skills, writing elegance, and dedication to
pursuing work independently.


English I (College Prep) #194                                                              5 credits

        This course will continue to drill and develop fundamentals of literacy introduced at the middle school level: basic
        grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, basic rhetorical and literary concepts. Particular emphasis will be placed on
        beginning to understand grammar rhetorically, on how specific grammatical choices enable writers to manipulate
        emphasis and meaning. Students will be directed to experiment with combining and modifying sentences so as to
        emphasize particular ideas. By the end of the year, students should have a clear grasp of the function of a thesis in
        analytical arguments, of how to support a thesis with evidence, of how to analyze that evidence, and of how to
        present quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will learn important distinctions between key
        rhetorical modes: narrating, summarizing, explaining, analyzing, reflecting, arguing. Students will be continually
        pressed to write clearer, more specific, more complicated, and more comprehensive paragraphs than they did in
        middle school. The course will provide students with an introduction to basic literary genres and to thinking about
        genre. Students will be exposed to samples of the following genres: non-fiction essays/arguments, short stories,
        short lyric poems, epic poetry, one or two plays, all or selections of two novels (depending on length). Students
        will demonstrate their knowledge of the meaning and usage of real-life vocabulary. Some, but not all, reading and
        writing for this course will occur during class hours. 8-10 pages of formal, typed written assignments per semester.


English I (Honors) #195                                                                    5 credits

        This course will rapidly review and test fundamentals of literacy introduced at the middle school level: basic
        grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, rhetorical concepts, literary concepts. Particular emphasis will be placed on
        understanding and using grammar rhetorically, on recognizing and how specific grammatical choices enable
        writers to manipulate emphasis and meaning. Students will be directed to experiment with combining and
        modifying sentences so as to emphasize particular ideas. By the end of the year, students should have a clear grasp
        of the function of a thesis in analytical arguments, of how to support a thesis with evidence, of how to analyze that
        evidence, and of how to present quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will learn important
        distinctions between key rhetorical modes: narrating, summarizing, explaining, analyzing, reflecting, arguing.
        Students will be continually pressed to write clearer, more specific, more complicated, and more comprehensive
                                                       11
       paragraphs than they did in middle school, and to assemble and link a series of paragraphs into a polished,
       sustained essay. The course will provide students with an introduction to basic literary genres and to thinking
       about genre. Students will be exposed to samples of most or all of the following genres: short lyric poems, an
       ancient play or epic, a Shakespearean play, a modern play, two novels (one classic, one contemporary), non-fiction
       essays/arguments, a film. Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the meaning and usage of real-life
       vocabulary. Most reading, drafting, and final revision of papers for this course will be assigned as homework.
       Class time will be largely dedicated to discussion and intermediate revision. 12-14 pages of formal, typed writing
       assignments per semester.

English II (College Prep) #104                                                         5 credits

       This course will briefly review, test, and extend core literacy skills covered and in English I CP: intermediate
       grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, intermediate rhetorical and literary concepts. Emphasis on a rhetorical
       understanding and use of grammar will continue, reinforced mostly through careful editing of student writing and
       additional exercises modeled on MCAS and SAT formats. Students will continue to work on developing and
       nuancing meaningful theses for analytical arguments, supporting their theses with relevant, well-selected and well-
       analyzed evidence, presenting quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will review and extend their
       understanding of key rhetorical modes (including exemplify, survey, report, satirize, synthesize, discuss,
       dramatize, represent). Students will be directed to attend to writing style and precision: apt word choice, variety in
       length and complexity of sentences, control of point of view. Students will be coached in assembling and linking a
       series of paragraphs into a polished, sustained essay, particularly the five-paragraph essay form required on the
       MCAS and SAT exams. Students will receive training in essay exam writing and reading practices tested on the
       MCAS and SAT exams. The course will provide students with a sampling of iconic texts of American literary
       history and of non-fictional texts addressing contemporary cultural issues and debates (digital culture, student life,
       consumer culture, sexism, racism, substance abuse, etc.). Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the
       meaning and usage of real-life vocabulary. Some, but not all, reading and writing for this course will occur during
       class hours. 8-12 pages of formal, typed writing assignments per semester.

English II (Honors) #105                                                               5 credits

       This course will test and extend core literacy skills covered and in English I Honors: intermediate grammar,
       punctuation, vocabulary, intermediate rhetorical and literary concepts. Emphasis on a rhetorical understanding
       and use of grammar will continue, reinforced mostly through careful editing of student writing and additional
       exercises modeled on MCAS and SAT formats. Students will continue to work on developing and nuancing
       meaningful theses for analytical arguments, supporting their theses with relevant, well-selected and well-analyzed
       evidence, presenting quoted evidence effectively and accurately. Students will review and extend their
       understanding of key rhetorical modes (including exemplify, survey, report, satirize, synthesize, discuss,
       dramatize, represent). Students will be directed to attend to writing style and precision: apt word choice, variety in
       length and complexity of sentences, control of point of view, control of verb tense/voice, control and variation of
       focus. Students will be coached in developing the sophistication of their essays (including of course the five-
       paragraph essay form required on the MCAS and SAT exams), but also in thinking carefully about managing
       transitions and contrasts that exceed MCAS-level expectations. Students will receive training in essay exam
       writing and reading practices tested on the MCAS and SAT exams. The course will provide students with cultural
       background for and significant grounding in iconic texts of American literary history (covering the ―theme‖ and
       ―character development‖ motifs emphasized on the MCAS, but also addressing form and controversy at a more
       sophisticated level). Authors will likely include Bradstreet, Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Poe, Whitman,
       Dickinson, Twain, Cather, James, Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Miller, among others. Students will be exposed to
       secondary critics articulating diverging views on one or more of these primary authors and will summarize and
       assess these critics’ varying viewpoints. Students will demonstrate their knowledge of the meaning and usage of
       real-life vocabulary. Some, but not all, reading and writing for this course will occur during class hours. Most
       reading, drafting, and final revision of papers for this course will be assigned as homework. Class time will be
       largely dedicated to discussion and intermediate revision. 12-14 pages of formal, typed writing per semester.



                                                     12
With a few exceptions, the following elective options may be enrolled in by both juniors and seniors. All of the courses can
earn students credit towards their ELA graduation requirement. When selecting from these offerings, please bear in mind that
since ALL students are required to take English during EVERY semester of their high school education, “electives” in
English do not work the same way as electives in other disciplines. Be aware of the following constraints and expectations
when making your selections:

      Most are single semester courses; some run a full year.
      When enrolling for semester courses, bear in mind that you must be enrolled in an English course during each of the
       four semesters that comprise your junior and senior years. You may not ―skip‖ English during any single semester.
       Likewise, you may NOT be enrolled in two English courses during a single semester.
      Approximately two thirds of these electives are offered at a College Prep level; one third of these electives are offered
       at either an Honors or an AP level.
      Students in CP classes should expect up to 80 pages of reading per week, up to 40 vocabulary words per term, and 8-12
       typed pages of formal writing per semester.
      Students in Honors classes should expect up to 150 pages of reading per week (rare, but possible), up to 60 vocabulary
       words per term, and 14-20 typed pages of formal writing per semester.
      In most cases, seniors will have first priority in selecting among available courses.
      No course may be taken more than once.
      Under-enrolled courses (fewer than 15 students) may be cancelled after the enrollment period. Students in under-
       enrolled courses who need ELA credit will be assigned to another course.

AP English Language: Juniors and Seniors                                                5 credits

       A full-year course offered to juniors and seniors, AP Language is a college freshman level rhetoric and critical
       thinking course. The reading theme for this course will be ―Greatest Hits from the History of Ideas and
       Arguments.‖ We will read entire texts or excerpts from Plato, The Bible, St. Augustine, the Gawain poet,
       Machiavelli, Voltaire, Montaigne, More, Hobbes, Paine, Wollstonecraft, Bentham, Carlyle, Marx, Arnold, Eliot,
       Woolf, Arendt, Foucault, Eagleton, Baudrillard and/or others. Emphasis will be placed on detecting, synthesing,
       analyzing, and developing arguments while developing close-reading skills. The course will include exposure to
       college-level library skills and academic documentation (including mandatory work at the UMass Lowell library
       to develop an annotated bibliography on an independent research topic). Three formal critical writing assignments
       per term. Two in-class exam-writing assignments per term. Brief (under three week) intensive exam preparation
       session during the third term. Students will be held accountable for rhetorical and theoretical terms and concepts
       related to the class, as well as for college-level general reading vocabulary. This class prepares students to take the
       AP Language Exam.

AP Literature and Composition: SENIORS ONLY                                              5 credits

       A full-year course offered only to seniors who have previously taken AP Language and Composition, AP
       Literature and Composition is a college freshman level literature and composition course. The reading theme for
       this course will be ―Survey of English Literature.‖ Readings will include samples of the English essay tradition
       (partly to prepare/inspire students’ work on college essays), an extensive unit on traditional English poetry and
       prosody, a Shakespeare play, 4-6 English novels (likely Jane Austen, Mary Shelley, Charles Dickens, E. M.
       Forster, James Joyce, Joseph Conrad, Virginia Woolf), an extensive unit on Victorian and modern
       English/American poetry and prosody, and several secondary critical readings. Students will acquire terminology
                                                      13
       and analytical skills to closely examine and interpret structure, style, theme, context, and figurative language
       informing iconic literary texts from various genres and periods. Three formal critical writing assignments per term.
       Two in-class exam-writing assignments per term. Brief (under three week) intensive exam preparation session
       during the third term. This class prepares students to take the AP Literature Exam.

