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					 Curriculum guide
       For

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

            By:
    Leslie Burleson
          12/05/02
         S ED 720
      Dr. Jamal Cooks
            URL                          Summary              Connection to Literacy    Significance
Article 1   http://www.pbs.org/teacher   The National         Classroom Integrated      A Thematic Unit
            source/prek2/issues/202iss   Association for      Lesson Ideas:             on the Olympic
            ue.shtm                      Sport and            Thematic Approach: in     Winter Games
                                         Physical             which teachers overlap    could have PE
                                         Education (1998)     the content across the    students practice
                                         has issued           curriculum over a set     skills and
                                         physical activity    period of time, while     concepts of
                                         guidelines           focusing on one theme     pathways, spatial
                                         suggesting that      (Thematic Unit).          awareness,
                                         young children       Shared Integration        cardiovascular
                                         should have an       Model: in which a         endurance, and
                                         accumulation of      lesson would include      striking with an
                                         more that 60         two disciplines           implement. This
                                         minutes, and up      working together with a   will enable the
                                         to several hours     focus on shared           students to
                                         of physical          concepts. In PE:          explore the
                                         activity each day    combine language arts     relationship of
                                         to promote           with PE and focus on      these skills to the
                                         health and well-     practicing spelling       Winter Games
                                         being. We also       while performing          events of skiing,
                                         know that it is      manipulative skills.      skating and
                                         through              Students practice         hockey.
                                         movement and         weekly spelling works
                                         physical activity    while passing,
                                         that young           dribbling, and catching
                                         children learn       a ball.
                                         about their
                                         world.
                                         Integrating
                                         physical activity
                                         with other
                                         subject areas
                                         gives children
                                         more
                                         opportunities to
                                         move during the
                                         school day.
                                         Learning in all
                                         areas of the
                                         curriculum is
                                         increased as
                                         children have
                                         more
                                         opportunities to
                                         understand the
                                         relationships that
                                         exist across
                                         content areas as
                                         they transfer
                                         what they learn
                                         in one area to
                                         other
                                         environments.
          URL                      Summary              Connection to Literacy          Significance
Article   http://www.fitness.go    Researchers          Fitness activities in           The evidence suggests that well
2         v/activity/activity2/d   respond to: the      school provide                  conducted physical education
          eigest_sep1999/deige     current state of     significant individual,         programs can result in
          st_sep1999.html          PE, activity level   societal, and economic          increased activity levels during
                                   of American          implication. Presents           the school day as well as
                                   youth, how           important nutrition and         increased active living outside
                                   physical activity    health concerns for             the school setting. Scientific
                                   relates to           young people.                   literature and professional
                                   physical fitness      “It is often stated that a     thought clearly indicate a
                                   in youth, whether    child‟s mind is a terrible      relationship between physical
                                   time in PE takes     thing to waste. This is         activity and quality of life.
                                   away from            true, but it is also terrible
                                   learning in other    to waste the other 90% of       Quality programs can be
                                   areas, reasons       the child‟s body.”              offered through a variety of
                                   related to health                                    sources and not be limited to
                                   for including        Students can create             schools. A multidimensional
                                   regular PE in the    poster board collages for       approach to delivering quality
                                   curriculum.          “Red Ribbon Week” and           cognitive, affective, and
                                   Psychomotor          “Great American                 psychomotor experiences
                                   development can      Smokeout Day”,                  which includes teachers, school
                                   be as important      providing information on        administrators, health care
                                   as cognitive         and images of the               professionals, parents,
                                   information          harmful effects of drugs,       community agencies, and the
                                   achieved in          alcohol, and tobacco.           participants themselves can be
                                   schooling. It is     Posters will be hung all        most effective in changing
                                   important for the    around school, and a            lives. The key focus should be
                                   individual‟s         school wide contest             to impact the lifestyle behaviors
                                   health and well      could be held with prizes       of children and adolescents.
                                   being, as well as    given for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd     Only as schools, communities,
                                   for that of the      places. Educating               individuals, professional
                                   community.           students about the effects      associations, and agencies work
                                                        foods and nutrition have        together can we impact the
                                                        on our bodies is                health and quality of life of
                                                        beneficial for all ages. A      children and adolescents in a
                                                        simple empty food               way that can be expected to be
                                                        pyramid can be filled           adopted and maintained into
                                                        with the foods the              adulthood.
                                                        students eat throughout
                                                        the week.

