Curriculum guide For PHYSICAL EDUCATION By: Leslie Burleson 12/05/02 S ED 720 Dr. Jamal Cooks URL Summary Connection to Literacy Significance Article 1 http://www.pbs.org/teacher The National Classroom Integrated A Thematic Unit source/prek2/issues/202iss Association for Lesson Ideas: on the Olympic ue.shtm Sport and Thematic Approach: in Winter Games Physical which teachers overlap could have PE Education (1998) the content across the students practice has issued curriculum over a set skills and physical activity period of time, while concepts of guidelines focusing on one theme pathways, spatial suggesting that (Thematic Unit). awareness, young children Shared Integration cardiovascular should have an Model: in which a endurance, and accumulation of lesson would include striking with an more that 60 two disciplines implement. This minutes, and up working together with a will enable the to several hours focus on shared students to of physical concepts. In PE: explore the activity each day combine language arts relationship of to promote with PE and focus on these skills to the health and well- practicing spelling Winter Games being. We also while performing events of skiing, know that it is manipulative skills. skating and through Students practice hockey. movement and weekly spelling works physical activity while passing, that young dribbling, and catching children learn a ball. about their world. Integrating physical activity with other subject areas gives children more opportunities to move during the school day. Learning in all areas of the curriculum is increased as children have more opportunities to understand the relationships that exist across content areas as they transfer what they learn in one area to other environments. URL Summary Connection to Literacy Significance Article http://www.fitness.go Researchers Fitness activities in The evidence suggests that well 2 v/activity/activity2/d respond to: the school provide conducted physical education eigest_sep1999/deige current state of significant individual, programs can result in st_sep1999.html PE, activity level societal, and economic increased activity levels during of American implication. Presents the school day as well as youth, how important nutrition and increased active living outside physical activity health concerns for the school setting. Scientific relates to young people. literature and professional physical fitness “It is often stated that a thought clearly indicate a in youth, whether child‟s mind is a terrible relationship between physical time in PE takes thing to waste. This is activity and quality of life. away from true, but it is also terrible learning in other to waste the other 90% of Quality programs can be areas, reasons the child‟s body.” offered through a variety of related to health sources and not be limited to for including Students can create schools. A multidimensional regular PE in the poster board collages for approach to delivering quality curriculum. “Red Ribbon Week” and cognitive, affective, and Psychomotor “Great American psychomotor experiences development can Smokeout Day”, which includes teachers, school be as important providing information on administrators, health care as cognitive and images of the professionals, parents, information harmful effects of drugs, community agencies, and the achieved in alcohol, and tobacco. participants themselves can be schooling. It is Posters will be hung all most effective in changing important for the around school, and a lives. The key focus should be individual‟s school wide contest to impact the lifestyle behaviors health and well could be held with prizes of children and adolescents. being, as well as given for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Only as schools, communities, for that of the places. Educating individuals, professional community. students about the effects associations, and agencies work foods and nutrition have together can we impact the on our bodies is health and quality of life of beneficial for all ages. A children and adolescents in a simple empty food way that can be expected to be pyramid can be filled adopted and maintained into with the foods the adulthood. students eat throughout the week. * Connection URL Summary to Literacy Significance Article http://www.ericsp.org/pages/di School health education needs to Ways that In a multi- 3 gests/multi_cultural_health_ed. account for the beliefs and the health cultural html behaviors held by America‟s educator society, multicultural society. Rather than can health feeling proud of what their promote educators culture uniquely offers in health in need to promoting a healthy lifestyle, the context incorporate some children may feel isolated, of shared these goals marginalized, and ashamed of values to serve the the way their culture explains include: needs of all and manages health and illness. One children, By exposing children to different exercise is helping expressions of healthy behavior, for learners them to feel we can build a broad base of to identify pride in awareness, tolerance, and and share what their sensitivity to these different stories cultures knowledges found in different from their have to say cultures. cultural about being heritages. healthy. Students Educators work in need to find small common groups that ground and are mixed identify ethnically. shared They values about discuss health their own among ideas about America‟s causes of many illnesses subcultures. and ways The most to stay important healthy. message is Students every then American