The Novel: Part I and Part II (College Prep)                                  Part I:    2.5 credits
                                                                                        Part II: 2.5 credits

       You may enroll in either one or both parts of this two-semester sequence (including taking only the second part of
       the sequence). Three to four novels per semester. In Part I expect at least two novels from before the twentieth
       century. Students should expect to write formal critical essays on all of the novels (up to 4 pages long), and will be
       held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in them. Students will research and write a critical and
       oral report on one novelist whose work they research independently. At least 70% of the reading and writing for
       this class will be done at home, then discussed and reviewed in class.

The Novel: Part I and Part II (Honors)                                                  Part I: 2.5 credits
                                                                                        Part II: 2.5 credits

       You may enroll in either one or both parts of this two-semester sequence (including taking only the second part of
       the sequence). Four to six novels per semester. In Part I expect at least three novels from before the twentieth
       century. Students should expect to write formal critical essays on all of the novels (up to 6 pages long), and will be
       held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in them. Students will work with assigned secondary
       sources on at least two occasions, and will also research and write a critical and oral report on one novelist whose
       work they research independently. At least 90% of the reading and writing for this class will be done at home, then
       discussed and reviewed in class.

The Stage on the Page (College Prep)                                                    2.5 credits

       This one-semester course surveys five to six plays, including at least one ancient Greek play and one
       Shakespearean play. Students should expect to write formal critical essays on all of the plays (up to 4 pages
       long—some may be comparisons of two plays at once), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary
       encountered in them. Students should expect to be called upon regularly to deliver passages dramatically and with
       understanding. Students will research and write a critical and oral report on one playwright whose work they
       research independently. The class will view and critique at least one live performance. At least 70% of the reading
       and writing for this class will be done at home, then discussed and reviewed in class.



Literature and Film (College Prep)                                                      2.5 credits

       This one-semester course will examine literary texts paired with filmed adaptations. 6-8 Pairings. Pairings may
       include The Bible and DeMille’s 10 Commandments, Homer’s Odyssey and the Coen brothers’ Oh Brother
       Where Art Thou?, Chretien de Troyes’ medieval romances and The Holy Grail, T.S.Eliot’s The Waste Land and
       Terry Gilliam’s The Fisher King, Hamlet in various versions, E.M. Forster and Merchant-Ivory’s versions of
       Howard’s End, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now, Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and Michael
       Cunningham’s The Hours, Nick Hornby’s High Fidelity. What happens to a literary work when it moves from
       page to screen? What can be enhanced? What lost? How does the role of the reader/viewer change in relation to
       either kind of text when one shifts between mediums? How do significant gaps in time between the production of
       the literary and the film text affect our experiences of either? How does the casting of film ―stars‖ affect our
       understanding of literary characters as they are represented in movies? Students should expect to write formal
       critical essays on at least four of the pairings (up to 4 pages long), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar
       vocabulary encountered in them. Students will research and write a critical and oral report on one novel and/or
       film pairing that they research independently.
*NOTE: 70% of required screenings will take place outside of class.


                                                     14
Literature and Film (Honors)                                                          2.5 credits

       This one-semester course will examine literary texts paired with filmed adaptations. 8-10 Pairings. Pairings may
       include The Bible and DeMille’s 10 Commandments, Homer’s Odyssey and the Coen brothers’ Oh Brother
       Where Art Thou?, Chretien de Troyes’ medieval romances and The Holy Grail, T.S.Eliot’s The Waste Land and
       Terry Gilliam’s The Fisher King, Hamlet in various versions, E.M. Forster and Merchant-Ivory’s versions of
       Howard’s End, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now, Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and Michael
       Cunningham’s The Hours, Nick Hornby’s High Fidelity. What happens to a literary work when it moves from
       page to screen? What can be enhanced? What lost? How does the role of the reader/viewer change in relation to
       either kind of text when one shifts between mediums? How do significant gaps in time between the production of
       the literary and the film text affect our experiences of either? How does the casting of film ―stars‖ affect our
       understanding of literary characters as they are represented in movies? Students should expect to write formal
       critical essays on at least four of the pairings (up to 4 pages long), and will be held accountable for unfamiliar
       vocabulary encountered in them. Students will research and write a critical and oral report on one novel and/or
       film pairing that they research independently.
*NOTE: 70% of required screenings will take place outside of class.

Creative Writing (College Prep)                                                               2.5 credits

       This semester course allows students to try their hand in writing creatively in various literary genres, including one
       mandatory submission in verse, and another in fiction. While creative writing assignments will be significantly
       self-directed, this class will include traditional academic assignments in reading, grammar, vocabulary, and
       critical writing. The class will work as a peer jury to provide feedback on one another’s work and as an editorial
       board for a school-wide literary magazine.

Creative Writing (Honors)                                                             2.5 credits

       This one-semester course allows students to try their hand in writing creatively in various literary genres,
       including one mandatory submission in verse, and another in fiction. While creative writing assignments will be
       significantly self-directed, this class will include traditional academic assignments in reading, grammar,
       vocabulary, and critical writing. The class will work as a peer jury to provide feedback on one another’s work and
       as an editorial board for a school-wide literary magazine.

*No student may take Creative Writing more than once at either the College Prep or the Honors level.


Shakespeare’s Villains (Honors)                                                       2.5 credits

       This one-semester course will investigate the villainous characters of four Shakespearean plays. We will look at
       the havoc that these scoundrels, cheats, and miscreants create, and investigate patterns both within and between the
       texts we read. Titles are likely to include, but are not limited to: Macbeth, Richard III, Hamlet, and Titus
       Andronicus. Students will need to contribute meaningfully to class discussions, write engaging and sophisticated
       academic papers, and take part in casual scene re-enactments.


Literary Non-Fiction/New Journalism (College Prep)                                     2.5 credits

       In this one-semester course, students will examine, analyze and write non-fiction essays and journalism written to
       endure as works of literature. We will sample some classic examples of the English and American essay, including
       works by Addison and Steele, Charles Lamb, Henry David Thoreau, Robert Louis Stevenson, Max Beerbohm,
       G.K.Chesterton, Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, E.B. White, James Thurber, Joan Didion, Nicholson Baker, and
       others. How and why does the essay emerge as a genre and what purposes does it serve? What makes for an
       effective essay? How can we articulate the defining marks of a writer’s style? What can creative non-fiction
       accomplish that other literary genres can not? Students should expect to write formal critical essays on at least four
       essays or pairs of essays (up to four pages long), and to write at least two original samples of literary non-fiction
                                                     15
       (up to four pages long). Students will be held accountable for unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in the essays.
       Students in this course may serve as an editorial board for a campus magazine.


The Short Story (College Prep)                                                                   2.5 Credits

       In this one-semester course students will examine, analyze and write short stories. We will sample some classic
       examples of the European and American short story, including works by Maupassant, Tolstoy, Chekov, Henry
       James, Rudyard Kipling, Henry James, Katherine Mansfield, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Flannery
       O’Connor, Eudora Welty, and others. How and why does the short story emerge as a genre and what purposes
       does it serve? What makes for an effective short story? How can we articulate the defining marks of a writer’s
       style? What can a short story accomplish that other literary genres—especially the novel--cannot? Students should
       expect to write formal critical essays on at least four stories or pairs of stories (up to four pages long), and to write
       at least two original samples of short stories (up to four pages long). Students will be held accountable for
       unfamiliar vocabulary encountered in the essays.

Writing in and about the Workplace (College Prep)                               2.5 Credits

       In this one-semester course students will practice the basics of workplace writing: letters of application, resumes,
       memos, power-point presentations, reports, career research. They will also as read and respond critically to writing
       about the workplace (both fiction and non-fiction). Students will assemble mock application/presentation/research
       packages for two hypothetical workplace settings. Students should also expect to write formal critical essays on at
       least three readings. Readings/selections about the workplace may include or be excerpted from Friedrich Engels’
       The Condition of the Working Class, Natalie Schor’s The Overworked American, Joel Bakan’s The Corporation,
       Tony Jeary’s Life is a Series of Presentations, Thomas Friedman’s The World is Flat, Paul Hawken’s The
       Ecology of Commerce, The Essays of Warren Buffet, Spector and McCarthy’s The Nordstrom Way and/or others.
       How do aspiring professionals research jobs or careers and put themselves on the job market? What
       communication and writing skills will I need to acquire and keep a job? How has the world of work evolved over
       the last century? What is the world of work likely to look like when I enter the workplace? What kinds of
       competing views exist about the nature and function of work? Students will be held accountable for unfamiliar
       vocabulary encountered in the essays.

Considering Youth Culture (College Prep)                                                 2.5 credits

       In this course we will look at popular cultural texts and phenomena either marketed to or produced by persons
       under thirty, as well as critical secondary readings weighing the implications of these texts and phenomena.
       Primary texts under consideration to include video games, films, television shows, internet media, popular music,
       YA fiction, commercials/fashion. Students will be required to design and teach at least two of the ―units‖ featured
       over the course of the semester. Expect secondary readings about youth culture to be lengthy and rigorous.

*Students enrolling in this course will be asked to pay a $30 materials fee to cover the cost of new, consumable books,
which they will keep upon completion of the course.




