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					Pheasant Wood Fromelles
    DATA STRUCTURE REPORT




        PROJECT 12008


             carried out
            on behalf of
         The Australian Army
Contents
1.0    Executive Summary                                                  7
2.0    Introduction                                                       7
3.0    Site Location, Topography and Geology                              8
4.0    Historical and Archaeological Background                           8
       4.1    The Battle of Fromelles                                     8
       4.2    Pheasant Wood Burial Site                                  10
5.0    Aims and Objectives                                               12
6.0    Methodology                                                       12
       6.1    Historical Research                                        12
       6.2    Project Preparation and Site Set-Up                        13
       6.3    Topographic Survey                                         13
       6.4    Excavation                                                 13
       6.5    Laser Scanning                                             17
       6.6    Soil Sampling and Analysis                                 17
       6.7    Site Reinstatement                                         18
7.0    Results                                                           18
       7.1    Historical Research                                        18
       7.2    Pit Evaluation                                             18
       7.3    Human Remains                                              38
       7.4    Condition of Remains and Potential for DNA Preservation    44
       7.5    Estimating Number of Burials                               45
       7.6	   Material	Culture:		Artefacts	and	Identification            46
       7.7    Historical Perspectives                                    52
       7.8    Soil Analysis                                              52
8.0    Discussion                                                        55
       8.1    Summary of the Fieldwork Results                           55
       8.2    Interpretive Issues                                        56
       8.3    Closing Summary                                            58
9.0    Recommendations                                                   58
10.0   Acknowledgements                                                  58
11.0   Bibliography                                                      59
12.0   Appendices                                                        62
       12.1 Body Parts                                                   62
       12.2 Glossary of Anatomical Terminology                           79
       12.3 Soil Analysis                                                81
       12.4 Ground Penetrating Radar                                     87
       12.5 List of Context                                              89
       12.6 List of Finds                                                93
       12.7 List of Samples                                              98
       12.8 List of Drawings                                             99
       12.9 List of Photographs                                          99
       12.10 Soil Analytical Data.                                      112
List of Figures
Figure 1:    Site location                                     6

Figure 2:    Aerial Photographs of the Site                   11

Figure 3:    The locations of Pits 1-8 and Trenches 1-7       16

Figure 4:    Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 1       19

Figure 5:    Details of Pit 1 Survey                          20

Figure 6:    Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 2       23

Figure 7:    Details of Pit 2 Survey                          24

Figure 8:    Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 3       27

Figure 9:    Details of Pit 3 Survey                          28

Figure 10:   Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 4       29

Figure 11:   Details of Pit 4 Survey                          30

Figure 12:   Photographic, Survey and 3D Views of Pit 5       33

Figure 13:   Details of Pit 5 Survey                          34

Figure 14:   The east-facing section across Pit 6             36

Figure 15:   The west-facing section across Pit 6             36

Figure 16:   The west-facing section across Pit 7             38

Figure 17:   The west-facing section across Pit 8             39

Figure 18:   Results of the ground-penetrating radar survey   88
List of Plates
Plate 1:    West	end	of 	Pit	4	exposed	in	Trench	4	showing	soil	changes	&	well	defined	   15
            pit edges

Plate 2:    German Eyelets                                                                46

Plate 3:    Australian Buckles                                                            47

Plate 4:    SF 258, General Service Button (front)                                        48

Plate 5:    SF 258, General Service Button (back).                                        49

Plate 6:    SF 206, ‘Rising Sun’ Badge                                                    49

Plate 7:    SF 202, Reverse of ‘Rising Sun’ Badge                                         49

Plate 8:    SF 94, Swastika Amulet                                                        50

Plate 9:    SF 217, Cardboard Matchbox                                                    51

Plate 10:   Example of Front and Back of Original Matchbox                                51



List of Tables
Table 1:    Dimensions of the pits at Pheasant Wood                                       55




                 Cover Plate: View of Evaluation Site taken from Fromelles
                          Church Tower (thanks to Tim Whitford)




                                      © Glasgow University 2008

                                 This report is one of a series published
                                     by GUARD, Gregory Building,
                                 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8QQ
               Pheasant Wood Fromelles
                          DATA STRUCTURE REPORT

                                              By
                Tony Pollard, Olivia Lelong, Gaille MacKinnon,
                             Iain Banks and Peter Barton
                                 With contributions by
                          Cecily Cropper and Jo McKenzie




This document has been prepared in accordance with GUARD standard operating procedures.




Author:         ……………………………………………………..                              Date:    7 August 2008
                     Dr Tony Pollard




Approved by:    ……………………………………………………..                              Date:    7 August 2008
                     Dr Iain Banks
                                                          London
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Project 12008
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fromelles
                                        GREAT BRITAIN                                                                                     GERMANY
                                                                                                         Lille           BELGIUM
                                                                                                         Arras


                                                                                                                                                                                                  Archaeological Evaluation
                                                                                                                             LUXEM-
                                                                                                     Amiens
                                                                                                                 Reims       BOURG
                                                                                    Dieppe
                                                                                                    Beauvais
                                                                           Caen Rouen                                              Strasbourg
                                                                                                      Paris



                                                                                                   Orleans

                                                                                                                         Dijon
                                                               Nantes
                                                                                                                                      SWITZERLAND
                                                                                          FRANCE


                                                                                                                            Lyon




                                                                          Bordeaux                                                               ITALY
           r
          ve




                       Dunkerque
      Do




                                       Roeselare
     of




          Calais
 it




                                                         Kortnij                                                                   Marseilles
ra




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Pheasant
St




                                                        Mouscron
                St-Omer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Wood
     Boulogne-sur-Mer                    Roubaix
                                                            Tournai
                                               Lille                     SPAIN            0                                                     500 km
                           Bethune
     Le Touquet-                        Lens
     Paris-Plage           Bruay-la-
                           Buissiere                   Douai

                               Arras
                                           Valenciennes
           Abbeville

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fromelles
               Merville
                             Estaires
                                                                                                                                                    Lille
                                                            Laventie

                                                               Fauquissart
                                                                                                   le Maisnil

                                                                         Aubers                       Fromelles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0         500 m    1 km
                                                          Neuve-Chapelle                  Fournes-en-Weppes
                                                                                     Herlies
                                                               Lorgies           Ligny
                                                                               le Grand
                                                                           Illies
                                                                                                                                      Seclin

                Bethune                                La Bassee




                                                                                                                                                            Pheasant Wood



                                                                                                                                                                                     Extent of the site in 2008



                                                                                                                                                                     Extent of
                                                                                                                                                                  the site in 2007




                                                                                                                                                                                                         KEY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Road and path
                   0                    150 m                                                                                                                                                                      Buildings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hydrography




                                                                                                                                       Figure 1: Site Location map
1.0 Executive Summary
Between	23	May	and	13	June	2008,	burial	pits	dug	by	the	Germans	in	1916	in	a	field	adjacent	to	Pheasant	
Wood, near Fromelles in northern France, were subject to archaeological evaluation. The work was carried
out by GUARD on behalf of the Australian Army and followed on from a non-invasive survey carried out
in	May	2007.		That	first	phase	of 	investigation	utilised	geophysical	survey,	metal	detector	survey,	topographic	
survey and historical research to establish not only that Australian troops had been buried on the site by the
Germans in July 1916, following the battle of Fromelles, but also the strong possibility that the graves had
not been located by Allied recovery and reburial parties after the war and were therefore still intact (Pollard,
Barton	&	Banks	2007).		In	response	to	these	findings,	a	second	phase	of 	fieldwork	was	commissioned,	this	
time taking the form of an invasive evaluation involving limited excavation.
Limited	trial	trenching	based	on	a	15-20%	sample	exposed	human	remains	in	all	five	of 	the	pits	previously	
thought to have been used for burial. Over three weeks, it became apparent that the graves were indeed
                                                                                                                	
intact	and	contained	large	numbers	of 	burials,	with	evidence	for	both	Australian	and	British	troops	identified.	
Evaluation was also carried out on the remaining three pits, which from aerial photographic evidence were
known to have remained open until at least September 1918. The presence of human remains in these three
pits was limited to the west end of Pit 6, which was in keeping with the previous suggestion (Pollard, Barton
&	Banks	2007),	based	on	aerial	photograph	analysis,	that	this	part	of 	the	pit	had	been	backfilled	at	the	same	
time	as	the	other	five	and	may	therefore	have	been	used	to	contain	overspill	burials.		
A provisional report (Pollard 2008) on the evaluation was submitted to the Australian Army soon after the
completion	 of 	 the	 fieldwork.	 	 Although	 this	 more	 extensive	 and	 wide-ranging	 report	 includes	 the	 results	
of various on-site investigations and subsequent post-excavation analyses, it does not substantially alter the
general observations or conclusions contained within that provisional statement.


2.0 Introduction
The Battle of Fromelles, fought on 19-20 July 1916, was the worst single day of the First World War for the
Australian armed forces. Men of the Australian 5th Division, not long arrived on the Western Front, went
into action with British troops from the 61st Division to attack German front and second line trenches in
advance of Fromelles village, which sits on the Aubers Ridge in northern France. The aim was to prevent the
Germans from reinforcing their lines to the south, where the Battle of the Somme had been raging since 1
July. Despite a preparatory bombardment by Allied guns, the German defences remained largely intact, their
protection enhanced by a series of concrete bunkers. Although some gains were made, with men making it
into the German front line or breaking through beyond it, the losses were dreadful. The advance began at
6.00 pm in broad daylight and German machine guns and artillery mowed down Australian and British troops
as they stepped out of the sally ports in their own lines, crossed no man’s land, assaulted the German front line
trenches and then, in some cases, left those positions in a fruitless search for the second line – many of these
men dying while trying to defend drainage ditches. A second assault was ordered forward during the night,
but the attack was then called off at the eleventh hour; this news did not reach the Australians, who jumped
off once again to suffer further terrible losses. By the morning of 20 July the Australians had lost around
5500 killed, wounded, missing or captured. The British suffered around 1500 killed and wounded, with the
Germans suffering similar losses (a more detailed description is provided in 4.1).
Following the battle, British and Australian dead were scattered over a wide area, taking in no man’s land
between	the	Allied	and	German	lines,	the	German	front	line	itself,	where	fierce	hand	to	hand	fighting	took	
place, and the rear of the German front line. Bodies in the German front line and behind, and indeed some
of those in no man’s land, were buried by the Germans. The Germans removed bodies from their trenches
and separated their own dead from the Allied dead. Some of the Allied bodies were then taken to places
where they could be put on a light trench railway and moved to a sheltered position to the rear of Pheasant
Wood, which is overlooked by Fromelles village on the ridge immediately to the south. According to German
military accounts, which include the original orders for the burial operation, the bodies were buried in a series
of 	 pits	 which	 were	 dug	 to	 accommodate	 400	 men.	 	 A	 double	 row	 of 	 four	 pits,	 totalling	 eight	 in	 all,	 first	
appears in an Allied aerial photograph of Pheasant Wood taken on the 29 July 1916, just nine days after the
battle.		By	this	time	five	of 	the	pits	and	possibly	the	western	end	of 	a	sixth	had	been	backfilled,	presumably	
after the placement of bodies within them. The pits are located immediately adjacent to the light trench
railway from which the bodies were unloaded.
A	Commonwealth	War	Graves	Commission	(CWGC)	mass	grave	for	410	unidentified	Australian	troops	killed	

                                                            7
in the 1916 battle of Fromelles was established after the war on the Rue Delvas, in what was formerly no
mans land, and a memorial wall at the rear of the cemetery, known as VC Corner, carries the names of the
1,299 Australians who fell in the battle and have no known grave. Although attempts were made by the Allies
to locate graves dug by the Germans, there is no record of these being successful, at least in the area of
Pheasant Wood. In more recent years, a preliminary examination of some of the aerial photographs showing
the pits at Pheasant Wood led to a campaign by several Australian individuals (notably Lambis Englezos) to
have the site investigated. After a long period of discussions at various levels within the Australian Army and
Government,	the	Centre	for	Battlefield	Archaeology	at	Glasgow	University	(a	sub-division	of 	GUARD)	was	
commissioned	to	carry	out	a	non-invasive	survey	of 	the	site	in	April	2007.		The	field	element	of 	the	project	
took place between 15 May and 28 May 2007, following initial reconnaissance of the site between 30 April
and 2 May 2007.
This non-invasive survey of the site, which included a component of historical research in the German
archives in Munich and elsewhere, established beyond doubt that Australian troops at least had been buried
on the site, and also provided quite compelling evidence that the graves had not been re-discovered after the
war and were therefore intact and undisturbed. This latter point, however, could not be established beyond
doubt without some form of invasive intervention or ‘ground-truthing’; in short, an evaluation was required.
Accordingly, the programme of work reported here was commissioned.


3.0 Site Location, Topography and Geology
Fromelles village is located some 11 km south of the French/Belgian border. It is 36 km north-east of
Arras and 8.5 km south-west of Armentières. It sits on a low ridge named after the village of Aubers, which
is situated just under 3 km to the south-west of Fromelles. For most of the war the ridge lay around 2 km
behind the German front line, with the only real attempt by the Allies to take it coming in May 1915, when a
British attack on German positions in front of Aubers and Fromelles ended with no gains and heavy losses.
The ridge and the villages eventually fell to the British in autumn 1918 during the sequence of Allied actions
known as the ‘Advance to Victory’.
The initial survey area was a 30 m by 155 m strip of land, which sits at an elevation of 21 m along the southern
edge	of 	Pheasant	Wood	(centred	on	50˚	36’	35”	E,	2˚	51’	16”	N).		The	area	of 	the	graves	took	in	most	of 	the	
eastern half of this strip. Although infrequently ploughed in the past, the ground was said by the farmer to
be too wet for arable crops and so is currently given over to grass, which is cut twice a year for animal fodder.
The	southern	side	of 	the	survey	area	is	bordered	by	an	arable	field,	which	at	the	time	of 	the	investigation	
was	given	over	to	a	crop	of 	potatoes.		This	field	rises	gently	to	the	south	for	some	160	metres,	where	it	meets	
the northern edge of Fromelles village (c 27 m elev.), which at this point occupies the summit of the Aubers
Ridge.
The	firmness	of 	the	ground	in	dry	weather	and	the	presence	of 	surface	water	during	wet	weather	is	due	to	the	
presence	of 	clay	on	the	flat	terrain	adjacent	to	Pheasant	Wood,	which	contrasts	with	the	sandier	soils	further	
up	the	slope.		This	picture	was	verified	by	the	evaluation,	with	excavation	exposing	clayey	and	silty	subsoils	
overlying blue Ypresian clay at around 2 m below the surface.


4.0 Historical and Archaeological Background
A full overview of the history of Fromelles and its role in WWI was included in the initial survey report
(Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007) and so only the section related to the battle of Fromelles and its aftermath is
repeated here.

4.1 The Battle of Fromelles
The battle we now call Fromelles – was fought on 19-20 July 1916, and was initially known as the Battle of
Fleurbaix.		The	Battles	Nomenclature	Committee	officially	renamed	the	action	as	the	Attack	at	Fromelles	in	
May 1921. In German histories it is referred to as the Gefecht bei Fromelles.
On 5 July 1916, British General Headquarters regarded the Fourth Army offensive on the Somme, underway
since 1 July, as still holding potential. They therefore looked towards First, Second and Third Army
Commanders,	 whose	 troops	 occupied	 sectors	 north	 of 	 the	 active	 battle	 zone,	 to	 find	 ways	 of 	 aiding	 the	
continuing	action.		By	launching	small	auxiliary	attacks,	they	hoped	to	sufficiently	occupy	German	attention	
elsewhere to discourage the movement of reserves to Picardy.


                                                           8
It was on 8 July that General Sir Charles Monro (GOC, First Army) instructed Lieutenant-General Sir Richard
Haking (GOC XI Corps) to devise a diversionary scheme in French Flanders, north of the La Bassée canal.
Haking deliberated upon a re-launch of the plan that had ended in costly 8th Division failure on 9 May
the previous year: the capture of a section of the Aubers Ridge. Once more the twin villages of Aubers
and Fromelles were marked down as key targets. The German Commander-in-Chief, General Erich von
Falkenhayn, suspected an attack in the Aubers area might be forthcoming, and had advised his commanders
accordingly.
On 9 July 1916, Monro ordered Haking to limit the scope of the venture to the capture of the German
forward trench system, at the same time condensing the attacking front from 6000 to 4000 metres – suitable
for a two-Division enterprise. The key target, in the centre of the battle front, was a defensive feature known
as the Sugar Loaf, one of hundreds of German mini-salients deliberately sited and constructed along the
length of the Western Front; several others, such as the Wick Salient, also a part of the attacking front, are
also evident in the sector. Jutting out from the general line, their purpose was to be heavily defended against
attack,	but	especially	to	provide	annihilating	enfilade	fire	against	hostile	ventures	to	left	or	right.		Mini-salients	
therefore supported each other by covering all the ground between.
Although the Germans held the heights of the Aubers Ridge, on both sides of no man’s land the forward-
most network of positions lay on the plain, a waterlogged terrain with countless drainage dykes that in most
places had forced both sides to abandon the idea of conventional full-depth trenches in favour of breastworks
protecting a shallow excavation: in other words, the defences were built up from ground level, more than dug
into the ground. Such constructions demanded a colossal quantity of timber, sandbags, wire and sheeting, plus
immense human effort to install and maintain. Once complete, however, they formed an effective defensive
shield. Having changed the names of captured towns and villages in France and Belgium to create their new
world (Fromelles became Petzstadt and Aubers, Buchheim) the Germany Army looked upon the positions
as the border of a fresh empire. The trench/breastwork shield was further bolstered by secreting within it
a network of reinforced concrete pillboxes; a great many remained unknown to British observers. Such
emplacements, absent in the Allied positions opposite, where the military mindset was offensive rather than
defensive, were used to shelter infantry and machine gun teams. When battle was joined and the initial enemy
barrage had lifted, German troops emerged to deploy their weapons from the parapet.
Following a systematic bombardment (utilising more guns per metre of front than had been employed to
open the Somme offensive on 1 July), the two selected Divisions – the British 61st (2nd South Midland) and
5th Australian – were to attack with a full complement of six infantry brigades. Surprise was not sought (nor
was it possible with the enemy’s observational advantage), for it was essential the Germans appreciated the
possibility of imminent action in order to cause them to retain troops in the sector.
On 16 July the bombardment began. On the same day, Sir Douglas Haig’s Deputy Chief of Staff, Major-
General Richard Butler, attended a First Army conference. He made it known that the offensive in Picardy was
not proceeding with the required momentum to make the Fromelles venture expedient. Despite this counsel,
Sir Richard Haking still strongly favoured an attack; indeed, both he and Sir Charles Monro assured GHQ
that their guns were performing splendidly and that any abandonment, or even postponement, of the plan
was unnecessary. Within 24 hours Monro had already reconsidered his position, but GHQ did not authorize
cancellation, instead leaving the decision to Monro’s discretion. Whilst the commander pondered anew, the
weather deteriorated. Despite poor ground conditions, waterlogged ditches criss-crossing no man’s land,
tiring troops, and observers reporting artillery results somewhat inferior to that which had been anticipated
with	the	firepower	employed,	on	17	July	Monro	finally	determined	to	press	the	attack.		It	would	take	place	on	
the evening of 19 July.
Having spent just a few weeks on French soil, both 61st Division and 5th Australian Division were unblooded;
indeed, they were still learning the craft of trench warfare and housekeeping. The Australians were able to
deploy three men per metre of attacking front, the British just one. It was to be a particularly momentous
venture	 for	 the	 Australians:	 	 their	 first	 attack	 in	 the	 Western	 Front	 theatre.	 	 Across	 no	 man’s	 land	 an	
experienced 6th Bavarian Reserve Division, incorporating 16, 17, 20 and 21 Reserve Infantry Regiments,
awaited developments. The division had been transferred to Fromelles from the Neuve Chapelle sector,
where	they	had	suffered	serious	casualties	in	the	British	Expeditionary	Force’s	first	large	scale	independent	
offensive action of the war, between 10-13 March 1915, and had been resident in the sector ever since.
The 1916 attack, which began around 6 pm on the evening of 19 July, was a confused affair. Although according
to	German	sources,	much	damage	was	caused	to	their	fieldwork	defences,	the	British	and	Australian	guns	had	
neither	sufficiently	cut	the	wire	nor	neutralised	the	concrete	emplacements	and	the	protected	machine-guns	


                                                         9
and gunners to provide the free passage of no man’s land that had been promised. German artillery and
trench mortar (Minenwerfer)	batteries	too	had	been	left	relatively	unmolested,	and	with	the	benefit	of 	superior	
observation and assistance from guns in neighbouring sectors, they were able to deal with massing and forming
Allied troop formations before the attack had even begun. Losses were therefore already substantial before
the whistles blew. British and Australian troops then entered no man’s land through narrow sally ports in the
breastworks	to	find	themselves	enfiladed	by	machinegun	and	small	arms	fire,	and	swathed	in	shrapnel	and	
high explosives. German records note, however, that in places the Allied bombardment was highly effective,
with	many	men	buried	by	collapsing	breastworks.		Although	certain	key	areas	of 	fortification	were	blown	
down, the Germans were still able to largely enact their carefully designed and long-established defensive
scheme, holding off all attempts at penetration within the central sector of the attacking front. On both
flanks	the	defences	were	pierced;		but	with	no	reserves	available	and	poor	protection	for	support,	supply	and	
communication troops in crossing no man’s land, under sustained counter-attacks the assaults, which included
a second Austrailian attaack around 10 pm, soon began to disintegrate, leaving those who had made progress
stranded within a complex and alien enemy trench system, and running short of ammunition and water. The
central key position, the Sugar Loaf Salient, was said to have been entered by a small force of British troops
(numbered at 40 at 6.15 pm on a British 1st Army map drawn up at the time; see NA PRO WO95 165);
however, this is not substantiated by the extraordinarily detailed German records held in the Kriegsarchiv in
Munich:		no	British	troops	are	believed	to	have	entered	the	Sugar	Loaf.		On	the	right	Allied	flank,	substantial	
elements of the British 182 Brigade successfully gained the German (RIR 17) front line and held on for
an	hour.		On	the	northern	flank,	however,	a	more	concentrated	Australian	force	managed	to	infiltrate	the	
German positions in considerable numbers; they then waited in vain for adequate support and further orders.
The	following	morning,	thick	mist	and	deliberately	flooded	trenches	conspired	to	confuse	those	who,	being	
either unable to retire or not receiving orders, had spent the night within enemy lines; in attempting to retire
to their own positions, most were either killed or captured. Subsequent to the attack, the sector once more fell
back into a state of relative quiet that lasted for the rest of the year and throughout 1917.

4.2 Pheasant Wood Burial Site
Following the Battle of Fromelles (19-20 July 1916), large numbers of Australian and British dead lay in
no mans land, in the front line German trenches and in locations behind these trenches. It was left to the
Germans to bury many of these dead, and one of these grave sites was at Pheasant Wood, just to the north
of Fromelles and over 1.5 km behind the German front line.

Eight pits were dug by German troops immediately south of the feature known as Fasanen-Waldchen
(Pheasant Wood). Orders issued by Major General Von Braun of the Imperial Bavarian Reserve Infantry
Regiment No 21 suggest that work probably began on 22 July 1916; it appears to have been complete (that
is,	 five	 pits	 backfilled)	 on	 the	 aerial	 photographs	 of 	 29	 July	 and	 1	 August.	 	 In	 addition	 to	 their	 repeated	
mention in documents dating from 1916 to 1928, pits can be seen on all post-23 July 1916 aerial photographs
of the area (Figure 2). They are also included on several editions of British trench maps, originally as a
group of eight on map segment of Sheet 36SW2 Edition 6D dated 14.2.17, later as six (Sheet 36SW2 dated
2.7.18). The National Archives’ 8.8.16 edition (WO 297/944) does not yet mark the features, but all post
14.2.17	editions	do.		In	most	map	information	panels	they	are	identified	simply	as	earthworks,	but	on	some	
examples a dugout symbol is appended, perhaps an educated deduction by the aerial photograph interpreter.
It has been suggested that the pits might have been trench mortar (Minenwerfer) positions, but considering the
Germans’	supremely	careful	application	of 	camouflage	and	concealment	in	this	region,	this	interpretation	of 	
works so plainly obvious to aerial scrutiny is a curious one. The Kriegsarchiv, Munich, records show that all
German	mortar	positions	were	located	much	closer	to	the	front	line	(6	BRD	(WK)	files	and	20	BRIR	Bund	
3, Munich). Furthermore, were any newly appearing features regarded as remotely suspicious, they would
have been mentioned in British intelligence summaries and marked as such upon maps, with or without proof
of 	their	true	nature;		suspicion	was	sufficient.		In	addition,	it	was	customary	to	subject	confirmed	or	even	
suspected mortar positions to the concentrated attentions of Allied artillery, all sign of which is absent in the
aerial photograph sequence (very few shell holes). The features in question were at no time marked, noted or
regarded as having anything but benign military connotations.
Other than a few subtle undulations, there is no surface trace of the pits today, and so in an effort to re-locate
them and clarify their character and wartime function, a multi-faceted archaeological survey was implemented
in May 2007, the results of which have already been reported (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). The aims and
objectives of the evaluation which followed this initial phase of investigation are outlined overleaf:



                                                               10
CU IW MA 100 284 map
      25.04.1916




                                                                         CU IW M 98 300 map
                                                                              29.07.1916




                                                    CU IW M 98 359 map
                                                         01.08.1916




    CU IW M 98 361 map
         01.08.1916


                                                                                Pit 2   Pit 3 Pit 6




                                                                                                         Pit 7

                                                                                                         Pit 8
                                                                                   Pit 1 Pit 4   Pit 5




                                                                           CU IW M 99 359 map
                                           11                                   22.10.1916


                         Figure 2: Aerial Photographs of the Site.
 5.0 Aims and Objectives
The aims of the evaluation were:
•	   To	establish	the	presence	or	absence	of 	human	remains	in	the	pits	at	Pheasant	Wood


Should burials be present:
•	   To	estimate	the	number	of 	burials	present.
•	   To	assess	the	condition	of 	the	burials.
•	   If 	possible,	to	verify	the	nationality	of 	the	burials	(Australian	and	British	or	just	Australian?).
•	   To	assess	the	potential	for	the	identification	of 	individuals.
•	   To	assess	the	feasibility	of 	removal	of 	the	remains	of 	individuals.


Should burials appear to be absent:
•	   To	establish	beyond	doubt	that	all	of 	the	human	remains	were	removed	by	the	post-war	recovery		
     party.


These aims were to be achieved through the implementation of the following objectives:
•	   To	relocate	the	eight	pits	using	the	information	provided	by	the	previous	phase	of 	work	as	a	guide.
•	   To	subject	the	five	pits	suspected	to	contain	massed	burials	to	limited	evaluation,	with	a	maximum	of 	a	
     20% sample of each of these pits to be examined.


Should burials be found in situ:
•	   To	expose	human	remains	only	to	the	degree	required	to	fulfil	the	previously	stated	project	aims.		No	
     human remains were to be removed from the pits for examination.
•	   Where	ever	possible	to	establish	the	depth	of 	the	pits	and	the	presence	or	absence	of 	lower	layers	of 	
     burial deposits, without disturbing the upper layers.


Should no burials be found to be present (the site having been cleared in the immediate post-war era):
•	   To	remove	the	fills	from	all	of 	the	pits	to	the	degree	necessary	to	establish	beyond	doubt	the	total	absence	
     of any human remains (given that some may have been overlooked by the recovery and reburial party).