complete a culture has take-home unique assignment strengths, in which knowledges, they find a and wisdom traditional concerning story from health. their culture that explains how people get sick, get better, and stay healthy. Several other activities using health- related themes may be used, i.e. respecting boundaries , eating for health, body image, and causes for illness. * Connection to URL Summary Literacy Significance Article http://www.ericsp.org/p Health-related develop Consciousness Helping 4 ages/digests/promoting early, and youngsters in raising; students avoid _health_97-10.html junior high are especially providing two common vulnerable to developing information: problems of poor health habits. Thus „thoughts behavior the agenda of this journal‟), change: particular Digest is the emotional rushing to promotion of health arousal;(role premature behavior change. playing), self- action or This Digest explores the reevaluation; indefinitely more recently developed envisioning substituting Transtheoretical Model one's self with thinking, and discusses how and without talking, and educators can apply it the unhealthy learning about towards working with habit: („cause a problem for students. Since few of us and effect‟ acting to emerge from adolescence list), change a with ideal health habits, Commitment: problem. mastering behavior accept Understanding change is critical to our personal the necessary quality of life. responsibility tasks that need for change and to be believe it is completed in possible: the stages (rank-ordering prior to action situations from may help in easiest to most avoiding the difficult and rush to action. working to Knowing what master should follow behavior increased change in knowledge and situations of awareness of a increasing problem difficulty. behavior can Active problem help guide solving: help students students plan forward to establish through the cues and stages of rewards for change. Just as healthy coaches use behaviors and planning and remove or pacing in minimize devising contact with workouts for triggers for their athletes, unhealthy educators can behaviors, help students counterconditi plan and pace oning: the change substitute a process. healthy behavior for an unhealthy one, helping relationships: process of giving and receiving help(role- playing), self monitoring; record antecedents and consequences, effective goal setting; plan for behavior change (long and short term), assertiveness skills; write about strengths, weaknesses and needs through story. * URL Summary Connection to Literacy Significance Article http://www.actionbas This article advocates Providing up-to-date Students must be 5 edlearning.com/cgi- for quality daily reading materials on aware that a quality bin/article.pl physical education in fitness and sports can physical education schools. It provides engage both boys and program is of great scientific evidence girls in reading. importance. suggesting several With physical fitness Students retain advantages of comes a healthy body information better physical activity. and a healthy mind. when movement Recent brain research By incorporating with intention is findings support the cognitive used to teach importance of daily reinforcement one can academic concepts quality physical use a kinesthetic kinesthetically. education. tactile approach to Movement, rhythms, Educational experts, anchor academic physical activity, neuroscientists, and concepts. and exercise help respected brain Eye tracking exercises control many of the research authors are and peripheral vision conditions such as advocating physical development helps ADD, Dyslexia, education based on reading One of the Learned scientific evidence reasons students have Helplessness, that tells us how the trouble with reading is Hyperactivity, brain works, how the because of the lack of Delayed Sleep brain learns, and how eye fitness. When Disorder, movement, physical students watch screens Oppositional activity and exercise their eyes lock in Disorder, Learning prepare the body and constant distant vision Delays, Reactive brain for optimal and the muscles that Attachment learning. control eye movement Disorder, Brain atrophy. Physical Injury and Insults, education curriculum and Conduct provides this avenue Disorder. Physical for strengthening eye education muscles. Tracking curriculum provides exercises, not only activity and manipulatives, exercise, but also navigation activities builds relationships, and target games provides team exercise the eye membership and muscles making the celebrations, eyes fit to read. promotes rhythm Balance improves and cross lateral reading capacity. movement, and Physical Education encourages curriculum games and manipulatives for activities that control. Many stimulate inner ear students with motion like rolling, learning disabilities jumping and spinning find success in the are necessary to lay gymnasium because the foundation for our curriculum learning. meets their needs in a way that the traditional classroom may not. This is a very significant factor! Lesson Plan Critiques 1. Cooperative Learning Games: Human Obstacle Course Moving Body Parts Under the Rope http://ednet.edc.gov.ab.ca/physicaleducationonline/lessonplans/vie wplan.asp?lessonid=71 Summary: This lesson plan is intended for physical education students from grades seven to nine. The three cooperative learning games suggested are the “Human Obstacle Course”, “Moving Body Parts”, and “Under the Rope” in which both locomotor and non- locomotor skills are being practiced in an alternative