                                                      16
SOCIAL STUDIES
Philosophy
The world of students includes local and personal relationships such as their families, their community, and their
memberships in various organizations. The social studies are more than the study of history; they are the study of human
interaction and the whole experience of being human. Through study of United States history, students will gain an
understanding of the unique characteristics of American society, the historical development of its social structure, its
economic system, and its political organization. A crucial emphasis of instruction in the social studies is the historical
development of world cultures, which provides students with the understanding and skills necessary to interpret their
world and act effectively as informed and responsible citizens.

In this age of globalization, students should recognize the relevance of events, whether they happened recently or hundreds
of years ago, locally or thousands of miles away. Students should recognize how and why other cultures and their
experiences are important to our society.

As students begin their development into effective and responsible adults, their success will be determined largely by their
abilities to read critically, analyze information including primary and secondary sources of all types, and form original
conclusions. Achievement in these skills for all students is a primary focus of the Social Studies Department.

World History II – Grade 9 (Honors) #295                                                            5 Credits
      This course focuses on the political, social, and economic history of the world beginning with the French Revolution.
      The course will investigate the development of free institutions, the struggles of the working people, and imperialism
      worldwide. Key areas of focus for the 20th century include the two world wars, the superpower era, and the
      contemporary world. Students gain an understanding of each key area of study through the use of music, art,
      literature, maps, primary sources, simulations, and statistics. Throughout the year, students will be engaged in
      analyzing social, political and economic problems. It is expected that students will demonstrate advanced analytical,
      writing, reading, speaking and studying skills.

World History II – Grade 9 (College Prep) #294                                                     5 Credits
      This course focuses on the political, social, and economic history of the world beginning with the French Revolution.
      The course will investigate the development of free institutions in, the struggles of the working people, and
      imperialism worldwide. Key areas of focus for the 20th century include the two world wars, the superpower era, and
      the contemporary world. Students gain an understanding of each key area of study through the use of music, art,
      literature, maps, primary sources, simulations, and statistics. Throughout the year, students will be engaged in
      analyzing social, political and economic problems. Emphasis is placed on writing, reading, listening, speaking, and
      study skills.

United States History I (Honors) #205                                                                   5 Credits
       This course will trace the early developments of the United States, from the political, economic, and social factors
       which led to the American Revolution through reconstruction following the Civil War. Emphasis will be placed on
       the Constitution as a living framework for the growth of American democracy and its republican government. The
       course will further explore the pressures put on that government through the period of westward expansion, changing
       foreign policies, and sectionalism. Students will be required to read primary and secondary sources, to respond to
       document based questions, and to engage in essay writing to enhance their understanding of the curriculum. Advanced
       skills in the areas of reading, analysis, and writing will be necessary for successful completion of the course.




United States History I (College Prep) #204                                                        5 Credits
       This course will trace the early developments of the United States, from the political, economic, and social factors
       which led to the American Revolution through reconstruction following the Civil War. Emphasis will be placed on
                                                      17
       the Constitution as a living framework for the growth of American democracy and its republican government. The
       course will further explore the pressures put on that government through the period of westward expansion, changing
       foreign policies, and sectionalism. Students will be required to read primary and secondary sources, to respond to
       document based questions, and to engage in essay writing to enhance their understanding of the curriculum.

United States History (Advanced Placement) #216                                                   5 Credits
       AP U.S. History is a challenging course that is meant to be the equivalent of a freshman college course in which
       students may earn college credit. It is a full year survey of American History from the age of exploration and
       discovery to the present. Solid reading and writing skills, coupled with a willingness to devote considerable time
       to homework and study, are necessary to succeed. Emphasis is placed on critical and evaluative thinking skills,
       essay writing, interpretation of original documents, and scholarly materials. Students are expected to take the AP
       exam.

United States History II (Honors) #215                                                          5 Credits
       The development of the United States is traced from 1870 to the end of the twentieth century. This course is
       designed for college preparatory students. The main emphasis of the course is on the internal development of the
       nation—economically, socially, politically—and the growth of a distinctive American way of life. Students
       enrolled in the honors course are expected to demonstrate advanced skills in the areas of reading, analysis, and
       writing which will be enhanced throughout the year with rigorous primary source readings and writing
       assignments.

United States History II (College Prep) #214                                                     5 Credits
       The development of the United States is traced from 1870 to the end of the twentieth century. This course is
       designed for college preparatory students. The main emphasis of the course is on the internal development of the
       nation—economically, socially, politically—and the growth of a distinctive American way of life. Students will
       improve their skills in reading primary and secondary sources, and in responding to document based questions.
       Essay writing will be emphasized to prepare students for subject-area standardized tests.

Psychology (Honors) #223                                                                         2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
       This is a one-semester introductory course encompassing the principles and theories of psychology. The course
       will give students the opportunity to explore subjects studied by behavioral scientists, to learn how psychology is
       applied in solving problems of humanity, to experiment and to learn and evaluate methods of research. Students
       will relate the psychological concepts learned to their own lives. In addition, honors psychology students will be
       challenged to explore the stages of the human lifespan and evaluate methods of therapeutic psychology. Students
       will design, conduct, and evaluate an experiment as a term project.

Psychology (College Prep) #224                                                                    2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
       This is a one-semester introductory course encompassing the principles and theories of psychology. The course
       will give students the opportunity to explore subjects studied by behavioral scientists, to learn how psychology is
       applied in solving problems of humanity, to experiment and to learn and evaluate methods of research. Most
       importantly, students will be challenged to relate psychological concepts to their own lives.




You and the Law (College Prep) #234                                                                   2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 10, 11 and 12
       You and the Law is a one-semester course in practical law. Topics such as criminal law, consumer law, family
       law, housing law, and individual rights are explored. Class activities include reading case studies, role playing,
       and mock trials which pertain to legal issues such as vandalism, drug and alcohol abuse, shoplifting, drunk driving
       and crime prevention. Community resource people such as police officers, lawyers, probation officers, legal aid
       assistants, correctional officers or local and state politicians will be part of the speakers program.

                                                    18
Economics (College Prep) #235                                                                     2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
       Economics is a one-semester course which involves the study of how individuals and societies decide how to use
       scarce resources in order to satisfy their unlimited wants. Concepts developed are supply-and-demand
       relationships, the business cycle, social costs and social goods, values and characteristics of command and market
       systems, the role of fiscal and monetary policy in our present-day economy, and the impact of international trade
       on all countries. Students study the ideas of the well-known economists of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
       In addition, the students study strategies related to personal investments. Students are introduced to such skills as
       analyzing issues, making rational decisions, interpreting economic data found in graphs and charts, and estimating
       future trends and outcomes.

Ethics (College Preparatory) #238
Open to Grades 11 and 12                                                                         2.5 Credits
       The study of Ethics will to enhance students’ self awareness, consciousness about their surroundings, and
       implications of their actions and the actions of others. The course is divided into three main categories: A brief
       history of ethics, timeless ethical questions, and contemporary ethical issues in students’ daily lives. This course
       will explore some very sensitive topics. Students are expected to investigate these topics with open minds and to
       engage in intelligent discussion around them. Ethics involves equal parts research, discussion, analysis, and
       composition to increase the development and articulation of thoughts and opinions.

Introduction to Sociology (College Preparatory) #222                                              2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 – 12
       The objective of this course is to investigate our modern society and through this investigation better understand
       ourselves and others and how we behave in groups. Topics include group dynamics, leadership, conformity, peer
       pressure, marriage and the family, collective behavior, socialization, , gender roles, and the influence of the media
       on society. Student participation is an essential part of this course. Students will engage in sociological research
       within the various communities of which they are members, including their families, LHS, Littleton,
       Massachusetts, the United States, and the world.

European History (Advanced Placement) #218                                                             5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
       AP European History is a challenging full-year course that is meant to be the equivalent of a freshman college
       course in which students may earn college credit. The study of European history since 1450 introduces students to
       cultural, economic, political and social developments that played a fundamental role in shaping the world in which
       they live. Solid reading and writing skills, coupled with a willingness to devote considerable time to homework
       and study, are necessary to succeed. Students enrolled in this course will enter college with the ability to analyze
       historical evidence and historical interpretation and an ability to express their historical perspectives in writing.




Facing History and Ourselves:
The Holocaust, Genocide and Human Behavior (Honors) # 233                                           2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 10, 11 and 12
       This Facing History course will follow the scope and sequence of Facing History and Ourselves using the resource
       book Holocaust and Human Behavior. It will lead students to an understanding of history as a sequence of events
       resulting from actions and decisions made by individuals instead of seeing history as a series of inevitable events.
       Students will examine their roles and responsibilities as global citizens and understand the diameters of their
       ―universes of obligation‖ and the potential for a wide-reaching impact that each individual has on a daily basis.
       These themes will be examined through a series of readings, videos, activities, and reflections. The primary
       historical case study will be an examination of the Holocaust, followed by shorter units that examine genocide in
       the 20th century. Students will reflect on the universality of racism and social injustice, the importance of global


                                                     19
       awareness and the potential for each person to make a difference. Students are required to attend at least FOUR
       class film viewings beyond the school day.