6.0 Methodology
6.1 Historical Research
Historical research has always been fundamental to the investigation of the Pheasant Wood site, and it played
a	central	role	in	the	first	phase	of 	survey.		The	evaluation	reported	here	was	preceded	by	another	programme	
of documentary research, much of it in the German archives in Munich. The aim of this research, which was
carried	out	by	Peter	Barton,	the	project	historian,	was	to	more	thoroughly	examine	those	sources	identified	
during the initial phase of work (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007), and also locate further documents with the
potential to shed more light on the battle and its aftermath, especially those which may pertain directly to the
burial of Allied troops at Pheasant Wood. Among the types of documentation sought during this research
was a German ‘death list’, which may have been compiled by the burial parties and would include the names
of all those buried on the site – the information coming from the dog tags and other forms of identity
removed from the bodies and forwarded to the Red Cross in Switzerland. It seems likely that such a list was
made, but if it survives it has yet to be located.
Other useful documents would include any reference to the recovery and reburial of bodies from the Pheasant
Wood site in the years immediately following the war. These were more likely to be found in British or

                                                                12
Australian	archives,	but	again	no	such	document	was	identified,	though	references	to	the	burials	are	made	
in various pieces of archived correspondence. Much useful information has, however, been recovered and
compiled	in	a	separate	report	(Barton	2007),	and	is	only	referred	to	here	where	it	reflects	directly	on	the	results	
of the evaluation and the interpretation of the evidence.

6.2 Project Preparation and Site Set-Up
The	 fieldwork	 element	 of 	 the	 project	 required	 much	 preparation,	 not	 the	 least	 of 	 these	 tasks	 being	 the	
formulation of a statement of works/project design, which had to be cleared as appropriate to the task in
hand by the French archaeological authorities for the region (represented by Virginie Motte, who visited the
project with her colleagues on several occasions). Just as important was obtaining permission to carry out the
project from the landowner (Mme Demassiet) and tenant farmer (M Serge Desruelles), along with the Maire
of Fromelles (the Mayor, M Hubert Huchette). Colonel Feliks Skowronski, the Australian Defence Attaché in
Paris, and his assistant Sam Rossato played an important role in these negotiations, as did Martial Delebarre,
a local employee of the CWGC, who was seconded as local liaison to the project.
From the outset the project was overseen by the Fromelles Evaluation Group (FEG), chaired by the CWGC
and including representatives from a number of interested parties, including the Australian Army (represented
by Colonel Peter Singh) and the British Ministry of Defence. In the months leading up to the project the FEG
held regular meetings in London, to which the project director (Tony Pollard) reported on a regular basis.
In	the	lead	up	to	the	fieldwork,	the	project	was	managed	on	behalf 	of 	the	Australian	Army	by	Roger	Lee,	head	
of 	the	Australian	Army	History	Unit,	while	the	field	operation	was	overseen	by	Major	General	Mike	O’Brien,	
accompanied by Roger Lee. Dr Denise Donlon acted as an observer on behalf of the Australian Army.
The complexity of the operation and the nature of the deposits, which potentially included human remains and
unexploded ordnance, required a thorough health and safety plan, which was developed through discussions
with	GUARD’s	safety	officer,	Robert	Will,	and	Glasgow	University’s	safety	officer,	Cled	Williams.		
The project team was put together at an early juncture and was built around a core of specialists with
long experience in forensic and mass grave archaeology, with Gaille MacKinnon taking the role of project
anthropologist. The team played a vital role in the development of the methodologies adopted, and Cecily
Cropper has been credited as a contributor to this report because of her input at this stage (while also
going	on	to	play	a	key	role	in	the	field).		Also	recruited	was	Steve	Litherland,	a	forensic	archaeologist	with	
much experience of working on the Western Front. The rest of the team, all of whom had experience in
the	excavation	of 	human	remains,	were	drawn	from	GUARD,	with	Dr	Olivia	Lelong	taking	charge	of 	field	
recording. The project was managed for GUARD by its Director, Dr Iain Banks. Site engineering was carried
out by Gary Andrews, who also operated the mechanical excavator used in the project.
The sensitive nature of the project and the high public and media interest it understandably generated required
that the work area be screened from public view. The requirement for a considerable quantity of fencing,
coverings for trenches, site huts and various types of plant machinery placed added importance on the role of
Martial Delebarre, who sourced much of this equipment locally.
Prior to the commencement of the project, several days were spent setting up the site – erecting screens,
establishing site facilities, transporting equipment, re-establishing survey points and relocating the sites of the
pits. Before work could commence, the exact route of the NATO fuel pipeline, which runs across the western
part of the site, but does not interrupt the pits, was marked out in order that an exclusion zone could be
established. Ground was broken by the mechanical excavator on the morning of Monday 26 May, an exercise
which observed by the media. Media representatives were restricted to an area at the eastern end of the site
and, although not permitted access to the excavation trenches, they were fully briefed on progress by Dr Tony
Pollard	and	Major	General	Mike	O’Brien	at	daily	briefings.		
Site security was a serious issue and accordingly the site was inspected regularly by the local gendarmerie – they
were	also	called	in	when	deposits	of 	human	remains	were	encountered	for	the	first	time.		The	site	was	subject	
to	overnight	observation	by	a	private	security	firm,	which	also	extended	to	the	team’s	days	of 	rest.

6.3 Topographic Survey
A detailed topographic survey of the site was carried out in 2007. The results of this work were used to aid
the pin-point location of the pits prior to excavation. A total station EDM was used throughout the project
to	locate	trench	locations	and	the	finds	made	within	them.


                                                         13
6.4 Excavation
The approximate locations of the pits on the ground were established by overlaying a 1916 aerial photograph
                                                                                                                	
on	the	map	of 	the	field	using	GIS;		geo-referenced	coordinates	were	thus	obtained	for	the	corners	of 	each	pit.	
The coordinates were marked out on the ground as a guide to the positioning of trenches. As it happened,
the pits were found to lie almost immediately to the north of these positions, a ghosting effect which was
consistent across the site.
Two long evaluation trenches (Trenches 1 & 2) were initially excavated by machine across the locations of
two pairs of grave pits (1-2 and 5-6), in order to establish their exact positions, their proximity to each other
and	examine	the	soil	profile	between	them.		A	smaller	trench	was	excavated	across	each	of 	the	other	pits	(1,	
3, 4, and 7), while the entire surface of Pit 8 was topsoil-stripped prior to trenching. The central portions of
Trenches 1 and 2, where they cut through the ploughsoil and upper part of the subsoil between the grave pits,
were	subsequently	backfilled	to	facilitate	movement	of 	the	mechanical	excavator	around	the	site.		
In each trench, excavation by machine proceeded from north to south. The soil was removed in spits using
a	1.6-m	wide	toothless	ditching	bucket	under	close	archaeological	supervision.		The	first	spit	removed	the	
modern turf and topsoil. The surface of the underlying ploughsoil was then scanned with a metal detector,
signals	were	excavated,	and	finds	were	bagged	and	numbered	according	to	context	and	spit.		The	ploughsoil	
was then removed in spits of 0.2 m, with the surface of each spit scanned before its removal. Below the
ploughsoil,	at	depths	of 	0.2-0.3	m	below	the	present	ground	surface,	the	upper	fills	of 	the	pits	were	identified	as	
bands of distinctive, mottled, blue and orange clay within the generally yellow-orange clay subsoil. Excavation
by	machine	proceeded	through	the	uppermost	portions	of 	the	pit	fills	and	the	upper	subsoil	horizon,	for	no	
more	than	0.2	m.		This	exercise	provided	much	better	definition	of 	the	pit	edges	than	would	have	been	the	
case if stripping had ceased at the very top of the pit.
The grave pits (1-5) were readily recognisable by soil changes – most obviously through the presence of a more
obvious component of blue clay than the surrounding subsoil. This material (Ypresian clay) exists at a depth
of 	about	2	metres	and	its	presence	in	the	upper	fills	was	a	clear	indicator	of 	ground	disturbance	at	depth.		At	
this initial cleaning stage, the indicators for the graves being intact were already promising. The edges of the
pits	were	sharply	defined	against	the	natural	subsoil,	and	in	some	cases	slight	undulations	had	been	created	
by the curved backs of the German shovels used to dig the pits (tool marks were also observed against some
the sides of the pits during excavation). Had the graves been discovered by an Allied recovery party after the
war, it is likely that exhumation would have been a rather clumsy affair, entailing some ragged over-digging
of the pit edges in order to reach the bodies, and the irregularity resulting from this would probably have
been	observable.		Additionally,	with	the	removal	of 	the	bodies	the	back-filling	of 	the	pits	may	not	have	been	
immediate,	the	result	being	a	blurring	of 	edges	and	a	loss	of 	definition	(this	was	apparent	in	the	case	of 	the	
three pits left open until at least 1918). Somewhat surprisingly, however, it was discovered that the pits were
not as straight-edged and regular in size as the aerial photographs suggested, though some idea of this had
been gleaned from the rather vague geophysical results obtained during the 2007 programme of survey.
After	the	locations	of 	the	pits	had	been	identified	through	soil	changes	exposed	by	this	initial	stripping,	a	small	
sondage	(measuring	approximately	1	m	north/south	by	0.7	m)	was	excavated	by	hand	through	the	fills	of 	Pits	
1-5 in order to establish the presence or absence of human remains. This exercise revealed articulated human
remains in Pits 1-5 at depths of between 0.8 and 1.3 m below the tops of the pits.
With the presence of human remains established and their depth assessed, the excavation trenches were
then extended to cover the required sample area. Evaluation was to be limited to a maximum 20% sample
excavation	of 	each	of 	the	five	pits	thought	to	contain	burials	(pit	numbers	1	to	5	were	backfilled	by	the	end	
of July 1916, while the other three remained open until at least 1918). This was achieved through the removal
of 	pit	fills	using	the	mechanical	excavator	to	create	a	sondage	(limited	evaulation	trench).		Soil	was	removed	
in spits of between 0.1 and 0.2 m depth, with the surface of each spit scanned with a metal detector to check
for associated artefacts or unexploded ordnance. No unexploded ordnance was encountered at any point
during the project. However, in some cases relevant evidence in the form of eyelets from ground sheets used
to	transport	bodies	to	the	grave	site	were	recovered	from	the	upper	parts	of 	the	pit	fills.		
From north to south the sondages measured the original width of each pit (between 2 and 2.2 m) and they
ranged	 from	 1	 to	 1.8	 m	 east	 to	 west,	 along	 the	 length	 of 	 the	 pits.	 	 Machine	 cuts	 left	 a	 skin	 of 	 fill	 sitting	
against the pit sides and this was removed by hand. At this stage, the sides of each sondage were also stepped
by	means	of 	mechanical	excavation	into	the	topsoil,	ploughsoil	and	uppermost	portions	of 	the	pit	fills,	to	
maintain a vertical:horizontal ratio of at least 2:3; this was done in order to comply with health and safety
regulations, ensure a safe working environment for the excavation staff, and to facilitate access into the pits.

                                                                  14
Initially,	steps	were	cut	only	into	the	upper	levels	of 	the	adjacent	pit	fills	in	order	to	maintain	the	integrity	of 	
the pit sides, but in some cases the tops of pit sides were slightly reduced – largely to prevent collapse onto
burial deposits – and shoring was also used where required (see below).




               Plate 1: West end of Pit 4 exposed in Trench 4 showing soil changes & well defined pit edges.
Using the hand-dug sondage as a guide, mechanical excavation ceased approximately one spit above the burial
horizon and hand excavation continued. Initially, this took the form of careful spading out of the generally
sticky,	moist	clay	fill,	but	as	burial	deposits	were	encountered	the	spade	was	exchanged	for	the	trowel.		
Polytunnels were initially placed over each pit, both to provide protection from inclement weather and to
shield human remains from view. In most cases these were replaced or supplemented by larger canvas tents
provided by the French Army, which were more weather proof and offered better ventilation. Electric lamps,
fuelled by generators, were suspended from the frames of some of the tents to provide better lighting for
work in the deeper pits. Perforated rubber and steel mats and wooden boards were placed on the steps as
mud control measures, in order to prevent slips and create clean working surfaces. Youngman boards were
placed across the pits where necessary to create working platforms above the burials and protect them from
pressure or disturbance during their exposure. At the close of each working day, any exposed human remains
were covered with polythene tarpaulins.
During	the	fieldwork,	several	long	spells	of 	heavy	rain	resulted	in	the	draining	of 	water	into	all	of 	the	pits.		Pit	
2, where conditions were driest, had the least ingress of water and Pit 1 rather more, while Pits 3, 4 and 5 were
at times inundated with up to 0.4 m water after a heavy night’s rain. Water was removed using a combination
of electric pumps, manual bailing and sponging; any water removed from the pits was stored in a foul water
bowser, and subsequently removed from the site and disposed of at a designated biohazard waste disposal
facility. On the ground surface, drainage channels were excavated to direct water away from the pits, with this
surface	run	off 	draining	into	the	nearby	field	drainage	ditches.		In	the	cases	of 	Pits	3	and	5,	the	wet	conditions	
destabilised the clay at the sides and these were shored using Perspex sheets to retain the loose sediment.
As work in the pits progressed, the ends of all the pits were exposed by topsoil stripping in order to precisely
establish their lengths. The exposed edges and corners of each pit were then surveyed in three dimensions
by total station (Figure 3).

6.4.1    Excavation Recording
Excavation proceeded by hand within each pit to expose the burials. Excavators wore Personal Protection
Equipment (PPE) in the form of full bodied paper suits and surgical gloves, and, where necessary, face
masks were also utilised. Where gaps occurred between burials, excavation proceeded through the underlying
deposits to establish the presence or absence of human remains at a lower level and, if possible, identify the
base of the pit (this proved possible to a lesser or greater extent in all of the pits).

                                                          15
                                                                                                 Aerial Photograph - 10 Oct 1916

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Location of railway
                                                                                                                                        Burial pits
                                                                                                                                                                                           (based on 2007 topographical survey)
                                                                                                                                                                               Open pits



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Pit 7

                                                                                                                                                      Site extent in 2007



                                                                                                                                                                            Railway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pit 6
                                                                                                                                   German trench
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Pit 8
                                                                                                                 30 m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pit 3     Trench 1
                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pit 2                  Trench 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pit 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trench 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trench 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pit 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pit 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Extent of the site in 2008


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trench 4 - Pit 4




                                                                                                16
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         0                            20 m                                           Trench 1 - Pit 5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            North-east view

                                                                                                                                                                                                Extent of the site in 2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trench 3- Pit 3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Trench 2- Pit 1

                                                                                                      KEY




Figure 3: Pit & Trench Locations (NB Pit shapes between topsoil stripped areas extrapolated).
                                                                                                           Sondage in pit                                                                                                                                                                 Trench 2 - Pit 2
                                                                                                           Trench extent

                                                                                                           Pit exposed in 2008

                                                                                                           Location of pits based
                                                                                                           on 1916 Aerial photograph
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        North-west view of site 3D model (2008)
Some	artefacts	were	recovered	during	hand	excavation	of 	the	upper	pit	fills;		machining	paused	when	the	
regular	metal	detector	scans	indicated	the	presence	of 	such	finds.		Their	positions	were	surveyed	in	three	
dimensions using a total station and they were lifted, bagged and numbered. Other artefacts were encountered
at the level of burial deposits, in many cases directly associated with bodies. These were numbered, surveyed,
recorded by written description and, where possible, photographed in situ. Some of these were removed,
cleaned	 and	 photographed	 again.	 	 Expert	 advice	 on	 the	 finds	 assemblage	 was	 provided	 by	 Laurie	 Milner,	
formerly of the Imperial War Museum in London. Where artefacts were clearly associated with a body, the
body	number	was	incorporated	into	the	small	finds	record	to	make	the	association	explicit	in	the	site	archive.	     	
Although the evaluation’s aim was not to disturb any burials, some smaller bones of hands and feet were
removed and bagged to prevent their dislocation and loss in the often very wet burial matrix. Bags were
labelled to associate them with individual skeletons and their relevant limbs. These were returned to each
pit	in	a	collective	bag,	along	with	a	separate	collective	bag	containing	any	individually	bagged	finds	that	had	
been	removed	for	photography,	before	backfilling	(it	is	important	to	note	that	no	human	remains	or	artefacts	
were removed from burial contexts on the completion of the project). This prevented their dislocation and
loss in the wet burial matrix, which at times made keeping them intact almost impossible, and also further
disturbance (and possibly loss) should a future attempt be made to recover the bodies.
As	cleaning	of 	the	upper	burial	horizons	proceeded	(Pits	5	and	1	being	the	first	to	be	excavated),	it	became	
apparent that the exposed human remains were skeletal, though in some trenches decay products were apparent
in	the	form	of 	the	viscous	burial	matrix,	which	gave	off 	a	strong	odour.		The	first	objective	was	to	clean	off 	
on the upper deposit of burial remains.
The exposed burial deposits were recorded in plan by written description on pro forma burial sheets and by
measured sketch. The main articulation points on each skeleton were surveyed by total station, with each
point coded according to body number and position. Photographs were taken of the burial deposits in each
pit, of each individual skeleton, and of any notable features such as evidence of trauma. A second set of
photographs	was	taken	of 	each	pit	using	small	targets	to	enable	the	production	of 	rectified	photographic	
plans, and the positions of the targets were then surveyed in three dimensions. The burials were also recorded
in three dimensions by means of laser scanning (section 6.5). Contexts, including deposits and pit cuts, were
recorded by written description on pro forma sheets. The edges of the pits, trenches and sondages were
recorded	by	total	station	survey,	as	were	profiles	across	the	pits	and	burial	deposits.		

6.5 Laser Scanning
Laser scanning is a technique more usually used in the recording of standing buildings and three-dimensional
spaces such as mine systems. It was recently used by GUARD to record a deep dugout constructed in 1918
by British troops to the north of Ypres in Belgian Flanders. The technique uses a device which distributes a
high intensity bombardment of laser beams, known as a point cloud, to generate a three-dimensional image of
the surveyed target, which can then be rendered and turned into a high resolution three-dimensional rendering
on a computer (these three-dimensional points will be integrated into the site survey using GIS to provide an
added layer of recording). Although never before used on a mass grave site, the technology has been used in
the	survey	of 	trench	locations	in	field	evaluations.		It	was	therefore	felt	that	it	might	have	a	useful	part	to	play	
in recording the work, augmenting the total station and photographic surveys. It was hoped that the survey
technique	would	suit	the	three-dimensional	nature	of 	the	site,	not	just	reflected	in	the	pits	but	also	the	human	
remains within them, the cleaned upper surface of which provided recordable forms. Of particular appeal
was	the	technique’s	ability	to	create	a	fly-through	rendering	of 	the	site,	which	would	give	an	impression	of 	
the scale and the nature of the works, as well as its results, to interested parties with no personal knowledge
of the site.

The work was carried out by APR Services using a Faro scanner over two days in the last week of the
evaluation, by which time work on the pits was advanced enough to provide worthwhile results. In order to
facilitate	the	scans,	the	polytunnels	and	tents	covering	the	pits	were	removed	and	tripod-mounted	reflectors	
set up at each corner, some distance away from the sondages. The scanner was set up in a position where
the pit contents could be recorded and the area was cleared of personnel as the scanning progressed. The
recording of each pit took only a few minutes. Some of the visual products from this survey have been used
to illustrate this report (Figures 6, 8, 10 and 12).

6.6 Soil Sampling and Analysis
In order to gain some further comprehension of the nature of the soils and their impact on the survival of the


                                                       17
remains, a geo-archaeologist, Dr Jo McKenzie, examined the sediments in each pit and took samples from the
various	fills.		Analysis	of 	these	samples	has	provided	valuable	information	on	soil	morphology,		its	associated	
chemical and physical characteristics and the ultimate effect that these may have on the decomposition of
clothing and cadaveric materials in the pits (Janaway 2008). The positions of all samples were recorded in
three dimensions.

6.7 Site Reinstatement
After recording and the replacement of any artefacts and small bones (see above) that had been removed
during	excavation,	the	pits	were	backfilled.		Backfilling	was	carried	out	in	stages	to	prevent	damage	to	the	
fragile burial deposits and to simplify their re-exposure, should recovery of the remains take place in the
future.		Damage	to	bones	can	severely	comprise	the	ability	to	subsequently	yield	DNA	profiles,	and	so	great	
care was taken during this stage of the works to ensure that those bodies which had been exposed were
accorded maximum protection.

The	exposed	human	remains	were	first	covered	with	a	permeable	geotextile	in	order	to	protect	them,	while	
also allowing free drainage through the burial matrix, thereby preserving the burial conditions as much as
possible.		A	thick	layer	of 	fine	sand	was	placed	on	top	of 	this	and	carefully	packed	by	hand	around	and	over	
the skeletons to further protect them. A layer of lightweight, freely draining substrate (vermiculite) was then
placed	over	the	sand,	in	order	to	absorb	pressure	from	the	heavy	clay	above.		The	clay	was	then	backfilled	as	
carefully	as	possible	to	the	top	of 	the	each	pit.		Steel	mesh	was	placed	above	each	backfilled	pit	to	prevent	any	
unauthorised disturbance of the graves, and the ploughsoil and modern topsoil were replaced above this.
Since the completion of the project, the ground has been further reinstated by the CWGC. The CWGC brought
in fresh topsoil which was then grass-seeded, and also erected a small inscribed stone which commemorates
the dead soldiers now known to lie in this ground.

7.0 Results
This section presents an overview of the results of the various elements of the methodology set out above.

7.1 Historical Research
The	results	of 	this	research	as	they	reflect	directly	on	the	evaluation	are	summarised	in	a	later	section	(Historical	
Perspectives section 7.7).

7.2 Pit Evaluation
The	various	types	of 	intervention	described	in	the	following	pit	by	pit	summaries	are	defined	thus:
Trench	-	evaluation	trench	through	ploughsoil	and	topsoil	to	expose	subsoil	and	grave	fills	(Trench	1	was	cut	
across Pits 5 and 6 and Trench 2 across Pits 1 and 2; the other pits were dealt with individually and the surface
of trench 8 was entirely exposed).
Sondage – sample excavation of burial pits. These took in the entire width of the pits (c 2 m) and between 1
m and 1.8 m of the length of the pit (east/west), which equates overall to around a 16% surface area sample.
In pits 1-5, small sondages were cut through the upper burial deposits in order to establish the presence or
absence of lower deposits.
Following a description of the locations of the sondage and a brief summary of the exposure process, the pit
sequences	are	described	in	stratigraphic	order	–	subsoil	and	cut	first,	then	primary	burial	deposits,	followed	by	
secondary	deposits	and	finally	pit	backfill.
Note	on	context	numbers:		Due	to	the	order	in	which	the	pits	were	excavated	context	number	prefixes	do	not	
always correlate to the pit number but the trenches in which the pit sondages were excavated, ie Pit 5 is located
in	trench	1	(it	was	the	first	to	be	investigated),	while	pits	1	and	2	are	located	in	trench	2.		There	is	a	correlation	
between	context	number	prefixes	and	the	remaining	pits,	3,4,6,7	and	8,	as	these	were	all	located	within	their	
own smaller trenches following the abandonment of the longer evaluation trenching technique. The absence
of 	‘5’	prefixes	relate	to	the	short-lived	misidentification	of 	a	natural	soil	change	as	the	western	end	of 	Pit	6.	 	
By the time this had been realised, and the real end located around 1 metre further to the east, three context
numbers had already been assigned and these can be found in the context list in the appendices.




                                                          18
7.2.1 Pit 1 (Figures 4 & 5)
Pit 1 was investigated at the southern end of Trench 2 in a sondage measuring 1.8 m east/west by 2.2 m.
The sondage was located against the western end of the pit. The modern turf and topsoil (2001) sealed the
ploughsoil (2002) that had accumulated since the First World War, which consisted of stiff, compacted mid
brown	silty	clay	with	frequent	fine	roots	and	light	orange	clay	mottles,	up	to	0.24	m	thick.		Shrapnel	balls,	spent	
.303 bullets and shell fragments were recovered from it.
The	upper	fill	(2006)	and	cut	[2007]	of 	Pit	1	were	exposed	in	the	surface	of 	the	sterile	subsoil	after	removal	of 	
the ploughsoil. The upper subsoil consisted of stiff, compact, mid yellow-brown silty clay with light orange
mottles and rare roots. It lay 0.3 m deep above the lower subsoil horizon, consisting of plastic, consolidated,
light	yellow-brown	silty	clay	with	small	lenses	of 	light	blue-grey	clay	(2005).		A	modern	plastic	field	drain	ran	
east/west across the centre of Trench 2 to the north of Pit 1.
Pit 1 measured 9.9 m east/west (as exposed in plan) and 2.2 m north/south at the top. The north and south
sides	descended	at	angles	of 	about	75	degrees	from	the	horizontal	to	a	fairly	flat	base,	while	the	west	side	(pit	
end) was nearly vertical (90 degrees) at its south-west corner. The cut measured about 1.09 m deep from the
top	of 	the	fill	to	the	base	of 	the	pit	in	this	south-west	corner.
Excavation reached the base of the pit only in the south-west corner of the sondage, to the south of B12.
Part	of 	one	body	was	exposed	in	this	area,	a	pair	of 	flexed	legs	(B20)	which	had	been	tied	with	what	appeared	
to be telephone wire (SF 185), probably for ease of transport. The upper part of the body extended beneath
B12, B22 and B30 to the north. Water regularly seeped into the pit and remained at this lower level, even
after several days of dry weather. This body from the primary burial phase was covered with a thick layer of
sticky but compacted mid orange sand mottled with light yellow-grey clay (2010), which had been dug out last
from	the	base	of 	the	pit	and	therefore	represented	the	spoil	backfilled	first.		It	lay	0.24	m	thick	above	B20	and	
sloped up to a thickness of 0.53 m against the western edge of the pit. Flecks of bright orange iron staining
indicated some mineral leaching from the deposits above.
At	least	five	further	bodies	rested	on	this	layer	and	appeared	to	have	been	buried	in	roughly	the	order	B50/
BP51,	followed	by	BP52,	and	finally	the	intertwined	bodies	of 	B30,	B22	and	B12.		The	damaged	skull,	left	
arm	and	left	ribs	of 	B50	were	exposed	at	the	eastern	edge	of 	the	trench;		a	flexed	left	leg	and	foot	(BP51)	
extending from the baulk to the south may have belonged to the same individual. The glass eye-piece for a
gas	mask	(SF	218)	was	found	to	the	west	of 	B50.		The	flexed	left	arm	of 	another	individual	(BP52)	extended	
from the eastern baulk and lay above the torso of B50. An extended, prone body (B30) lay immediately to
the	west,	with	his	head	to	the	south	and	his	torso	lying	over	the	left	hand	of 	BP52.		His	flexed	left	arm	rested	
on the skull of B50 and on a long (1.53 m) cut wooden stick (SF 219), which lay parallel to him; the stick may
have been used to help transport the bodies or position them in the pit. The left foot of B30 lay beneath the
stick, and also beneath the left arm of B22. Five metal rivets (SFs 253, 254) were found above the right leg of
B30; a copper alloy buckle (SF 240) was found by the right lower leg, and 14 eyelets (SF 188) from a German
groundsheet	were	also	associated	with	the	body.		Part	of 	his	tunic	survived,	and	was	identified	as	a	probable	
fragment	from	a	pocket	flap,	which	from	its	pointed	appearance	would	suggest	an	Australian	tunic	–	British	
tunics	had	straight-edged	pocket	flaps	(L	Milner,	pers	comm).
B22 lay supine and extended with his head to the north. His left arm lay over the left legs of B30 and BP51,
but ran beneath the wooden stick (SF 219) on which the left arm of B30 rested. B22 wore a maxillary dental
prosthetic (SF 242), and two charging clips containing .303 bullets (SFs 248, 249), leather braces straps (SF
257) and a metal button (SF 184) were also found with him. His right arm extended beneath the head of B12
to the west, while his own head rested on the left arm of B12.
B12 lay extended with his head to the north at the western edge of the pit. An extensive assemblage of
artefacts was associated with this skeleton, indicating that he was buried with his webbing and equipment.
His	right	arm	was	flexed	beside	his	head	and	the	hand	lay	beneath	a	leather	bayonet	scabbard	(SF	93)	and	the	
wooden handle of an entrenching tool (SF 92). He appeared to be wearing puttees. A small, copper alloy
swastika with a leather cord through its central perforation (SF 94) lay near his right wrist, and may have been
a good luck charm like those many soldiers carried into battle (L Milner, pers comm). Concentrated around
his upper body were numerous copper alloy strap ends, press studs, rivets and buckles (SFs 100-3, 124-8,
138-143, 145-8, 154-7, 165-175), leather braces straps (SFs 152-3) and other objects. Several charging clips
containing .303 bullets (SFs 129, 130, 159) and a blue enamelled water canteen (SF 125) were still in place. He
                                                                                                                	
wore	socks,	and	remnants	of 	his	tunic	(including	a	possible	collar	fragment	in	a	fine	quality	fabric)	survived.	
A concentration of zinc eyelets to the west of B12 (SF 123) indicated that he had been buried in a German
groundsheet and it seems likely, given the intertwining of B12 and B22, that they were shrouded in a shared
groundsheet.
                                                      21
Around and directly above these second-phase burials lay loose, sticky, sandy clay (2013), mid grey in colour
with dark and light grey mottles and lenses of orange clay, averaging 0.1 m thick. This was the upper
backfill	of 	the	pit,	transformed	in	colour	and	texture	through	contact	with	the	bodies	and	the	products	of 	
decomposition. Crumbs and small fragments of lime (2009) lay in patches within this deposit. Above lay
backfilled	clay	(2006),	consisting	of 	firm,	plastic,	light	orange	silty	clay	with	pale	blue-grey	clay	mottles	and	
small	lenses	of 	bright	orange,	iron-rich	sand	and	fine	gravel.		It	lay	up	to	0.8	m	thick,	but	was	shallower	(only	
0.55	m	thick)	at	the	western	end	of 	the	pit,	where	the	lower	fill	2010	sloped	up	against	the	cut.		A	leather	
bayonet	scabbard	(SF	120)	was	found	in	the	lower	part	of 	the	backfill;		it	bore	the	stamp	‘HGR	15’,	indicating	
that it was manufactured by Hepburn, Gale & Ross in Bermondsey in1915; these were used by British and
Australian troops alike (L Milner, pers comm).