                                                  *
                                                                               Connection
        URL                               Summary                              to Literacy    Significance
Article http://www.ericsp.org/pages/di    School health education needs to     Ways that      In a multi-
3       gests/multi_cultural_health_ed.   account for the beliefs and          the health     cultural
        html                              behaviors held by America‟s          educator       society,
                                          multicultural society. Rather than   can            health
                                          feeling proud of what their          promote        educators
                                          culture uniquely offers in           health in      need to
                                          promoting a healthy lifestyle,       the context    incorporate
                                          some children may feel isolated,     of shared      these goals
                                          marginalized, and ashamed of         values         to serve the
                                          the way their culture explains       include:       needs of all
                                          and manages health and illness.      One            children,
                                          By exposing children to different    exercise is    helping
                                          expressions of healthy behavior,     for learners   them to feel
                                          we can build a broad base of         to identify    pride in
                                          awareness, tolerance, and            and share      what their
                                          sensitivity to these different       stories        cultures
                                          knowledges found in different        from their     have to say
                                          cultures.                            cultural       about being
                                                                               heritages.     healthy.
                                                                               Students       Educators
                                                                               work in        need to find
                                                                               small          common
                                                                               groups that    ground and
                                                                               are mixed      identify
                                                                               ethnically.    shared
                                                                               They           values about
                                                                               discuss        health
                                                                               their own      among
                                                                               ideas about    America‟s
                                                                               causes of      many
                                                                               illnesses      subcultures.
                                                                               and ways       The most
                                                                               to stay        important
                                                                               healthy.       message is
                                                                               Students       every
                                                                               then           American
                                                                               complete a     culture has
                                                                               take-home      unique
                                                                               assignment     strengths,
                                                                               in which       knowledges,
                                                                               they find a    and wisdom
                                                                               traditional    concerning
                                                                               story from     health.
    their
    culture that
    explains
    how people
    get sick,
    get better,
    and stay
    healthy.
    Several
    other
    activities
    using
    health-
    related
    themes
    may be
    used, i.e.
    respecting
    boundaries
    , eating for
    health,
    body
    image, and
    causes for
    illness.

*
                                                                 Connection to
          URL                       Summary                      Literacy          Significance
Article   http://www.ericsp.org/p   Health-related develop       Consciousness     Helping
4         ages/digests/promoting    early, and youngsters in     raising;          students avoid
          _health_97-10.html        junior high are especially   providing         two common
                                    vulnerable to developing     information:      problems of
                                    poor health habits. Thus     „thoughts         behavior
                                    the agenda of this           journal‟),        change:
                                    particular Digest is the     emotional         rushing to
                                    promotion of health          arousal;(role     premature
                                    behavior change.             playing), self-   action or
                                    This Digest explores the     reevaluation;     indefinitely
                                    more recently developed      envisioning       substituting
                                    Transtheoretical Model       one's self with   thinking,
                                    and discusses how            and without       talking, and
                                    educators can apply it       the unhealthy     learning about
                                    towards working with         habit: („cause    a problem for
                                    students. Since few of us    and effect‟       acting to
                                    emerge from adolescence      list),            change a
                                    with ideal health habits,    Commitment:       problem.
                                    mastering behavior           accept            Understanding
                                    change is critical to our    personal          the necessary
                                    quality of life.             responsibility    tasks that need
                                                                 for change and    to be
                                                                 believe it is     completed in
                                                                 possible:         the stages
                                                                 (rank-ordering    prior to action
                                                                 situations from   may help in
                                                                 easiest to most   avoiding the
                                                                 difficult and     rush to action.
                                                                 working to        Knowing what
                                                                 master            should follow
                                                                 behavior          increased
                                                                 change in         knowledge and
                                                                 situations of     awareness of a
                                                                 increasing        problem
                                                                 difficulty.       behavior can
                                                                 Active problem    help guide
                                                                 solving: help     students
                                                                 students plan     forward
                                                                 to establish      through the
                                                                 cues and          stages of
                                                                 rewards for       change. Just as
                                                                 healthy           coaches use
    behaviors and    planning and
    remove or        pacing in
    minimize         devising
    contact with     workouts for
    triggers for     their athletes,
    unhealthy        educators can
    behaviors,       help students
    counterconditi   plan and pace
    oning:           the change
    substitute a     process.
    healthy
    behavior for
    an unhealthy
    one, helping
    relationships:
    process of
    giving and
    receiving
    help(role-
    playing), self
    monitoring;
    record
    antecedents
    and
    consequences,
    effective goal
    setting; plan
    for behavior
    change (long
    and short
    term),
    assertiveness
    skills; write
    about
    strengths,
    weaknesses
    and needs
    through story.