Race and Membership in America (College Prep) #241                                                      2.5 Credits
Open to Grades 11 and 12
       This course will lead students to an understanding of the issues of race in American history. The themes of self-
       definition and identity, the notion of ―difference,‖ the concept of ―race,‖ civil rights, immigration over the last
       200+ years, and education, among other themes, will be examined. We will consider the experiences of various
       ethnic groups in the United States, including, but not limited to, Chinese-Americans, African Americans, Native
       Americans. The course will examine the roles science and education have played in institutionalizing ―difference‖
       in the United States. We will examine the policy decisions made based on these notions of difference, and the
       legacies such decisions have left. Using contemporary history and current events, students will consider how their
       choices shape the nature of society. Students are required to attend at least FOUR class film viewings beyond the
       school day.




                                                     20
MATHEMATICS
Philosophy
Realizing that today’s society places many demands upon the individual, we assume the task of relating mathematics as a
functional, meaningful, and basic tool necessary in all aspects of life. We are committed to educating students to become
logical thinkers by expanding their mathematical capabilities and interests and by including the use of technology.

Students are expected to be active participants in the educational process, and, along with their teachers, assume
responsibility for the learning of mathematics. As educators we recognize that while all students can benefit from the
study of mathematics at various levels, not all students proceed at the same pace. Therefore, we strive to promote learning
through an individualized and self-directed approach whenever possible.

We recognize that each student is capable of learning and should be made aware of the usefulness and practicality of
mathematics. The ultimate goal is to develop an attitude in the students that will stimulate curiosity in, and an
appreciation of, mathematics.

―Mathematical problem solving is the hallmark of an effective mathematics program. Skill in mathematical problem
solving requires practice with a variety of mathematical problems as well as a firm grasp of mathematical techniques and
their underlying principles. Armed with this deeper knowledge, the student can then use mathematics in a flexible way to
attack various problems and devise different ways of solving any particular problem. Mathematical problem solving calls
for reflective thinking, persistence, learning from the ideas of others, and going back over one’s own work with a critical
eye. Success in solving mathematical problems helps to create an abiding interest in mathematics.‖
                                                          The Massachusetts Mathematics Curriculum Framework


Algebra I (College Prep) #316                                                                        5 Credits
      Algebra I is designed to be the first course in a sequence to prepare students for college work. Throughout the course,
      students will develop the language of algebra, explore the many uses of algebra in the real world, and prepare for
      future courses in mathematics. Among the topics studied are rational numbers, polynomials, linear equations and
      inequalities, quadratic equations, graphing, and systems of equations. Problem solving will be an integral part of the
      course.

Geometry (Honors) #305
                                                                                                    5 Credits
       This course in Euclidean Geometry gives students extensive preparation in two-dimensional geometry as well as an
       introduction to three-dimensional concepts. The concepts of proof are intertwined with the properties of form and
       shape. Major topics covered include properties of parallel lines, congruence, similarity, coordinate geometry,
       polygons, trigonometry, circles, transformations, area and volume. Students will apply logical reasoning throughout
       the course and will be introduced to proofs in a variety of forms. The Geometers’ Sketchpad software, the graphic
       calculator, and the tools of geometry will be used to explore geometric concepts and applications.

Geometry (College Prep) #304                                                                     5 Credits
     This course in Euclidean Geometry is designed to develop a solid background in geometric skills while placing
     emphasis on mathematical thinking. The concepts of points, lines, planes, properties of parallel lines, congruence,
     similarity, coordinate geometry, polygons, right triangle trigonometry, circles, area, and volume will be explored.
     Students will apply logical reasoning through the course and will be expected to use their Algebra 1 skills to solve
     problems in each topic area. The Geometers’ Sketchpad software and the tools of geometry will be used to explore
     geometric concepts and applications.



Algebra II (Honors) #315                                                                           5 Credits
      Algebra II, the second course in algebra, focuses on developing skills in manipulating linear, quadratic, and absolute
      values expressions and equations. It offers the student an analytical and in-depth approach to equation solving,

                                                      21
        graphing, functions, problem solving, systems of equations, rational expressions, and complex numbers. Students will
        use and interpret a variety of graphs to solve problems including maximum and minimum. The TI 83/84 graphing
        calculator is essential for success in this course.

Algebra II (College Prep) #314                                                                     5 Credits
      This second course in algebra reviews and solidifies many of the concepts presented in Algebra 1 and provides the
      necessary preparation for the next course in analytic geometry and trigonometry. Topics covered include: solving
      problems, graphing, equations, functions, systems of equations, matrices, rational expressions, and complex numbers.
      Students will also use and interpret graphs to solve problems. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for
      success in this course.

 Precalculus (Honors) #333                                                        5 Credits
      Pre-requisite: It is strongly recommended that students received at least a B- in Honors Algebra II, an A- in
      College Prep Algebra II, or an A- on a Pre- Calculus readiness exam.

        This course is intended as preparation for advanced high school and/or college courses in calculus. A thorough study
        of functions and their graphs will permeate the course, including linear, quadratic, polynomial, exponential and
        logarithmic functions. Other topics include the complex number system, inequalities, and trigonometry. Students
        entering this course should have a solid understanding of the topics covered in Algebra 2. The TI 83/84 graphing
        calculator is essential for success in this course.

Precalculus (College Prep) #318                                                                       5 Credits
       This course is intended as preparation for college courses in calculus and/or to extend the students knowledge of
       mathematics beyond algebra and geometry to facilitate an understanding of more advanced courses in science or
       related fields. A graphing calculator will be used to examine the nature of many functions such as linear, quadratic,
       polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic, inverse, and trigonometric. Graphs and properties of functions will be
       extensively studied. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.

Calculus (Advanced Placement) #335                                                                       5 Credits
       AP Calculus is a rigorous course designed for students who intend to take the Advanced Placement Exam in Calculus.
       This course is taught at a rapid pace, containing all topics covered by the AP exam. The first semester is spent
       studying a variety of functions, limits, derivatives, and a variety of applications of derivatives. The second semester is
       spent studying area under curves, definite and indefinite integrals, volumes of revolution, and differential equations.
       Students enrolling in this course are expected to take the AP exam offered in May. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator
       is essential for success in this course.

Calculus (Honors) #334                                                                               5 Credits
       This course is for students who want to study calculus at a pace slower than the advanced placement curriculum. It
       will introduce concepts of limits, continuity, differentiation, and integration and apply them to the solution of word
       problems from a wide range of fields of study. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.

Statistics (College Prep) #337                                                                          5 Credits
        This course is designed for students who have successfully completed Algebra II. In this course students will learn to
        collect organize and display relevant data and use the appropriate statistical method to analyze the data. Students will
        also develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data. They will learn to design surveys to
        generate data, choose representative samples, and identify biases in samples and survey questions. Students will also
        apply basic concepts of probability as it relates to statistics and compare the results of experimental probability with
        predicted probability. The emphasis for this course is on active learning, the use of real-world data, and technology
        integration. The TI 83/84 graphing calculator is essential for success in this course.




                                                       22
SCIENCE
Philosophy
The science curriculum at Littleton High School is designed to address Littleton High School’s mission that all students
will learn and achieve at a high level. ―We believe that students should be exposed to the process of scientific inquiry so
they can acquire and interpret scientific knowledge, and begin to realize the wider applicability of scientific problem-
solving methods.‖ By making the laboratory the focal point of learning, rather than a lecture-reading method, we seek to
foster students' appreciation for the scientific process. **

The science experience begins with all freshman students enrolled in Biology. After the successful completion of
freshman Biology, course selections should reflect a student’s ability, interests, and future educational and career plans.
The student may choose to be introduced to the content and methods of several of the sciences or may wish to concentrate,
doing advanced work in one or two of the sciences. All courses and levels are designed to vary in rigor, breadth and depth
of coverage.

By graduation, all students will have the opportunity to master the following fundamental goals:
     1. Application of the principals, laws, and fundamental understandings of the natural sciences.
     2. Ability to observe, inquire and critically analyze a scientific investigation.
     3. Understand and apply the scientific method design process.
     4. Experience common and cutting edge laboratory techniques.
     5. Oral, graphical and written presentations that focus on using evidence to support a scientific inquiry.


**In our efforts to develop and present a science curriculum reflecting best practices of high-performing high schools, the Littleton High School science department strives to keep
abreast of the curricula of strong science programs in our surrounding communities. As a reflection of these inquiries, portions of the introduction to the LHS science curriculum
have been excerpted and adapted from a similar document authored by the Acton-Boxborough science department.



Biology (Advanced Placement) #461                                                                5 Credits
Prerequisite: C+ Biology I and Chemistry I
       This is a challenging course that should be looked at as equivalent to a college freshmen biology course. It will
       review Honors Biology content in much more depth and cover additional content areas of plant systems, reproduction
       and development, animal behavior and a survey of domains and kingdoms. Part of the course is devoted to
       preparation for the AP exam, which students are strongly encouraged to take.

Biology (Honors) #492                                                                                 5 Credits
       This course is designed to prepare students for AP science classes and a college science major. The approach will be
       inquiry based with emphasis on using tables and graphs, predicting, formulating hypotheses, designing experiments
       and analyzing data. Content areas include the chemistry of life, structure and function on the cellular level, continuity
       of life (genetics), evolution and biodiversity, major human body systems, and ecology. All areas will be covered in
       depth and students should expect two long term projects.

Biology (College Prep) #491                                                                          5 Credits
       This course is designed to acquaint students with the fundamentals of biology and prepare for college level
       biology. The approach will be inquiry based with emphasis on using tables and graphs, predicting, formulating
       hypotheses, designing experiments and analyzing data. Content areas include the chemistry of life, structure and
       function on the cellular level, continuity of life (genetics), evolution and biodiversity, major human body systems,
       and ecology. One long term project should be expected.