environment. In addition to communication, teamwork and leadership skills, these activities also work on building the students‟ functional fitness and body image. Other objectives include goal setting for personal challenge and encouragement of active living in the community. Strengths: I appreciate the concept of having groups of students work together to accomplish one collective goal. These activities act as catalysis for social skill development, trust building, and exploring the role of responsibility related to the individual and groups. I believe this is important in creating and maintaining a „safe‟ environment amongst the class. The Human Obstacle Course sounds interesting in that you create several small groups who are all connected by certain body parts and they must try to maneuver through the other groups without touching any obstacle. This could be challenging for any grade level. The more creative minds, the more elaborate the obstacles. Moving Body Parts is a cooperative activity that I would definitely use during a cooperative learning unit. In an open space, small groups must attempt challenges instructed by the teacher. The number of different challenges and amount of time for each one is at the discretion of the teacher. Incorporating popular music as the start and stop cue for students, adds more enjoyment to the physical activity. Increasing group sizes or adding equipment such as a scooter, jump rope, hula-hoop, or any type of ball can add variation. In addition, creating curvy pathways in which the groups must maneuver can manifest a group competition. Under the Rope is an activity that encourages critical thinking skills and cooperation. During this activity it is specified that all students must receive a turn holding and moving under the rope requiring students to respect others and formulate some type of systematic approach as to how they can ensure that everyone gets a turn. This is made possible by delivering minimal instruction in the beginning. I also liked how the expected outcomes for the lesson were listed as bullet-points at the top of the lesson. Grade level was specified as seventh through ninth making the activities adaptable to a range of ages. The suggestion of utilizing music was made in the lesson allowing the students make decisions in what feels like a student decision-making environment rather than an authoritarian decision-making one. Having the students describe the challenges and effective strategies used in their journals is an ideal way to spend closure time to assess whether objectives have been learned. Development Areas: While this lesson plan offered some good ideas for a physical educator, it had much room for improvement. First, there were several spelling errors (minor, but a pet peeve)!! One of the general outcomes listed was safety, but there were no safety suggestions listed. This lesson plan did not offer an anticipatory set, warm up, or cool down. I thought the Human Obstacle Course and Under the Rope could have been more descriptive and more creative. I think there could be several more pieces of equipment included with these activities as I mentioned above. Assessment is minimal with these activities. A suggestive checklist for the instructor could have been provided. A time frame for each activity is not included, but may not be necessary (discretion of teacher). Transitions are not planned between the three activities. Should all three be performed within the same class period? My Adaptations: First and foremost, when preparing for a cooperative learning unit one should always set ground rules for the class so that the students are clear on what the expectations are. Teachers should reinforce respect for others, including no put-downs stress the importance of safety (good listening skills). I would use the Human Obstacle Course as a warm up to Moving Body Parts in my teaching of seventh and eighth graders. As I referred to above, I would add a variety of equipment to enhance the challenges and increase group sizes. Creating obstacles in pathways or challenging the students with non-verbal activity is another adaptation I would use. Not only would I use music for starting and stopping activity, I would let a group who has cooperated well, or has shown good attitude select the song for the class to listen to or better yet bring their choice of music in for the next day. With my modifications of these activities, I would include them in a weeklong cooperative games unit. One form of assessment I would include would be to keep a checklist of positive comments made, cooperative behavior, exhibiting sportsmanship, safety awareness, effort, communication, teamwork, and social skills. Reflective journal writing as I described above would assist me in the completion of this checklist. 