*
        URL                  Summary                  Connection to Literacy    Significance
Article http://www.actionbas This article advocates   Providing up-to-date      Students must be
5       edlearning.com/cgi- for quality daily         reading materials on      aware that a quality
        bin/article.pl       physical education in    fitness and sports can    physical education
                             schools. It provides     engage both boys and      program is of great
                             scientific evidence      girls in reading.         importance.
                             suggesting several       With physical fitness     Students retain
                             advantages of            comes a healthy body      information better
                             physical activity.       and a healthy mind.       when movement
                             Recent brain research    By incorporating          with intention is
                             findings support the     cognitive                 used to teach
                             importance of daily      reinforcement one can     academic concepts
                             quality physical         use a kinesthetic         kinesthetically.
                             education.               tactile approach to       Movement, rhythms,
                             Educational experts,     anchor academic           physical activity,
                             neuroscientists, and     concepts.                 and exercise help
                             respected brain          Eye tracking exercises    control many of the
                             research authors are     and peripheral vision     conditions such as
                             advocating physical      development helps         ADD, Dyslexia,
                             education based on       reading One of the        Learned
                             scientific evidence      reasons students have     Helplessness,
                             that tells us how the    trouble with reading is   Hyperactivity,
                             brain works, how the     because of the lack of    Delayed Sleep
                             brain learns, and how    eye fitness. When         Disorder,
                             movement, physical       students watch screens    Oppositional
                             activity and exercise    their eyes lock in        Disorder, Learning
                             prepare the body and     constant distant vision   Delays, Reactive
                             brain for optimal        and the muscles that      Attachment
                             learning.                control eye movement      Disorder, Brain
                                                      atrophy. Physical         Injury and Insults,
                                                      education curriculum      and Conduct
                                                      provides this avenue      Disorder. Physical
                                                      for strengthening eye     education
                                                      muscles. Tracking         curriculum provides
                                                      exercises,                not only activity and
                                                      manipulatives,            exercise, but also
                                                      navigation activities     builds relationships,
                                                      and target games          provides team
                                                      exercise the eye          membership and
                                                      muscles making the        celebrations,
                                                      eyes fit to read.         promotes rhythm
                                                      Balance improves          and cross lateral
                                                      reading capacity.         movement, and
                                                      Physical Education        encourages
                                                      curriculum games and      manipulatives for
                                                         activities that           control. Many
                                                         stimulate inner ear       students with
                                                         motion like rolling,      learning disabilities
                                                         jumping and spinning      find success in the
                                                         are necessary to lay      gymnasium because
                                                         the foundation for        our curriculum
                                                         learning.                 meets their needs in
                                                                                   a way that the
                                                                                   traditional classroom
                                                                                   may not. This is a
                                                                                   very significant
                                                                                   factor!




                            Lesson Plan Critiques

  1. Cooperative Learning Games:
  Human Obstacle Course
  Moving Body Parts
  Under the Rope
http://ednet.edc.gov.ab.ca/physicaleducationonline/lessonplans/vie
wplan.asp?lessonid=71

Summary:
        This lesson plan is intended for physical education students from grades seven to
nine. The three cooperative learning games suggested are the “Human Obstacle Course”,
“Moving Body Parts”, and “Under the Rope” in which both locomotor and non-
locomotor skills are being practiced in an alternative environment. In addition to
communication, teamwork and leadership skills, these activities also work on building
the students‟ functional fitness and body image. Other objectives include goal setting for
personal challenge and encouragement of active living in the community.


Strengths:
       I appreciate the concept of having groups of students work together to accomplish
one collective goal. These activities act as catalysis for social skill development, trust
building, and exploring the role of responsibility related to the individual and groups. I
believe this is important in creating and maintaining a „safe‟ environment amongst the
class.
         The Human Obstacle Course sounds interesting in that you create several small
groups who are all connected by certain body parts and they must try to maneuver
through the other groups without touching any obstacle. This could be challenging for
any grade level. The more creative minds, the more elaborate the obstacles.
         Moving Body Parts is a cooperative activity that I would definitely use during a
cooperative learning unit. In an open space, small groups must attempt challenges
instructed by the teacher. The number of different challenges and amount of time for each
one is at the discretion of the teacher. Incorporating popular music as the start and stop
cue for students, adds more enjoyment to the physical activity. Increasing group sizes or
adding equipment such as a scooter, jump rope, hula-hoop, or any type of ball can add
variation. In addition, creating curvy pathways in which the groups must maneuver can
manifest a group competition.
         Under the Rope is an activity that encourages critical thinking skills and
cooperation. During this activity it is specified that all students must receive a turn
holding and moving under the rope requiring students to respect others and formulate
some type of systematic approach as to how they can ensure that everyone gets a turn.
This is made possible by delivering minimal instruction in the beginning.
         I also liked how the expected outcomes for the lesson were listed as bullet-points
at the top of the lesson. Grade level was specified as seventh through ninth making the
activities adaptable to a range of ages. The suggestion of utilizing music was made in the
lesson allowing the students make decisions in what feels like a student decision-making
environment rather than an authoritarian decision-making one. Having the students
describe the challenges and effective strategies used in their journals is an ideal way to
spend closure time to assess whether objectives have been learned.

Development Areas:
         While this lesson plan offered some good ideas for a physical educator, it had
much room for improvement. First, there were several spelling errors (minor, but a pet
peeve)!! One of the general outcomes listed was safety, but there were no safety
suggestions listed. This lesson plan did not offer an anticipatory set, warm up, or cool
down. I thought the Human Obstacle Course and Under the Rope could have been more
descriptive and more creative. I think there could be several more pieces of equipment
included with these activities as I mentioned above. Assessment is minimal with these
activities. A suggestive checklist for the instructor could have been provided. A time
frame for each activity is not included, but may not be necessary (discretion of teacher).
Transitions are not planned between the three activities. Should all three be performed
within the same class period?