Chemistry (Honors) #405                                                                                                                          5 Credits

                                                                              23
Prerequisite: Algebra I
       This 10th grade chemistry course is the second in the honors course sequence. It is necessary for students to
       demonstrate high science and math achievement. Also they should be able to function with a high degree of
       independence. The purpose of the course is to prepare for AP science classes and a college science major.
       Content areas include matter and energy, atomic structure, periodicity, ionic and covalent compounds,
       stoichiometry, gas laws, solutions, chemical equilibrium, and acids and bases.

Chemistry (College Prep) #404                                                                   5 Credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I or recommendation from math or chemistry teacher
       These 10th, 11th, or 12th grade classes are designed to acquaint students with the fundamentals of chemistry, and
       prepare them to function successfully in a non-science major college level. Content areas include matter and
       energy, atomic structure, periodicity, ionic and covalent compounds, stoichiometry, gas laws, solutions, chemical
       equilibrium, and acids and bases.

Chemistry II (Honors) #415
Prerequisite: Chemistry (College Prep or Honors)                                              2.5 Credits
       This course will review chemistry I and finish the text at a much more rigorous level with the idea of preparation
       for college level chemistry classes. Topics emphasized will be acids/bases, redox reactions, electrochemistry,
       nuclear chemistry, and organic chemistry. The depth of content and focus on computation make this valuable
       preparation for students.

Physics (Honors) #429                                                                         5 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra II (Honors)

This rigorous course is designed to master the concepts
and mathematics for the study of forces, motion, sound, light and the conservation and transmission of energy.
Development of concepts will be done through an emphasis on independent laboratory investigation, significant problem
solving, project development and modeling and the use of computer technology. The use and knowledge of geometry and
algebra is essential.

Physics (College Prep) #428                                                                   5 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I

Concurrent enrollment in Algebra II is recommended
This introductory course is designed to develop the concepts and mathematics for the study of forces, motion, sound, light
and the conservation and transmission of energy. Development of concepts will be done through an emphasis on group
and individual laboratory investigation, problem solving, project development and the use of computer technology. The
use and knowledge of geometry and algebra is essential.

Physics (Advanced Placement) #426                                                               5 credits
Prerequisite: C+ average in physics
       This is a course for students who may take the AP Physics exam or are interested in pursuing a career in science or
       engineering. The course will enhance topics covered in Physics I and cover topics not covered in that course. The
       course will be focused on increased understanding of mechanics, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, and
       optics and AP Physics exam preparation.

Introduction to Engineering (College Prep) #433                                               2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Completion of or current enrollment in Algebra II is recommended
       This semester-long course is a survey course of the principal engineering fields to give students hands on
       experience with various practical applications of science. The course is project based to apply the engineering
       model of inquiry, design, and prototyping to design products, deconstruct and build machines, and learn about
       basic circuitry. The investigation and application of scientific knowledge will allow students to understand the role
       of engineering and technology occupations in the world today.


                                                     24
Advanced Engineering (Honors) #434                                                                2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Introduction to Engineering and Physics
       This semester-long course is an advanced course to allow students to work in teams to develop and investigate
       current engineering issues. Energy supply, conservation, technological sustainability and other communication,
       manufacturing and transportation engineering topics will be explored through student designed labs. An emphasis
       will be placed on research development and presentation of information.

Environmental Science (College Prep) #446                                                        5 Credits
      Environmental science is a course dealing with environmental issues on local and global levels. The course will
      provide students with the principles, concepts, and methodologies needed to understand the interrelationships of
      the natural worlds, and to identify and analyze environmental problems. Topics will include ecology and
      biodiversity, air and water pollution, energy use and conservation, global climate change and waste management.

Anatomy and Physiology (Honors) #445                                                             5 Credits
Prerequisite: C+ average in Biology and Chemistry I
       This course involves the study of the human body systems - both structure and function. Emphasis will be placed
       on describing how the functions of various systems are integrated to maintain a homeostatic balance in the body. A
       comparison of the human to other mammals is accomplished through laboratory dissection. This course will be
       beneficial to students planning to major in biology or medical and health related fields.

The Dynamic Earth (College Prep) #431                                                          2.5 credits
      This course is designed to educate students about the world around them. It will work to answer the question:
      Why does the surface of the earth look the way that it does? The approach will be project based with emphasis on
      research and presentation. Students will study the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth. The
      focus of this course is Structural Geology. Topics to be covered include: rocks and minerals, mapping, weathering
      and erosion, and plate tectonics, as well as volcanic activity and earthquakes.

Oceanography (College Prep) #432                                                              2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Biology
       This course is designed to give students a window into the hidden world within the oceans. The approach will be
       project based with emphasis on research and presentation. Students will study the origin, structure, and physical
       phenomena of the world’s oceans. An emphasis will be placed on marine biology and marine geology, with
       additional study of marine physics and chemistry.

Forensic Science (College Prep) #430                                                            2.5 credits
Prerequisite: Biology
       This semester-long course will explore the science of criminal investigation. Students will learn to approach the
       solution to a crime using scientific methodology. Topics such as securing a crime scene, identifying blood splatter
       patterns, collecting fingerprints, and examining hair and fiber evidence will be covered through intriguing true
       stories and interviews with police personnel and forensic professionals. Fans of the television show CSI, those
       students considering crime-scene investigation as a career, and readers of crime fiction will find this course
       interesting and exciting.




                                                    25
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Philosophy
All students are given the opportunity to become proficient in one or more of the following languages; Latin, French and
Spanish. All language classes stress the four skills inherent in language study: reading, writing, listening and speaking.
Courses aid students in understanding other cultures and the connection to their own culture. Foreign language study
should enrich their lives, open up a wider variety of career choices, and ultimately encourage them to communicate better
and contribute more to our multicultural society.

Basic Conversational French (College Prep) #518                                                5 Credits
       Basic Conversational French is conducted entirely in French. Through the exclusive use of the French language in
       the classroom, students will improve speaking, listening, reading and writing skills. Using the text French for
       Mastery, students will explore thematic units that incorporate vocabulary acquisition, verb tenses, listening
       comprehension and short readings. Assessments will include oral presentations, compositions, listening
       comprehension quizzes and written tests. Students should have completed French I with a grade of B or better or
       have permission from the instructor.

Advanced Conversational French (Honors) #519                                                     5 Credits
      Advanced Conversational French is conducted entirely in French. Through the exclusive use of the French
      language in the classroom, students will achieve proficiency in the areas of speaking, listening, reading and
      writing. Through the reading of literary texts and periodicals in the target language, students will discuss themes
      and current events and maintain journals that reflect insight and opinion. Assessments will include oral
      presentations, debates, compositions, listening comprehension quizzes and written tests. Students should have
      completed French III with a grade of B or better.

Spanish I (College Prep) #521                                                                      5 Credits
      This course is designed to develop basic listening-comprehension skills with minor emphasis on the reading and
      writing skills. The listening-comprehension and speaking skills are developed through practice involving interests
      that are common to daily life using various culturally-based themes. While studying about Spanish and Latin
      American life, the cultural differences and similarities with the United States are pointed out and discussed. At the
      end of this course, students should be able to understand and engage in short conversations. They will be able to
      read relatively simple Spanish paragraphs and write accurately what they can say.

Spanish II (College Prep) #522                                                                     5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a C average in Spanish I or with recommendation of the teacher.
       This course is an extension of Spanish I. The listening-comprehension and speaking skills are further developed
       through tapes, conversations, and audio-visual aids. Reading selections continue to develop their language breadth
       and cultural understanding. The topics and purpose of all activities vary to expand vocabulary and basic structures
       learned as well as continue to develop cultural awareness. Writing skills at this level aim at reinforcing structure
       and allow for individual self-expression. At the end of this course students should be able to read and comprehend
       main ideas of material written at varying levels of complexity and be able to express themselves and their opinions
       fairly accurately.

Spanish III (Honors) #523                                                                           5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a C average in Spanish II or with recommendation of the teacher.
       This course is designed to maintain and continue the development of oral skills while emphasizing reading skills.
       More emphasis is put on writing skills, not only to reinforce new structures, but also to use new vocabulary and
       develop a style of self-expression. At the end of this course, the students should have a better understanding of the
       language structure enabling them to converse or write at some length on subjects concerning themselves, their
       surroundings, Spanish culture, and literature. Short written compositions will be required.



Spanish IV (Honors) #524                                                                           5 Credits
                                                     26
Prerequisite: At least a B- average in Spanish III or with recommendation of the teacher.
       This course is designed as a thorough review of previously learned material through a careful integration of all
       four skills (listening/speaking/reading/writing) with increased emphasis on the writing skill. Some emphasis is
       placed on vocabulary and structural distinctions found within the language. Readings of a more literary type as
       well as other selected reading materials appropriate to this course are included. The Spanish language is the main
       medium of speech for class discussions. At the end of this course students should be able to read, write, and discuss
       in some depth varying topics written for a native speaker. Written compositions will be required.

Spanish (Advanced Placement) #525                                                                 5 Credits
Prerequisite: At least a B average in Spanish IV or with recommendation of the teacher.
       This course is a college level course intended for students who wish to further develop their proficiency in all four
       language skills. It encompasses aural/oral skills improvement, intensive reading comprehension, grammar review,
       and training in the organization and writing of compositions. Students will gain an insight into cultural aspects of
       the various Spanish speaking countries in terms of their language and literature. This course emphasizes Spanish
       for active communication.