2. Trivia Tag http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=1097 Summary: Trivia Tag seeks to raise awareness of the contribution PE can make to literacy through the teaching of physical skills and activities. The lesson focus is to have students work on some of their reading skills while practicing locomotor skills. The prescribed grade level is third through eighth. Materials needed for Trivia Tag are laminated 3 x 5 index cards with questions and answers for about one-third of the class and cones to mark the playing area. The teacher hands out approximately one-third of the class a 3 x 5 index card with a question and answer. These students are the chasers. The rest of the students spread out within the space bounded by the cones. On the teacher‟s signal the chasers move to try to tag the others with their free hand. As the tag is made, both players stop and the chaser reads the question. If the answer is correct, then that person is free to go. If a wrong or NO answer is given in ten seconds, they are given the card and now become the chaser. The student who asked the question is now free. In this game there are no tag-backs and no timeouts. Strengths: Trivia Tag is a great example of how physical educators can increase literacy through physical activity. This game of tag provides opportunities for developing speaking and listening skills together. This particular game of tag presents a time for listening, a time for action, and a time for speaking. It is suggested in the lesson plan that the game can work very well when questions from the students‟ current areas of study are integrated. This lesson could be very useful in checking for understanding of content as well as preassessment of the student‟s knowledge on a future subject. Safety issues were also addressed throughout the lesson. Any time I see safety issues, teaching suggestions, or variations in a lesson plan I find it more attractive. It often generates more ideas of possible modifications in my head. Development Areas: The objectives of the lesson could have been more specifically stated (i.e. reading, etc. and locomotor skills)?? Again, no anticipatory set, cool down, or form of assessment was given. Although the cones might work for an outdoors game of tag, gym floor lines like the basketball court suffice depending on the class size. My Adaptations: I could use this game of tag in my teaching of many units. Instead of just “moving” throughout the open space, I could challenge the students to hop on one foot, skip, hop, or gallop. I could incorporate vocabulary and concepts of units such as fitness components, names of muscles, muscle actions and the exercises that utilize these muscles, names of bones, rules of sport, history of sport,…, the possibilities are endless. In fact, this activity could be used as a whole day‟s lesson or just as a lead up game. I could make the questions simple or complex and have each student count a point for every question they got correct. At the end of the class period the students could write as many questions and answers that they remembered in their journals. The students could also come up with questions of their own (teacher would okay or modify them) after the content of the unit has been presented. 3. Fitness and Math Challenge: http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=1105 Summary: Fifteen fitness tasks are set up as stations around the gymnasium. The lesson plan suggests several stations from pogo sticks to golf putting greens. Each student chooses a partner as they enter the activity area. The stations are one minute each with 20 seconds in between allowing students to record their score and rotate with a partner. A worksheet is developed that will multiply the students score by different numbers. Challenge students to try to earn 1000 points. For example, pus ups. (number of push ups in a minute multiplied by 7). Strengths: This lesson increases the students‟ time on task. All students maintain constant physical activity. By challenging students to reach 1000 points you are creating high expectations that the students will strive to achieve. Students find station work to be very stimulating. Giving numerous station options allows the teacher a choice of which stations would be most beneficial for their students. Many times a teacher is limited in resources, and this lesson plan offers enough ideas so that it can be useful for any physical education teacher. It also offers suggestions for modifications of mainstreamed students within the activities. Areas of Development: Fifteen stations in most gymnasiums would be unrealistic. Striving for one thousand points could also be unreachable, considering the amount of time for set up and take down of all of the equipment. The more equipment per station, the less time the students will remain active. Although the suggested grade level for this activity is fourth through sixth, it could be used across all grade levels by increasing the difficulty of mathematics. Many times stations can be difficult to supervise, especially when manipulating heavy equipment is involved. My Adaptations: I would have about ten stations depending on class size and I would start with simple stations in the beginning to get the students use to the idea of station work. I would teach the safety precautions at each station and demonstrate how each would be used before students began. I would provide worksheets with the formulas they were expected to complete. This would be a good way to assess improvement in fitness by the total number of points. Students who have difficulty with math should be paired up with those who have a better understanding of it allowing for peer teaching. For the minute of activity, I would encourage the students to count their repetitions out loud so that they don‟t lose track. 