7.2.2 Pit 2 (Figures 6 & 7)
Pit 2 was exposed and investigated at the northern end of Trench 2, at the edge of Pheasant Wood, in a
sondage measuring 1 m east/west by 2.65 m. The sondage was located around 3 m from the western end of
the pit. Although it lay only 8.8 m to the north of Pit 1, soil conditions were quite different in and around this
pit. The modern turf and topsoil (2001) sealed the post-WWI ploughsoil (2002), which was drier and waxier
in texture than above Pit 2. As elsewhere, several shell fragments, spent .303 bullets and shrapnel balls were
recovered from it.
The sterile subsoil at this northern end of the trench differed slightly from that at the southern end. The upper
subsoil	(2004)	was	the	same	stiff,	compact,	mid	yellow-brown	silty	clay	with	fine	light	orange	mottles,	but	with	
roots penetrating it much more frequently. At a depth of c 0.3 m it gave way to a lower subsoil horizon (2005)
of light yellow-brown silty clay, which at this end of the trench contained concentrations and thick bands of
much drier, more friable clay sand and sandy clay, strong orange in colour and evidently iron-rich. At the base
of the pit, in a small sondage against the western baulk, another subsoil horizon was encountered of dense,
light	blue	clay	(2014)	with	a	coarse,	well-defined	structure	–	the	underlying	Ypresian	clay.
Pit 2 measured 9.7 m east/west (as exposed in plan) and 2.65 m wide at the top. The south side of the cut
sloped	down	at	an	angle	of 	about	40	degrees	from	the	horizontal	and	curved	gently	onto	a	flat	base,	while	the	
north side was nearly vertical. Although the base of the pit was not fully exposed, it appeared to measure 1.6
m wide (north/south).
Parts	of 	five	bodies	deposited	in	a	first	phase	of 	burial	were	uncovered	where	the	spaces	between	upper	burial	
deposits permitted exploration. Against the western baulk were human remains relating to two individuals
from	the	first	burial	phase	(B44,	followed	by	B43),	while	parts	of 	a	further	three	were	found	along	the	eastern	
side	of 	the	trench	(BP59,	BP61	and	B60;		their	burial	order	was	not	clear).		On	the	west,	a	flexed	left	arm	
(BP44) was found lying on the base of the pit. It lay below a pair of articulated legs, only visible around
the	knees	(B43);		the	right	leg	was	extended	north-east/south-west	and	continued	beneath	the	lower	backfill	
(2012)	and	B42	to	the	east,	while	the	left	leg	was	flexed	and	ran	directly	beneath	B44.		A	leather	cord	(SF	208),	
possibly a boot lace, was found immediately south of B43.
On	the	eastern	side	of 	the	trench,	a	flexed	left	leg	(BP59)	was	just	visible	around	the	knee	area	beneath	the	
lower	backfill	(2012)	and	B42	(above	at	a	higher	level).		A	right	lower	leg	and	foot	(BP61)	belonging	to	another	
individual lay to the south on a north-east/south-west alignment. Part of an extended, prone body (B60) was
partially exposed. He lay with his head to the north, resting against the cut. Only part of the right upper
body	and	right	arm	were	visible;		his	lower	body	appeared	to	run	beneath	B42	(with	the	lower	backfill	2012	
intervening), while his right hand ran beneath the eastern baulk. A small white horn button (SF 216), possibly
from an undergarment, was found on his chest, along with a small copper alloy hook with textile attached (SF
243), possibly for a collar.
These	 earlier	 burials	 were	 sealed	 by	 relatively	 loose,	 sticky,	 light	 grey-brown	 silty	 clay,	 flecked	 with	 bright	
orange and dark red iron staining (2012), which contained crumbs and small fragments of lime; this was the
clay	that	had	been	backfilled	over	the	bodies	first	deposited	in	the	pit.		It	sloped	down	from	a	thickness	of 	
about 0.3 m at either side toward the centre, where it lay only 0.1 m thick. Occasional roots up to 5 mm in
diameter penetrated it from the western baulk.
Up	to	seven	more	bodies	from	a	second	phase	of 	burial	lay	on	this	lower	backfill.		They	had	been	buried	
approximately	thus:		BP45	and	B41,	then	B42,	BP46	and	BP58,	and	finally	B47	and	BP65.		BP45	was	represented	
only by a proximal phalange from a foot, just exposed at the western baulk; the remainder presumably ran
into the baulk. B41 lay prone against the western baulk, with his injured head resting against the sloping south
edge of the pit and lower legs continuing into the baulk. He appeared to have been wrapped in a groundsheet,

                                                              22
evident as decayed textile over and around the torso. A small metal hook (SF 205) was discovered above his
pelvis, and a bone toothbrush (SF213) lay beside his left ribs. B42 lay immediately to the east, supine with
his	upper	spine	steeply	curved,	possibly	to	fit	the	body	into	the	pit;		his	badly	damaged	head	lay	against	the	
northern edge of the pit. His left arm extended across the torso and face, while his right appeared to extend
into	the	western	baulk;		it	may	have	been	flexed,	reappearing	as	BP46,	a	right	wrist	and	hand	that	rested	against	
the north side of the pit at an angle. Two small horn buttons (SF 210) were found just above the sternum,
and may have derived from an undergarment. Remnants of textile visible around the upper torso may have
represented a groundsheet in which B42 was wrapped. His lower legs and feet lay directly above the left arm
of B41, while his knees lay beneath the right arm of B47.
An articulated hand (BP58) was exposed at the eastern baulk; it may have related to B47, which lay just to
the north. A left lower arm and hand (BP65) also extended from the eastern baulk, lying directly over BP58
and resting against the left side of B47’s skull. B47 lay prone and extended north/south with his head to the
south.		Most	of 	his	pelvis	and	lower	body	ran	beneath	the	eastern	baulk,	but	part	of 	his	flexed	right	leg	and	
left knee were visible at the section edge. The remains of a gas mask (SF 260), with eye-pieces intact, sat in
situ on his head above the eye sockets (in battle, these hoods were often worn beneath the helmet in readiness
to be pulled down over the face). A small horn button (SF 261), perhaps from an undergarment, was found
on	the	right	lower	ribs.		His	right	arm	was	flexed,	extending	across	the	legs	of 	B42;		his	right	hand	lay	on	the	
mid torso of B41 and was steeply bent; it may have come to rest on a fold in the groundsheet that enveloped
B42.
Above and around these second-phase burials was relatively loose, plastic, light grey-brown silty clay with
frequent tiny lenses and lumps of bright orange to dark red iron staining (2011), up to 0.10 m thick. Pieces
of 	 lime	 occurred	 on	 the	 surface	 of 	 this	 deposit,	 which	 represented	 backfilled	 clay	 transformed	 through	
decomposition,	biological	activity	and	leaching.		The	backfilled	clay	sealing	all	of 	the	burial	deposits	lay	above	
this, and consisted of rather stiff, moderately compacted silty clay, light yellow-brown in colour with thick
lenses of pale blue-grey clay, pockets of mid orange-brown silty clay, small lenses of bright orange, iron-
stained gritty clay sand and frequent small ironstones. Tip lines were visible in the western baulk, sloping
down	from	either	side	of 	the	pit.		Several	roots	up	to	0.04	m	in	diameter	protruded	into	the	fill	from	the	
western baulk. It measured 0.97 m thick at the centre of the pit.
The	remains	of 	up	to	two	more	individuals	were	exposed	during	trench	preparation	in	the	pit	fill	(2011)	to	
the east of the trench: a cranium (BP63) near the south edge of the pit and the bones of a left foot aligned
north/south (BP64) at the north edge.

7.2.3 Pit 3 (Figures 8 & 9)
Pit 3, at the edge of Pheasant Wood, was investigated in Trench 3 in a sondage measuring 1.7 m east/west by
2.7 m north/south, located around 3 m from the western end of the pit. Beneath the modern turf and topsoil
(3001), the post-WWI ploughsoil (3002) consisted of compacted, stiff, friable, mid brown silty clay with
abundant roots generally over 0.03 m in diameter. Bullets, shell fragments and shrapnel balls were recovered
from it.
The	upper	fill	(3003)	and	cut	[3007]	of 	Pit	3	were	exposed	beneath	the	ploughsoil.		The	surrounding	subsoil	
matrix	(3004)	was	sticky,	consolidated	light	orange	silty	clay	with	fine	quartzite	crystals	and	occasional	fine	
roots, 0.26 m thick. The underlying subsoil horizon (3005) consisted of a similar deposit, light yellow-orange
in	colour,	but	it	also	contained	bands	of 	orange	iron-rich	fine	gravel.		A	narrow,	linear	cut	[3008]	was	visible	
running NNE/SSW through the upper subsoil (3004) and terminating at the south edge of the grave pit; it
was	filled	with	soft,	light	orange	silty	clay	and	fragments	of 	ceramic	drainage	pipe	(3009).		It	appears	that	the	
original	digging	of 	the	grave	pit	(by	the	Germans)	broke	a	field	drain;		this	may	account	for	the	extremely	
wet	conditions	that	prevailed	in	Pit	3,	which	flooded	continually.		At	the	base	of 	the	pit,	in	a	small	sondage	
excavated at the south-eastern corner of the trench, another subsoil horizon was encountered of dense, dark
blue	clay	(3012)	with	a	coarse,	well-defined	structure	–	the	underlying	Ypresian	clay.		
Pit 3 measured 9.6 m east/west by 2.65 m at the top. The north side sloped down at a 40 degree angle, while
the	south	side	was	vertical.		The	flat	base	measured	1.65	m	wide	and	lay	1.3	m	below	the	top	of 	the	fill.		The	
Pit	3	profile	was	the	opposite	of 	the	Pit	2	profile,	which	had	a	sloping	south	side	and	a	vertical	north	side.		It	
may be that the northern side of Pit 3 was angled to avoid a boundary ditch at the edge of the forest as much
as it was to avoid tree roots.
The	remains	of 	two	individuals	were	uncovered	in	the	sondage	in	the	south-east	corner.		A	flexed	left	arm	
(BP57), only visible around the elbow region, extended from the eastern baulk of the trench. Directly above

                                                        25
it lay a left ankle and foot (BP56); the remainder of this individual continued westward, beneath the lower
backfill	 (3010),	 with	 B39	 above.	 	 BP56	 and	 BP57	 had	 been	 buried	 in	 a	 primary	 phase	 of 	 deposition	 and	
covered by a layer of soft, sticky silty clay (3010), light orange in colour with small blue-grey mottles and
flecks	of 	dark	orange	iron	staining,	which	displayed	a	hackly	fracture	when	broken.		It	contained	a	higher	
proportion of dark orange clay in proximity to the bones (possibly from the decay of textiles), and lay up to
0.12 m thick.
Another	five	bodies	or	body	parts	lay	above	this,	representing	a	second	phase	of 	burial;		they	appeared	to	
have	been	buried	in	the	order	BP48,	followed	by	B37,	B38	and	B40,	and	finally	B39.		BP48	was	represented	
by a left lower leg, ankle and foot and prone left pelvis, just exposed at the western edge of the trench. He
may have lain beneath B37 immediately to the east, but this was not established beyond doubt. B37 lay prone
with	his	head	to	the	south	and	his	right	arm	lying	against	the	south	edge	of 	the	pit.		His	legs	were	flexed	at	the	
knee and extended into the western baulk. B37 had been buried in a rubberised British groundsheet (SF 196),
which survived very well and still retained its elasticity. The clay (3006) surrounding this body was noticeably
lighter in colour than around the other human remains at this level, and it may be that the rubberised fabric
had prevented the products of decay from leaching out into the matrix (J McKenzie, this report). B37. A
buckle (SF 228), probably from an Australian tunic, was found beneath his chin, close to a mother-of-pearl
button	(SF	227)	that	may	have	come	from	an	undergarment.		A	copper	alloy	rifle	cleaner	(SF	195)	was	found	
next to his left hip.
B38 lay adjacent to the east, also prone but with his head against the north edge of the pit. His left arm lay
over the right knee of B37, and he had been buried with his lower legs and feet lying to the east. The remains
of a black woollen sock were visible around the left ankle. A buckle (SF 197) from an Australian tunic, was
found immediately east of his torso. He lay partly under B39 to the east.
At the eastern edge of the trench was a supine skeleton (B40) with his head against the north edge of the pit.
Like B37 and B38, he had suffered head injury. His right hand lay beneath the right leg of B39, to the west.
He had been buried with several pieces of kit, including the internal waterproof bag for a PH helmet (SF 200);
this lay on the right side of his chest, and a bone toothbrush (SF 198) lay beside it. A leather belt and pouch
(SF 199) was found in situ around his waist; it was not military issue, and may have been a personal money
belt (L Milner, pers comm). A small mother-of-pearl button (SF 220) on his pelvis may have come from an
undergarment. A General Service Button (SF 258) may have come from either this individual or B39.
B39 lay between B38 and B40 and partly over both, so he had been buried last in the Pit 3 sequence. He lay
extended and supine, but his upper body lay twisted to the west with his head and neck against the north edge
of 	the	pit,	while	his	feet	rested	against	the	south	edge.		His	body	appeared	to	have	been	forced	to	fit	into	the	
pit, probably because of his apparently large size. His left arm and head lay above the left foot and right leg
and foot of B38 and his right leg lay over the right hand of B39. Remnants of textile around his head and
upper body could indicate that he was buried with his tunic pulled up around his face.
The bodies deposited in the second phase of burial were covered with a general scattering of lime, with a
thicker concentration (3011) to the east of B39’s torso perhaps representing a discrete bagful or shovelful.
Clay	had	been	backfilled	on	top	of 	them.		Around	and	immediately	above	the	bodies,	it	had	been	transformed	
through leaching and decomposition products to very soft, sticky, pale blue-grey clay with frequent small light
orange mottles (3006), 0.04-0.18 m thick, although it was more orange than blue in the vicinity of B37 (see
above).		Small	roots	extended	into	it	from	the	south	side	of 	the	pit.		The	upper	backfill	(3003)	consisted	of 	
fairly consolidated, sticky, plastic silty clay (averaging 1 m thick), mottled mid orange-brown, light blue-grey
and	 light	 yellow-orange,	 with	 occasional	 tiny	 quartzite	 crystals,	 lenses	 of 	 bright	 orange	 fine	 iron-rich	 grit	
and lumps and concentrations of lime. Tip lines were visible in the section, sloping down from either side.
Abundant	roots	under	0.01	m	in	diameter	penetrated	the	fill,	along	with	occasional	larger	tree	roots	extending	
into the pit from the north.

7.2.4 Pit 4 (Figures 10 & 11)
Pit 4 was investigated in Trench 4 in a sondage measuring 1.35 m east/west by 2.2 m north/south, located
around 1 m from the western end of the pit. The modern turf and topsoil (4001) lay over fairly compacted,
stiff, mid yellow-brown silty clay, the post-WWI ploughsoil (4002). Battle detritus, including shrapnel balls,
shell fragments and spent .303 bullets were recovered from it.
The	upper	fill	(4003)	and	cut	[4006]	were	exposed	beneath	the	ploughsoil.		The	surrounding	upper	subsoil	
horizon consisted of consolidated, stiff, light yellow-orange silty clay with pockets of dark orange, iron-rich
grit and decayed stones, which lay up to 0.28 m thick. It sealed a lower subsoil horizon of stiff, consolidated,

                                                             26
mid grey-yellow silty clay with pale blue-grey clay mottles (4005), which also contained bands of orange iron-
rich	fine	gravel.
Pit	4	measured	9.26	m	east/west	by	2.10	m	wide	at	the	top.		The	cut	[4006]	had	nearly	vertical	sides	and	
measured about 1.5 m deep. Not enough of the base was exposed to allow its character to be observed.
One body was found on the base of the pit, in a small sondage excavated between the legs of B36. A pair of
articulated legs were visible, only exposed around the knee area (B55). This body, buried in a primary phase
of deposition, was covered with soft, plastic, mid grey clay with discrete lenses of glutinous, grey-black clay,
probably representing products of decomposition (4008). It gave off a strong smell of putrefaction and lay
up	to	0.23	m	thick.		The	base	of 	the	pit	filled	with	water	at	this	depth	almost	immediately	after	bailing	or	
sponging, even after several days of dry weather.
Another	nine	bodies	lay	on	the	lower	backfill	and	represented	a	second	phase	of 	burial:		B34,	B54,	BP53,	
B36,	B35,	B32,	B49,	B33	and	B31,	in	roughly	that	order	of 	deposition.		The	legs	of 	B34,	one	of 	the	first	in	
the sequence, lay aligned east/west along the north edge of the pit; the pelvis and upper body presumably
continued into the west baulk. His left foot still wore a laced-up leather boot (SF 194), which appears to be
of Australian type (L Milner, pers comm). His right foot wore a sock. The rubberised collar of a probable
gas cape (SF 231) lay between his legs. Two bodies lay directly above: B35 and B36.
B36	lay	extended	and	prone	with	his	head	to	the	south,	his	right	arm	extended	and	his	left	flexed.		His	lower	
legs lay directly over B34. One Australian ‘Rising Sun’ badge (SF 206) was found above the right hip of B36,
and another (SF 202) above his lower torso on the right, possibly on the shoulder of BP54. A length of
twisted wire (SF 236) was looped around his left wrist. On the left side of his jaw, which was badly damaged,
was a safety pin (SF 207) that may have held a bandage in place. Two strands of leather cord (SF 237) lay
aligned east/west beneath his neck. The head of another individual (BP53) lay within the crook of his right
arm;		the	rest	extended	into	the	pit	fill	to	the	west.		The	left	arm	of 	another	individual	(BP54)	lay	parallel	to	
B36 against the west baulk, with his left shoulder and hand beneath the left wrist and knee of B36. B36 lay
partly beneath an adjacent body (B35) to the east; his right leg lay beneath the left knee of B35 and his right
arm lay beneath the head of B35.
B35 lay parallel to B36, extended and supine with his head to the south, his right leg extended across B34 and
his	left	leg	flexed	at	the	knee	and	overlying	B36.		The	rubberised	components	of 	a	gas	mask	(SF	235)	lay	on	
his	lower	left	thigh,	a	piece	of 	wood	(SF	238)	rested	across	his	left	forearm	and	there	were	traces	of 	finely	
woven textile on his left leg. A General Service Button (SF 241) was recovered from spoil removed from the
area of his lower torso. The remains of some textile with a loose weave, perhaps from a sandbag, were visible
wrapped around his hips at the front and back. The right arm of B33 lay above his head and right shoulder.
Another body (B49) lay at the same level, supine and extended east/west along the south edge of the pit.
Only his pelvis and legs were exposed, and his feet lay beneath the head of B33. His upper body extended
into the western baulk. B32 lay to the east of B35, extended with his head to the north beside B35’s right leg.
He lay prone, his right arm lying forward with his hand against the boot of B36, with B31 lying over his right
elbow. His right leg and right pelvis extended beneath the east baulk, while his left lay beneath the right arm
and torso of B33. Rubberised threads (SF 232), perhaps from a pair of gas mask goggles, lay around his upper
body. Only the head and upper body of B33 were exposed, lying prone along the south edge of the pit with
his	head	to	the	west.		His	pelvis	and	legs	presumably	continued	under	the	east	baulk.		His	flexed	right	arm	lay	
over B35 and B32, and his head lay above the feet of B49. His fractured left arm rested vertically against the
pit’s southern edge.
The last body to be buried was B31, partially exposed at the north-eastern corner of the trench. He lay supine,
with only his fractured skull and his arms extending from the east baulk. His arms lay over his head with his
hands against the north edge of the pit. He wore a tied and knotted leather band (SF 234) around his left
wrist, along with the cuff from a woollen garment. A concentration of what may have been textile lay around
his head, possibly the remnants of a jacket, as a metal buckle and two buttons (SF 233) were found with it.
The inner box and cover of a matchbox (SF 217) were found in the same area; the coloured, printed design
(depicting John Bull) was still clearly visible on the cover, along with a maker’s mark showing it had been
manufactured in Gloucester. It may have been carried in a pocket.
Lying around and immediately over the second-phase burials was a deposit up to 0.26 m thick of soft, sticky,
very	plastic	mid	grey	clay	(4007).		This	comprised	the	backfilled	clay,	transformed	through	decomposition	
of the bodies. It contained frequent light grey and dark grey mottles and lenses, occasional small lenses of
light orange silty clay and lumps of degraded lime. It also contained discrete lenses of glutinous black clay,


                                                      31
which occurred more frequently toward the base of the deposit and may indicate differential decomposition
of 	organic	material.		It	gave	off 	a	strong	smell	of 	putrefaction,	especially	when	first	exposed	to	the	air.		It	
contained irregularly shaped, sub angular calcined inclusions, which possibly may have derived from the decay
of soft tissue; these were sometimes found adhering to bones and fusing them together. Around some of the
body parts the clay was stained russet-brown and bright orange, possibly from the decay of textiles. Above
it,	the	upper	backfilled	deposit	consisted	of 	firm,	sticky,	plastic	light	orange-yellow	silty	clay	mottled	with	
light blue-grey clay (4003), with tiny quartzite crystals and occasional lumps of lime. It also contained small
pockets of bright orange gritty clay, especially towards the base of the deposit, that represented leaching and
mineralisation	from	higher	up	the	profile.		It	lay	about	1	m	thick	across	the	pit.