Latin I (College Prep) #530                                                                         5 Credits
         The first year of Latin stresses the study of basic vocabulary and grammar to help students learn to read and
         comprehend the Latin language. The course also seeks to develop an understanding of some of the features
         of Roman influence on history and civilization. Additional attention is given to English derivatives and Latin
         phrases and sayings used in the English Language.

Latin II (College Prep) #531                                                                     5 Credits
       The second year of Latin continues the study of vocabulary and more complex grammar to help students learn to
       read the texts of ancient Roman authors. The course also prepares students to understand and analyze more
       specific events and periods of Roman history, culture, and mythology. Continued study is devoted to English
       derivatives, Latin phrases and expressions commonly used in the English language.

Latin III (Honors) #532                                                                            5 Credits
       Prerequisite: At least a C average in Latin II or with recommendation of the teacher.
       This course continues the study of vocabulary and more complex grammar to help students read the texts of
       ancient Roman authors. The goal of the study of Latin at the upper levels is to read and discuss Latin texts. In
       this course, students study and analyze specific events and periods of Roman history, culture, and mythology.
       Continued study is devoted to English word derivations and Latin expressions commonly used in the English
       language.




                                                     27
ART
Philosophy
The aim of the visual arts program is to enable students to become better observers and interpreters of their world. Through
practice and exploration student artists discover new perspectives on themselves and their experience. They learn to evaluate
and constructively criticize their own artwork and the work of others. By providing students with the opportunity to develop
skills, create, look at, and respond to works of art, students will learn to ―make meaning from experience, respond to
creativity, and contribute to society.‖ (Massachusetts Arts Frameworks)

Introduction to Art I (1st Semester only) #891                                                 2.5 Credits
The foundation and prerequisite for Introduction to Art II and Intermediate I and II
       The emphasis in this class will be on developing confidence in drawing while providing students with an in depth
       understanding of the elements and principles of design. Skills such as shading and perspective are taught with a
       concentration on drawing from direct observation. Various drawing media and styles are introduced. Materials Fee -
       $35.00

Introduction to Art II (2nd Semester only) #892                                                   2.5 Credits
      Designed as a continuation of Introduction to Art I, this course provides an introduction to color theory, painting and
      sculpture. The first term focuses on color theory and design. Students will explore the role of color in the
      development of form, depth, and composition. In the second term, students are exposed to sculpture as a new
      possibility for self expression. Materials Fee - $35.00

Intermediate Art I #801                                                                            2.5 Credits
Prerequisite: Introduction to Art I
       This course will provide students with the opportunity to explore a variety of art media in two and three dimensional
       projects. Assignments will focus on problems which have professional applications. Bookmaking, theatrical design,
       product design and illustration are among the subjects explored. Materials Fee - $35.00

Intermediate Art II #802                                                                            2.5 Credits
      As a continuation of Intermediate Art I students will apply their art skills to practical as well as creative problem
      solving. Students will apply their knowledge to projects which enhance the school environment and involve subject
      matter from other curricula. Students will be encouraged to think creatively and independently. A research and
      creative project focused on a professional artist/designer will be assigned. Materials Fee - $35.00

Ceramics #827                                                                                   2.5 Credits
     This course will provide students with an understanding of clay as both a sculptural and functional material. Students
     will learn hand building, making pottery on the wheel and a variety of decorative and glazing techniques. Materials
     Fee - $35.00

Art Major #814                                                                                        5 Credits
Prerequisite: Intermediate I or II
       In this class, students refine their art skills, with a focus on drawing from the figure. Students work to deepen their
       understanding of the uses of both two dimensional and three dimensional art media. In order to learn new ways to
       approach the same subject matter, students are encouraged to work in series. Students participate in class critiques
       and learn to apply art terminology to discussions of their work. Materials Fee - $35.00

Portfolio Preparation #824                                                                            5 Credits
Prerequisite: Art Major
       This course is intended for students with an ongoing interest in art or for those who wish to compile a portfolio for
       college applications. Students learn about the criteria used to judge a portfolio and will learn how to document their
       work for submission. The focus will be on creating a portfolio that highlights the student’s specific skills while
       reflecting a breadth of art ability. Students complete an independent project exploring a topic or theme of their own
       choice. Guest speakers from art colleges are invited to speak. Materials Fee - $35.00


                                                      28
Studio Art (Advanced Placement) #836                                                                 5 Credits
       Students who elect this course will be creating a portfolio for art school. The course structure correlates to
       foundation classes taught at the college level. Students are required to develop a series of projects which focus on
       technical skills and exploration of conceptual issues. Because of the requirements for accreditation, students must be
       willing to work after school as well as in class. Fifteen to twenty projects must be completed over two semesters. AP
       Studio Art can be elected as an independent study or as part of the Art Major/Portfolio class. Materials Fee - $35.00

Art History (Advanced Placement) #217                                                                  5 Credits
       This course is designed to provide Littleton students with the same background in art history as an introductory
       college course in art history. Students electing this course will study a diverse historical and cultural sampling of the
       major works of art represented in various art forms: architecture, sculpture, painting, and other art forms. Students
       will learn to observe art intelligently and critically as well as analytically. It is the goal of this course to provide
       students with an opportunity to interrelate their knowledge of history and literature in order to enrich their
       understanding of art history. While no prior knowledge of art history is assumed, this course does require a high
       degree of academic commitment in order to meet college standards.




                                                       29
NEW MEDIA
The New Media department is committed to developing a student’s capacity for imaginative and reflective thinking as it relates
to contemporary society. The courses offered trace the ways technology has impacted and defined visual art in the 20th and 21st
centuries. Students are offered a range of classes that are continuously evolving in order to explore technology. Within the New
Media department, Photography courses are offered and present a full range of conceptual, critical, and technical approaches to
contemporary photographic practice while supporting student’s individual interests and methodology.

Photography #651 (Grades 10, 11 and 12)                                                          2.5 credits
      Photography II is an advanced class for students who would like to develop critical and technical skills. I assume that
      students at this level have achieved a degree of independence and are starting to evolve ideas, a visual language, and
      dialogue about their work. Students participate in critiques of their own work and that of fellow students, and work on
      acquisition of technical control. I will introduce you to medium-format cameras, alternative processes and the use of
      lighting in photography. By the end of this semester you should have a solid grasp of the technical aspects and an
      awareness of what you are interested in photographing. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

Photography II #650 (Grades 11 and 12)
Prerequisite: Photography                                                                        2.5 credits
       This course introduces the camera and darkroom as creative tools. You are taught to use various types of cameras and
       related equipment, to properly expose and develop film, and to create black-and-white prints. After we have covered the
       fundamentals, we will shift our emphasis to photography as a visual language. Class critiques of work from photo
       assignments will provide a forum to critically discuss photography as an art form in both personal and cultural terms.
       Class will be divided between the classroom and supervised darkroom sessions. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

Visual Culture #645                                                                                   2.5 Credits
       This course introduces the study of visual culture. How does our current visual culture function the way it does? How are
       all of our visual languages—from ―high‖ art to TV, movies, and popular culture—organized by society? What is the
       study of "visual culture"? How is it related to the study of media and communications more generally?
       We examine and discuss a wide range of approaches to the creation and interpretation of visual experience. We consider
       the many ways that paintings, photographs, films, marketing, and branding everyday objects both shape and are shaped
       by the concepts, values, and meanings that constitute cultural life in contemporary societies.
       Students develop the skills necessary to write effectively about the visual world and to think productively about the
       creation of images and the meanings that surround them.

Beginning Digital Photography #631                                                            2.5 Credits
      Students will work with images in the digital realm. We cover Adobe Photoshop through step-by-step lessons and
      assignments using your own images. We explore combining images from various sources including photographs, video,
      drawings, or printed originals, and carefully explain and demonstrate scanning from slides and prints. The class will
      teach the fundamentals of color correcting, digital retouching, input and output resolution, and optimizing files for
      printing. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

Intro to New Media #630                                                                             2.5 Credits
       This course will introduce students to digital media. Students will focus on developing technical skills in electronic
       imaging. The student will learn the basics of digital photography, digital video and web design. The student will then
       have the opportunity to choose an area in which to focus and develop a final project utilizing that medium.
       Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

TV Studio #643                                                                                        5 Credits
      Students learn the basics of video production and TV broadcasting. They will write proposals and scripts, create
      storyboards to create a television show. Students will then shoot digital footage and edit on a non-linear editing system
      (Final Cut Pro). Students will utilize digital video cameras to produce programming for the High School’s cable access
      channel. The course will be designed to give students access and knowledge of all aspects of a T.V. studio.
      Responsibilities will include directing, editing, lighting, sound as well as acting in or hosting a T.V. show proposed by
      the student. Materials Fee - $35.00/semester

                                                     30
History of Photography #646                                                                         2.5 Credits
       This course examines photographs and critical issues surrounding photography in the 19th and 20th centuries. The
       relationships of photography to the other arts and to literary, political, social and philosophical issues are keys to this
       discussion. The course briefly surveys photography’s varied histories, and then selects particular moments and issues for
       deeper critical examination.