4. Scooter Softball: http://pazz.tripod.com/scootersoftball.htm Summary: For this game you should have scooters for the entire outfield (nine) and one for the base runner. The object of this game is to see if the base runner (on the scooter) can beat the ball home, as it is being thrown around the bases. The base runner does NOT stop on a base. The pitcher rolls a racquetball or softer ball to the base runner and they pick it up and throw it as far as they can then rides the scooter around the bases. The infielders set up in front of the bases where there is a bowling pin set up. The player who fields the ball must throw the ball to the first baseman who knocks the pin down and throws the ball to the second baseman who knocks down that pin, to third baseman who knocks the pin down, then to home and the catcher knocks that pin down. The person on the scooter must go around all bases If all the pins are down before the person on the scooter gets back home, the person is out. If any pins are standing when the person on the scooter gets home, the run scores. Pins must be knocked down in order, first, second, third and home, even if the ball is closest to another base, other than first base. The fielders must THROW the ball around the bases, not roll the ball. Strengths: Even if scooters are not available for all students, the „crab walk‟ is suggested. The activity of Scooter Softball sounds very entertaining. I think any game that has to do with students on scooters is worth a try. Areas of Development: This game allows for too much down time. As the ten students are playing the game, what is the rest of the class doing? They are inactive. I found this formatting of lesson planning reader „unfriendly‟. Many components were missing. Basically this was a hard to follow description of a game. The font was very small and all components of the game were clustered together. There were no safety issues addressed regarding the scooters. The activity described could be useful, but the presentation is horrible. My Adaptations: I would have written rules handed out during the beginning of class as well as a demonstration of one base runner‟s attempt. I would also have the students who are waiting in line to be the next base runner doing jumping jacks, cheers, or anything to keep them active. 5. Aerobics/Dance Project: http://pecentral.com/lessonideas/ViewLesson.asp?ID=2059 Summary: The purpose of this project is for students to work in groups of three to five to create original dances or aerobic routines. The students will have already been exposed to different dance and aerobic routines and moves. Once all students have completed their routine, they will present it in front of the class and teach it to the class. Strengths: This is a very insightful way to teach dance. The students are allowed to choose their own music and work collaboratively to create movements of expression. This lesson plan format is very helpful in that it offers a project description, teaching suggestions, and assessment ideas including grading and evaluation sheets. The suggested grade level for this lesson is ninth through twelfth. I believe that the complete lesson, involving the actual teaching of the dance or aerobics routine is appropriate to these grade levels. Areas of Development: In this lesson, the dance the type of dance that is proposed is line dancing. Although country line dancing may be of interest to some students, the students of the Bay Area are not likely to be of that population. In teaching culturally diverse learners, the teacher must teach culturally relevant material. The students should not be limited to line dancing. My Adaptations: I would and have seen a similar dance unit taught at Presidio Middle School. They were taught some traditional dances as well as some line dances before being asked to create their own dance as a group. I might also teach them or ask them to teach me some of the more contemporary hip-hop moves. I would also provide groups with task cards illustrating certain movements that they must implement into their routines. They should also be taught that most dances have a standard eight-count. In my opinion this lesson can be taught to eighth grade students as well, minus the teaching of the dance. The time permitted to the groups to generate their routines could also be up to a week. Resources Resource #1: www.pecentral.com Summary: This website contains several resources for anyone who is interested in physical education and fitness. Pecentral.com is a significant tool for any physical education teacher. Lesson ideas, adaptive PE suggestions, instructional resources, assessment ideas, recent research, professional information, job center, and links to other helpful websites make this website a key resource for any physical educator. Strengths: This resource provides new ideas to the physical educator. It also posts featured lesson ideas that are used in different parts of the country. They also feature helpful books for teaching different grade levels. I like the way the home page is presented because it makes what you are looking for easy to find. Areas of Development: I check this website often and I would like to see more lessons appropriate for middle school aged children. I would also find it helpful to see lessons accounting for the cultural diverseness of our society. I find many of the featured successful “alternative environment” physical education programs are out of states other than California. While the lessons I found were submitted by PE teachers, I would like to see some suggestions from the students as well. Use in the Gymnasium/Yards: There are an enormous amount of lesson plan ideas that I have derived from this website. The information goes on and on. I get new ideas of how to use equipment that I am unfamiliar with and find new activities for old activities that I may not have thought of! Resource #2: http://www.pelinks4u.org/ Summary: This website contains lots of information on physical activity that may not be specifically for a PE teacher. It includes research