7.2.5 Pit 5 (Figures 12 & 13)
Pit 5 was investigated at the southern end of Trench 1 in a sondage measuring 1.5 m east/west by 2.2 m,
located around 1 m from the western end of the pit. The modern turf and topsoil (1001) sealed the post-
WWI ploughsoil, a stiff, compacted, mid grey-brown silty clay with orange clay mottles (1002), up to 0.2 m
thick. Some shrapnel balls, spent .303 bullets and shell fragments were recovered from the ploughsoil, along
with a few sherds of modern ceramics.
Beneath	the	post-war	ploughsoil	(1002),	the	upper	fill	(1010)	and	cut	[1006]	of 	Pit	5	were	exposed	in	the	
surface of the sterile subsoil (1004). The upper subsoil consisted of very consolidated, stiff, light yellow-
orange clay with frequent small grey-brown lenses and tiny, bright orange, iron-rich mottles. Roots up to 0.1
m in diameter extended into the upper subsoil, which lay up to 0.4 m deep. Beneath it was a lower subsoil
horizon (1005) of very consolidated, stiff, light grey-yellow silty clay with small lenses of pale blue-grey clay
and	occasional	bands	of 	coarse,	bright	orange,	angular	fine	grit	and	clay.		Several	patches	of 	light	grey-brown,	
more humic clay visible in the lower subsoil were probably tree boles or root stains. Several roots up to 0.02
m	in	diameter	extended	into	this	lower	subsoil.		A	modern	plastic	field	drain	ran	east/west	across	the	centre	
of 	Trench	1	to	the	north	of 	Pit	5,	while	an	older,	ceramic	field	drain	ran	east/west	across	the	trench	to	the	
south of Pit 5.
Pit	5	measured	9	m	east/west	(as	exposed	in	plan)	and	2.2	m	wide	at	the	top.		The	cut	[1006]	had	nearly	vertical	
sides	descending	to	a	flat	base,	and	was	about	1.8	m	deep	from	the	top	of 	the	fill.		
Up to four bodies rested on the base of the pit (B19, B23, BP25 and BP28). These were only exposed on
the pit’s northern side, where it was possible to excavate beneath the level of the upper burial deposit. B19
and B23 lay very close together, both with their heads to the north, and B19 appeared to have been buried
first,	as	threads	from	the	webbing	or	uniform	of 	B23	overlay	B19.		B19	wore	a	maxillary	dental	prosthetic.	  	
A cluster of brass eyelets (SF 177), possibly from a British groundsheet, lay 0.2 m to the north of B19, and
the close proximity of the bodies suggests that they were wrapped in a single groundsheet. A pair of leather
braces straps and a piece of lozenge-shaped leather (SF 182) lay beside the left ribs of B23. At this northern
edge of the pit, a gap of c 0.75 m occurred between these burials and BP25 and BP28, a right lower leg and
foot and a left foot respectively that may have belonged to the same individual. The bodies lay in a matrix
of very loose, wet, sticky black clay, up to 0.1 m deep (1019). It contained abundant irregularly shaped, sub
angular calcined inclusions, 0.02-0.06 m across on average, which may possibly have derived from the decay
of soft tissue; these were sometimes found adhering to bones and fusing them together. It also contained
moderately frequent lumps and small fragments of lime, with a particular concentration on the torso of B19.
During excavation, water seeped continuously into the base of the pit and the deposit gave off a strong smell
of putrefaction.
The	earliest	burial	deposits	were	sealed	by	a	thick	layer	of 	firm,	dense,	plastic	clay	(1018),	mid	to	light	blue-
grey in colour with a waxy texture, up to 0.25 m thick. It contained moderately frequent concentrations of
black clay less than 0.01 m across and, when broken, displayed a hackly fracture. It also contained lumps and
small fragments of lime, and gave off a fairly strong smell of putrefaction. This deposit consisted of clay
that	had	been	backfilled	over	the	bodies	first	deposited	in	the	pit,	and	it	appeared	to	have	been	transformed	
in colour and texture through the processes of leaching and decomposition.
Resting on the blue-grey clay (1018) were at least six bodies which had been deposited in a second phase of
burial: B17/BP24, BP26, BP27, BP10/BP13, B09 and B08. B17 was one of the earliest in this series; his
body lay with the head to the north and arms spread, and with the legs (possibly represented by BP24, a distal
femur and patella) presumably running beneath B08. A concentration of lime fragments and chunks (1020),
perhaps representing a single bag or shovelful, lay to the north of B17’s skull. Part of another skull (BP27),
with the remains of a PHG helmet (SF 137) immediately above, lay to the west of B17 against the east-facing


                                                        32
section at approximately the same level; the rest of this individual may have been present in the western baulk
of the trench (the PHG was a later model gas mask than the PH and was introduced in 1916). To the west of
B17’s lower torso was an articulated, fractured left arm and hand (BP26); the rest of this individual was not
visible at this level. An Australian tunic buckle and several .303 bullets (SF 135) lay to the west of BP26.
At least three other bodies lay at a slightly higher level and aligned east/west axis at the southern edge of the
pit. B09 lay extended and prone, with his left arm resting at a steep angle against the cut and his right beneath
the torso of B08; his lower body, including part of his pelvis, continued into the west-facing section, but his
right	leg	could	be	seen	flexed	at	the	trench	edge.		A	pair	of 	leather	braces	straps	(SF	181)	lay	beside	his	right	
ribs. His head rested beneath the left pelvis of B08, which lay prone above with arms outstretched. A small,
decorated mother-of-pearl button (SF 179) was found beside the right wrist of B08. Several charging clips (SF
178) containing .303 bullets lay among and beside his left ribs, and a pair of leather braces straps (SF 180) lay
beside his right ribs. His left arm rested at an angle against the pit’s southern edge. An articulated foot and
lower leg (BP10) extended from the western trench edge and rested on his left upper arm; a second lower leg
and heel (BP13) were visible beneath this at a lower level, also extending from the trench edge, and may have
belonged to the same individual.
Immediately around and above the second-phase burials lay sticky, soft, plastic and rather gritty light grey clay
(1016/1017),	up	to	0.06	m	thick,	with	occasional	small	bright	red	flecks	of 	iron	staining,	moderately	frequent	
mid grey mottles and small lenses of grey-black organic clay. It also contained concentrations of pinkish-
cream, soft crystalline material (possibly adipocere), pupae cases and soft brown material (decayed textile),
all occurring immediately next to the skeletal remains. This deposit was softer, looser and stickier than the
overlying clay (1013), which peeled off cleanly onto it, and the underlying clay (1018). It appeared to comprise
the	backfilled	clay	matrix	which	had	been	transformed	by	decomposition	processes;		while	it	occurred	around	
the bodies, it was not possible to distinguish individual body stains within it. A discrete concentration of lime
(1021) lay above the lower back of B08, and the gritty texture of the surrounding matrix (1016/1017) may
have been due to the presence of lime in smaller quantities everywhere at this level.
These deposits were sealed by a layer of soft, plastic, malleable clay (1013), predominantly blue-grey in colour
with light orange lenses and crumbs of lime throughout, 0.1 m thick. This again may have been altered in
colour and texture by decomposition processes. A fragmentary leather object (SF 116), bearing stitching and a
deep pink printed pattern on a paper lining, was found in this layer to the north-east of B17; it may have been
a wallet or pouch. Some of the Australian soldiers participating in the battle had been routed through Cairo,
and a wallet such as this might have been purchased in a bazaar during the stopover (L Milner, pers comm).
A decayed PH helmet (SF 121) was also found in the deposit.
The	upper	backfill	(1010)	of 	the	pit	lay	above	this.		It	consisted	of 	very	sticky,	plastic	and	fairly	consolidated	
silty clay, light yellow-orange in colour with frequent thick lenses of pale blue-grey clay, occasional bright
orange	 gritty	 clay	 mottles	 and	 fine	 quartzite	 crystals.	 	 The	 blue-grey	 lenses	 became	 more	 frequent	 farther	
down	the	soil	profile.		Tip	lines	were	visible	in	the	deposit,	in	the	form	of 	concentrations	of 	blue-grey	and	
orange clay that sloped up towards the north and south sides of the pit. Several concentrations of zinc eyelets
from at least one German groundsheet (SFs 17-21, 28-30, 33-34) and zinc buttons, possibly from a German
gas	cape	(SFs	22-27,	36-44),	were	found	in	the	upper	fill,	at	a	depth	of 	approximately	0.4	m	from	the	top	of 	
the pit. The distribution of the eyelets indicated that the groundsheet had been folded before being placed
into	the	pit	as	it	was	being	backfilled.		Part	of 	a	pair	of 	goggles	(SF	73),	which	would	have	been	carried	in	the	
PH	helmet	pouch	in	case	of 	gas	attack	(L	Milner,	pers	comm),	were	also	found	in	the	upper	fill	against	the	
northern	edge	of 	the	pit.		The	upper	fill	lay	about	1.5	m	deep	across	most	of 	the	trench,	but	only	1.36	m	deep	
above the upper burial deposits where they rested against the pit’s southern side.

7.2.6 Pits 6, 7 & 8                                                                         by Iain Banks
The	final	three	pits	are	visible	as	open	pits	on	aerial	photographs	taken	as	late	as	16	September	1918.		It	was	
therefore	presumed	that	these	pits	were	not	used	for	burials	but	were	backfilled	after	the	war,	possibly	after	
being	used	to	accommodate	rubbish	relating	to	the	conflict.		Nonetheless,	these	pits	were	also	evaluated,	both	
to check for the absence or presence of burials (particularly important in the case of Pit 6 – see below) and
to recover stratigraphic evidence which might shed more light on the burial pits. Accordingly, the pits had
over-cutting	box	sections	placed	across	them,	to	ensure	that	the	full	profile	of 	the	pit	cut	would	be	seen	in	
section.




                                                         35
                                                                                6003                               6005
                                                    6001


                                                                                                     6004

                                                                              6002


                                           6014                         cut
                                                                       6012
                                                                                                                                        6013
                                                                                              6006
                                                                                                                                  cut
                                    6015                               6008                                    6007              6012




                                                           6009          6011        6010

    East-facing section of Pit 6.

                                                                                                     6017



                                                                6001




                                                                                                        6019
                                             6016                                                                         6031

                                                                                            6030
                                                                                                                                           cut
                 6027                                    wire                                                                             6029

                                                                                                       6020

           cut
          6029                                                                                                     6028
                                                                                6024
                  6021
                                                                6026


                         6028                                                                 6022
                                                                              6025
                                                  6023

    West-facing section of Pit 6.                                                                              0                                 1m



                                            Figures 14 & 15: Sections through Pit 6.
7.2.6.1 Pit 6 (Figures 14 & 15)
Pit 6 was the third pit along the line from the western end of the site against the edge of the forest. As noted
in the 2007 survey report, there was some evidence on the aerial photographs that the length of this pit had
been reduced during the period of the burials (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007, 22). It was therefore possible
that there had been a limited amount of burial within the western end of the pit, possibly as overspill from
the	filling	of 	the	previous	five.		
The box section was cut at a point around 1 m from the western end of the pit. The two exposed sections
(east	and	west	facing)	through	the	fills	had	very	different	profiles,	and	so	both	faces	were	recorded	(Figures	
19 & 20).
The pit was cut into the clay subsoil and sealed with a post-war ploughsoil (6001) that consisted of dark brown
silt clay with some stones. This soil was very stiff and hard to work, which indicates the low level of ploughing
that the area has undergone; it was in excess of 0.3 m in depth and produced a number of shrapnel balls and
spent .303 bullets.
                                                          36
The pit depth at the western end of the trench (shown on the east-facing section) was c 1.0 m below the
topsoil, while the west-facing section gave a pit depth of 1.4 m. This suggests that the pit was increasing in
depth	towards	its	middle.		The	profile	in	the	east-facing	section	appeared	to	have	survived	reasonably	well.	     	
The	southern	side	of 	the	pit	appeared	to	have	retained	its	shape,	with	the	cut	[6012]	being	virtually	vertical	on	
this	side;		on	the	northern	side,	the	profile	was	more	sloping,	probably	indicating	that	the	looser	soil	closer	to	
the wood was capable of preserving a vertical face, and similar to Pit 3 in this regard.
The	fills	were	quite	straightforward	in	the	east-facing	section.		At	the	base	of 	the	pit	cut	[6012]	was	a	small	
patch	of 	organic	matter	(6009).		This	lay	within	the	main	fill	of 	the	pit	(6002),	which	consisted	of 	orange-
brown clay with patches of mixed clays, including blue-grey clay and brown clay. There was some mottling
evident,	which	indicates	periodic	waterlogging	of 	the	deposit,	while	the	fill	contained	abundant	roots	from	the	
wood	and	some	small	stones.		Within	this	fill	were	larger	patches	of 	clay	of 	different	colours,	discrete	lumps	
of 	material	deposited	as	part	of 	the	backfill:		deposit	(6006)	was	a	large	patch	of 	dark	grey	clay	with	some	
small stones, while deposit (6008) was a layer of dark brown clay; this lay above the organic patch (6009), and
may	represent	specific	backfill	relating	to	that	deposit.		Deposit	(6007),	which	lay	against	the	northern	side	
of the pit and consisted of iron-stained blue-grey clay, probably represents slumping of material from the
northern face of the pit.
On	the	west-facing	section,	the	profile	was	much	less	clear	and	the	fills	more	mixed.		The	cut	of 	the	pit	[6029]	
showed no indication of the vertical face on the southern side, instead giving the appearance of a series of
scoops that probably represent successive collapses of the side of the pit. The northern side was more like
the	profile	on	the	east-facing	section,	although	there	was	again	a	greater	indication	of 	slumped	material.		The	
fills	fell	into	three	broad	groups.		The	first,	which	comprised	compact	brown	clay	(6024),	dark	brown	clay	
with	stones	and	iron	pan	(6025)	and	loose	dark	brown	silty	clay	(6026),	were	backfilled	deposits	relating	to	
deposit (6008) in the east-facing section. The second group consisted of blue-grey mottled clay (6020) and
dark grey-blue clay with some mottling (6027), which were slumped material from the spoil heaps and sides
of the pit. The third group comprised mixed blue-grey and orange clay (6016), orange-brown clay with iron
and manganese staining (6019), grey-brown clay (6021), grey-brown clay (6023), light brown clay (6030) and
pale	tan	clay	(6031),	which	consisted	of 	the	final	backfill	of 	the	pit	in	the	post-war	period.
The	most	significant	element	of 	the	pit,	however,	was	within	the	excavated	area.		At	the	very	base	of 	the	pit,	
skeletal material was exposed. These proved to be leg and foot bones from possibly two individuals (BP62),
including a foot and lower leg with the sock still in place. Initial impressions that this material represented
part of a full burial were resolved on excavation, which showed that the material was isolated and not part of
a larger burial. There is every likelihood that further body parts may be present, particularly toward the west
end of the pit.

The	only	other	indication	of 	the	pit	having	been	filled	with	material	prior	to	backfilling	came	from	the	west-
facing	section,	where	a	piece	of 	wire	projected	from	the	section	within	the	backfill	(6016),	0.73	m	below	the	
top	of 	the	fill.		It	was	clearly,	therefore,	integral	to	the	fill	and	not	a	later	incorporation.

7.2.2 Pit 7 (Figure 16)
Pit 7 was the most easterly of the pits adjacent to the wood, and accordingly had looser soil conditions on the
northern side of the pit because of root penetration and greater organic content within the soils. However,
like the previous trench, this also meant that it was better drained than the pits that lay further away from the
wood. The box section was cut across the pit at roughly its mid point.
The	pit	was	sealed	by	a	stiff,	dark	brown	silty	clay	topsoil	(7001)	around	0.25-0.3	m	deep.		The	pit	cut	[7011],	
which	was	extremely	irregular,	did	not	preserve	the	original	profile,	but	instead	reflected	the	slumping	and	
collapse which had occurred during the autumns and winters of 1916-1918, while it remained open and
exposed	to	the	elements.		The	original	width	of 	the	pit	was	no	longer	apparent	in	the	profile,	and	collapse	
had extended the area of disturbance to a width more than 5 m. The depth of the pit from the top of the
backfill	was	of 	the	order	of 	1.48	m,	although	the	base	of 	the	pit	was	very	irregular	as	well.		This	again	probably	
reflected	the	slumping	of 	the	sides.		The	slump	was	represented	by	clay	deposits,	including	pale	orange	clay	
with streaks of blue-grey clay (7007), grey-brown silty clay (7008), and patches of dark grey clay (7016) within
(7007).		The	interface	between	these	deposits	and	the	backfill	was	represented	by	[7012],	which	at	times	was	
visible	as	a	black	line,	representing	the	growth	of 	grass	on	the	surface	of 	the	pit.		The	backfilled	deposits	
consisted	of 	grey-brown	silty	clay	(7009),	mid	brown-grey	clay	with	flecks	of 	building	material	(7006),	light	
brown	clay	(7003)	and	blue-grey	clay	with	patches	of 	different	clays	(7002).		Apart	from	the	flecks	of 	building	
material, which appeared to be small fragments of brick or tile, there was no indication in the section of

                                                       37
                                       7005
                                                                                   7001


                                                                                            7003                cut
                  7004                                    7002                                                 7012

                                       7006                                     7007
                                                                     7008
                         7019                     7009
                                                                                                   7018


                            cut                                                     cut     7017
                           7011      7013       cut 7007                7016       7011
                                                              7015
                                               7012      7014



                                                                            0                             2m



                                            Figure 16: Section through Pit 7.

artefactual material. It is clear that there were no dumps of munitions in the material excavated, because
each spit of material was checked by metal detector in compliance with the health and safety procedures for
the site.

7.2.3 Pit 8 (Figure 17)
Pit 8 was fully exposed on the surface prior to excavation, an exercise which made very apparent the results
of 	prolonged	erosion	and	collapse.		The	surface	appearance	of 	the	pit	was	irregular	and	quite	difficult	to	see.		
This was particularly the case on the southern side of the pit, and it is apparent in the section drawing (Figure
22) that the full width of the pit was not contained within the box section – though only a small portion
remained outside.
The pit was sealed by a topsoil layer (8001) that consisted of dark brown loamy clay and was 0.35 m deep
prior	to	machining.		The	width	of 	the	pit	at	the	top	of 	the	backfill	was	in	excess	of 	4	m,	with	the	southern	
edge beyond the box section. The base of the pit did lie entirely within the section, however, and it measured
1.98	m	wide.		The	profile	of 	the	pit	was	less	irregular	than	that	of 	Pit	7,	but	it	is	clear	that	there	had	been	a	
degree of erosion and slumping; this is not a surprise, given that the pit remained open for at least two years.
The	cut	of 	the	pit	[8013]	had	a	relatively	steep	face	on	the	northern	side	(time	did	not	permit	the	recording	
of both sides), while the southern side was a very gentle angle, indicating considerable collapse of the face of
the pit. The section demonstrates the difference between the northern and southern sides, as the southern
side had an extensive slumped deposit, a blue-grey mottled clay (8011), which was up to 0.46 m thick. On the
northern side the slumped deposit, a pale tan clay with orange and blue clay streaks (8008), was much smaller
and	represented	slippage	rather	than	whole	collapse	of 	the	side.		The	backfilled	deposits	consisted	of 	pale	
brown clay with blue-grey streaks (8012), light brown clay with patches of other clays (8005), blue-grey clay
with a mixture of lenses of brown and orange clays (8002) and compact blue-grey clay (8003). The process
of 	backfilling	was	evident	in	the	lenses	of 	other	material	within	clay	8005	(loose	orange	clay	8006;		orange	clay	
with organic staining 8007; brown-grey silty clay 8019; orange gritty clay with lumps of iron-rich material
8020,	and	compact	grey	clay	8021).		The	backfilled	deposit	(8012)	also	included	a	dark	grey	clay	deposit	(8022)	
which was interpreted as an animal burrow.

7.3 Human Remains                                                                         by Gaille MacKinnon
7.3.1   Introduction
As previously stated in the Aims and Objectives section of this report, the limited evaluation excavation was
undertaken in order to: establish the presence or absence of human remains in the pits at Pheasant Wood; if
remains were found to be present, an estimation of the number of bodies within the pits would be attempted,
and	an	assessment	of 	the	potential	for	the	recovery	and	identification	of 	remains	would	be	made	(see	also	
Pollard, 2008).
                                                            38
                                                                                                                                                                                        8001


                                                                                8004

                                                                     8001
                                                                                                                        8.01
                                                                                                                                           8002
                                                                        8003                                            8.02                                             8005
                                                                                                                                                                                                    8006
                                                                                                                        8.03
                                                8009
                                                                                                                         8.04
                                                                                                                                                                                                    8007
                                                                                                                                                           8019
                                                                                                                                                                          8020
                                                                                                                 8.05




39
                                                                                  8005
                                          cut                                                                               8.06                                                 8011
                                         8013                        8008
                                                                               8010                                          8.07                        8021
                                                       8017   8018
                                                                                                                            8.08
                                                                                                8012
                                                                                                                                                  8011
                                                                                                                             8.09




     Figure 17: Section through Pit 8.
                                                                     8015
                                                                                                              8014             8.10
                                                                                                       8.12

                                                                                                                                    8.11
                                                                                                   8016


                                                                                         8010                        8022                          cut
                                                                                                                                                  8013            8010




                                                                                                                                                          0                                    1m
The	limited	excavations	subsequently	established	the	presence	of 	human	remains	within	each	of 	the	five	pits	
that had previously been suspected to contain bodies (Pits 1-5), together with a small number of fragmentary
body parts that were found in a sondage (in this case a box section), dug through the west end of Pit 6.
It should be appreciated that the following observations of the individuals buried within each of the pits must
be regarded as preliminary statements only, particularly with regard to the nature and extent of the skeletal
trauma.		Such	statements	are	based	upon	field	observation	of 	the	in situ human remains as, at no time during
the evaluation, were bodies or body parts removed from the burial pits for closer examination or analysis.
Equally, with regard to the general preservation of the individual dentition(s) of the men buried within the
five	grave	pits,	preliminary	observations	-	where	the	teeth	were	visible	and	accessible	for	a	visual	inspection	
- suggest that they are well-preserved and, in all cases seen, remain in place within either the maxilla or the
mandible. Interestingly, this would also seem to apply to those individuals who have suffered extensive peri-
and/or post-mortem disruption of the facial skeleton, in that even though the facial bones may have been
fragmented and displaced, the teeth of such individuals appeared to still lie in their individual positions within
the protective, bony structure of the mandible or the maxilla. No loose teeth were observed within the grave
fill	of 	any	of 	the	pits	at	any	time	during	the	evaluation	process.	
These	field	observations	will	only	be	confirmed	when	and	if 	a	full	excavation	and	anthropological	analysis	
takes place at Pheasant Wood. Any anthropological observations made within the text were made using the
general reference literature (Kimmerle & Baraybar 2008; Tibbett and Carter 2008; Bass 2005; White &
Folkens 2005; Scheuer & Black 2000; Buikstra & Ubelaker 1994; Brooks & Suchey 1990).

7.3.2 Pit Summaries
7.3.2.1 Pit 1
A minimum of seven individuals were uncovered in this pit. The conditions within Pit 1 were relatively dry
with little seepage of groundwater into the bottom of the grave. There was a substantial amount of chloride
of 	 lime	 used	 throughout	 the	 grave	 fill	 which,	 together	 with	 the	 thick	 clay	 matrix	 and	 general	 anaerobic	
conditions, served to greatly assist the preservation of the skeletons of the individuals and the associated
organic and other artefacts. Individuals had been placed in the pit in both prone and supine positions and,
from	what	can	be	seen	from	at	least	one	burial,	there	are	also	flexed	bodies	lying	along	the	long	axis	of 	the	
grave cut. Contrary to popular belief, chloride of lime can promote preservation rather than decomposition
of the bodies - it was generally used to mask the smell of decomposing bodies.
The upper deposit of bodies was visually dominated by a pair of skeletons lying on their backs on the same
German groundsheet. The most westerly of these two skeletons (B12) was still wearing 1908 webbing with
six full clips of .303 bullets marking the position of the pouches which once held them. Organic materials
also survived, and the socks and trousers (and leather strap-ends for trouser braces) were still discernible
covering parts of the lower body. It is clear that this individual was placed in the grave with his webbing and
the vast majority of his equipment and was therefore not stripped before burial.
This young man had suffered horrendous peri-mortem wounds, with the legs lying face down in the grave and
the torso facing up – having been severely disrupted at the waist. The observable state of epiphyseal fusion
indicates a probable age of 15-16.5 years for this individual (Scheuer & Black 2000).
The body lying immediately to the east of this individual (and upon the same German groundsheet) had two
full clips of .303 bullets lying above his skull, was also associated with the leather bayonet scabbard, and wore
a	leather	bracelet(?)	which	lay	in situ around his right wrist (B22). He had one leg severed at the knee and lay
some 50 cm from a long, worked wooden stick which had also been thrown into the grave. The purpose and
function	of 	the	wooden	stick	cannot	be	firmly	established;		however,	it	is	possible	that	this	object	may	have	
been used as a crutch and then perhaps later as an object used to manoeuvre the bodies in the pit. There was
also a very distinctive maxillary dental prosthetic lying in situ within the mouth. Organic materials were also
present with this individual in the form of clothing and leather strap-ends for trouser braces. Another skeleton
was fully exposed in the east side of the trench, this time lying face down in the grave (B30). He had suffered
severe peri-mortem trauma to the skull, scapulae and thorax, and the observable state of epiphyseal fusion
indicated a probable age of 15-16.5 years (Scheuer & Black 2000). Organic materials were present in the form
of a fragment of textile from the hem of a tunic and possible woollen socks. There were also numerous
metal rivets, buttons, buckles, and eyelets from a German groundsheet associated with this individual. He was
immediately overlying a fourth skeleton (head and upper torso only; the rest of the body ran into the east
section), who was found with the remnants of a gas mask lying by his left side (B50). This thumb of the left


                                                           40
hand was abducted in such a manner that suggests he may possibly have been holding an object on or around
the time of death. Both of these latter individuals had sustained multiple peri-mortem cranial injuries which
had caused severe disruption of the face and skull.
The bottom of the pit was reached in the south west corner of the trench, where the lower parts of a pair of
legs	were	uncovered	lying	in	a	flexed	position	along	the	southern	edge	of 	the	grave	cut	(B20).		The	legs	had	
been tied together using communication cable, presumably to assist with the transport of the corpse from the
battlefield.		This	lower	burial	deposit	was	separated	from	the	upper	by	a	layer	of 	earth	and	lime.		Numerous	
other body parts were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain,
as	they	ran	into	the	east	section	of 	the	unexcavated	fill	of 	Pit	1	(see	the	Body	Reports	in	the	Appendices	for	
a more complete individual body/body part description).

7.3.2.2 Pit 2
A minimum number of 14 individuals were partially uncovered in a sondage measuring approximately two
metres by just over one metre, the highest minimum number of individuals (MNI) found within the smallest
sondage. This pit lies further north than pit 1 and immediately abuts the southern edge of Pheasant Wood.
Given the generally poor to fair preservation of the skeletons in this pit, it is thought that the pit’s proximity to
the wood has had a deleterious effect on the bones, possibly due to the leaching of moisture from the soil and
the subsequent damage most likely caused by moisture-seeking tree and plant roots. This may also account
for the much diminished level of preservation of general textiles (as compared to Pit 1). A similarity exists,
however, with Pit 1 in the placement of the bodies; this was not regular or linear in nature, with individuals
randomly thrown onto their fronts, their backs and their sides (Pollard 2008).
One of the bodies from the upper layer of the body mass within this pit lay prone upon a groundsheet and lay
under at least two other individuals (B41). Organic preservation of textiles, metallic objects and a toothbrush
were found associated with this body. He had suffered multiple peri-mortem injuries to the cranium, the
pelvis, and the femur, and the vertebrae were partially displaced and out of anatomical articulation. This last
observation suggests that the body may have either sustained peri-mortem trauma to this region and/or that
the	body	was	sufficiently	decomposed	at	the	time	of 	burial	for	these	skeletal	elements	to	be	subsequently	
found out of alignment. Another body lay over this individual (B42), one whose observable state of epiphyseal
fusion suggested a probable age of 17-19 years (Scheuer & Black 2000).
This young man lay in association with a groundsheet and textiles, and he also had extensive trauma to the
cranium, lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae, with the latter being somewhat displaced. In association
with this individual was another body lying in a prone position over the latter two bodies (B47). The position
of the right hand suggested that it had been resting upon an object, or possibly that the hand was lying over
a fold in the adjacent groundsheet. His thorax was in a very poor and fragmentary condition and part of
his vertebral column lay out of anatomical position. Numerous other body parts (which appeared to be
articulated) were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain
as	they	ran	into	both	the	east	and	west	sections	of 	the	unexcavated	fill	of 	Pit	2	(see	the	Body	Reports	in	the	
Appendices for a more complete individual body/body part description).

7.3.2.3 Pit 3
A minimum number of seven individuals were uncovered in a 1.5 m length of this pit. The pit lies further east
than Pit 2 and also immediately abuts the south edge of Pheasant Wood. As with Pit 2, the burial conditions
within Pit 3 have caused extensive damage to the bones of the skeletons which exhibit, in general, poorer
preservation than that found within Pit 1. Its immediate proximity to the wood – like that of Pit 2 – seems to
have had a deleterious effect on the bones due to the leaching of moisture from the soil and the subsequent
damage most likely caused by moisture-seeking tree and plant roots. The edges of the pit demonstrated
some deviance from the very regular, rectangular form suggested by the wartime aerial photographs – some
irregularity across the site was also suggested by the results of the geophysical survey (Pollard, Barton & Banks
2007). The northern edge was slightly angled on the surface and cut down at a slope, while the opposing,
southern edge was straight and vertical. This irregularity may have been as a result of roots from the nearby
wood interfering with the digging process in 1916. In contrast to Pit 2, there was some suggestion of order
to the deposition of the upper layer of bodies within Pit 3, as the bodies appeared to alternately lie head-to-
foot across the trench.
The upper deposit of bodies contained a number of individuals who had suffered extensive peri-mortem
trauma. A very tall, robust individual had been placed into the pit in such a way as to suggest that his body


                                                       41
was	flexed	in	order	to	fit	him	into	it	(B39).		His	upper	body	was	twisted	to	the	left,	and	his	legs	were	flexed	
at the knees in order to accommodate his body into the available space within the grave. A British General
Service Button (SF 258) may have been associated with this individual, and he also had mother of pearl
buttons in his abdominal and thoracic regions (possibly associated with a shirt), and the remains of a sock
upon his foot. Textile materials were found around the skull and upper body, suggesting that his tunic had
been pulled up around his face. Peri-mortem trauma could be observed on the right arm, the elbow was
completely disarticulated, and there was damage to the left elbow and wrist, the thorax and the right scapula.
The vertebral column was not in correct anatomical position or articulation. One of the individuals lying
underneath this body lay extended and half-exposed in the grave, as the majority of the left side of the body
lay	unexcavated	in	the	east	section	of 	the	grave	fill	(B40).		He	had	suffered	extensive	cranial	trauma	(both	
peri- and post-mortem) and the facial skeleton was severely disrupted, with disruption and displacement
of the vertebral column. The aforementioned British General Service Button (SF 258) may also have been
associated with this individual rather than B39.
Within this upper level of the body mass lay another body, wrapped in a British groundsheet which remained
very well-preserved with retention of material form, elasticity and colour, along with numerous eyelets (B37).
This individual had also suffered massive cranial trauma and displacement; the overlying groundsheet was
found to have collapsed into the exposed brain cavity of the skull.
Remnants of a possible orange tourniquet remained in situ over the right distal humerus, adjacent to the
elbow, and the wrist also appeared very damaged. Trauma could also be seen to the thorax, the left wrist and
elbow, numerous vertebrae appeared to be slightly out of alignment, and the right pubis was detached. A
leather	tie	?shoe-lace	was	also	found,	which	may	have	been	tied	to	either	side	of 	the	groundsheet	in	the	region	
of the skull – perhaps to wrap and contain the very damaged cranium of this individual (this wound must
surely have been incurred after the application of the tourniquet). An Australian tunic belt buckle was found
underneath the chin. The observable state of epiphyseal fusion and pubic symphyseal development displayed
a morphology that suggests an age of between 15-23 years, with a mean of 18.5 years (Scheuer & Black, 2000;
Brooks & Suchey, 1990). The body under this individual lay prone and in association with an Australian tunic
belt-buckle (SF 197), which was found slightly east of the body in the region of the lower right thorax (B38).
Fragments of a black sock remained around the left ankle. Multiple trauma was present on the cranium and
facial skeleton, the left shoulder and elbow, the thorax, both pelves and the right knee. The observable state
of epiphyseal fusion suggests a probable age of 18-20 years (Scheuer & Black, 2000). Numerous other body
parts were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain as they ran
into	both	the	east	and	west	sections	of 	the	unexcavated	fill	of 	Pit	3	(see	the	Body	Reports	in	the	Appendices	
for a more complete individual body/body part description).