My Adaptations:
         First and foremost, when preparing for a cooperative learning unit one should
always set ground rules for the class so that the students are clear on what the
expectations are. Teachers should reinforce respect for others, including no put-downs
stress the importance of safety (good listening skills).
         I would use the Human Obstacle Course as a warm up to Moving Body Parts in
my teaching of seventh and eighth graders. As I referred to above, I would add a variety
of equipment to enhance the challenges and increase group sizes. Creating obstacles in
pathways or challenging the students with non-verbal activity is another adaptation I
would use.
        Not only would I use music for starting and stopping activity, I would let a group
who has cooperated well, or has shown good attitude select the song for the class to listen
to or better yet bring their choice of music in for the next day.
        With my modifications of these activities, I would include them in a weeklong
cooperative games unit. One form of assessment I would include would be to keep a
checklist of positive comments made, cooperative behavior, exhibiting sportsmanship,
safety awareness, effort, communication, teamwork, and social skills. Reflective journal
writing as I described above would assist me in the completion of this checklist.


   2. Trivia Tag
http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=1097

Summary:
        Trivia Tag seeks to raise awareness of the contribution PE can make to literacy
through the teaching of physical skills and activities. The lesson focus is to have students
work on some of their reading skills while practicing locomotor skills. The prescribed
grade level is third through eighth. Materials needed for Trivia Tag are laminated 3 x 5
index cards with questions and answers for about one-third of the class and cones to mark
the playing area.
        The teacher hands out approximately one-third of the class a 3 x 5 index card with
a question and answer. These students are the chasers. The rest of the students spread out
within the space bounded by the cones. On the teacher‟s signal the chasers move to try to
tag the others with their free hand. As the tag is made, both players stop and the chaser
reads the question. If the answer is correct, then that person is free to go. If a wrong or
NO answer is given in ten seconds, they are given the card and now become the chaser.
The student who asked the question is now free. In this game there are no tag-backs and
no timeouts.

Strengths:
        Trivia Tag is a great example of how physical educators can increase literacy
through physical activity. This game of tag provides opportunities for developing
speaking and listening skills together. This particular game of tag presents a time for
listening, a time for action, and a time for speaking. It is suggested in the lesson plan that
the game can work very well when questions from the students‟ current areas of study are
integrated. This lesson could be very useful in checking for understanding of content as
well as preassessment of the student‟s knowledge on a future subject. Safety issues were
also addressed throughout the lesson. Any time I see safety issues, teaching suggestions,
or variations in a lesson plan I find it more attractive. It often generates more ideas of
possible modifications in my head.
Development Areas:
        The objectives of the lesson could have been more specifically stated (i.e. reading,
etc. and locomotor skills)?? Again, no anticipatory set, cool down, or form of assessment
was given. Although the cones might work for an outdoors game of tag, gym floor lines
like the basketball court suffice depending on the class size.

My Adaptations:
         I could use this game of tag in my teaching of many units. Instead of just
“moving” throughout the open space, I could challenge the students to hop on one foot,
skip, hop, or gallop. I could incorporate vocabulary and concepts of units such as fitness
components, names of muscles, muscle actions and the exercises that utilize these
muscles, names of bones, rules of sport, history of sport,…, the possibilities are endless.
In fact, this activity could be used as a whole day‟s lesson or just as a lead up game. I
could make the questions simple or complex and have each student count a point for
every question they got correct. At the end of the class period the students could write as
many questions and answers that they remembered in their journals. The students could
also come up with questions of their own (teacher would okay or modify them) after the
content of the unit has been presented.

   3. Fitness and Math Challenge:
http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=1105

Summary:
        Fifteen fitness tasks are set up as stations around the gymnasium. The lesson plan
suggests several stations from pogo sticks to golf putting greens. Each student chooses a
partner as they enter the activity area. The stations are one minute each with 20 seconds
in between allowing students to record their score and rotate with a partner. A worksheet
is developed that will multiply the students score by different numbers. Challenge
students to try to earn 1000 points. For example, pus ups. (number of push ups in a
minute multiplied by 7).

Strengths:
        This lesson increases the students‟ time on task. All students maintain constant
physical activity. By challenging students to reach 1000 points you are creating high
expectations that the students will strive to achieve. Students find station work to be very
stimulating. Giving numerous station options allows the teacher a choice of which
stations would be most beneficial for their students. Many times a teacher is limited in
resources, and this lesson plan offers enough ideas so that it can be useful for any
physical education teacher. It also offers suggestions for modifications of mainstreamed
students within the activities.
Areas of Development:
       Fifteen stations in most gymnasiums would be unrealistic. Striving for one
thousand points could also be unreachable, considering the amount of time for set up and
take down of all of the equipment. The more equipment per station, the less time the
students will remain active. Although the suggested grade level for this activity is fourth
through sixth, it could be used across all grade levels by increasing the difficulty of
mathematics. Many times stations can be difficult to supervise, especially when
manipulating heavy equipment is involved.