and articles on various activities and concepts surrounding physical education and activity. Strengths: Pelinks4u.org contains information pertinent to every age level and every activity level. It contains the latest news in PE and is always up-to-date. It also offers technology help, which can be insightful for inexperienced educators. Areas of Development: I believe the font could be bigger…are my eyes getting bad? The editors could shorten the writing on the home page and just create links to those articles or sites. Use in the Gymnasium/Yards: The information is so rich on this site that I could pull something from this and put it into my classes everyday. I might use some of the quotes of the statistics of obesity, body image, etc. and put it up on the bulletin board in the locker room. Resource #3: http://members.tripod.com/~pazz/lesson.html Summary: This site provides quite a few and a variety of lesson ideas. Strengths: When I looked at this site I saw a variation of activities and games. Very creative ideas are submitted by physical educators across the country. Areas of Development: This site is offered through a free server, therefore it can get overviewed and shut off for two hours. In addition, since the lessons are submitted by PE teachers and are unedited, there is no uniform format to follow, making it a little less user friendly. The names several of the activities do not indicate what the activity actually is. But if you have the time to browse through them, there are some neat ideas! Use in the Gymnasium/Yards: There are many lessons submitted by the fresh young minds of idealist physical educators that I would be happy to modify and include in my classes. Many of these games could be done during the same class period, then the students could choose which one they wanted to play the last portion of class. Resource #4: http://www.pedigest.com/ Summary: PE Digest is a quarterly magazine that provides ideas, tips, coaching cues, and research on sports. Strengths: This is a great way to research topics pertaining to health, fitness, nutrition, and physical activities. The magazine is an award winning prestigious read with well- researched topics. Lesson ideas are also provided. Areas of Development: Advertising and subscribing to the magazine is boldly presented. It is a magazine after all! Use in the Gymnasium/Yards: I would subscribe to this magazine at the school where I am employed. It can be beneficial to both the student and the teacher as well as to the athlete and coach. This magazine provides foresight into topics of PE from around the world which could spark interest in young students and athletes. Resource #5: http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/prek2/issues/202issue.shtm Summary: A few things TeacherSource can be used for is researching information and creating and finding new activities and lesson plans. TeacherSource is exactly that; a great resource for all teachers. Strengths: This is a great starting point for anything a teacher would want for their instruction of a class. There are extended links offered to guide you through the information trail. The health, food, and nutrition lesson plans are very extensive…in a good way. All components of a „good‟ lesson plan are included. Areas of Development: The articles written could be dated more clearly. More lesson plans on the actual physical activity could be present. Most of these were found via the pecentral.com link. Use in the Gymnasium/Yards: I could incorporate the fantastic health, food, and nutrition lessons into my classes. For example, the students would keep a food log for the week and compare it to the research that I bring in off this site. Lesson Plans (Follow) Lesson #1 Activity: “Moving Body Parts” Objective: The students will be able to demonstrate teamwork by communication and cooperation with the others in their group to perform the challenges as demonstrated by the instructor. Materials: Any open space, students, students‟ journals, pencils (at least 20), 4 or more cones to designate a pathway, CD with students‟ era music (NOW #6 is a good one), CD player Anticipatory Set: “We will continue our cooperative unit today. The same ground rules we established on day one apply. There will be no put downs tolerated, and I need you all to respect each other‟s safety by listening to and following my directions. Let‟s begin! Steps: 1. After routine warm-ups, the class will be seated in their squad lines. 2. Students are asked to get into groups of three by the month of their birthday. If there are more than three, choose the partners with days closest to your own. If there are months without three students, then they will combine with others with days close to their own (teacher will assess and direct). 3. Explain the activity: I will challenge each group to perform a movement. As the music starts your group must attempt to move around the pathway together. As the music stops, you will separate and listen to the next challenge. The first challenge is… - 3 feet touching the ground with hands on ankles - 5 body parts on the ground - some body parts at medium level and some at a low level - all players on their side and connected to each other - all players making a round low shape - lots of noise without using feet of mouths - all backs touching and very fast - body parts being used so the group looks like a spider 4. As each group achieves successful attempts to the challenges, increase the group size to four by allowing them to pick up another member quickly. 