                                                      31
WELLNESS
Philosophy
Students enrolled in Wellness will participate in a wide variety of activities and learning experiences which will develop the
individual’s physical, intellectual, emotional, and social self. The overall goal of the program is to educate and empower
students to strive for their optimal level of personal wellness throughout their lifespan. The wellness curriculum at Littleton
High School is aligned with the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks as well as the National Standards.

Fitness and Conditioning #021 (Grades 9-12)                                                     2.5 Credits
       This one semester course can be taken as an elective or to meet graduation requirements. In this course, students will
       design and implement a personal fitness plan. Classroom instruction will be utilized to supplement training activities.
       The curriculum includes: cardio training, strength training, flexibility training, group exercise activities, nutrition
       information, and rest and recovery techniques.

Sports and Games I #022 (Grades 9/10)                                                               2.5 Credits
       This one semester course can be taken as an elective or to meet graduation requirements. The curriculum includes:
       soccer, flag football, field hockey, team handball, volleyball, basketball, floor hockey, lacrosse, rugby, ultimate frisbee,
       softball, badminton, gym tennis, table tennis, court tennis, and action games.

Sports and Games II #023 (Grades 11/12)                                                              2.5 Credit
       This one semester course is an elective for students during their junior and/or senior year(s) and is intended for students
       who enjoy physical education activities. The curriculum includes many activities from Sports and Games I as well as
       several new activities.

Health # 010 (Grade 9/10)                                                                         2.5 Credits
       This one semester course is required for all freshmen. The course includes topics about physical health (i.e. nutrition,
       lifestyle factors, and human sexuality), social health (i.e. communication, peer pressure/harassment, healthy
       relationships) and mental health (i.e. mental disorders, eating disorders, addictive behaviors, relaxation techniques.)

Nutrition #017                                                                                     2.5 Credits
Prerequisite: Biology
       This one semester course is an elective for sophomores, juniors and seniors who have an interest in nutrition and the
       body’s use of nutrients. The course will focus on the relationship between diet and athletic performance, as well as the
       effect of diet on certain health problems. There will also be an emphasis on the chemistry and biology behind nutrition.

Child Development #018                                                                            2.5 Credits
Prerequisite: Health I
       This one semester course is an elective for juniors and seniors who have an interest in early childhood education. The
       course will focus on the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of children from fetal development to
       approximately age twelve. There will also be an emphasis on parenting and family challenges.




                                                       32
MUSIC & THEATER ARTS
Philosophy
The purpose of music education in the Littleton Public Schools is to assist each student, commensurate with his individual
capacity, to appreciate, understand, and respond with discrimination to the aesthetic effect of music. Aesthetic responsiveness
is attained by providing experiences in making and listening to music that increases the student’s sense of beauty, his concept
of discrimination, and his receptivity to a wide range of human emotions.

The music program is geared to develop sensitivity to the cultural heritage of the world through an understanding and
appreciation of music in its many forms. This sensitivity is developed by providing participative experience with music of
many lands and people, of many composers of different eras, and of many types and styles - both vocal and instrumental, in
the classical, folk and popular fields.

High School Band (Full year – every day) #900                                                 5 Credits
      The Littleton Senior High Band is comprised of a marching, pep, and concert band. The marching band performs in
      local parades, at pep rallies and at home football games and occasionally at away games. The concert band’s
      repertoire is chosen from wind ensemble, concert band, chamber ensemble and orchestral transcription. The ensemble
      presents several concerts annually.

High School Chorus (Full year – every day) #901                                                  5 Credits
      This course is offered to any student grades 9-12. Prior singing experience is helpful but not required. The music
      studied will range from classical to show and popular music of the 20 th and 21st Century. The chorus performs in two
      major concerts annually as well as being featured in the Memorial Day Parade, occasional performances at
      organizations such as Council of Aging, Hewlett Packard, etc.

Music Theory #950                                                                                 2.5 Credits
      This course is in the basic elements of music, presupposing no previous knowledge of music. Materials of traditional
      harmony are covered including basic notation of whole notes, half notes, quarter notes and sixteenth notes as well as
      their corresponding rests. Students will study the forming of major and minor scales, intervals and chord
      construction, leading to the basic principals of part writing. Skill areas are stressed including some piano, signing or
      playing at least one musical instrument. Melodic & rhythmic dictation is studied as well as major minor chords
      which includes modes. Students will have the opportunity to write and compose music for a small ensemble.

Theatre Arts I #101                                                                                2.5 Credits
      Theater I is an introductory course in the dramatic arts. No prior experience is necessary. This class explores
      character development, techniques and processes to give the student a foundation in acting. Reading and analysis of
      dramatic repertoire, as well as current events and field trips, are additional elements of the course. The course
      culminates in a performance of selected material.

Theatre Arts II #102                                                                             2.5 Credits
      Theater II is an advanced course in the dramatic arts. The Theater I class, appropriate dramatic experience, or
      permission of the instructor is required to enroll. Topics covered include playwriting and technical theater, as well as
      continued reading and analysis of dramatic repertoire. Current events and field trips are additional elements of the
      course. The course culminates in a performance of selected material.

Drama Workshop, Advanced #103 (Gr. 10, 11, 12)                                                  2.5 Credits
     Advanced Drama is a semester long performance-based course designed for students who are interested in theater and
     may possibly pursue careers associated with the arts and/or communications. Students will prepare scripted scenes
     for performance, will self-script scenes, perform improvisation and study various acting methods. This course will
     provide opportunities for students also interested in backstage and in directing. Prerequisites: Theater Arts I and
     Theater Arts II.

History of Musical Theater #106 (Gr 11, 12)                                                      2.5 Credits
       This course will follow the path of American musical theater from its roots in the operettas of European comic opera
                                                    33
during the late 19th Century to its maturity in the 1940s and 1950s and onto the present where recent developments
create a form that reflects current American trends and attitudes.




                                            34
SPECIAL EDUCATION
As mandated by the Massachusetts Department of Education, special education services are designed to foster collaboration
and link sound practice with statutory and regulatory requirements. The clear intent of the revised Individualized Educational
Program Process is to ―ensure that all students are challenged to excel, progress within the general curriculum, and are
prepared for independence in adult life, including post-secondary education and/or employment.‖ To this end, several
programs have been designed to provide support for students with a variety of disabilities and educational needs.

The Massachusetts Department of Education has established a three-step process to identify and plan for the special
education student. Following a formal referral, a student with a suspected disability in the general curriculum must
participate in an evaluation after which a Team meeting is convened to determine eligibility, develop an Individualized
Education Program (IEP), and establish placement criteria. Once a final IEP is written and signed, the identified special
education student may receive direct or indirect service through one of our specified programs. These may include academic
support within a regular education class or specialized instruction within the Learning Center setting. For students with more
significant educational or behavioral needs, the Adaptive Program, CORE academic classes and/or emotional/behavioral
intervention services may be provided in order to afford access to the curriculum with appropriate modifications and
accommodations. Specifics of the course parameters are determined by the needs of the respective population. Collaboration
and communication among special education liaisons, classroom teachers, parents, students, and outside support
professionals are paramount in the success of our special education students. We strive to promote the cognitive, social, and
emotional growth of each child in order that she/he may maximize her/his potential and thereby become a productive
contributor to society.

Transition #092                                                                                          1 credit
Prerequisite: IEP or 504 plan
        This twice weekly first semester course is for freshmen and other incoming special education students. It will focus
        upon development of skills that are essential to a successful transition to the Littleton High School academic, social,
        and behavioral environment. Areas of concentration include organization, time management, advocacy, and
        application of curriculum skills.

Curriculum Skills 9 – 10 #093                                                                    1 - 2.5 credits
Prerequisite: IEP or 504 plan
        This course of specialized instruction is designed to provide students in grades 9 and 10 with the necessary skills to
        access the mainstream curriculum and make effective progress in the general classroom. Development of such
        independent skills may include note taking, test preparation, writing, generation and use of graphic organizers,
        reading comprehension, use of resources, self-help, mathematics, assistive technology, critical thinking, and areas of
        content difficulties.

Curriculum Skills 11 – 12 #094                                                         1 - 2.5 credits
Prerequisite: IEP or 504 plan
        This course of specialized instruction expands upon Curriculum Skills 9 – 10. Focus areas are designed to advance
        the independent application of learned skills, including those pertaining to advocacy, academic success, and post-
        secondary planning.

Adaptive Program                                                                       credits
Prerequisite: IEP




ADDITIONAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
                                                      35
Senior Project: The Senior Project is designed to merge a student’s own interests and passions with academic life. This course
allows students to explore, in depth, a topic of importance to them. The project itself is student-directed with guidance and
accountability provided by the advisor. Beginning in a required Junior-year seminar, students will create an essential question
which will then shape their experience for the entire project, as they combine interdisciplinary research and collaboration. The
final product of these efforts will exhibit both personal investment and academic rigor, while ultimately giving something back to
the school or local community. From presenting a performance piece to constructing a piece of furniture, the opportunities to
investigate, explore, and create are almost without limit.

As a capstone experience, the Senior Project allows students to demonstrate their mastery of Littleton High School’s
Expectations for Student Learning. Successful completion of at least 2.5 credits of Senior Project is required for graduation
beginning with the Class of 2012.
One Semester Senior Project #008                                                                         2.5 Credits
       Most students will elect the half year project. In the Junior year, students will be introduced to the project and will
       engage in a seminar to help them choose topics and questions for further study. During the Fall or Spring semesters,
       students will engage in research, collaboration, and community service learning around their chosen topic. Final
       exhibitions will take place in December and May.