7.3.2.4 Pit 4
A minimum of ten individuals were partially uncovered in this pit, which lay south of Pit 3 and east of Pit 1,
in a sondage which measured just over 2 metres by 1.5 metres. Most of the bodies lay across the width of
the pit, on both their fronts and backs, but individuals also lay along the pit edges, creating the impression of
a raft of limbs suspended in a black, odoriferous matrix of wet clay and decomposition products. Given the
anaerobic environment and the very wet clay within the burial pit, the organic preservation was very good,
with textiles, leather, cardboard and human hair (and, in one instance, a toe-nail) surviving. A leather-booted
foot was positioned against the north side of the trench and the design suggests an Australian wearer (B34).
Clear evidence for the presence of dead Australian soldiers took the form of two Australian ‘Rising Sun’
badges (SFs’s 202 and 206), apparently associated with a pair of individuals lying across the western end of
the sondage. Further to the east, the spoil removed from the torso area of another body contained a General
Service Button indicative of a British casualty (SF 241).
Among the upper level of bodies lay a partially exposed individual who displayed a fractured and very severely
disrupted skull (B31). He wore a leather bracelet tied and knotted around the left wrist, together with a mass
of 	textile	of 	uncertain	classification	–	possibly	of 	a	tunic,	as	a	buckle	and	leather	buttons	appeared	to	be	
associated. A concentration of this material at lower arm level may suggest that this garment was pulled up
over	the	head	–	possibly	as	a	result	of 	being	dragged	from	the	battlefield	and/or	nearby	railway	line.		The	
cuff of a knitted woollen garment remained in situ around the left wrist. The matchbox (SF 217) was found
in the same area as the textile and the buckle, so there may have been an association with a tunic pocket. A
body that lay directly under this individual had been placed in such a position that he lay over several other
bodies. Possible cords of a head-band for gas mask goggles ran across the upper back of this individual (that
is, from the right and left scapulae). There were also the remnants of an upper garment still present on the


                                                        42
torso (B32). Another individual lying west of this body had the remains of gas mask components located by
the distal left femur, and also had the partial remains of some tightly woven material on the left leg (B35). In
addition,	a	poorly	preserved,	loosely	woven	material	(?sand	bag/?lime	bag)	was	present,	wrapped	around	the	
front and the back of the pelvis. Two buttons and a buckle were also found between these two bodies. The
thoracic vertebrae were displaced and lay only in approximately relative alignment.
In terms of other bodies exhibiting vertebral trauma, one individual had severe trauma to the head and neck
–	the	mandibular	condyle	was	sheared	through	and	existed	as	a	separate	element,	together	with	the	first	six	
cervical vertebrae, which were severely disrupted and existed only as fragments (B36). A leather cord (aligned
east/west)	was	in	two	parts	under	the	neck	at	the	junction	of 	the	seventh	cervical	and	first	thoracic	vertebrae	
and extended as a separate piece running to the east of the body. Was this perhaps part of an item that
secured	the	head	more	securely	to	the	neck	for	transportation	from	the	battlefield?		There	was	also	a	safety	pin	
found	by	the	left	side	of 	the	mandible	at	the	gonial	angle	-	perhaps	used	to	secure	a	field	bandage	to	the	head	
of this person. An Australian ‘Rising Sun’ badge was found on the right side of the lower torso (SF 202), and
a brass wire was found coiled around the wrist. Another Australian ‘Rising Sun’ badge (SF 206) was found
by the shoulder level of an individual who lay immediately to the west of this body (BP54). Numerous other
body parts were found within this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain, as
they	ran	into	the	sections	of 	the	unexcavated	fill	of 	Pit	4	(see	the	Body	Reports	in	the	Appendices	for	a	more	
complete individual body/body part description).

7.3.2.5 Pit 5
A minimum of ten individuals were recovered from Pit 5 in a sondage measuring 2.2 metres by 1.5 metres.
Two of these bodies were lying side by side with their heads to the north in the bottom of the pit, which
may suggest some attempt at deliberate positioning. Following the deposition of soil and lime, both beneath
and above the overlying soil, a further deposition of bodies took place. These bodies appear to have been
placed in the grave without any thought to their positioning and provided perhaps the starkest image of the
entire evaluation. One body lay with the head to the north and arms spread-eagled away from the body (B17).
The left radius of this individual was removed from its original articulated position within the left lower arm
when	it	was	disturbed	during	the	initial	digging	of 	the	sondage	into	this	pit	(it	was	also	the	first	bone	to	be	
discovered at Fromelles during the 2008 season). Across this individual’s waist another corpse lay on its front,
in close association with the partially exposed remains of further bodies. This was one of the last individuals
to	have	been	placed	in	this	pit	(B08).		The	neck	was	in	extreme	flexion,	so	that	the	foramen	magnum	of 	
the	skull	could	be	seen,	and	there	was	slight	disarticulation	between	the	first	and	second	cervical	vertebrae;	  	
perhaps	the	head	had	slumped	forward	after	placement	in	the	grave	and	before	backfilling.		The	left	arm	was	
fractured above the wrist and ran up the southern side of the pit with the result that no carpals, metacarpals
or phalanges of the hand were present, although whether this damage was peri- or post-mortem in nature
remains to be established. There was also trauma to the left torso and pelvis. Artefacts associated with this
body included a bandolier of .303 ammunition clips, a mother of pearl button associated with the left wrist,
and leather straps for trouser braces by the lower right ribs.
The body underlying this individual lay extended and prone along the south section of the pit and appeared
to	be	associated	with	a	leather	fitting,	possibly	from	the	adjacent	bandolier	of 	ammunition	clips	(B09).		The	
left arm was fractured at the distal radius and ulna and lay in an almost identical position to the previous body,
as it too ran vertically up the southern side of the pit. Again, whether this damage was peri- or post-mortem
in nature remains to be established, as no carpals, metacarpals or phalanges were present. Leather straps for
trouser braces were found by the lower right ribs and also remnants of decayed textile. Within the upper layer
of the body mass was a body part which consisted of a left lower leg and foot, with trauma evident upon the
proximal	tibia	and	distal	fibula	(BP10).		The	remains	of 	a	cotton	thread	ran	parallel	to	the	tibia	and	fibula,	and	
these may be stitching from fragments of a puttee.
One of the individuals in the lower level of the body mass in the eastern side of the pit displayed a skull and
thorax which were both severely disrupted (BP23). The vertebrae were not in complete alignment or full
articulation, which may mean that this individual either sustained peri-mortem trauma to this region, and/
or	that	the	body	was	sufficiently	decomposed	at	the	time	of 	burial	for	these	elements	to	become	displaced.	   	
The body from the pelvis downwards remained – due to its position – unexposed. Leather straps for trouser
braces were found by the lower left ribs.
Brass eyelets from a groundsheet lay slightly north of this individual, and may possibly have been used to wrap
B23 and B19 together. Two other body parts in the vicinity of this individual remain to be exposed; they
were both found in association with gas mask components. Numerous other body parts were found within

                                                      43
this pit; however, they remain unexposed and their relationships uncertain as they ran into the sections of the
unexcavated	grave	fill	of 	Pit	5	(see	the	Body	Reports	in	the	Appendices	for	a	more	complete	individual	body/
body part description).

7.3.2.6 Pit 6 (West section)
Analysis	of 	the	wartime	aerial	photographs	suggested	that	the	west	end	of 	Pit	6	was	backfilled	at	the	same	
time as Pits 1-5 and was therefore potentially used for burial, perhaps for the overspill of remains once the
previous	five	pits	were	filled	(Pollard,	Barton	&	Banks	2007,	22).		The	body	parts	found	during	evaluation	
of the west part of Pit 6 consisted of commingled right and left foot bones, which were found within the
fragments of two black woollen socks (BP62). These foot bones were also loosely associated with two mid-
shaft	fragments	of 	two	tibiae	and	fibulae	and	displayed	both	peri-	and	post-mortem	trauma.		The	morphology	
of 	the	tibiae	and	fibulae	suggest	that	they	are	from	two	individuals;		however,	this	remains	to	be	confirmed,	as	
the skeletal material was covered in heavy clay and were in general very poorly preserved.

7.4 Condition of Remains and Potential for DNA Preservation
The thick clay soils, anaerobic conditions and the high levels of moisture found at Pheasant Wood have
provided an environment for generally a good level of preservation of organic and non-organic artefacts
and materials across the site. There is, however, inevitably some variability in the level of preservation of the
human remains and artefacts within the pits. Each of the pits provides a distinct burial environment for the
human remains, which seems to be dictated not only by their physical position and location upon the site, but
also by the unique biological, chemical, and physical properties that appear to exist within them (Forbes 2008;
Tibbet & Carter 2008).
Excluding the peri- and post-mortem trauma that has been observed, the bones of the individuals within Pits
1, 4 and 5 exhibited good to very good bone condition and preservation. The generally wetter environments
within these graves, together with the distance at which they lie from the wood, appear to have provided
an environment which has been conducive to both bone and artefact preservation. Anaerobic conditions
resulting from thick, waterlogged soils also tend to retain preservation of materials such as wood and textiles,
and this is certainly what was observed in Pits 1, 4 and 5. Those individuals buried in the pits lying closer to
Pheasant Wood (Pits 2 and 3) revealed differing levels of bone and artefact preservation. The individuals
in Pit 2 were buried in an environment which appeared to have a higher organic content. In addition, the
leaching of moisture from the grave by the adjacent trees of the wood and the subsequent plant root damage
that was observed upon a number of the bodies has made the bones more friable; in general, they are in a
much poorer condition than those of Pits 1, 4 and 5. Conversely, the bodies within Pit 3 appeared to have
been lying in an environment where there was a continual inundation of ground water, which has provided a
reasonable preservation of bone, although this does not appear to have been terribly good for the preservation
of textiles (Janaway 2008).
The potential for DNA viability and extraction from the bones and teeth of these individuals cannot be
ascertained	unless	samples	are	actually	taken	from	the	bodies	and	tested	in	the	laboratory.		It	is	not	scientifically	
possible to make a visual assessment of the gross and long term preservation of the bone and dental material
and subsequently comment upon their ability to yield DNA, and reasonably expect those observations to be
reflected	in	successful	DNA	amplification.		
Parsons and Weedn state that ‘there is no precise (time) division between what might be considered short-term
and long-term preservation…it is the interaction between the sample and its environment that determines
DNA preservation, and age per se is not an absolute indicator of DNA quantity or quality’ (1997, 109).
There are problems inherent in attempting to extract DNA from older remains; these include issues such as:
insufficient	quantities	of 	DNA	within	the	sample;		a	high	level	of 	degradation	of 	DNA	within	the	sample;	 	
contamination of the sample by post-mortem processes, or contamination of the sample by the presence
of 	polymerase	chain	reaction	(PCR)	inhibitors	(Majanović	et	al,	2007;		Harvey	&	King,	2002).		These	PCR	
inhibitors are thought to be environmental in origin, and their presence within old or ancient samples is an
especially	significant	problem	which	can	prevent	the	successful	amplification	of 	DNA	(Gojanovič	&	Sutlovič,	
2007). In addition, micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi are also thought to play a considerable role
in the microscopic focal destruction and degradation of bone and teeth and, in cases where they are broken,
                                                                                                             	
fragile	or	decalcified,	the	ability	of 	such	bone	to	yield	a	DNA	profile	is	very	much	diminished	(Bell,	1990;	
Weedn & Parsons, 1997).
Given	 some	 of 	 the	 problems	 with	 DNA	 amplification	 as	 briefly	 outlined	 above,	 if 	 the	 individuals	 from	

                                                          44
Pheasant	 Wood	 are	 going	 to	 become	 the	 subject	 of 	 a	 DNA	 identification	 program,	 an	 informed	 and	
scientifically	 rigorous	 DNA	 sampling	 strategy	 developed	 particularly	 for	 this	 project	 needs	 to	 be	 in	 place	
before any excavation of remains commences (Edson et al, 2004).
Advice has been sought by GUARD from one of the most internationally respected private DNA
laboratories in the United States who are leaders in providing forensic DNA analysis and research services
to law enforcement agencies, federal and state governments, crime laboratories, and disaster management
organizations throughout the United States and around the world.
In order to establish the viability of DNA they suggest that an initial bone and tooth test sample be taken
from 10 bodies within each pit. It is thought that this should provide the project with some degree of
understanding about the state of DNA preservation, whilst not committing to taking and testing samples
from all of the bodies if the results are not positive. Based on the results of this initial test, it is felt that the
information	should	be	sufficient	to	develop	a	more	comprehensive	DNA	testing	strategy	based	upon	the	state	
of 	DNA	preservation	at	Pheasant	Wood.		The	company	have	five	different	extraction	methods	for	bone	and	
dental samples and have found that different incidents respond differently to various extraction methods. In
this	instance,	they	recommend	that	these	first	set	of 	samples	are	tested	for	STR’s,	Y-STR	and	mtDNA	and	
feel that a combination of STR, Y-STR and mtDNA testing would provide the greatest chance of obtaining
profiles,	whilst	simultaneously	addressing	the	potential	familial	reference	sources	available,	which	will	likely	be	
several	generations	of 	decedents	and	more	distantly	related	individuals	(E.Huffine,	pers.comm).
In	addition,	an	official	DNA	outreach	program	would	need	to	be	instituted	that	would	serve	as	the	primary	
liaison between the families and the military and government authorities. Such a program would need to
be in place before excavation commences in order to assist and explain the methods that will be used to
account for families’ missing loved ones; to advise families on who might be the most appropriate individual
within the family from which to take the biological sample; to take the samples in a way that would meet any
legal	and	identification	requirements,	and	finally	to	track	these	samples	through	the	identification	system	and	
continually inform the families on the progress of DNA analysis.
The	identification	of 	human	remains	involves	not	only	complex	scientific,	technical	and	legal	issues,	but	often	
also embraces challenging ethical and cultural concerns (Williams & Crews 2003). There are wider questions
raised by the availability of these advanced DNA technologies, but these are not discussed here. These and
other realities will need to confronted and addressed if this project goes forward to a recovery excavation.
However,	the	potential	exists	to	push	back	the	boundaries	of 	what	can	be	achieved	with	DNA	identification	
of 	older	human	remains	from	these	highly	differential	mass	grave	contexts.		More	importantly,	it	would	finally	
return	the	names	and	identities	of 	these	soldiers	to	their	families	and	to	the	nations	for	whom	they	sacrificed	
their lives.

7.5 Estimating Number of Burials
It should be noted that estimating numbers on the basis of sample excavation is not a precise science and only
with total excavation will an accurate number be reached. However, it is possible, on the basis of the strategy
adopted, to provide estimated numbers within a reasonable upper and lower range. In order to estimate
numbers, a given sample of each pit was excavated; in most cases these were 15% (Pits 3 and 4) or 20% (Pits
1 and 5) of the surface area of the pits. Both ends of each trench were located by topsoil stripping, so the
full dimensions are known in all cases; the average length of the pits was 10 metres. Due to time constraints,
the sample size for Pit 2 was closer to 10% (though this was enough to expose a very high MNI). This gives
an	overall	sample	of 	around	16%	of 	the	total	surface	area	of 	the	five	pits	(largely	represented	by	the	upper	
horizons of burials, which were cleaned to the degree required to achieve the project objectives).
ies represented in each of the excavation trenches are initially expressed as the Minimum Number of Individuals
(MNI) – that is, the total number of individuals either fully or partially exposed (many bodies ran underneath
the sides of the sondages or were only partially revealed as part of the lower, primary deposit).
The total MNI for the evaluation was 50 which, given the size of the sample, immediately suggests a high
overall total (in Pit 2 alone 12 individuals were encountered in a trench measuring not much more than 2.2 m
x 1.1 m, which may suggest as many as c 100 burials in this c 10 m long pit).
A	lower,	primary	deposit	was	identified	in	each	of 	Pits	1	to	5,	and	in	all	cases	this	deposit	lay	on	the	base	of 	the	
trench (which occurred at an average of 1.2 – 1.3 m from top of pit). Due to the constraints of the evaluation
(that is, wherever possible, not to disturb human remains), it was only possible to glean a limited impression
of the basal deposits by excavating through gaps in the upper deposits. Given the presence of a lower level


                                                         45
of remains in all trenches, it is safe to assume that the majority of the MNI in each trench represents only the
upper deposit of a two-tier burial, with a small portion (in most cases only one or two individuals) representing
that part of the basal deposit which could be uncovered.
The lower deposits had been buried beneath a thin covering of earth (c 20-30 cm), and in most cases at least
one	layer	of 	lime,	prior	to	the	second	tier	of 	burials	being	placed	on	the	surface	of 	this	backfill.		Without	
removing the upper layer and excavating directly onto the lower layer across the entire sondage, it is impossible
                                                                                                                               	
to	 give	 an	 accurate	 figure	 for	 the	 number	 of 	 individuals	 lying	 on	 the	 base	 of 	 the	 pit	 within	 the	 trenches.	
However, given the information available, there seems little reason to doubt that the basal deposits will consist
of similar numbers to those observed in the upper deposits.
If we consider the MNI only for each trench (ie those visible), this provides an estimated total of around 45
to 50 bodies per pit and an overall total of somewhere between 225 to 250 bodies. If, however, the lower
deposit is taken more fully into account, which it certainly needs to be, then these numbers may increase to
between 80 and 90 per pit and an overall total of between 400 and 450. Some pits may, of course, contain
more or less bodies than others.
The	lower	figure	from	the	higher	range	provided	here	is	in	keeping	with	the	written	German	orders,	which	
specify	graves	to	be	dug	for	400	men.		There	is	little	reason	to	doubt	that	this	figure	was	based	on	an	actual	
count, as bodies were collected from the battle front rather than some sort of estimate. It is therefore highly
possible that all 400 of these bodies are contained within the pits at Pheasant Wood.

7.6 Material Culture: Artefacts and Identification
The metal detector survey carried out as part of the 2007 programme of site evaluation resulted in the recovery
of an extensive artefact assemblage (Pollard, Barton & Banks 2007). These included the usual types of war
debris	to	be	found	in	most	fields	in	Flanders:		shrapnel	
balls, shell fragments, cartridge cases, etc. Among this
material,	however,	were	a	number	of 	finds	more	directly	
associated with the burial of Allied troops in the pits
dug by the Germans. Notable here were a number of
buttons and the two Australian medallions recovered
from the topsoil in close proximity to the pits. One of
these was an AIF horseshoe medallion inscribed with
the ‘Shire of Alberton’, while the other was a heart-
shaped piece with an ANZAC motif. It was these two
objects which originally provided the evidence from
the site that Australian troops had been buried there in
1916.
It was therefore expected that a relatively high number
of 	 artefacts	 would	 be	 recovered	 from	 the	 grave	 fills,	
especially if the graves were found to be intact, which
was	the	case.		Every	exposed	spit	of 	pit	fill	was	scanned	
with	 the	 metal	 detector	 and	 identified	 finds	 were	
recovered. Quantities of shrapnel balls were recovered
from	the	pit	fills,	but	these	were	only	collected	in	bulk	
and time was not wasted recording their positions.
However,	 the	 upper	 parts	 of 	 some	 fills	 did	 contain	
more	 interesting	 finds,	 the	 most	 notable	 being	 the	
eyelets from groundsheets used to carry bodies to the
grave site. A number of these were recovered from the
upper	fills	of 	Pits	1	and	5.		These	were	made	from	zinc	
and thus came from German groundsheets, while the
Allied versions had brass eyelets (the British blockade
of German ports made metals such as copper and brass
a rare commodity in Germany). It was decided from the
outset that artefacts recovered from grave contexts, in
association with human remains, would not be removed
from site but be recorded by photography and then
returned to their original context. In some cases the                              Plate 2: German Eyelets.

                                                               46
finds	were	replaced	in	perforated	finds	bags	with	context	labels,	in	order	to	prevent	their	being	disturbed	and	
their	contexts	becoming	confused	in	any	future	recovery	operation.		This	is	especially	important	if 	finds	are	
to	be	used	as	a	means	of 	identification,	as	explained	below.		
An important aim of the evaluation was to assess the potential for establishing the identity of individual bodies.
Distinguishing	nationality	is	a	basic	but	essential	form	of 	identification.		On	the	basis	of 	the	earlier	work,	there	
seemed little doubt that if bodies were still present in the grave pits they would include Australians. However,
there was also a distinct possibility that British soldiers were also buried at Pheasant Wood. Although there
were many similarities between the uniforms and equipment utilised by the Australian and British troops at
Fromelles, there were also some important differences with the potential to provide indicators of nationality.
Important here were aspects of the tunics worn by both contingents.
The Australian tunic had a sewn-in waist belt with an ovoid, looped metal buckle with a cross bar. These
buckles were found in association with a number of the bodies, with some of them located in the upper torso
area, suggesting that tunics had been pulled over the head during the burial process, perhaps as a result of
bodies being dragged across the ground by the feet. In many cases the fabric from the belt still adhered to the
buckle. This feature was entirely lacking on the British pattern tunic. There is also an important difference in
the types of buttons used on the Australian and British pattern tunics.




                                             Plate 3: Australian Buckles.
The buttons on the Australian tunics were of a plain type and were made from a number of materials,
including	 metal,	 bone/horn	 and	 even	 mother	 of 	 pearl.	 	 Some	 of 	 these	 finer	 buttons	 are	 probably	 from	
undergarments, including shirts. The relative absence of obvious tunic buttons, though some examples may
have been found in Pit 4, may be due to their manufacture from vegetable ivory, which according to the Army
Clothing	Department	files	in	the	National	Army	Museum	replaced	bone/ivory	tunic	buttons	in	1916.		It	is	
possible that these buttons derived from vegetable products may not have survived decay in the pits. The
cotton	elements	of 	the	1908	webbing	in	Pit	1	had	almost	entirely	decayed,	but	animal-derived	fibres	survived,	
in the form of woollen socks and uniform components (L Milner pers comm.).
In contrast, the British tunic was fastened by a composite brass button known as a General Service Button,
which bore a crest consisting of a rampant lion and unicorn standing to either side of a coat of arms topped
by	a	crown.		The	buttons	which	fastened	the	front	of 	the	tunic,	which	numbered	five	in	all,	were	larger	than	
those which fastened the four pockets on the front of the garment and the epaulets on each shoulder. These
buttons were manufactured by a number of companies in Birmingham, with the maker’s mark clearly stamped
on the backs of the buttons. During examination of contemporary photographs taken shortly before the
battle, only one Australian soldier has so far been found to be wearing brass tunic buttons and these appear

                                                        47
to be of a plain type (the Australians did not introduce their version of the General Service Button, which
incorporated a map of Australia until after the battle). The study of all such images is critical, for not only are
these the only clues available that can inform us exactly who was wearing what equipment at what time, but
they often refer to the very units involved in the battle.
The recovery of some artefacts in pits with a distinctly wet burial matrix (Pits 3, 4 and 5) was not straightforward;
the matrix in which they were suspended was in some cases a black, viscous material (possibly the result of
decomposition	products),	which	made	cleaning	a	difficult	and	unpleasant	process.		In	order	to	prevent	the	
loss of small artefacts with the removal of this material, it was scanned with a metal detector upon being lifted
from the trench, with the point of origin of each bucket load of material, or part thereof, noted in order that
the	approximate	location	of 	finds	recovered	in	this	way	could	be	ascertained.		While	many	finds	were	made	
in situ, a number of important discoveries were made in this way. Among these were two General Service
Buttons.
The	first	of 	these	buttons	came	from	spoil	removed	from	the	torso	area	of 	a	body	in	Pit	4.		The	button	(SF	
241) was quite badly decayed but was clearly a General Service Button of the smaller type. There was an
additional	attachment	ring	looped	through	the	fixed	loop	on	the	back	of 	the	button,	and	from	an	examination	
of intact tunics this appears to be a feature of pocket buttons. Corrosion products obscured that part of the
back of the button bearing the maker’s name, but enough of the surface remained clear to make out partial
elements of the impressed words ‘...ttons’ and ‘Birmingham’.




                                   Plate 4: SF 258, General Service Button (front).
The second button (SF 258) came from the central area of the trench in Pit 3 and was again recovered from
metal detected spoil; it may be associated with one of two individuals in the pit. This button was in slightly
better condition on the outer face than the example from Pit 4, but more corroded on the back. It lacked a
secondary attachment loop. Possibly associated with the same tunic were four small, four-holed metal buttons.
These are of a type sometimes associated with the General Service Button and are essentially backing buttons
which were sown onto the inside of the tunic behind the large General Service Button to provide a more
secure attachment. The General Service Buttons associated with these were not recovered, but may well have
sunk to a deeper level within the deposit.
As decomposition progressed, a number of artefacts may have sunk from their original positions to deeper
levels within the pits. Metal detector scans in all of the pits certainly indicated the presence of metal artefacts
beneath the upper layer of burials, and these may relate to more than just those objects associated with the
basal burial deposits.



                                                          48
                                 Plate 5: SF 258, General Service Button (back).
Perhaps the most striking artefacts diagnostic of nationality were the two ‘Rising Sun’ badges encountered in
Pit 4 (SF 202 and 206). Both of these were recovered in situ from the lower torso regions of two individuals
located against the western side of the trench. This location may suggest that one of them at least was being
carried in tunic pockets rather than on the lapels – both badges displayed broken fastenings on the back. The
badges were made from a lightweight alloy and displayed some degree of corrosion.
It	was	initially	thought	that	further	evidence	for	a	British	presence	was	identified	in	a	small	hook	associated	
with a hook and eye collar fastening found close to the skull of B60 in Pit 2. It was suggested that the
                                                                                                               	
hook	and	eye	collar	fastening,	like	the	GSB,	was	specific	to	the	British	tunic,	the	Australians	using	a	button.	
                                                                 Plate 6 & 7: SF 206, ‘Rising Sun’ Badge &
                                                                 SF 202, Reverse of ‘Rising Sun’ Badge.