My Adaptations:
        I would have about ten stations depending on class size and I would start with
simple stations in the beginning to get the students use to the idea of station work. I
would teach the safety precautions at each station and demonstrate how each would be
used before students began. I would provide worksheets with the formulas they were
expected to complete. This would be a good way to assess improvement in fitness by the
total number of points. Students who have difficulty with math should be paired up with
those who have a better understanding of it allowing for peer teaching. For the minute of
activity, I would encourage the students to count their repetitions out loud so that they
don‟t lose track.

   4. Scooter Softball:
http://pazz.tripod.com/scootersoftball.htm

Summary:
         For this game you should have scooters for the entire outfield (nine) and one for
the base runner. The object of this game is to see if the base runner (on the scooter) can
beat the ball home, as it is being thrown around the bases. The base runner does NOT
stop on a base. The pitcher rolls a racquetball or softer ball to the base runner and they
pick it up and throw it as far as they can then rides the scooter around the bases. The
infielders set up in front of the bases where there is a bowling pin set up. The player who
fields the ball must throw the ball to the first baseman who knocks the pin down and
throws the ball to the second baseman who knocks down that pin, to third baseman who
knocks the pin down, then to home and the catcher knocks that pin down. The person on
the scooter must go around all bases If all the pins are down before the person on the
scooter gets back home, the person is out. If any pins are standing when the person on
the scooter gets home, the run scores. Pins must be knocked down in order, first, second,
third and home, even if the ball is closest to another base, other than first base.
The fielders must THROW the ball around the bases, not roll the ball.

Strengths:
        Even if scooters are not available for all students, the „crab walk‟ is suggested.
The activity of Scooter Softball sounds very entertaining. I think any game that has to do
with students on scooters is worth a try.
Areas of Development:
        This game allows for too much down time. As the ten students are playing the
game, what is the rest of the class doing? They are inactive. I found this formatting of
lesson planning reader „unfriendly‟. Many components were missing. Basically this was a
hard to follow description of a game. The font was very small and all components of the
game were clustered together. There were no safety issues addressed regarding the
scooters. The activity described could be useful, but the presentation is horrible.

My Adaptations:
       I would have written rules handed out during the beginning of class as well as a
demonstration of one base runner‟s attempt. I would also have the students who are
waiting in line to be the next base runner doing jumping jacks, cheers, or anything to
keep them active.

   5. Aerobics/Dance Project:
http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=2059

Summary:
        The purpose of this project is for students to work in groups of three to five to
create original dances or aerobic routines. The students will have already been exposed to
different dance and aerobic routines and moves. Once all students have completed their
routine, they will present it in front of the class and teach it to the class.

Strengths:
        This is a very insightful way to teach dance. The students are allowed to choose
their own music and work collaboratively to create movements of expression. This lesson
plan format is very helpful in that it offers a project description, teaching suggestions, and
assessment ideas including grading and evaluation sheets. The suggested grade level for
this lesson is ninth through twelfth. I believe that the complete lesson, involving the
actual teaching of the dance or aerobics routine is appropriate to these grade levels.

Areas of Development:
        In this lesson, the dance the type of dance that is proposed is line dancing.
Although country line dancing may be of interest to some students, the students of the
Bay Area are not likely to be of that population. In teaching culturally diverse learners,
the teacher must teach culturally relevant material. The students should not be limited to
line dancing.

My Adaptations:
        I would and have seen a similar dance unit taught at Presidio Middle School.
They were taught some traditional dances as well as some line dances before being asked
to create their own dance as a group. I might also teach them or ask them to teach me
some of the more contemporary hip-hop moves. I would also provide groups with task
cards illustrating certain movements that they must implement into their routines. They
should also be taught that most dances have a standard eight-count. In my opinion this
lesson can be taught to eighth grade students as well, minus the teaching of the dance.
The time permitted to the groups to generate their routines could also be up to a week.

                                      Resources

Resource #1:
www.pecentral.com

Summary:
        This website contains several resources for anyone who is interested in physical
education and fitness. Pecentral.com is a significant tool for any physical education
teacher. Lesson ideas, adaptive PE suggestions, instructional resources, assessment ideas,
recent research, professional information, job center, and links to other helpful websites
make this website a key resource for any physical educator.

Strengths:
        This resource provides new ideas to the physical educator. It also posts featured
lesson ideas that are used in different parts of the country. They also feature helpful
books for teaching different grade levels. I like the way the home page is presented
because it makes what you are looking for easy to find.

Areas of Development:
        I check this website often and I would like to see more lessons appropriate for
middle school aged children. I would also find it helpful to see lessons accounting for the
cultural diverseness of our society. I find many of the featured successful “alternative
environment” physical education programs are out of states other than California. While
the lessons I found were submitted by PE teachers, I would like to see some suggestions
from the students as well.