5. Go through the challenges again. Assessment: 1. Checklist (continuing throughout the cooperative unit). a. Record and/or check off positive comments made, cooperative behavior, exhibiting sportsmanship, safety awareness, effort, communication, teamwork, and social skills. Did they make an effort to perform the challenge? b. Reflective journal writing: During closure, students will write about what they liked and/or disliked about this activity. And they will offer an additional challenge that was not used. c. The last minute of class, I would ask if anyone would like to share what they wrote and if there were any questions or concerns. Literacy Aspect: 1. By assigning them to write in their journals, the students can immediately reflect on the interactions with other students and how they feel about the challenges. 2. Additionally, prompting the students to share ideas about the activity helps them to speak their minds (encouraging answers in complete sentences). Reflection/Response: 1. Use Human Obstacle Course as a warm up or a backup plan. 2. Should the students be allowed to choose their own partners initially? 3. Always give words of encouragement and show enthusiasm for the activity!! . Leslie Burleson Eighth grade Physical education 40 students 60 minutes Lesson #2 Activity: “Trivia Tag” Objective: 1. Students will practice listening in speaking in questioning and answering the trivia questions. 2. At the end of the period, students will be able to answer 90% of the fitness trivia questions correctly on the quiz given. 3. Students will demonstrate a variety of locomotor skills correctly as demonstrated by the instructor. Materials: Fifteen—3 x 5 index cards with two questions and answers, open play area, time-piece, whistle, quiz of ten questions (picked from index cards), 40 pencils Anticipatory Set: “We have spent several days on the fitness unit and today we are going to apply some of the knowledge you have learned about the fitness components.” Steps: 1. Routine warm up and stretches of upper and lower body. 2. Seated in roll call. 3. Anticipatory set. 4. Explain the game: The teacher hands 15—3 x 5 index card containing two questions and answers. These students are the chasers. The rest of the students spread out within the space of the gym. On the teacher‟s signal (one whistle blow) the chasers move to try to tag the others with their free hand. As the tag is made, both players stop and the chaser reads the question. If the answer is correct, then that person is free to go. If a wrong or NO answer is given in ten seconds, they are given the card and now become the chaser. The student who asked the question is now free. In this game there are no tag-backs and no timeouts. 5. Only one question needs to be asked. There are two on each card allowing the chaser a choice of which one to ask. 6. Students should know that two whistle blows means to stop, and one to go. 7. Instruct the students to spread out and use the whole play area. Assessment: 1. The instructor throughout the duration of the period will monitor students. 2. Students will be quizzed during the final ten minutes of class on ten questions that were on the index cards they used for the game of tag. Literacy Aspect: 1. Students are provided opportunities for developing speaking and listening skills together. 2. This particular game of tag presents a time for listening, a time for action, and a time for speaking. 3. The quiz holds them accountable for writing the information they are responsible for. Reflection/Response: 1. Make students aware that they will benefit from being asked the most questions because there will be a quiz at the end containing the exact questions from some of the cards (previous material from the fitness unit). 2. Have extra cards in case some are too easy. 3. If they do not know the answer to the questions on the quiz, they may be allowed to write a question and answer they remember from Trivia Tag. Eighth grade Physical education 40 students 60 minutes Lesson #3 Activity: “Math and Fitness Challenge” Objective: Students will demonstrate the reinforcement of math concepts while at the same time increase their heart rates and learn about fitness concepts by recording repetitions and using given mathematic formulas for computation. Materials: 10 folding gymnastics mats (two per station; not at jump ropes), 10 jump ropes of multiple lengths, 10 aerobic steps, multiple dumbbells (one, three, and five pounds), 40 score sheets, 40 pencils, CD player, and CD of motivating music (not too loud, students need to be able to count without losing track)!!! Anticipatory Set: “Today we will be doing fitness stations. This is very common in fitness training. Each station will be one minute and you will count out loud the number of repetitions. Your cue to start and stop will be the music. Stop and record the number of repetitions and rotate. On your score sheets there is a number that you will multiply your reps by. At the end you add all of those products together, giving you a grand total of reps from all of the stations. Your goal is to reach 1000 points! You will not do the calculations at the stations, you will be given time at the end of the period to do that. Steps: 1. Shortened routine warm up. 2. Students are seated in roll call (squad lines). 3. Anticipatory set. 4. Demonstrate proper technique at each station. a. Station #1: Jump rope b. Station #2: Crunches c. Station #3: One minute aerobic step test d. Station #4: Curl-ups (dumbbells) e. Station #5: Stretching (resting station) 5. Hand out score sheets and pencils to squad leaders who pass them back to their lines. 