                                                     49
However,	since	the	end	of 	the	fieldwork,	research	has	established	that	the	hook	and	eye	was	used	on	some	
Australian tunics also.
Various	further	classes	of 	artefacts	were	identified	within	the	pits.		These	ranged	from	individual	artefacts	to	
complex pieces of kit, including full sets of webbing. The most striking example of the latter took the form
of a set of 1908 pattern webbing worn by a body (B12) in Pit 1. Although the canvas had largely decayed,
all of the .303 bullets were still in situ where the pouches would have been located, along with the various
brass loops, buckles and strap ends which fastened the webbing in place. This individual had suffered severe
physical trauma about the waist and it is likely that the severity of these abdominal wounds was one reason
why the webbing may have been left in place.
This scenario served as a stark indicator that, given the seriously disrupted state of some of the bodies at
burial, German troops detailed to search the remains for papers and other items may well have avoided contact
with the seriously shattered (and indeed decomposing) corpses. The fact that some remains had been lowered
into position on groundsheets rather than being simply tossed in (by the use of arms and legs) suggests that
more such examples of severe trauma might be expected. It is also possible, given the estimated numbers
lying at Pheasant Wood, that in the rush to dig the pits and gather, transport, search and inter the men, some
remains may have been buried without being searched. The presence of badges and buckles, but especially the
survival of paper-based articles like the matchbox (see below), offers potential during recovery for not only
determining nationality, but also uncovering items that may lead to the establishment of personal identity.
Also associated with the body discussed above (B12) was an unusual medallion or amulet, which appeared
to have been fastened around the neck with a leather cord. This took the form of a swastika cut from
copper alloy, with a central suspension hole. Prior to its appropriation by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party,
the swastika was a well known Hindu symbol of good fortune and swastika amulets were commonly worn
by westerners during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. A swastika medallion was also found
alongside a buried German soldier, killed in 1915 and excavated at Thélus, near Arras, in 2003. The reverse of
the medallion bore the name of the beer brewing company Carlsberg, which had adopted the symbol, along
with the sun motif which surrounds this example, as a marketing logo, again prior to its appropriation by the
Nazis (Saunders, 2007).




                                        Plate 8: SF 94, Swastika Amulet.
A good indication of the high level of preservation possible on the site came in the form of a cardboard
matchbox (SF 217), which was recovered from the north-eastern corner of the trench in pit 4 (Plate 8). The
matchbox is not complete and appears for some reason to have been cut in half. Clearly visible on the front
of 	the	flattened	box	is	the	maker’s	mark:		S	J	Moreland	and	Sons	Ltd	of 	Gloucester,	England.		The	lower	
part of the graphic has also survived very well – the patriotic but rotund image of John Bull. The company

                                                        50
became a subsidiary of Bryant and May in 1913, which still produces matches today. As an aside, it is perhaps
not irrelevant to note that no less than 64 members of the company volunteered for service during WWI.
Thirteen of these men are remembered as having been killed on the company’s war memorial in St. Stephen’s
Church, Bristol Road, Gloucester. Whether any of these men joined the local regiment, the Gloucester’s, and
went on to serve in that regiment at the battle of Fromelles is not yet known.




                                     Plate 9: SF 217, Cardboard Matchbox.




                           Plate 10: Example of Front and Back of Original Matchbox.

Given the presence of British and Australian troops in the pits, studies are ongoing into what these men may
have been wearing during the battle. It is agreed that there was a marked difference in tunic design, but the
permutations regarding uniform adornments are not as straightforward. The British General Service Buttons
found during the evaluation are certainly highly relevant to the nationality of the remains with which they are
associated. It may be the case, though, that some bodies will lack any form of identifying artefacts, as they
may have been buried without the requisite clothing items.

                                                    51
7.7 Historical Perspectives
The	key	findings	of 	the	project	as	regards	the	historical	record	concern	the	reliability	of 	German	documentation	
of the Pheasant Wood burials, and other aspects of reporting on the battle and its aftermath. What has
become clear is that the various sets of instructions in Oberst Julius Ritter von Braun’s Burial Order 5220
were, for the most part, closely followed by the parties detailed to work at Pheasant Wood in the week
following the battle, from 21 July 1916 onwards.
In 1916, the digging of the pits was carried out rapidly and by a large team – upwards of 150 men. The
easternmost excavations (Pits 6, 7 and 8) may well still have been in the process of being dug at the same time
as bodies were being delivered, searched, and then interred in the western pits nearer the trench tramway. No
documented	indication	has	yet	been	found	for	the	order	in	which	pits	were	filled.		British	aerial	photographs	
reveal	that	five	pits	were	backfilled	by	29	July,	again	confirming	that	von	Braun’s	later	27	July	pit	closure	order	
(supported	by	information	from	the	Divisional	medical	officer,	Dr	Ott)	was	also	strictly	adhered	to.
As instructed, during the burial process the layers of bodies were separated and covered by an earth and
lime mixture, though the poorly distributed character of some this material may be indicative of the haste
in which the operation was carried out. It is important to note that the majority of the bodies revealed thus
far do not appear to have been handled with any undue disrespect – though the rapidity of the operation has
undoubtedly led to some unfortunate body positions (bodies lying face down and the spread-eagled body in
pit 5 provide stark images).
Regarding numbers of remains present, given the extrapolation made from the evaluation results, there is no
reason	to	believe	that	the	figure	of 	400	mentioned	in	the	burial	order	should	be	doubted.		Indeed,	with	such	
a large number of remains to be dealt with in the mid-summer heat, speed would have been essential. The
six-day window between 21 and 27 July thus incorporated digging of the pits, interment of the dead, and
backfilling.		The	only	evidence	of 	von	Braun’s	orders	being	disobeyed	lies	in	the	excavations	revealing	that	
a few men had in fact been laid to rest using Zeltbahnen (German groundsheets). This appears likely to have
been a result of the combination of climate and the grim physical condition of some of the bodies due to the
severity of their wounds.
In general, therefore, there is a strong sense that the German records should be trusted rather than doubted.

7.8 Soil Analysis                                                                    by Jo McKenzie
A programme of soil sampling and analysis was undertaken as part of the Pheasant Wood evaluation, to
investigate the physical and chemical conditions within individual burial pits and at the site as a whole. A
summary of the main points is included below; a fuller report can found in the appendix (12.3).

7.8.1   Aims and Objectives
A series of objectives provided a framework for this programme which dictated analytical methods used and
the design of the sampling strategy. These were as follows:
1. To assess the overall environmental condition of the site. Environmental features noted during the
excavation	as	possibly	significant	for	the	condition	of 	human	remains	included	the	site’s	topographic	position	
(at	the	base	of 	a	gentle	slope),	soil	texture	(almost	entirely	heavy,	fine-grained	clay)	and	land	cover	variation	
(within an arable plot, but adjacent to a small woodland). Soil analysis aimed to assess the effect of all these
features upon the burial pits.
2. To investigate differentials in soil conditions between burial pits. Differences in key soil properties (such as
drainage) were noted between burial pits. A soil sampling strategy was designed with the aim of investigating
these differences, both between burial pits and against ‘burial-free’ Pit 8.
3. To assist with speculation upon the condition of human remains further down the stratigraphic sequence
in each pit, and thus the potential for future excavation/recovery of remains. With an excavation strategy
of burial non-disturbance, spot sample recovery from (especially) lower stratigraphic levels provided an
opportunity to extend the reach of the excavation overall.
4. To add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site. As an integrated geo-archaeological
study, the soil analysis programme aimed to enhance overall archaeological understanding and interpretation
of the site.



                                                         52
7.8.2    Methodology
A series of between 10 and 13 soil samples were taken from each pit containing burials (Pits 1, 2, 3, 4 and
5).		These	consisted	of 	a	vertical	line	of 	samples	down	through	the	backfill	sequence	of 	each	pit,	and	then	a	
more individual series of spot samples through the burial layer, at various points adjacent to skeletal material,
surviving textiles, metal objects and other areas of interest. As a control for baseline soil conditions, a
corresponding series of samples was taken through one of the empty pits, Pit 8. A total of 67 samples were
taken.
Three analytical techniques were used: pH, organic matter content (SOM) and total phosphate (total P).
These were chosen as the most suitable means of providing the most comprehensive and appropriate physical
and especially chemical characterisation of the Pheasant Wood sediments in the limited timeframe available.
All techniques are well established in geoarchaeological study, providing a solid basis for archaeological
interpretation. A full description of analytical methodologies and sampling and analytical strategy is provided
in Appendix 12.3.

7.8.3    Results and Discussion
Field	and	laboratory	examination	of 	the	soils	from	both	backfilled	and	burial	contexts	showed	soil	texture	to	
be	universally	clay	to	silty	clay.		Flanders	clay	is	notably	fine-grained,	giving	it	a	very	low	water	permeability	
(Nathanail 2001), and this was very much in evidence both during poor weather conditions during excavation
and in the laboratory, with the waterlogged sample set taking an unusually long time to dry (over three
weeks).		The	reddish-brown	to	grey	mottled	appearance	of 	the	backfill	deposits	indicated	that	waterlogged,	
poorly-draining conditions have long been the norm at the site. Mottling indicates hydromorphism: iron
movement as a result of water retention on the ground surface and probably also periodic alteration of
the	level	of 	the	water	table.		At	lower	levels	of 	excavation,	the	clay	was	chiefly	a	pale	grey	gleyed	colour,	
indicating iron reduction due to permanently waterlogged conditions. Standing water was present in four
out	of 	the	five	burial	pits	during	excavation.		
Significant	variation	was	observed	throughout	both	the	burial	and	control	pits	for	all	three	soil	properties	
analysed, and a full discussion of this variation is provided in Appendix 12.3. pH ranged from 7.7 to 4.1;
however, very few readings below 7 were noted, with soils generally neutral to slightly alkaline. The very few
acidic responses to pH analysis are a point of potential interest (see below). Soil organic matter levels were
generally low, with all except three samples falling within the range 5.93 – 0.94%, and no clear pattern of
increase/decrease	in	either	backfill	sequences	or	into	the	burial	level	of 	the	pits.		Total	P	values	were	fairly	
high to medium throughout, ranging from 624 – 151 mgP/100g soil. As with soil organic matter, no clear
pattern	of 	phosphate	increase/decrease	emerged	from	the	pit	backfill	sequences,	with	fluctuations	through	
each	profile,	and	a	wide	range	of 	values	obtained	even	from	what	might	be	expected	to	be	phosphate-rich	
burial levels.
The	nature	of 	this	variation	provided	the	key	finding	of 	the	analysis.		It	would	appear	that	a	very	inflexible	
set of soil conditions prevails at the Pheasant Wood site, with very little of the typical soil chemical and
organic matter movement and cycling observed. For example, within control Pit 8, where given the lack of
inhumations we might expect fairly low total phosphate and soil organic matter signatures which gradually
decrease	down	profile	(due	to	the	normal	processes	of 	soil	nutrient	cycling),	we	instead	see	a	range	of 	values	
for both. These values probably relate to vegetation input as the result of material ingress when the pit was
open,	or	the	growth	of 	vegetation	on	and	in	the	backfilled	material	during	the	long	delay	between	excavation	
and	infilling.		As	a	key	factor	in	successful	nutrient	cycling	is	water	movement,	it	is	suggested	that	these	soil	
properties	have	remained	static	in	the	profile	as	a	result	of 	the	impermeable	nature	of 	the	clay.
The	significance	of 	this	lack	of 	chemical	movement	to	assist	with	archaeological	interpretation	is	illustrated	
within	 all	 five	 burial	 pits,	 where	 significant	 increases	 in	 especially	 total	 phosphate	 are	 visible	 in	 samples	
immediately adjacent to inhumations. In Pit 1, notably high total P (286.84 m g/100g soil) from FR081/12,
taken to the immediate west of the surviving fabrics associated with the upper torso of B12, contrasts with
far lower FR08/11 (177.11 mg/100g soil) taken only approximately 15 cm further out from the body area.
Similar total phosphate differentials are observable between burial level samples in Pits 3,4 and 5. Soil
organic matter movement appears similarly restricted. In Pit 4, two samples taken adjacent to surviving
textile fragments (FR084/07 and FR084/10) show extremely high organic matter percentages (54.05% and
28.59%), with samples from the same clay matrix (4007) taken from slightly further away from surviving
organic fragments showing low values. A similar situation is seen with sample FR083/10 in Pit 3. It appears
that a high degree of organic material has moved into the clay immediately surrounding the surviving textile
but has progressed no further.
                                                           53
This effect may assist with identifying archaeological features within the burial matrix. For example, total P
values	taken	to	either	side	of 	the	groundsheet	identified	as	probably	having	held	or	wrapped	individuals	B12	
and B22 (samples FR08/07 and FR08/08) show P values inside the groundsheet almost double that outside,
indicating	significant	retention	of 	a	chemical	signature	and	illustrating	the	position	of 	the	fabric	barrier.		A	
similar effect is seen in Pit 3, where the highest P-signature of the entire sample set is evident (FR083/08;
624.11 mgP/100g soil), at a spot just at the edge of the very well-preserved rubberised British groundsheet
containing individual B37. A second adjacent spot (FR083/07) only slightly further out from the groundsheet
edge shows a far lower P value of only 184.14 mgP/100g soil. The role of the waterlogged clay matrix in
creating	these	conditions	of 	burial	is	confirmed	by	the	results	from	Pit	2	–	the	driest,	most	freely	draining	
pit sequence, located adjacent to the woodland edge. Here, a network of roots extending throughout the pit
has broken up the clay matrix, encouraging drainage and therefore physical and chemical decomposition of
materials. Into the burial layers, total P is more even between samples, indicating a greater degree of nutrient
cycling.
A	second	significant	feature	of 	the	analysis	is	the	dropping	of 	pH	values	(that	is,	soil	becoming	increasingly	
acid) into the lower levels of burial. This is evident in Pit 4 and especially Pit 5, where although pH through
the	upper	infill	sequence	was	fairly	high	(alkaline),	this	dropped	sharply	into	the	lower	burial	matrix	(to	pH	
4.1-4.2). This is surprising, as waterlogged environments can generally maintain a neutral or slightly alkaline
pH. Exceptions to this are environments high in organic matter, such as peat bogs (Caple 1994). However,
organic matter values into the base of Pit 5 are very low. It is possible that burial artefacts, most probably
metal objects, may have created more acidic conditions into the permanently waterlogged pit bases. This may
have implications for the relative survival of burial materials, eg potentially worse bone preservation.

7.8.4    Conclusions
The	dense,	fine-grained,	impermeable	nature	of 	the	Flanders	clay	of 	which	the	Pheasant	Wood	site	is	formed	
has created a complex chemical and physical soil environment, within which soil properties show very localised
differences. The main conclusions to be drawn from this analysis are summarised below:
1. The overall site environment. The appearance of the majority of the pits (that is, generally fairly wet
and	or	waterlogged)	shows	that	the	topography	of 	the	Pheasant	Wood	site	is	likely	to	be	a	significant	factor	
in material preservation. With such an impermeable clay matrix, even a slight slope is likely to result in
frequent	standing	water,	and	in	the	immediate	aftermath	of 	backfilling	into	Pits	1-5,	standing	water	would	
have	 run	 preferentially	 through	 the	 looser	 pit	 backfills	 into	 the	 inhumation	 areas,	 probably	 quite	 rapidly,	
creating a waterlogged environment in which the impermeable, newly-spaded edges of the clay pits created
a strong barrier to water movement down through the subsoil. Only in Pit 2, where a rooted, more open
environment prevailed, was water able to pass out of the pit. These environmental conditions will have
determined conditions in the lower levels of each pit. Incidentally, it would appear that the woodland is not a
significant	influence	on	the	nature	of 	the	burial	environment:		the	lowest	overall	levels	of 	organic	matter	were	
noted in Pit 2 – the driest, best-drained pit, but also that closest to the woodland boundary, and therefore in
an area where we might expect a greater input of organic materials. It seems that even if a greater organic
input were present, the better-drained soil conditions at this pit promote a level of nutrient cycling more than
capable of removing this.
2. Differences in soil conditions between burial pits. The differences observed between and within pits can
be	ascribed	to	the	action	of 	the	clay	matrix,	firstly	in	creating	local	waterlogging,	and	secondly	by	way	of 	this	
discouraging biological activity and thus decomposition. However, this does not mean that the differentials
in conditions of preservation are therefore easily understandable. The unexpectedly high total P values from
control	Pit	8	are	a	good	example	of 	this	–	where	the	effects	of 	even	a	potentially	small	influence	(such	as	low-
level vegetation development during the time in which the pit was left open) may have had an unexpectedly
clear effect on the soil conditions. On the positive side, it appears that within the burial matrix at least, the
impermeable	clay	has	acted	to	freeze	a	significant	amount	of 	the	products	of 	decomposition	at	their	origin,	
making good interpretation possible and good preservation more likely.
3.		Can	we	speculate	upon	the	condition	of 	remains	further	down	the	sequence?	Yes,	possibly.		Pits	4	and	5	
show a distinct drop in pH into their lower levels into properly waterlogged material. In the absence of high
organic matter values, it is likely that artefacts (particularly metals) may have created more acidic conditions
into the pit bases (at least in some cases). This may have had a negative effect on bone survival; however,
the bone observed so far in permanently waterlogged contexts (for example, Pit 5) appears in reasonable
condition. The potential for a slightly changing set of environmental conditions to be encountered during
further excavation should therefore be borne in mind.

                                                            54
4.	 	 Does	 the	 analysis	 add	 to	 the	 overall	 interpretation	 of 	 activity	 at	 the	 Pheasant	 Wood	 site?	 Yes,	 several	
features stand out. It is clear that not only the clay matrix but also individual burial artefacts appear to have
acted to arrest decomposition and nutrient loss, such as the groundsheets in which several of the bodies were
wrapped. This may imply that bodies were fairly thoroughly wrapped, rather than merely carried, within these
coverings. A fairly hasty or not particularly organised programme of burial is also perhaps implied by the
lack	of 	a	corresponding	significant	rise	in	pH	in	and	around	contexts	where	lime	spreading	was	identified	(for	
example, (2013) in Pit 1, possibly (1018) in Pit 5). This appears to indicate that lime spreading was neither
extensive nor particularly carefully undertaken.

8.0 Discussion
8.1 Summary of the Fieldwork Results
The	orders	issued	to	German	troops	in	July	1916	specified	that	pits	were	to	be	dug	for	400	men	(Pollard,	
Barton & Banks 2007). The dimensions of the pits display some small degree of variation in plan and section.
Table 2 below gives the dimensions of each. The depths for Pits 1-5 were recorded only in those small areas
where it was possible to excavate to the base, and they may in fact vary along the lengths of the pits.

Table 1: Dimensions of the pits at Pheasant Wood
 Pit          Length at Top             Width at Top             Depth from Top            Depth of Fill
                (E/W)                    (N/W)                   of Fill to Base           Above Burials
 1              9.90 m                   2.20 m                     1.09 m                   0.80 m
 2              9.71 m                   2.65 m                     1.55 m                   0.93 m
 3              9.60 m                   2.70 m                     1.32 m                   1.05 m
 4              9.26 m                   2.20 m                     1.51 m                   0.99 m
 5              9.00 m                   2.20 m                     1.84 m                   0.70 m
 6              6.82 m                   1.86 m                     1.40 m                   1.24 m
 7              9.49 m                   3.92 m                     1.48 m                      --
 8              9.73 m                   1.72 m                     1.11 m                      --


Among	the	five	pits	that	contained	articulated	burials,	it	was	clear	that	those	who	dug	the	pits,	buried	the	
bodies and covered them followed the same basic protocol. The shovels they used to excavate the pits left
the impressions of their curved backs in the stiff clay subsoil, which would have come away in chunks from
the sides of the cut. Bodies were placed on the base of each pit, then lime was sprinkled on top – sometimes
in particular densities that indicate a discrete bagful or shovelful, but more often as a diffuse scatter (again,
the	speed	of 	the	operation	appears	to	have	been	a	factor	here).		Clay	was	backfilled	over	the	first	burials	and	
more lime was thrown in before a second phase of burial took place. Lime was scattered over these bodies,
again sometimes in concentrations, but more often as a rather cursory measure. Finally, clay was replaced to
fill	the	pits	to	the	contemporary	ground	surface.		Where	tip	lines	were	visible,	they	showed	the	clay	had	been	
shovelled in from both sides.
However,	between	the	five	pits	there	were	considerable	differences,	both	in	the	nature	of 	the	burial	deposits	
and in the post-depositional processes and conditions that affected them.
Pit	1	is	the	shallowest	of 	the	five,	but	it	was	only	investigated	at	its	western	end;		it	may	well	deepen	along	its	
length.		The	position	of 	the	skeleton	(B20)	on	the	base	of 	Pit	1,	with	legs	steeply	flexed	against	the	cut,	might	
suggest that bodies were buried densely in the primary phase. The bodies belonging to the second phase of
deposition	were	buried	with	superficial	order.		This	pit	contained	the	most	artefacts,	many	of 	them	associated	
with B12. It may be that the webbing and other items of kit on this soldier were left in place by the burial
party	because	the	severe	injuries	to	his	torso	made	it	difficult	to	remove	them.		An	Australian	tunic	buckle	(SF	
240) near the lower leg of B30 may indicate his nationality. Although Pit 1 does retain standing water in its
base,	it	is	generally	one	of 	the	drier	pits,	and	the	lower	fills	do	not	have	the	black	organic	content	of 	some	of 	
the	others.		The	lower	backfill	(2010)	contains	a	high	proportion	of 	sand;		it	derives	from	the	lower	subsoil	
(2005),	as	this	was	the	horizon	excavated	last	(at	the	base	of 	the	pit)	and	therefore	backfilled	first.		The	sand	
content could explain why Pit 1, at least at this end, is more freely draining than Pits 3, 4 and 5.
In Pit 2, the limited view afforded of the primary burials suggested that they lay at various alignments and
were somewhat entangled. Those belonging to the second phase appear to have been laid out with more
order,	in	generally	parallel	alignment.		Conditions	here	are	even	drier	and	the	fills	are	markedly	different,	being	

                                                            55
generally more brown and organic in appearance than elsewhere – although in fact soils analysis showed that
this pit had the lowest organic content of any. The lower subsoil (2005) is even sandier than in Pit 1, so the
primary	backfill	was	quite	freely	draining,	although	beneath	it	is	the	blue	Ypresian	(Eocene)	clay	which	retains	
water in the very base of the pit. The roots extending into Pit 2 from the adjacent woodland have created
a much more biologically active and acid environment, with water introduced and sucked out repeatedly.
Microscopic fauna will also have been more abundant and active because of the moisture content and root
penetration.		The	acid	conditions	have	encouraged	the	leaching	of 	minerals	from	the	upper	backfill	deposits	
(2003	and	2011),	but	discouraged	their	leaching	from	the	lower	backfill,	creating	the	iron	staining	and	gritty	
texture	in	the	lower	backfill	(2012).
In Pit 3, very little of the primary burial deposits was visible. This was mainly because the upper burials were
laid out in relative parallel order with few gaps, again as if they had been carried by the shoulders and feet
along the top by two people at either side. An Australian tunic buckle (SF 197) associated with B38 indicates
the presence of at least one Australian soldier. A British presence is also indicated, however, through a
General Service Button (associated with either body B39 or B40). In contrast to Pit 2, conditions here are
extremely	wet	–	perhaps	at	least	partly	because	the	pit’s	original	excavation	had	interrupted	a	field	drain.		.
In Pit 4, excavation to the base established the presence of primary burials (a very limited view only was
possible, as the secondary layer of bodies was so densely packed). The bodies buried in the second phase lay
at various angles, often intertwined and, although deliberate placement was evident, some of them may have
been rolled in from either side. Possibly two bodies (B36 and B54) were associated with two ‘Rising Sun’ collar
badges (SFs 202 and 206), which are clearly indicative of Australian soldiers (the bodies and badges were so
close together that they may represent a pair of lapel badges from the same individual). The depth of this
pit	and	the	fine	particle	size	of 	the	clay	have	created	a	sealed	environment	that	retained	water	along	with	the	
probable products of decomposition.
A similar environment prevails in Pit 5. More of the base and primary burials were exposed here, and it was
evident that waterlogging because of the underlying clay subsoil had retained the products of decomposition,
producing	the	black	colour	and	strong	smell	of 	the	primary	backfill.		The	primary	burials	were	laid	out	with	a	
large gap (0.75 m) between two of the bodies (B19 and BP25/BP28). The bodies buried in the second phase
seem to have been rolled or pushed in from the south, so that they piled up against that side of the pit.

8.2 Interpretive Issues
The Fromelles project represents a rare and unprecedented attempt to apply invasive evaluation techniques
to a mass grave site. There can be no doubt that the operation has proved a success, especially given the
complexity of a site which includes no less than eight pits and the three week timeframe in which it was carried
out.		The	decision	to	evaluate	all	of 	the	pits	has	certainly	justified	itself,	as	the	exercise	has	identified	a	number	
of 	important	variations	between	the	pits,	each	of 	which	represents	a	specific	burial	and	micro-environment.	         	
The work has also raised a number of questions which can only be answered with further excavation and these
are discussed below.
Burial practice is just one of the factors to demonstrate variation across the pit complex, with each of the
pits exhibiting some difference in the way that bodies have been placed, although all of them have provided
evidence of at least two tiers of burials.
The	degree	to	which	the	sample	areas	reflect	conditions	along	the	entire	length	of 	the	trenches	obviously	
remains to be seen. However, there are certain observations which can be made at this stage. The placement
of the sondages at different points along the length of the pits has suggested some variation in the depth of
the	pits,	which	may	indicate	that	the	pits	may	become	slightly	deeper	away	from	the	ends	(as	reflected	in	the	
deepest of the deposits - Pit 5 - and the variation visible in Pit 6, where there were no intact burials obscuring
the pit base).
Pit 5 displayed not only the deepest section of cut but also the greatest depth of burial deposits, with the
exposed remains suggesting bodies lying three deep at this point. This may be a result of the location of the
pit	in	the	burial	sequence:		being	the	furthest	away	from	the	railway,	it	may	have	been	the	last	to	be	filled,	with	
every	effort	being	made	not	to	have	to	move	on	to	a	sixth	pit;		alternatively,	it	may	reflect	a	general	increase	
in the depth of deposits towards the centre of the pits. Given the presence of apparent overspill remains in
the	western	end	of 	the	adjacent	Pit	6,	however,	the	former	seems	the	most	likely.		The	attempt	to	fit	as	many	
bodies	as	possible	into	Pit	5,	thus	saving	on	the	effort	to	backfill	yet	another	pit,	may	also	be	suggested	by	the	
excess	spoil	left	over	next	to	Pit	5	after	the	backfilling	operation	and	visible	in	the	aerial	photographs	(Pollard,	
Barton & Banks 2007, 58).