Use in the Gymnasium/Yards:
       There are an enormous amount of lesson plan ideas that I have derived from this
website. The information goes on and on. I get new ideas of how to use equipment that I
am unfamiliar with and find new activities for old activities that I may not have thought
of!
Resource #2:
http://www.pelinks4u.org/

Summary:
        This website contains lots of information on physical activity that may not be
specifically for a PE teacher. It includes research and articles on various activities and
concepts surrounding physical education and activity.

Strengths:
         Pelinks4u.org contains information pertinent to every age level and every activity
level. It contains the latest news in PE and is always up-to-date. It also offers technology
help, which can be insightful for inexperienced educators.

Areas of Development:
       I believe the font could be bigger…are my eyes getting bad? The editors could
shorten the writing on the home page and just create links to those articles or sites.

Use in the Gymnasium/Yards:
         The information is so rich on this site that I could pull something from this and
put it into my classes everyday. I might use some of the quotes of the statistics of obesity,
body image, etc. and put it up on the bulletin board in the locker room.

Resource #3:
http://members.tripod.com/~pazz/lesson.html

Summary:
       This site provides quite a few and a variety of lesson ideas.

Strengths:
        When I looked at this site I saw a variation of activities and games. Very creative
ideas are submitted by physical educators across the country.

Areas of Development:
         This site is offered through a free server, therefore it can get overviewed and shut
off for two hours. In addition, since the lessons are submitted by PE teachers and are
unedited, there is no uniform format to follow, making it a little less user friendly. The
names several of the activities do not indicate what the activity actually is. But if you
have the time to browse through them, there are some neat ideas!
Use in the Gymnasium/Yards:
       There are many lessons submitted by the fresh young minds of idealist physical
educators that I would be happy to modify and include in my classes. Many of these
games could be done during the same class period, then the students could choose which
one they wanted to play the last portion of class.

Resource #4:
http://www.pedigest.com/

Summary:
       PE Digest is a quarterly magazine that provides ideas, tips, coaching cues, and
research on sports.

Strengths:
       This is a great way to research topics pertaining to health, fitness, nutrition, and
physical activities. The magazine is an award winning prestigious read with well-
researched topics. Lesson ideas are also provided.

Areas of Development:
          Advertising and subscribing to the magazine is boldly presented. It is a magazine
after all!

Use in the Gymnasium/Yards:
        I would subscribe to this magazine at the school where I am employed. It can be
beneficial to both the student and the teacher as well as to the athlete and coach. This
magazine provides foresight into topics of PE from around the world which could spark
interest in young students and athletes.

Resource #5:
http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/prek2/issues/202issue.shtm

Summary:
        A few things TeacherSource can be used for is researching information and
creating and finding new activities and lesson plans. TeacherSource is exactly that; a
great resource for all teachers.

Strengths:
        This is a great starting point for anything a teacher would want for their
instruction of a class. There are extended links offered to guide you through the
information trail. The health, food, and nutrition lesson plans are very extensive…in a
good way. All components of a „good‟ lesson plan are included.
Areas of Development:
       The articles written could be dated more clearly. More lesson plans on the actual
physical activity could be present. Most of these were found via the pecentral.com link.

Use in the Gymnasium/Yards:
        I could incorporate the fantastic health, food, and nutrition lessons into my
classes. For example, the students would keep a food log for the week and compare it to
the research that I bring in off this site.


                                  Lesson Plans
                                        (Follow)
                                     Lesson #1
Activity: “Moving Body Parts”

Objective: The students will be able to demonstrate teamwork by communication and
cooperation with the others in their group to perform the challenges as demonstrated by
the instructor.

Materials: Any open space, students, students‟ journals, pencils (at least 20), 4 or
more cones to designate a pathway, CD with students‟ era music (NOW #6 is a good
one), CD player

Anticipatory Set: “We will continue our cooperative unit today. The same ground
rules we established on day one apply. There will be no put downs tolerated, and I need
you all to respect each other‟s safety by listening to and following my directions. Let‟s
begin!

Steps:
   1. After routine warm-ups, the class will be seated in their squad lines.
   2. Students are asked to get into groups of three by the month of their birthday. If
      there are more than three, choose the partners with days closest to your own. If
      there are months without three students, then they will combine with others with
      days close to their own (teacher will assess and direct).
   3. Explain the activity: I will challenge each group to perform a movement. As the
      music starts your group must attempt to move around the pathway together. As
      the music stops, you will separate and listen to the next challenge. The first
      challenge is…
      - 3 feet touching the ground with hands on ankles
      - 5 body parts on the ground
      - some body parts at medium level and some at a low level
      - all players on their side and connected to each other
      - all players making a round low shape
      - lots of noise without using feet of mouths
      - all backs touching and very fast
      - body parts being used so the group looks like a spider
   4. As each group achieves successful attempts to the challenges, increase the group
      size to four by allowing them to pick up another member quickly.
   5. Go through the challenges again.
Assessment:
            1. Checklist (continuing throughout the cooperative unit).
                  a. Record and/or check off positive comments made, cooperative
                      behavior, exhibiting sportsmanship, safety awareness, effort,
                      communication, teamwork, and social skills. Did they make an
                      effort to perform the challenge?
                  b. Reflective journal writing: During closure, students will write
                      about what they liked and/or disliked about this activity. And
                      they will offer an additional challenge that was not used.
                  c. The last minute of class, I would ask if anyone would like to
                      share what they wrote and if there were any questions or
                      concerns.
Literacy Aspect:
     1. By assigning them to write in their journals, the students can immediately
        reflect on the interactions with other students and how they feel about the
        challenges.
     2. Additionally, prompting the students to share ideas about the activity helps
        them to speak their minds (encouraging answers in complete sentences).