Full Year Senior Project #020                                                                          5 Credits

       The full year project is designed for students wishing to engage in extended research or to build extensive community
       service projects. In the Junior year, students will be introduced to the project and will engage in a seminar to help them
       choose topics and questions for further study. Throughout the Senior year, students will work with their advisors to
       conduct research, engage in collaboration, and develop the community service aspect of their work. Final exhibitions
       will take place in May.

Virtual High School #030                                                                        2.5 or 5 credits

       In addition to selecting courses offered at Littleton High School, students may also apply to enroll in courses through
       VHS (Virtual High School).These challenging courses are appropriate for self-directed students who have the ability to
       manage the responsibilities of independent, self-guided learning. The VHS course catalog and additional information is
       available at www.govhs.org. A sample page of VHS course offerings is included on the next page. As Littleton High
       School is limited in the number of courses we can sponsor, students must apply in writing at the time of course selection.
       See your Guidance Counselor for an application form.

Community Service Learning #040                                                                          1 credit
       Our Mission Statement closes with the commitment ―to help students…become responsible, productive citizens in a
       constantly changing world‖. To that end, our Community Service Learning program provides students with opportunities
       for civic engagement through service to the school and greater community. A minimum of thirty-six hours of documented
       Community Service Learning is required for graduation.
Career Exploration/Internship Program #043                                                      2.5 or 5 credits
       This program is designed to immerse students into the real world of careers and provide a unique opportunity to
       experience the career world beyond Littleton High School’s existing curriculum. The program is primarily open to
       seniors, but juniors and underclassmen may be considered pending the principal’s approval. Students will be evaluated
       using the Massachusetts Work-Based Learning Plan. A final project detailing the experience will be required for credit.
       This program is graded on a Pass/Fail basis.
Teacher Assistant #013                                                                2.5 credits per semester
       Certain disciplines offer opportunities for qualified seniors and juniors to serve as teachings assistants. See your guidance
       counselor for more details.

Finance I (College Prep) #339                                                            2.5 credits

                                                      36
This course covers the principals and practices of the financial world with a focus on investing and building personal wealth.
Students will learn to manually complete financial records, process an entire accounting cycle and create investment and
money saving strategies for real world use. Students will take part in a semester long online stock market investment game.
Students will work in groups or individually where they will learn how to invest
money into a multitude of financial resources.




                                                     37
                                                                                     Virtual High School
                                                                                   Sample Course Offerings
Virtual High School offers a catalog of full semester courses in the Arts, Foreign Language, Language Arts, Life Skills, Math, Science, Social Studies, Technology and AP 1 Study to students in VHS member
schools. Core courses are NCAA accredited. The courses listed are current at the time of publication. Visit our website at www.goVHS.org for the most recent offerings.

Pre-AP Courses                                                 Introduction to Statistics*                              AP Calculus BC*                                        Film and Literature: The European Experience
 Introduction to Biology                                      Investing in the Stock Market*                           AP Statistics*                                         Foundations of a Nation: Early American History
  Introduction to Calculus AB*                                Learning to Invest in the Stock Market                   Calculus for Business                                  Gods of CNN: The Power of Modern Media
 Introduction to Chemistry*                                   Marketing and the Internet*                              Integrated Algebra and Geometry                        IB Economics
  Introduction to Computer Science*                            Personal Finance*                                        Introduction to Calculus AB*                           IB Information Technology in a Global Society
 Introduction to Economics*                                   Statistics and Business Quality Management               Introduction to Statistics*                            Introduction to Economics*
  Introduction to English Language and Composition                                                                      Math You Can Use In College*                           Introduction to Sociology*
  Introduction to English Literature and Composition         Foreign Language                                           Mathematical Reasoning and Logic                       Introduction to U.S. History
 Introduction to Environmental Science                        AP French Language                                      Number Theory: Patterns, Puzzles and Cryptography*    Lewis and Clark’s Expedition: A Interactive Journey
 Introduction to Physics B                                    AP Spanish Language/Spanish V                           Statistics and Business Quality Management*            Peacemaking
 Introduction to Statistics*                                  Basic Mandarin: Chinese Language and Culture*                                                                   Pearl Harbor to the Atomic Bomb
 Introduction to U.S. History                                 Latin 1                                                Science                                                  Practical Law: What You Need to Know About the
  Preparing for College Essays                                 Spanish Culture and 20th Century Hispanic Literature     Anatomy & Physiology: A Study in Stability                 Law
                                                               Writing in Spanish*                                      Animal Behavior and Zoology                            Psychology – A Introduction*
AP Courses                                                                                                              AP Biology                                            Service-Learning*
  AP Biology                                                 Language Arts                                              AP Chemistry*                                          Sports and American Society*
  AP Calculus AB*                                              101 Ways to Write a Short Story*                         AP Environmental Science*                              The Glory of Ancient Rome
  AP Calculus BC*                                             Academic Writing*                                        AP Physics B*                                          The Golden Age of Classical Greece
  AP Chemistry*                                                AP English Language and Composition                      AP Physics C                                           The Holocaust*
  AP Computer Science A*                                       AP English Literature and Composition                    Astronomy: Stars and the Cosmos                        The Vietnam War*
  AP Economics                                                Around the World in 80 Days*                             Bioethics Symposium*                                  World Area Studies: Ancient and Modern Civilizations
  AP English Language and Composition                          Basic Essay Writing                                      Biotechnology                                          World Conflict, a United Nations Introduction*
  AP English Literature and Composition                       Contemporary Irish Literature*                           Chemistry II: Chemicals of Civilization                World Religions
  AP Environmental Science*                                    Creative Writing for People Who Mean It*                 DNA Technology
  AP French Language                                           Cultural Identity Through Literature                     Environmental Chemistry                              Technology/Tech Ed.
  AP Government & Politics: U.S.*                              Folklore and Literature of Myth, Magic, and Ritual*      Environmental Science-The World Around Us*            Animation and Effects: Flash MX Basics*
  AP Physics B*                                                Ghoulies, Ghosties, and Long-Legged Beasties*            Epidemics: Ecology or Evolution                        AP Computer Science A*
  AP Physics C                                                 Hearts of Darkness: Meeting Ourselves in Literature      Genes and Disease*                                    CAD
  AP Psychology                                                Heroes                                                   Integrated Mechanical Physics with Logical            Desktop Publishing: In an Information Age*
  AP Spanish Language/Spanish V                                Horror, Mystery and Science Fiction Literature*              Reasoning                                          Digital Geography - More than a Jeopardy Category!
  AP Statistics*                                               Introduction to English Language and Composition         Introduction to Astronomy                              Engineering Principles
  AP U.S. History*                                             Introduction to English Literature and Composition       Introduction to Biology                                IB Information Technology in a Global Society
                                                              Literacy Skills for the 21st Century                     Introduction to Chemistry*                             Introduction to Computer Science*
International Baccalaureate                                   Mythology: Stories from Around the World*                Introduction to Environmental Science                 Introduction to Programming in Visual Basic*
   IB Economics                                               Poetry Writing*                                          Introduction to Physics B                             Technology and Multimedia*
   IB Information Technology in a Global Society              Poetry: Contemporary American Poets*                     Introduction to the Human Body                         Visual Basic*
                                                               Preparing for College Essays                            Meteorology: A Study of Atmospheric Interactions      Web Design and Internet Research*
Arts                                                           Reading and Writing the Science Fiction Short Story      Nuclear Physics: Science, Technology & Society        Web Design : Artistry and Functionality*
 American Popular Music                                      Screenwriting Fundamentals*                             Oceanography: A Virtual Semester at Sea
   Art and the Internet: Creating a Virtual Museum Exhibit    To Kill a Mockingbird                                    Physics for Inquiring Minds
                                                                                                                        Preveterinary Medicine
                                                                                                                                                                             * Multiple sections offered.
   Art History: Renaissance to Present*                        Twentieth Century Women Authors
                                                                                                                                                                             • Appropriate for both High School and Gifted
   Caribbean Art History                                      Young Adult Literature
 Creating Art History                                                                                                Social Studies                                           and Talented Middle School Students.
   History and Pop Music                                     Life Skills/Health                                         American Foreign Policy                              1 AP is a registered trademark of the College
   History of Photography*                                    Career Awareness for the New Millennium*                 American Multiculturalism                              Board, which was not involved in the
 Music Composition and Arranging *                           Employability Skills*                                    AP Economics
                                                                                                                                                                               production of this product.
 Music Listening and Critique*                                 Kindergarten Apprentice Teacher                         AP Government & Politics: U.S.*
                                                                                                                        AP Psychology
                                                              Parenting in the Twenty-First Century
Business                                                                                                                AP U.S. History*
                                                                Perspectives in Health
 Business and Personal Law*                                                                                            Constitutional Law*
                                                                Preparing for College Admissions and Financial Aid*
  Entrepreneurship: Starting Your Own Business*
  Entrepreneurs: Business Owners of the 3rd
     Millennium                                                                                                         Criminology
                                                                                                                        Current Issues in American Law and Justice
                                                             Math
                                                               Algebra 2                                               Democracy in America?
   International Business: An Exploration*                     AP Calculus AB*                                          Digital Geography - More than a Jeopardy Category!
                                                                                                                        Eastern and Western Thought*

				
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