                                                           56
Preservation levels also vary across the site, with the remains in the southern pits (1, 4 and 5) generally in better
condition than those closer to the wood to the south (2, 3 and the west end of 6). This appears in part to be
due to differences in soil conditions, with soil analysis indicating variations in the inter-relationship between
soil deposits and the materials, including human remains, sealed within them. Variations may also exist within
the same pits – with the chemistry of upper and lower burial deposits displaying different properties, as far
as	pH	and	phosphate	levels	are	concerned.		It	was	clear	throughout	the	fieldwork	that	the	lower	parts	of 	
the pits were generally wetter than the upper parts, though some pits, such as Pit 4, were wetter than others
throughout. It was assumed that the presence of waterlogged deposits in the highly anaerobic environment
at the base of the pits would enhance the preservation of organic materials – the implication being that if soft
tissue survival was going to be found anywhere, it would be at these lower levels. Soil analysis has, however,
suggested that this may not necessarily be the case. The presence of higher quantities of metals may, among
other factors, be responsible for an increase in acidity levels, and this may also accord with the very clean state
of the bones encountered in most of the trench bases.
The ends of all the pits were located through topsoil stripping and their locations and dimensions recorded as
part of the site survey. As well as further emphasising the less than uniform nature of the pits, as suggested
on	the	aerial	photographs	and	the	general	impression	of 	German	military	efficiency,	this	exercise	suggests	
further variation in burial conditions across the site. The exposure of the eastern end of Pit 4 – where the
sondage	 was	 at	 the	 pit’s	 western	 end	 –	 revealed	 pit	 fills	 which	 seemed	 distinctly	 wetter	 than	 those	 at	 the	
opposite end. This increase in moisture levels was accompanied by a very distinct smell of decay, much more
so than had been apparent at the western end. It may be no coincidence that this, the western end of Pit 1,
is not far away from Pit 4, which proved to be the wettest of the pits. This increase in moisture levels and a
possibly related enhancement of preservation conditions, as demonstrated at least in the upper deposits of
Pit 4, may be the result of subsurface topography, such as a relict ancient watercourse. This is again uncertain,
but if such a feature were oriented in a north-/south direction it would also help to explain the wet conditions
encountered	in	Pit	3,	not	far	to	the	north	of 	Pits	1	and	4	(though	the	presence	of 	a	long-since	damaged	field	
drain has also been noted here).
Although the presence of two General Service Buttons, from Pits 3 and 4, is highly indicative of a British
presence, it could be argued that other factors led to their deposition (they could have been carried in the
pockets of Australian soldiers, for instance, however unlikely this seems). A British presence is, however, also
strongly indicated by the high numbers of bodies evident in the pits. On the basis of independent research,
only 173 Australian soldiers are thought to have been buried in the pits at Pheasant Wood, and given that
upwards of 400 bodies may be present, some of these must surely be British. Indeed, if the high total is
accepted, logic would dictate that they represent the majority of bodies buried at Pheasant Wood. Even if
the lowest and very conservative estimate of 225 bodies proves to be the case, then this would still suggest a
presence of around 55 British bodies. It should, however, be noted that there is uncertainty about the number
of Australian bodies thought to have been buried at Pheasant Wood and the actual number may in fact be
greater than 173.
One indelible impression left by the exposure of the human remains at Fromelles is of the extremely violent
nature of the combat. Many of the individuals display evidence of multiple peri-mortem injuries which
have caused severe disruption to the bodies. Among the remains are individuals who have undergone some
degree	of 	first	aid	prior	to	death,	evidenced	by	the	presence	of 	tourniquets,	possible	field	dressings	and,	in	
Pit 1, perhaps even a makeshift crutch. These men went on to sustain further injuries which were obviously
fatal, the majority of which appear to have been caused by explosions. This is consistent with contemporary
accounts	of 	the	battle	which	describe	soldiers	being	treated	by	medics	in	the	midst	of 	the	fighting.		In	some	
cases	at	least,	the	blast	injuries	probably	reflect	the	heavy	use	of 	hand	grenades	by	the	Germans	in	defence	
of their front line trench. The negative impact of this bone trauma and disruption on the potential survival
of DNA should not be discounted, but at this stage it is impossible to assess. However, in all observed cases,
even the most disrupted bodies still had intact bones and it is these which have the highest potential for the
preservation of DNA.

8.3 Closing Summary
The	evaluation	fulfilled	all	of 	its	major	aims,	and	has	made	an	essential	and	invaluable	contribution	to	our	
understanding of the burials at Pheasant Wood. In summary:
The	presence	of 	undisturbed	burials	were	identified	in	five	of 	the	eight	pits,	with	at	least	some	fragmented	
human remains in the western end of one additional pit (Pit 6).


                                                           57
The c 16% sample partially exposed the remains of 50 individuals, and estimated numbers appear to be in
keeping with the 400 bodies mentioned in the German burial orders.
There was evidence for both Australian and British burials, indicated through the recovery of distinctive
artefacts and the high number of bodies present.
Evaluation	and	soil	analysis	have	identified	variation	in	burial	environments	across	the	site,	from	pit	to	pit,	and	
also within the same pits (for example, between primary and secondary burial deposits).
The condition of the remains was generally good, with only skeletal remains uncovered by the excavation.
Soft tissue survival may exist in places due to localised conditions across the site, but the increased levels of
soil acidity in the lower levels are in accord with the skeletal remains encountered where ever the basal deposits
were reached (the localised nature of soil conditions must also be noted here – high acid levels may not be
general across the site).
The condition of the bodies is such that they can be recovered on an individual basis. The only bones which
were	definitely	disarticulated	were	those	from	the	bottom	of 	Pit	6.		There	remains,,	however,	the	potential	for	
partial remains and body parts from the other pits.
Identification	through	DNA	may	be	possible,	but	this	would	require	the	sample	testing	of 	remains	before	any	
firm	statement	can	be	made	on	feasibility.
There	 is	 some	 potential	 for	 identification	 through	 means	 other	 than	 DNA	 as	 paper	 survival	 has	 been	
established, so the possibility remains that not all bodies were thoroughly searched due to their condition at
the	time	of 	burial.		The	number	of 	identifications	that	could	be	made	in	this	way	is	likely	to	be	very	small,	but	
the potential does exist.


9.0 Recommendations
Although the evaluation has established the feasibility of individual recovery, it is not within the remit of
this report to recommend future actions on the site. Should the Australian and British governments decide
to	proceed	with	recovery	operations,	then	the	issue	of 	DNA	sampling	and	identification	will	require	serious	
consideration. It would be possible to test for DNA feasibility from a small sample of bodies during the
early stages of recovery and, if positive results are obtained, to extract samples from each body as the work
progresses.		The	creation	of 	a	‘sample	bank’	which	could	be	cross-referenced	to	a	grave	identification	code	
would allow reburial in individual graves to proceed without delay (though preparation of the site is likely
to be a time consuming operation and so medium term storage for remains will be required). Thereafter
inscriptions	 on	 gravestones,	 which	 in	 the	 first	 instance	 would	 presumably	 read	 ‘Known	 unto	 God’,	 could	
be	 modified	 to	 named	 individuals	 as	 and	 when	 positive	 identifications	 are	 made.	 	 The	 management	 of 	 a	
DNA	identification	programme,	with	the	requisite	appeals	for	possible	relatives	to	come	forward	and	give	
familial samples, is obviously highly complex and involves a number of ethical and methodological issues and
considerations although, once again, it is not within the scope of this report to comment further on these at
the present time.


10.0 Acknowledgements
The Fromelles evaluation would not have been possible without the skills, experience and dedication of a large
group	of 	people.		Paramount	here	were	the	members	of 	the	field	team:		Cecily	Cropper	(forensic	archaeologist),	
Steve Litherland (forensic archaeologist), Iraia Arabaolaza (forensic archaeologist/anthropologist), Charlotte
Francoz (site surveyor), Edouard MacLean-Masson (site assistant) and Gary Andrews (site management,
logistics and plant machinery operator).
Once again, Martial Delebarre played an indispensable part as local liaison and did much to ensure the smooth
running of the operation through his procurement of plant and equipment. His comradeship and ‘can do’
attitude was appreciated by all.
The	project	was	managed	in	the	field	on	behalf 	of 	the	Australian	Army	by	Major-General	Mike	O’Brien	and	
Roger Lee (Army Historical Research, Australian Army), both of whom provided every assistance during the
work. Dr Denise Donlon acted as an observer on behalf of the Australian Army. Captain Caroline Kelly
(Australian Army) provided an important point of contact during the lead up to the project. Colonel Peter
Singh and Sue Jorgenson provided on-site assistance.


                                                          58
Colonel Feliks Skowronski, Australian Defence Attaché in Paris, and his assistant Sam Rossatto (who provided
excellent translation services throughout) are thanked for their support prior to and during the project.
Special thanks to the mayor of Fromelles, M Hubert Huchette, for his co-operation and the people of
Fromelles for their warmth and hospitality.
Access to land was generously granted by Mme Demassiet and tenant farmer M Serge Desruelles. At the end
of the project, Mme Demassiet donated the grave site to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, an act
of great generosity and compassion. From the Commonwealth War Graves Commission special thanks to
David Parker, Peter Francis and David Symons and Lord Faulkner of Worcester, Chairman of the All-Party
Parliamentary	War	Graves	and	Battlefields	Heritage	Group.
Our gratitude goes to the regional archaeological and cultural authorities in the form of Alain Jacques and
Virginie	Motte,	both	of 	whom	played	vital	roles	in	facilitating	official	permission	for	a	British	team	to	carry	
out an archaeological project in France.
The following people provided assistance with the archive searches in their respective institutions:
Dr Ralf-Peter Fuchs, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich; Roy Hemington, Commonwealth War Graves
Commission; Peter Holton, CWGC; Marie Meriaux, ICRC, Geneva; Daniel Palmieri, ICRC, Geneva; David
Parry, IWM; Hilary Roberts IWM; Dr Lothar Saupe, Bayerisches Kriegsarchiv, Munich; Greg Smith, IWM;
William Spencer, National Archives, Kew, London; and Nigel Steel, Australian War Memorial, Canberra.
Further vital assistance with research, translation and advice was provided by:
Jeremy Banning; Dr Peter Chasseaud; Michael Forsyth; Richard Van Emden.
We also thank the proprietors of Café Gallodrome, Fromelles for providing a much enjoyed lunch on every
day of the project.
Logistical support at GUARD was provided by Aileen Maule and John Kiely. Report graphics were produced
by Charlotte Francoz (survey products) and Gillian McSwan (section drawings). Report page setting and
production	was	by	Gillian	McSwan	and	Jen	Cochrane,	who	also	provided	general	office	support	throughout.
Last, but not least, the team would like to thank Lambis Englezos and Ward Selby, both of whom did so much
to ensure that the project took place by highlighting the issue of the Australian Missing at Fromelles. Both of
them	visited	the	site	while	fieldwork	was	taking	place	during	which	time	their	moral	support	and	companionship	
was highly appreciated. Last, but not least, to Tim Whitford, for his encouragement throughout the project.

11.0 Bibliography
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Bascomb, C L 1974 Physical and chemical analyses of <2 m m samples. In Avery, B W and Bascomb, C L
(eds) Soil Survey laboratory methods. Soil Survey of England and Wales, Harpenden: 14-41.

Brady, N C and Weil, R R 1999 The nature and properties of soils. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Bell, L S 1990 Palaeopathology and Diagenesis: An SEM Evaluation of Structural Changes Using
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Brooks, S & Suchey, J M 1990 Skeletal Age Determination Based on the Os Pubis: A Comparison of the
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Buikstra, J E & Ubelaker, D H 1994 Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas
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                                                     59
Caple, C 1994 Reburial of waterlogged wood, the problems and potential of this conservation technique.
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Cook, S F & Heizer, R F 1965 ‘Studies on the Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Sites’, University of
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Realities	of 	Rapid	Identification	of 	Degraded	Skeletal	Remains.		Forensic	Science	Review	16:64-90.

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                                                          60
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                                                   61
12.0 Appendices
12.1 Body Reports
 Pit   Body (B)      Position     Associated              General Observations                  Associated
       Body Part     of Body      Skeletons                                                     Artefacts
         (BP)
  1      B12        Extended,     Adjacent     Lying	 upon	 the	 same	 ?German	                   SFs 92-95,
                     prone &      to B22,      groundsheet as B22. Leather bayonet               98, 100-103,
                      supine,    uppermost     scabbard (SF93/120), wooden entrenching 117-120, 122,
                     left arm     level of     tool-handle (SF92), indeterminate metal             124-130,
                    lies under   body mass.    object (SF118) and metal swastika and               138-172,
                      skull of                 leather	 band/?bracelet	 (SF94)	 found	 possibly also
                        B22                    in immediate proximity to right hand. associated with
                                               Numerous artefacts associated with this           173-175, 187
                                               body suggest that this individual may
                                               still have been wearing his webbing and
                                               include: 8 chargers of .303 bullets; a
                                               gas mask exhalation valve; buckles;
                                               strap-ends; and press-studs. A wooden
                                               object (SF187) found above the chest
                                               area	 tentatively	 identified	 as	 a	 fragment	
                                               of 	 a	 wooden	 rifle	 butt.	 	 Alloy	 fastening	
                                               for textile (SF98); a textile pouch with
                                               3 chargers (SF144/159/161-2,168,169);
                                               alloy strap-ends, buckles & a collar/
                                               press- studs (SF100-103,117,124,126
                                               -8,138-143,145-158,163-67,170-75),
                                               ammunition clips of bullets (SF129-130);
                                               and a blue enamel metal canteen (SF125).
                                               Preservation of organic materials (socks,
                                               clothing and leather strap-ends for braces).
                                               Lime present around body. Feet to pelvis
                                               lying in prone position, observable peri-
                                               mortem trauma to lumbar spine has
                                               contorted torso and upper body into
                                               supine position, trauma to facial skeleton.
                                               Observable state of epiphyseal fusion
                                               indicates a probable age of 15-16.5yrs
                                               (Scheuer & Black, 2000).
  1      B22        Extended,     Adjacent     Lying	 pon	 he	 ame	 German	 roundsheet	 SFs 118-119,
                                                       u   t s        ?           g
                      supine,      to B12,     as B12. Right hand lies under heavily 184, 242, 257,
                    right arm    uppermost     oxidised metal object (SF118) possibly            possibly also
                    lies under     level of    assoc. with leather bayonet scabbard associated with
                      skull of   body mass.    (SF120).		Broken	leather	?bracelet	in situ          173-174
                     B12, left   Lying above   over right wrist (SF119). Two chargers of
                      arm lies   B20, B30 &    .303 bullets lie above the skull, but under
                     over legs       B51.      the groundsheet. Buckles (SF173/174)
                      of B30                   lie on top of right clavicle. Left arm lying
                                               under long wooden stick (SF219).




                                                    62
Pit   Body (B)     Position    Associated               General Observations               Associated
      Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                   Artefacts
        (BP)
 1      B22         Cont         Cont        Preservation of organic materials                 Cont
       (cont)                                (clothing & leather strap-ends for braces).
                                             Observable peri-mortem trauma to left
                                             humerus, left thorax, left pubis, right
                                             distal femur (trauma has separated distal
                                             femur from knee joint and lower leg).
                                             Dental maxillary prosthetic found in situ
                                             within the mouth (SF242). Observable
                                             state of epiphyseal fusion is complete
                                             indicating individual is an adult (Scheuer
                                             & Black, 2000). Metal button (SF184)
                                             and leather braces for trousers (SF257)
                                             also found with this body.
 1      B30       Extended,   Lying below Left elbow lies immediately over long SF130, 188-189,
                   prone      B22, above wooden stick (SF219) and crushed skull 190, 193, 203,
                                B20, B50,    of B50, left hand is under left thorax of     218-219, 240,
                                   B52.      body. Right arm extended west, right            253-255
                              Upper level wrist lies under left foot of B22, right
                                 of body     hand lies adjacent to right foot of B22;
                                  mass.      right leg disarticulated from hip socket,
                                             right foot under left arm of B22, left
                                             leg lies under SF219 and also under left
                                             arm of B22. Preservation of organic
                                             materials (clothing & possible socks).
                                             Observable peri-mortem trauma to left
                                             side of skull, both scapulae and upper
                                             thorax. Observable state of epiphyseal
                                             fusion indicates a probable age of
                                             15-16.5yrs. Artefacts include: eyelets
                                             from a German groundsheet (SF188);
                                             eyelets & a button from a German
                                             groundsheet (SF129); metal button from
                                             a	?shirt	(SF190);		fragment	of 	textile	from	
                                             the	hem	of 	a	?tunic	(SF193);		metal	4-hole	
                                             button	marked	“Excelsior”	(SF203);		eye-
                                             piece from a gas mask (SF218) and assoc.
                                             components (SF130); metal buckle by
                                             right tibia (SF240); metal eyelet from
                                             above the shoulder (SF253); and metal
                                             rivets (SF254-55).
 1      B20        Flexed     Lying below Body	 consists	 of 	 flexed	 legs,	 lower	 legs	    SF185
                                B12, B22,    and feet and lies directly under the feet
                                   B30.      and lower legs of B22 and the right arm
                              Lowest level of 	B30.		?Communication	cable	(SF185)	
                                    of       has been tied around the lower legs,
                               body mass, perhaps to assist in the transportation of
                               lying upon the	body	from	the	battlefield.		Left	foot	
                              the	floor	of 	 travels vertically up the baulk underlying
                                the grave.


                                               63
Pit   Body (B)     Position    Associated                General Observations                   Associated
      Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                        Artefacts
        (BP)
 1      B20         Cont         Cont        the feet of B12 (the feet of both                    Cont
       (cont)                                individuals are separated from one
                                             another by some 12cm) and both knees
                                             lie directly up against the south cut of the
                                             grave. Due to the position of this body
                                             within this grave, the rest of the body
                                             remains unexposed.
 1      B50       Extended,                  The upper half only of this body has                SF218
                   supine                    been exposed, the rest runs north-east
                                             into the unexcavated east section of the
                                             grave	fill.		The	skull	of 	B50	lies	directly	
                                             under the left elbow of B30, the left arm
                                             lies	flexed	under	the	left	thorax	of 	B30,	
                                             and the left hand lies directly south of the
                                             skull. Left thumb is abducted from the
                                             rest of the hand (as if the hand had been
                                             holding something that has subsequently
                                             decomposed). Peri-mortem trauma has
                                             caused severe disruption of cranial and
                                             facial skeleton. An eye-piece from a gas
                                             mask (SF218) was found between the left
                                             thorax of B50 and left pelvis of B30.
 1     BP51       Extended,   Lying under    Body consists of a left mid-femur to left           None
                   supine      B22, poss.    foot,	the	leg	is	flexed	at	the	knee,	the	left	
                               associated    foot is encased in a sock. The leg lies under
                                with B50     the left forearm of B22 and immediately
                                (and on      adjacent and east of left lower leg of
                              same level).   B22, and may in fact represent the left leg
                                             of B50. The rest of the body remains
                                             unexcavated and lies in the unexcavated
                                             east	section	of 	the	grave	fill.
 1     BP52        Flexed,    Lying over     Body part consists of left arm and lower            None
                   supine      thorax of     arm which emerges from the unexcavated
                              B50, hand      east	section	of 	the	grave	fill.		This	arm	lies	
                              under B30.     over the thorax of B50 with the left hand
                              Lower level    lying under the abdomen of B30. The
                                of body      arm also underlies the long wooden stick
                                 mass.       (SF219). The rest of the body remains
                                             unexcavated and lies in the east section
                                             of 	the	grave	fill.




                                                  64
Pit   Body (B)     Position    Associated                General Observations                   Associated
      Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                        Artefacts
        (BP)
 2      B41       Extended,     Left arm     Body is lying prone upon a groundsheet           SFs 205, 211,
                   prone      under B42,     and resting upon the left pelvis, directly up        212
                               lying over    against the unexcavated west section of the
                              B47. Upper     grave	fill.		The	right	arm,	right	hand,	and	
                                level of     right leg (below mid-shaft femur), together
                              body mass.     with left lwr. leg (below the knee) of this
                                             individual remain unexcavated in the west
                                             section. The left arm is extended under
                                             the legs and feet of the adjacent body of
                                             B42, and the hand of B47 underlies the
                                             thorax of B41. Preservation of textiles
                                             (clothing?).		Eyelet	hook	for	possible	?tunic	
                                             collar	 (SF205)	 and	 possible	 ?belt	 buckle	
                                             (SF211) found on left pelvis, toothbrush
                                             (SF212) possibly associated with this
                                             body. Multiple peri-mortem trauma to the
                                             cranium, with the mid- and lower thoracic
                                             vertebrae partially displaced and out of
                                             anatomical articulation. This suggests that
                                             the body may have either sustained peri-
                                             mortem trauma to this region and/or that
                                             the	body	was	also	subsequently	sufficiently	
                                             decomposed at the time of burial for
                                             these skeletal elements to be found out of
                                             alignment. Trauma can also be seen on
                                             lumbar vertebrae, the greater trochanter
                                             of the right femur and both pelves.
 2      B42       Extended,    B41’s left    This is a young individual with a probable          SF210
                   supine      arm lying     age of 17-19yrs of age. Remains of a
                              under B42’s    possible groundsheet present around the
                              legs & feet,   cranium and possible textile fragments
                                 B43 lies    around legs. Left arm lying across the face
                              under B42’s    and upper torso, position of left hand not
                              torso, BP44    yet clear. Right arm appears to run into the
                               lies under    unexcavated	west	section	of 	the	grave	fill.		
                              B42’s lower    Extensive trauma to the cranium, lower
                                  thorax,    thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae with
                               B47’s right   vertebrae partially displaced. Loose teeth
                               arm rests     present, possibly as a result of trauma (no
                                over the     wear apparent on those visible). Similar
                                knees of     to B41, this individual may have either
                              B42. Upper     sustained peri-mortem trauma to this
                                 layer of    region and/or that the body was also
                              body mass.     subsequently	 sufficiently	 decomposed	
                                             at the time of burial for these skeletal
                                             elements to be found out of alignment.
                                             Post-mortem damage to




                                                 65
Pit   Body (B)     Position     Associated                   General Observations                     Associated
      Body Part    of Body      Skeletons                                                             Artefacts
        (BP)
 2      B42         Cont          Cont         both pelves, sacrum, distal left tibia, and              Cont
       (cont)                                  left metatarsals. Two small horn buttons
                                               associated with the sternum. Small horn
                                               button found near sternum (SF210).
 2      B43       Extended        B43 lies     Body consists of (extended) right and                   None
                  &	flexed,	   directly over   (flexed)	left	legs	and	right	foot.		The	rest	
                   lying on     left arm of    of the body, together with the left lower
                  right side   BP44, torso     leg and foot, lie within the unexcavated
                                of B42 lies    west	section	of 	the	grave	fill.		Extended	
                               above right     right leg runs beneath the torso of B42
                                 lower leg     and right foot is visible lying to the east of
                                 & foot of     the body of B42. Post-mortem damage
                                     B43.      to both distal femora, bone is quite friable
                               Lower layer     in these regions.
                                  of body
                                    mass.
 2     BP44        Flexed,       BP44 lies     Body part consists of a left distal humerus             None
                  lying on        directly     and left proximal radius and ulna. Post-
                  left side      under the     mortem damage to the radial head
                                   legs of     and proximal shaft (peri-articular area
                                  B43, left    of 	 radius).	 	 This	 body	 part	 is	 flexed	 at	
                                 humerus       approx.30º (possibly abducted away from
                                  of BP44      the body), lies beneath both B42 and B43,
                                 continues     and whilst it remains unexcavated it may
                                  beneath      belong to B60.
                               B42. Lower
                                  layer of
                                body mass
 2     BP45       Unknown       Lies above     Proximal phalanx from a foot just visible               None
                               B43. Lower      in the unexcavated west section of the
                                  layer of     grave	 fill.	 	 It	 lies	 in	 close	 proximity	 and	
                                body mass.     above B43 and appears to be pointing
                                               south. The rest of the body remains
                                               unexcavated within the west section.
 2     BP46       Unknown       Possibly       Body part consists of right lower arm,                  None
                               belongs to      wrist and hand which extends from the
                                  B42.         unexcavated west section of the grave
                               Upper layer     fill	 and	 is	 aligned	 in	 a	 north-easterly	
                                of body        direction. The arm emerges from the
                                 mass.         section at a steep, almost vertical angle
                                               and is resting against the north section of
                                               the pit, above (but not in direct contact
                                               with) the cranium of B42. The palm of
                                               the hand faces south.




                                                     66
Pit   Body (B)     Position    Associated                General Observations                    Associated
      Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                         Artefacts
        (BP)
 2      B47       Extended    Above B41,    Body consists of an individual lying in a
                   body,       B42, B60,    prone position, right hand lies upon the
                   flexed	      may be      left thorax of B41, right lower arm over
                   limbs,     associated    the right knee of B42, right humerus
                   prone       with B58.    lying upon left knee/distal femur of
                  position    Upper layer   B42. Left arm may be related to BP65
                                of body     or	 BP58.	 	 The	 right	 leg	 is	 flexed	 at	 the	
                                 mass.      knee and rests against the cranium of
                                            B60,	the	distal	tibia	and	fibula	extend	into	
                                            the unexcavated east section of the grave
                                            fill,	a	left	distal	femur	is	visible	extending	
                                            into the east section and is possibly
                                            associated with this body. The position
                                            of the right hand suggests that the hand
                                            was resting upon an object, or possibly
                                            a fold in the groundsheet covering B41.
                                            Ribs and vertebrae are generally very
                                            fragmentary and in poor condition.
                                            The mid- and lower-thoracic vertebrae
                                            have been displaced, two lumbars are
                                            articulated with each other, but lie out of
                                            alignment with the rest of the vertebral
                                            column. Post-mortem damage to right
                                            shoulder, right pelvis, right distal femur
                                            and proximal tibia.
                                            Small horn buttons (SF261) found on
                                            right lower thorax, small metal button
                                            found by right femoral shaft (SF259,)
                                            gas mask goggles (SF260) in situ upon
                                            the cranium, possible associated with a
                                            toothbrush (SF213).
 2     BP58       Unknown        Under      Body part consists of un-sided proximal,
                               elbow of     intermediate and distal hand phalanges
                                 BP65       (the	distal	phalanges	are	flexed	at	c.90º).
                                May be      The rest of the body is thought to extend
                              associated    into the unexcavated east section of the
                               with B47.    grave.
                              Upper layer
                               of body
                                 mass.




                                               67
Pit   Body (B)     Position     Associated            General Observations            Associated
      Body Part    of Body      Skeletons                                             Artefacts
        (BP)
 2     BP59        Flexed,      BP59 lies  Body part consists of left mid-shaft to            None
                  body lying   under B42   distal femur, patella and proximal end
                   on left       & B47.    of the left tibia. The femur is aligned
                    side       Lower layer NNW,	whilst	the	tibia	is	flexed	at	approx.	      	
                                of body    90º and seems to run east-west into the
                                 mass.     pedestal	of 	grave	fill	that	remains	in situ
                                           to support B42. Post-mortem excavation
                                           damage to medial femoral condyle. Body
                                           part remains unexcavated as it lies under
                                           B42 & B47.
 2      B60        Appears        B60 lies Body consists of a partially exposed SF216, 218, 243
                   extended     under B47 individual - the right pelvis of B47 lies
                  in a prone      & B42.   over right lwr. arm and hand of B60,
                   position      Possibly. the right knee of B47 lies abutting the
                               assoc. with cranium of B60, the right foot of B43 lies
                                   BP44.   to the north-east of B60’s cranium. Post-
                               Lower layer mortem and excavation damage to left
                                 of body   scapula, radial head and left ribs. Artefacts
                                   mass.   associated with this body include: a horn
                                           button (SF216); an eye-piece from a gas
                                           mask (SF218); and a metal hook for a
                                           possible	?tunic	collar	(SF243).
 2     BP61          Semi-       B47 and   Body part consists of a right lower leg,           None
                    flexed,	     BP65 lie  with B47’s upper torso and BP65’s left
                    supine     above BP61. hand lying above BP61’s right knee. The
                   position    Lower layer lower leg of this individual was covered
                                 of body   by textile, fragments of which remain in
                                   mass.   situ along the shafts of both the tibia and
                                           the	fibula.		The	rest	of 	the	body	remains	
                                           unexposed.
 2     BP58       Unknown          Under   Body part consists of un-sided proximal,           None
                                 elbow of  intermediate and distal hand phalanges
                                   BP65    (the	distal	phalanges	are	flexed	at	c.90º).
                                  May be   The rest of the body is thought to extend
                                associated into the unexcavated east section of the
                                with B47.  grave.
                               Upper layer
                                 of body
                                   mass.
 2     BP63       Unknown       Unknown. Body part consists of a fragment of the              None
                               Upper layer left frontal (including the left orbit) and
                                 of body   the left parietal of the skull, and was found
                                   mass.   to be lying on the left side. Preservation
                                           is good, however, post-mortem damage
                                           is present on the orbital margin (radiating
                                           toward the sphenoid bone), and also upon
                                           the anterior edge of the parietal. The rest
                                           of the body remains to be exposed and
                                           lies	 in	 the	 upper	 fill	 of 	 the	 unexcavated	
                                           eastern area of the grave.