6. Squads are assigned to stations. 7. Music initiates activity! Let‟s BEGIN! Assessment: 1. Use a rubric of grand total points. a. 900-1000=A b. 700-899=B c. 500-699=C d. 300-below=F 2. This would be a good way to assess improvement in fitness by the total number of points. Do stations at the beginning and end of the fitness unit and compare total points to assess development. 3. Have students write which fitness component is being practiced at each station to assess fitness knowledge. Literacy Aspect: 1. Students must fill out score sheets properly according to stations that are labeled. 2. Students must read station signs in order to know order of stations. 3. Students write reactions to their performance in their reflective journals. Reflection/Response: 1. Students who have difficulty with math should be paired up with those who have a better understanding of it allowing for peer teaching. 2. This lesson increases the students‟ time on task. 3. Are all students “on task”? Leslie Burleson Eighth grade Physical education 40 students 60 minutes Lesson #4 Activity: “Happy Island” Objective: Students will explore the roles of responsibility related to the individual and groups by achieving the team goals set by the instructor. Materials: 4 hula hoops, 2 jump ropes, 2 scooters, 2 hockey sticks, 2 folding gymnastics mats Anticipatory Set: “Today we will be working on team building skills. The activity is called “Happy Island” because when you reach the island on the other side your HAPPY!!” Steps: 1. Stationary exercises and stretching. 2. Students are seated in roll call (squad lines). 3. Anticipatory set. 4. Explanation of the rules: a. Each team (two teams) will have a scooter, 2 hula hoops, a jump rope, and a hockey stick. Your team will stand on one mat with all of this equipment in front of you. 50 feet in front of you is the other mat (Happy Island). You must get all of your teammates to the other side without touching the ground. b. If you touch the ground you must leave all equipment behind and go back to the starting mat. c. The first team to successfully get across, wins!! Assessment: 1. Students will be assessed by active participation and identifying techniques used during “Happy Island”. Literacy Aspect: 1. Students will be responsible for writing three strategies that worked or they saw the other team perform that was effective. 2. Students must identify three ineffective strategies and describe why they were not productive. Leslie Burleson Eighth grade Physical education 40 students 60 minutes Lesson #5 Activity: “Create a Dance Routine” Objective: Students will be able to create and perform a dance by the end of the week, using previously learned movements and implementing their own creative movements. Materials: Task cards (illustrations of movements), cassette or CD players for each group—8 groups of 5 (allow the students to bring in), music (cassette or CD), gymnasium (ideal) Anticipatory Set: “We have learned many different traditional dances this week. Now I want you to create your own dance. I will give each group two task cards in which these movements must appear somewhere in your dance. If you would like more task cards to give you an idea of different movements, that okay too. You may select your groups of five. Since we only have two stereos, three of the groups should bring cassette or CD players. Groups should decide on the music by tomorrow, and you will have until Friday (today is Monday) to develop and present your dance. Steps: 1. Aerobic warm up and dance stretching. 2. Anticipatory set. 3. Each group will be responsible for logging daily process in their journals. 4. Each group member will fill out a Group Evaluation form at the end of the performances. 5. Students select their groups of five. 6. Students without a group are placed by the teacher into groups of students who have exhibited superior social skills in class. 7. Walk around and offer suggestions and feedback to groups. 8. It is important to allow time for the students to collaborate on their own. 9. A sign-up sheet is passed around and groups must record the names of all the members and designate one person in the group to bring in a cassette or CD player for the rest of the dance unit. (They can be secured in either locker room office). 10.During closure, students are notified to choose a song by the end of the following class period. 11.It should also be suggested that students exchange telephone number so that perhaps they could practice outside of school. Assessment: 1. A colleague or myself will videotape students. 2. I will review the video with a rubric. 3. Groups will also be responsible for filling out a Group Evaluation Sheet. 4. Grades will depend on contribution, participation, and practice of group members as determined by the performance, my observations, and responses to the Group Evaluation Sheet. Literacy Aspect: 1. Speaking and listening skills are being practiced while the groups work together in combining ideas. 2. Students are responsible for logging daily progress and ideas in their journals. 3. Students must also fill out a Group Evaluation Sheet in which they list the duties of each member and get a chance to comment on their group activities. Reflection/Response: 1. What if there was a group of extremely shy and sensitive students who completely refused to do this project? a. I would suggest that the group videotape the dance at home and bring it in to me. I would respect their privacy and promise that I would be the only one to watch it! b.