Reflection/Response:
     1. Use Human Obstacle Course as a warm up or a backup plan.
     2. Should the students be allowed to choose their own partners initially?
     3. Always give words of encouragement and show enthusiasm for the activity!!
.
                                                                          Leslie Burleson
                                                                             Eighth grade
                                                                        Physical education
                                                                               40 students
                                                                               60 minutes
                                     Lesson #2
Activity: “Trivia Tag”

Objective:
               1. Students will practice listening in speaking in questioning and
               answering the trivia questions.
               2. At the end of the period, students will be able to answer 90% of the
                   fitness trivia questions correctly on the quiz given.
               3. Students will demonstrate a variety of locomotor skills correctly as
                   demonstrated by the instructor.

Materials: Fifteen—3 x 5 index cards with two questions and answers, open play area,
time-piece, whistle, quiz of ten questions (picked from index cards), 40 pencils

Anticipatory Set:
               “We have spent several days on the fitness unit and today we are going to
               apply some of the knowledge you have learned about the fitness
               components.”

Steps:
               1. Routine warm up and stretches of upper and lower body.
               2. Seated in roll call.
               3. Anticipatory set.
               4. Explain the game: The teacher hands 15—3 x 5 index card containing
                  two questions and answers. These students are the chasers. The rest of
                  the students spread out within the space of the gym. On the teacher‟s
                  signal (one whistle blow) the chasers move to try to tag the others with
                  their free hand. As the tag is made, both players stop and the chaser
                  reads the question. If the answer is correct, then that person is free to
                  go. If a wrong or NO answer is given in ten seconds, they are given
                  the card and now become the chaser. The student who asked the
                  question is now free. In this game there are no tag-backs and no
                  timeouts.
               5. Only one question needs to be asked. There are two on each card
                  allowing the chaser a choice of which one to ask.
               6. Students should know that two whistle blows means to stop, and one
                  to go.
               7. Instruct the students to spread out and use the whole play area.
Assessment:
              1. The instructor throughout the duration of the period will monitor
                 students.
              2. Students will be quizzed during the final ten minutes of class on ten
                 questions that were on the index cards they used for the game of tag.

Literacy Aspect:
              1. Students are provided opportunities for developing speaking and
                 listening skills together.
              2. This particular game of tag presents a time for listening, a time for
                 action, and a time for speaking.
              3. The quiz holds them accountable for writing the information they are
                 responsible for.

Reflection/Response:
            1. Make students aware that they will benefit from being asked the most
                 questions because there will be a quiz at the end containing the exact
                 questions from some of the cards (previous material from the fitness
                 unit).
              2. Have extra cards in case some are too easy.
              3. If they do not know the answer to the questions on the quiz, they may
                 be allowed to write a question and answer they remember from Trivia
                 Tag.
                                                                             Eighth grade
                                                                        Physical education
                                                                               40 students
                                                                               60 minutes
                                     Lesson #3
Activity: “Math and Fitness Challenge”

Objective: Students will demonstrate the reinforcement of math concepts while at the
same time increase their heart rates and learn about fitness concepts by recording
repetitions and using given mathematic formulas for computation.

Materials: 10 folding gymnastics mats (two per station; not at jump ropes), 10 jump
ropes of multiple lengths, 10 aerobic steps, multiple dumbbells (one, three, and five
pounds), 40 score sheets, 40 pencils, CD player, and CD of motivating music (not too
loud, students need to be able to count without losing track)!!!

Anticipatory Set: “Today we will be doing fitness stations. This is very common in
fitness training. Each station will be one minute and you will count out loud the number
of repetitions. Your cue to start and stop will be the music. Stop and record the number of
repetitions and rotate. On your score sheets there is a number that you will multiply your
reps by. At the end you add all of those products together, giving you a grand total of reps
from all of the stations. Your goal is to reach 1000 points! You will not do the
calculations at the stations, you will be given time at the end of the period to do that.

Steps:
       1. Shortened routine warm up.
       2. Students are seated in roll call (squad lines).
       3. Anticipatory set.
       4. Demonstrate proper technique at each station.
              a. Station #1: Jump rope
              b. Station #2: Crunches
              c. Station #3: One minute aerobic step test
              d. Station #4: Curl-ups (dumbbells)
              e. Station #5: Stretching (resting station)
       5. Hand out score sheets and pencils to squad leaders who pass them back to
          their lines.
       6. Squads are assigned to stations.
       7. Music initiates activity! Let‟s BEGIN!

Assessment:
       1. Use a rubric of grand total points.
             a. 900-1000=A
             b. 700-899=B
             c. 500-699=C
            d. 300-below=F
     2. This would be a good way to assess improvement in fitness by the total
        number of points. Do stations at the beginning and end of the fitness unit and
        compare total points to assess development.
     3. Have students write which fitness component is being practiced at each station
        to assess fitness knowledge.

Literacy Aspect:
     1. Students must fill out score sheets properly according to stations that are
        labeled.
     2. Students must read station signs in order to know order of stations.
     3. Students write reactions to their performance in their reflective journals.

Reflection/Response:
     1. Students who have difficulty with math should be paired up with those who
        have a better understanding of it allowing for peer teaching.
     2. This lesson increases the students‟ time on task.
     3. Are all students “on task”?
                                                                         Leslie Burleson
                                                                            Eighth grade
                                                                       Physical education
                                                                              40 students
                                                                              60 minutes
                                     Lesson #4
Activity: “Happy Island”

Objective: Students will explore the roles of responsibility related to the individual
and groups by achieving the team goals set by the instructor.

Materials: 4 hula hoops, 2 jump ropes, 2 scooters, 2 hockey sticks, 2 folding
gymnastics mats

Anticipatory Set:
               “Today we will be working on team building skills. The activity is called
               “Happy Island” because when you reach the island on the other side your
               HAPPY!!”

Steps:
       1.   Stationary exercises and stretching.
       2.   Students are seated in roll call (squad lines).
       3.   Anticipatory set.
       4.   Explanation of the rules:
                a. Each team (two teams) will have a scooter, 2 hula hoops, a jump rope,
                   and a hockey stick. Your team will stand on one mat with all of this
                   equipment in front of you. 50 feet in front of you is the other mat
                   (Happy Island). You must get all of your teammates to the other side
                   without touching the ground.
                b. If you touch the ground you must leave all equipment behind and go
                   back to the starting mat.
                c. The first team to successfully get across, wins!!

Assessment:
       1. Students will be assessed by active participation and identifying techniques
          used during “Happy Island”.

Literacy Aspect:
       1. Students will be responsible for writing three strategies that worked or they
          saw the other team perform that was effective.
       2. Students must identify three ineffective strategies and describe why they were
          not productive.
                                                                       Leslie Burleson
                                                                          Eighth grade
                                                                     Physical education
                                                                            40 students
                                                                            60 minutes
                                    Lesson #5
Activity: “Create a Dance Routine”

Objective: Students will be able to create and perform a dance by the end of the week,
using previously learned movements and implementing their own creative movements.

Materials: Task cards (illustrations of movements), cassette or CD players for each
group—8 groups of 5 (allow the students to bring in), music (cassette or CD), gymnasium
(ideal)

Anticipatory Set:
        “We have learned many different traditional dances this week. Now I want you to
create your own dance. I will give each group two task cards in which these movements
must appear somewhere in your dance. If you would like more task cards to give you an
idea of different movements, that okay too. You may select your groups of five. Since
we only have two stereos, three of the groups should bring cassette or CD players.
Groups should decide on the music by tomorrow, and you will have until Friday (today is
Monday) to develop and present your dance.

Steps:
       1. Aerobic warm up and dance stretching.
       2. Anticipatory set.
       3. Each group will be responsible for logging daily process in their journals.
       4. Each group member will fill out a Group Evaluation form at the end of the
          performances.
       5. Students select their groups of five.
       6. Students without a group are placed by the teacher into groups of students
          who have exhibited superior social skills in class.
       7. Walk around and offer suggestions and feedback to groups.
       8. It is important to allow time for the students to collaborate on their own.
       9. A sign-up sheet is passed around and groups must record the names of all the
          members and designate one person in the group to bring in a cassette or CD
          player for the rest of the dance unit. (They can be secured in either locker
          room office).
       10.During closure, students are notified to choose a song by the end of the
          following class period.
       11.It should also be suggested that students exchange telephone number so that
          perhaps they could practice outside of school.
Assessment:
     1.   A colleague or myself will videotape students.
     2.   I will review the video with a rubric.
     3.   Groups will also be responsible for filling out a Group Evaluation Sheet.
     4.   Grades will depend on contribution, participation, and practice of group
          members as determined by the performance, my observations, and responses
          to the Group Evaluation Sheet.
Literacy Aspect:
     1. Speaking and listening skills are being practiced while the groups work
        together in combining ideas.
     2. Students are responsible for logging daily progress and ideas in their journals.
     3. Students must also fill out a Group Evaluation Sheet in which they list the
        duties of each member and get a chance to comment on their group activities.

Reflection/Response:
     1. What if there was a group of extremely shy and sensitive students who
        completely refused to do this project?
           a. I would suggest that the group videotape the dance at home and bring
               it in to me. I would respect their privacy and promise that I would be
               the only one to watch it!
           b.