                                                68
Pit   Body (B)     Position    Associated                 General Observations                Associated
      Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                      Artefacts
        (BP)
 2     BP64       Extended,   Unknown.    Body part consists of a left foot aligned            None
                   supine     Upper layer north-south in the grave. Some post-
                               of body    mortem damage is present upon the
                                mass.     metatarsals, otherwise fair preservation
                                          can be seen. The rest of the body remains
                                          to	 be	 exposed	 and	 lies	 in	 the	 upper	 fill	
                                          of the unexcavated eastern area of the
                                          grave.
 2     BP65       Extended,      Hand     Body part consists of lower left arm                    -
                   prone       phalanges and hand, this body part could possibly
                                of BP58   be associated with B47. Left arm is
                              under elbow extended,	elbow	is	flexed	at	approx.		90º,	
                               of BP65.   hand travelling down slope towards the
                              Upper level north. Fair preservation, post-mortem
                                of body   damage at the distal radius and the head
                                 mass.    of 	the	fifth	metacarpal.		Textile	fragments	
                                          found on top of the lower arm, whilst an
                                          iron button was found by the left wrist.
                                          Body lies in supine position, the right
                                          humerus is abducted from body, elbow is
                                          bent, the right hand rests over the skull.
                                          The left arm runs along the side of the
                                          body, elbow is bent, hand rests on the
                                          centre of the chest area. Both legs are
                                          extended and bent at the knee, the right
                                          and left lower legs and feet are in the
                                          unexcavated west section of the grave
                                          fill.	 	 This	 individual	 has	 been	 wrapped	
                                          in a British groundsheet which remains
                                          very well-preserved with retention of
                                          material form, elasticity, colour, with
                                          preservation of the numerous metal
                                          eyelets from a groundsheet (SF196). This
                                          individual has suffered massive cranial
                                          trauma and displacement, the overlying
                                          groundsheet was found to have collapsed
                                          into the exposed brain cavity of the
                                          skull.	 	 Remnants	 of 	 a	 possible	 orange?	
                                          tourniquet remains in situ over the right
                                          distal humerus (SF230), adjacent to the
                                          elbow, and the wrist also appears to be
                                          very damaged.




                                                 69
Pit   Body (B)     Position      Associated                 General Observations                    Associated
      Body Part    of Body       Skeletons                                                          Artefacts
        (BP)
 3      B37       Extended,     Under B38,        Trauma can also be seen to the right             SF195, 196,
                    flexed	      poss. over     and left thorax, the left wrist and elbow,        225, 227-228,
                   at knee,      lower legs     numerous vertebrae appear to be slightly               230
                    supine        of BP48       out of alignment, the right pubis is
                                   (which       detached.      There is also excavation
                                 remains in     damage	to	the	knees.	A	leather	tie	?shoe-
                                unexcavated     lace (SF225) was also found which the
                                    west        excavator thinks may have been tied to
                                  section).     either side of the groundsheet in the
                                Upper level     region around the head – perhaps to wrap
                                  of body       and	 contain	 the	 very	 damaged	 cranium?	
                                    mass.       An	 Australian	 ?belt	 buckle	 was	 found	
                                                underneath the chin (SF228), together
                                                with	a	mother-of-pearl	button	and	a	?eye	
                                                (possibly	 from	 an	 undershirt(?)	 (SF227),	
                                                whilst	a	alloy	rifle			?cleaner		was	found	   	
                                                by the right
 3     B37          Cont           Cont         pelvis (SF195). Both right and left pubic             Cont
      (Cont)                                    symphyses display a morphology that
                                                suggests an age between 15-23 years, with
                                                a mean of 18.5 years (Brooks & Suchey,
                                                1990).
 3      B39       Extended,        B39 lies     This individual appears to be robust and           SF201, 221,
                     supine       over B40;     very tall and seems to have been forced to             222,
                   and lying         right      fit	into	the	burial	pit.		His	feet	are	running	   223, 224, 229
                  slightly on    scapula of     up against the north section and his head
                       the         B39 lies     (which is facing west) lies up against the
                    left side   directly over   south section. His right humerus is lying
                                left foot of    over his face, his right lower arm is over
                                B38. Right      his left shoulder, the left arm and hand is
                                 leg of B38     extended along the side of the body. His
                                  under left    upper body is twisted to the left, and the
                                   arm and      legs	are	extended	and	slightly	flexed	at	the	
                                   skull of     knees in order to accommodate his body
                                     B39.       into the available space. Peri-mortem
                                Upper level     trauma observable on: right proximal
                                   of body      humerus (right elbow is completely
                                    mass.       disarticulated from the right lower arm);
                                                left elbow and left wrist, left and right
                                                thorax; right scapula. The vertebral
                                                column is not in correct anatomical
                                                articulation or alignment. British general
                                                service button (SF 258) may be associated
                                                with either B39 or B40. Mother of pearl
                                                buttons from possible underwear garment
                                                found




                                                     70
Pit   Body (B)     Position    Associated              General Observations             Associated
      Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                Artefacts
        (BP)
 3      B39         cont         cont        in abdominal (SF201,222) and button                cont
       (cont)                                with thread in chest region (SF223).
                                             Remnants of sock on foot and lower leg
                                             of B39 (SF229). Possible groundsheet
                                             groundsheet near left humerus (SF224).
                                             Textile materials (SF221) found around
                                             skull and upper body, it is possible that
                                             his tunic had been pulled up around face.
 3      B40       Extended,   Lying under    This individual lies extended and half- SF198-200, 220
                   supine        B39.        exposed in the grave – the majority of
                              Upper level    the left side of the body lies within the
                               of body       unexcavated	east	section	of 	the	grave	fill.	    	
                                 mass.       The right humerus is abducted from the
                                             body, bent at the elbow, and the hand lies
                                             under the right femur of B39. The right
                                             leg is slightly bent at the knee, mid-shaft
                                             tibia,	 fibula	 and	 foot	 also	 lie	 within	 the	
                                             unexcavated	east	section	of 	the	grave	fill.	    	
                                             Skeleton exhibits extensive cranial trauma
                                             (the upper portion of the frontal bone
                                             was accidentally removed by machine).
                                             However, the facial skeleton has suffered
                                             extensive disruption and both mandibular
                                             condyles have sustained damage, both
                                             of which appear to be peri-mortem in
                                             nature. Fractures are also present to
                                             the right thorax and the sternum, and
                                             there is disruption and displacement
                                             to the vertebral column from approx
                                             the 7th thoracic to the second lumbar
                                             vertebrae. Finds include a bone tooth-
                                             brush	 (SF198);	 	 a	 leather	 ?money-belt	
                                             around the waist (does not appear to be
                                             army issue) (SF199); a shell button found
                                             around abdominal area (SF220); and a gas
                                             mask/rubberised bag is nestled under the
                                             right armpit (SF200). Individual missing
                                             a number of teeth ante-mortem. General
                                             service button (SF 258) may have come
                                             from either B39 or B40.
 3     BP48        Appears     Potentially   This body part consists of a left pelvis           None
                  extended,   lying under    and left lower leg, ankle and foot. The
                    prone      lower legs    rest of the body lies in the unexcavated
                              and feet of    west	section	of 	the	grave	fill.
                                  B37.
                              Upper level
                                of body
                                 mass.




                                               71
      Body (B)     Position      Associated                General Observations                    Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body       Skeletons                                                         Artefacts
        (BP)
 3     BP56       Unknown,      Lies above    This body part consists of a left distal              None
                   possibly      BP57 and     tibia,	 fibula	 and	 foot.	 	 The	 rest	 of 	 the	
                   lying on     below B39.    body remains unexposed.
                  left	side?    Lower level
                                  of body
                                   mass.
 3     BP57        Flexed,      Lies below    This body part consists of a left mid-shaft       None
                   supine        B56 and      to distal humerus and proximal third of
                                    B39.      a	 left	 radius	 and	 ulna,	 arm	 is	 flexed	 at	
                                Lower level   the elbow joint. The shoulder and wrist
                                  of body     joints of this individual remain in the
                                   mass       unexcavated	east	section	of 	the	grave	fill.
 4      B31       Unknown,       Lies over    This partially exposed body consists SF217, 233, 234
                   prone            B32.      of a skull and arms of an individual
                                Upper level   whose body continues to run into the
                                  of body     unexcavated east section of the grave
                                   mass       fill.		The	body	is	aligned	NW-SE	and	lies	
                                              immediately to the east of B32. The skull
                                              is fractured and severely disrupted in the
                                              left parietal/temporal region. The right
                                              and left arms lay crossed over one another
                                              and also lie over the extended right arm
                                              of B32. SF234 is a leather wrist-band
                                              which is tied and knotted around the left
                                              wrist; there is also a mass of material of
                                              uncertain	classification	-	possibly	a	tunic	
                                              as a buckle and leather buttons (SF233)
                                              appear to be associated. A concentration
                                              of this material at the lower arm level
                                              may suggest that the garment was pulled
                                              up over the head. A cuff of a knitted
                                              woollen garment also remains on the left
                                              wrist. A matchbox (SF217) was found
                                              in the same area as the concentration of
                                              material and buckle (ie around lower arm
                                              and wrist area) and therefore there may
                                              be a possible association with a clothing
                                              pocket(?),	 particularly	 if 	 the	 tunic	 was	
                                              indeed pulled over the individual’s head.
 4      B32       Extended,      Beneath      Individual lies extended and prone in an          SF232
                     prone,     B31 & B33,    north-south direction, with right pelvis,
                      lying     same level    leg and foot running into the unexcavated
                  slightly on     as B35,     east	section	of 	the	grave	fill.		Right	arm	is	
                   right side   Upper level   extended	upwards	above	the	head,	flexed	
                                 of body      at the elbow, with right hand up against
                                   mass       foot and boot of B36. Left and right arm
                                              of B31 overlie the right arm of B32. Left
                                              arm is extended




                                                   72
      Body (B)     Position    Associated                  General Observations                  Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                         Artefacts
        (BP)
 4      B32         cont          cont      tightly along the left torso, left leg is               cont
       (cont)                               extended	 with	 the	 distal	 left	 tibia,	 fibula	
                                            and foot underlying the right torso of
                                            B33.
                                            Possible cords of a head-band for gas
                                            mask goggles (SF232) run across the
                                            upper back of this individual (ie from the
                                            left to the right scapulae). Upper garment
                                            still present on the torso. Possible post-
                                            mortem trauma on the skull from the
                                            removal	of 	the	overlying	clay	grave	fill.
 4      B33       Extended,      B33 lies   Only the skull and the upper body are                  None
                   prone        over B49,   exposed, the rest of the body is not visible
                               B35 & B32. as it extends under the east baulk. This
                               Upper level individual is aligned east-west and lies up
                                 of body    against the south section of the pit. The
                                  mass      right humerus is abducted at 90º from the
                                            torso,	flexed	at	the	elbow,	with	the	right	
                                            hand running partially under the east
                                            baulk. The left arm is also abducted at
                                            90º, runs vertically up the southern edge
                                            of the pit. Proximal third of humerus
                                            is fractured; radius and ulna are in
                                            articulation and run vertically back down
                                            the south edge of pit by the left side of
                                            the skull. The left hand presumably lies
                                            under the face. This body lies over the
                                            lower legs and feet of B32 and B49.
                                            Upper garment still present over the
                                            torso, although it is very fragmented and
                                            not well-preserved. Removal of clay
                                            around skull resulted in removal of the
                                            thin outer cortex of the skull which still
                                            had hair attached.
 4      B34       Extended,        Lies     Only the legs (mid-shaft femora) and feet            SF194, 231
                   supine     immediately of this individual are exposed, the rest
                               beneath the of the body runs under the west baulk.
                              legs and feet The body is aligned east-west and lies up
                                of B35 &    against the north section of the pit. The
                                   B36      right foot still wears knitted woollen sock,
                               Upper level there is a leather boot (SF194) on the left
                                 of body    foot, and the collar of a gas cape (SF231)
                                  mass      lies between the knees of B34 and under
                                            the lwr. right leg of B36. No obvious
                                            trauma.




                                                  73
      Body (B)     Position    Associated               General Observations                     Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                         Artefacts
        (BP)
 4      B35       Extended,    Overlies     This individual is aligned north-south and         SF235, 238,
                   supine     B36, B34,     parallel to B36 and B32. The head and                ?239,
                               B32 and      right arm remain unexcavated as they lie              258
                              under B33.    beneath	 B33,	 the	 left	 arm	 is	 flexed,	 the	
                              Upper level   hand lies over the left pelvis. The left leg
                               of body      is	flexed,	the	knee	is	raised	on	the	femur	
                                mass        of B36, then slopes down and under the
                                            left leg of B35. The right leg is extended,
                                            the foot lies right up against the north
                                            edge of the pit. Gas mask (SF235)
                                            components located on distal end of left
                                            femur. Partial remains of tightly woven
                                            material on left leg. Loosely woven
                                            material	 (?sand	 bag/?lime	 bag)	 present	
                                            and is wrapped around both the front and
                                            back of the pelvis and is poorly preserved.
                                            Partial remains of more tightly woven
                                            material on torso and left arm. A piece of
                                            wood was found lying over the right arm
                                            (SF238). Two buttons and a buckle were
                                            also found between B35 and B36 (SF239)
                                            together with a metal button (SF241).
                                            No visible trauma, although mid-thoracic
                                            vertebrae are displaced and lie only in
                                            relatively approximate alignment.
 4      B36       Extended,     B36 lies    This individual is aligned north-south and          SF202, 207,
                   prone       over B34,    lies next to the west section, the right arm       236, 237, 239
                                B35 lies    is extended at 90º to the body, left arm
                               over B36.    slightly	 flexed,	 elbow	 runs	 into	 the	 west	
                              Upper layer   section, the left arm remains unexcavated
                                of body     and lies under the left pelvis. The right
                                 mass       and left legs are extended, with the right
                                            foot up against the north section of the
                                            pit, whilst the left lower leg and foot
                                            extend into the west section. The lower
                                            legs of B36 overlie B34, the right femur
                                            of B36 is overlain by left knee of B35, and
                                            the skull of BP54 lies within the crook of
                                            the arm of B36. Trauma to the skull and
                                            neck – the mandibular condyle is sheared
                                            through and exists as a separate element,
                                            the	first	six	cervical	vertebrae	are	severely	
                                            disrupted and exist only as fragments. A
                                            leather cord (SF237) is aligned east-west
                                            in 2 parts under the neck at the junction
                                            of 	 the	 seventh	 cervical/first	 thoracic	
                                            vertebrae and extends as a separate piece
                                            to the east of




                                                 74
      Body (B)     Position    Associated                 General Observations                   Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                         Artefacts
        (BP)
 4      B36         cont         cont        the body. There was a safety pin (SF207)              cont
       (cont)                                found by the left side of the mandible
                                             at the gonial angle – perhaps to secure
                                             a	 bandage?;	 	 an	 Australian	 Rising	 Sun	
                                             Badge (SF202) was found on the right
                                             side of the lower torso, and a brass wire
                                             was found coiled around the left wrist
                                             (SF236).
 4      B49       Extended,    B49 lies      This individual is aligned east-west and             None
                   supine     under B33.     is represented by the pelvis, legs and
                              Upper layer    proximal lwr.legs only, the right and left
                               of body       feet are under the body of B33, the rest
                                mass         of the body lies in the unexcavated west
                                             section	of 	the	grave	fill.		The	left	leg	lies	
                                             right up against the south section of the
                                             pit. Textile fragments found on both
                                             pelves, along the sides of both femora,
                                             and	the	right	tibia	and	fibula.		No	trauma	
                                             visible.
 4      B55       Unknown          No        This	 individual	 was	 identified	 within	           None
                               associated    a small sondage which was excavated
                                skeletons,   between the femora of B36, and
                                   but       consists of right and left distal femurs
                              immediately    which are articulated with right and left
                               below B36.    proximal	 tibiae	 and	 fibulae.	 	 Due	 to	 the	
                              Lower level    position of this body within the grave
                                 of body     fill,	 the	 remaining	 skeletal	 elements	 of 	
                                  mass       this individual were not subsequently
                                             exposed.
 4     BP53       Unknown     Below B36,     This body part consists of the top of a              None
                              Upper level    skull which is visible tucked within the
                               of body       crook of the left arm of B36, foramen
                                 mass        magnum is tilted superiorly and facing
                                             north. Head hair was found to be
                                             associated with this individual.
 4     BP54       Unknown     Unknown        This body part runs north-south in the               SF206
                              Upper level    grave and consists of a left arm and hand.
                               of body       The arm is extended, the shoulder lies
                                mass         beneath the left wrist of B36 and the left
                                             hand lies under the left knee of B36. The
                                             rest of the body remains unexposed in
                                             the unexcavated west section of the grave
                                             fill.	 	 Associated	 with	 a	 concentration	 of 	
                                             material around the lower arms and hands.
                                             It is possible that the Australian rising
                                             sun badge (SF202) came from around the
                                             shoulder level of this individual.




                                                75
      Body (B)     Position    Associated              General Observations               Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                  Artefacts
        (BP)
 5      B08       Extended,    Over B09,    This is one of the last individuals to have SF178, 179, 180
                   prone        B17 and     been	placed	in	this	pit.		The	neck	is	flexed	in	
                              under BP10.   such a position that the foramen magnum
                              Upper level   of the skull can be seen and there is slight
                                of body     disarticulation between the 1st and 2nd
                                 mass       cervical vertebrae, perhaps the head has
                                            slumped forward after placement in the
                                            grave	 and	 before	 backfilling?	 The	 right	
                                            arm is abducted away from the body and
                                            lies over B17, the left is also abducted and
                                            runs vertically up the south section of the
                                            pit. Left arm is fractured above the wrist.
                                            As with B09, damage to these elements
                                            may have been incurred during initial
                                            excavation, as no carpals, metacarpals
                                            or phalanges are present. However, this
                                            remains to be established. An alternative
                                            explanation could be that the left hands
                                            of B09 and B08 may have both been lost
                                            peri-mortem. There is also trauma to the
                                            left torso and pelvis. The left leg lies over
                                            B09’s skull, torso and left pelvis.Artefacts
                                            that are possibly associated with this body
                                            are a bandolier (SF178) which was located
                                            to the left side of the lower torso and
                                            above the pelvis, a mother of pearl button
                                            was associated with the left wrist (SF179),
                                            and leather straps for braces were found
                                            by the lower right ribs (SF180).
 5      B09       Extended,   Lying under   This individual lies extended and prone          SF75,181,
                   prone         B08.       along the south section of the grave
                              Upper level   and immediately beneath the left pelvis
                               of body      of B08. The right arm is raised above
                                 mass       the head, the humerus is under the right
                                            pelvis of B08, and the hand is presumed
                                            to be under the mid-torso of B08. The
                                            skull is under the left pelvis of B08
                                            and	 beneath	 a	 leather	 fitting	 possibly	
                                            associated with the bandolier adjacent
                                            and west of the skull (SF178). The left
                                            arm lies in near identical position to B08,
                                            ie running vertically up the south section
                                            of the pit – could possibly indicate the
                                            same	depositional	method?	The	left	arm	
                                            is fractured at the distal radius & ulna.
                                            As with B08, damage to these elements
                                            may have been incurred during initial
                                            excavation, as no carpals, metacarpals
                                            or phalanges are present. However, this
                                            remains to be established.

                                                76
      Body (B)     Position     Associated               General Observations                  Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body      Skeletons                                                      Artefacts
        (BP)
 5      B09         cont          cont       An alternative explanation could be that            cont
       (cont)                                the left hands of B09 and B08 may have
                                             both been lost peri-mortem. The pelvis
                                             and proximal right femur are observable,
                                             the rest of the body runs into the
                                             unexcavated east section of the grave
                                             fill.		Leather	straps	for	braces	were	found	
                                             by the lower right ribs (SF181) and also
                                             remnants of decayed textile (SF75).
 5     BP10       Extended,    Over BP13     This body part consists of a left lower leg        SF104
                   lying on    Upper level   and foot. BP13 is aligned exactly as BP10
                  right side    of body      and represents the right lower leg and
                                 mass        foot of BP10. The left foot of BP10 lies
                                             immediately above the left arm of BP08.
                                             Trauma	to	proximal	tibia	and	distal	fibula.	  	
                                             Cotton thread runs parallel to the tibia
                                             and	 fibula,	 possible	 ?puttee	 fragment?	
                                             Textile	 ?strap	 fragment	 (SF104)	 possibly	
                                             associated with the ribs of BP10.
 5     BP13       Extended,       Under      This body part consists of a right lower           None
                   lying on    BP10’s left   leg and foot which remains unexcavated
                  right side    lower leg.   as the rest of the body runs into the west
                               Upper level   section of the grave. BP10 represents
                                 of body     the left lower leg of this individual. No
                                  mass       visible trauma.
 5      B17       Extended,      Possibly    This body lies beneath B08, aligned                None
                   supine      associated    north-south (and 90º to B08 & B09),
                               with	?B24,	   arms are both abducted away from the
                                over B19.    torso at a 90º angle. The left radius was
                               Upper level   removed from its original articulated
                                 of body     position within the left lower arm when
                                  mass       it was disturbed during the digging of
                                             the sondage into this pit (it was also the
                                             first	 bone	 to	 be	 discovered	 at	 Fromelles	
                                             during the 2008 season). There are no
                                             legs visible, although the position of BP24
                                             suggests that they may possibly belong to
                                             this individual.
 5     BP19       Extended,    Lies under    The body is prone and aligned north-               SF136
                   prone       B23 & B17.    south at the eastern side of the pit.
                               Lower level   Dental prosthesis present in the maxilla.
                                of body      The skull is articulated with the vertebral
                                  mass       column to approximately the 7/8th
                                             thoracic vertebrae, both scapulae and
                                             the proximal half of the left humerus is
                                             visible . The body is in alignment with
                                             and partially overlain by B23, which lies




                                                77
      Body (B)     Position    Associated               General Observations                  Associated
Pit   Body Part    of Body     Skeletons                                                      Artefacts
        (BP)
 5      B19         cont         cont       over B19’s right humerus. B19 lies in the
       (cont)                               base of the pit and is part of the primary
                                            depositional event. SF136 is a zinc eyelet
                                            found near the cranium.
 5     BP23       Extended,    Lies over    This body is prone and aligned north-             SF177, 182
                   Prone        BP19.       south at the eastern side of the pit. The
                              Lower level   right arm runs under the unexcavated east
                               of body      section	of 	the	grave	fill.		The	skull	and	the	
                                 mass       left thorax are both severely disrupted.
                                            The vertebrae are not in complete
                                            alignment or full articulation, which may
                                            mean that this individual had sustained
                                            peri-mortem trauma to this region, and/
                                            or	 that	 the	 body	 was	 also	 sufficiently	
                                            decomposed at the time of burial for
                                            these skeletal elements to be found out
                                            of alignment. The body from the pelvis
                                            downwards to the feet remains – due to
                                            its position – unexposed. Trouser brace
                                            straps remain on left ribs (SF182). SF177
                                            is a groundsheet that lies to the north of
                                            B19 & B23 and its position suggested to
                                            the excavator that this groundsheet was
                                            used to deposit these two individuals
                                            together into the grave pit.
 5      B24       Unknown      Beneath      This body part consists of a right distal           SF121
                                 B08.       femur and patella which lies beneath the
                              Upper level   left arm of B08. The distal end of the
                               of body      right femur and patella facing south-
                                mass        west, potentially in the right position
                                            to be associated with B17. Gas mask
                                            components were found with this body
                                            (SF121).
 5     BP25       Unknown     Over BP28     This body part consists of a right distal           None
                               and under    end	of 	the	tibia,	fibula	and	right	foot	and	
                                  B17       is visible up against the north section of
                              Lower level   the pit. BP25 lies immediately over a left
                                of body     foot of BP28. May possibly be associated
                                 mass       with BP28.
 5     BP26        Flexed,      Beneath     This body part consists of a left humerus,
                  unknown     B08 & B17.    radius, ulna and hand. The ulna and                 None
                              Upper level   radius are fractured mid-shaft and both
                                of body     skeletal	elements	are	twisted	and	flipped	
                                 mass       at the humeral articulation. Hand lies
                                            palm-down. Lies beneath B08 and the
                                            right pelvis of B17.




                                                 78
          Body (B)      Position       Associated                 General Observations                    Associated
 Pit      Body Part     of Body        Skeletons                                                          Artefacts
            (BP)
  5        BP27        Unknown        Upper level     This body part consists of part of a
                                       of body        cranium with an observable sagittal suture            SF137
                                        mass          and fragmentary right and left partietal
                                                      bones which is overlain to the north by a
                                                      ?gas	mask	(SF137).		
  5        BP28        Unknown          Under         This body part consists of a left foot
                                        BP25.         (metatarsals are the only skeletal elements           None
                                      Lower level     exposed) which lies immediately below
                                       of body        the right distal lower leg and foot of
                                        mass          BP25, and so may possibly be associated
                                                      with BP25.
  6        BP62        Unknown         Unknown        This body part number represents a
                                                      number of commingled right and left              Black woollen
                                                      foot bones which were found within the            socks – no
                                                      fragments of two black woollen socks.             small	finds	
                                                      These foot bones were also loosely                  number
                                                      associated with two mid-shaft fragments            allocated.
                                                      of 	two	tibiae	and	fibulae.		The	morphology	
                                                      of 	the	tibiae	and	fibulae	suggest	that	they	
                                                      are from two individuals. However, this
                                                      remains	to	be	confirmed.


12.2 Glossary of Anatomical Terminology
Anthropological	reports	use	standardised	anatomical	terminology	to	record	findings	and	undertake	analyses	
of human remains accurately in order to ensure that the side, location, and other features of each skeletal
element are consistently noted. Standardised anatomical terminology incorporates a series of internationally
accepted conventions which are based upon the premise that the body is in “standard anatomical position”.	              	
Standard	anatomical	position	may	be	defined	as “one in which the human body stands erect with the feet together and the
face, eyes and palms of the hands directed forward” (Gosling et al, 1996:1.2).
A brief summary of terms used within the text may be found below (Gosling et al, 1996; Oxford Concise
Medical Dictionary, 1996).

Directional Terms of the Body
Abduction                       To move a limb or any other part away from the midline of the body
Anterior                        Toward the front of the body
Distal                          Lower end of the bone
Dorsal                          Top/upper surface of the foot, (also a term for the back of the hand)
Inferior                        Body parts away from the head
Lateral                         Away from the midline of the body
Medial                          Towards the midline of the body
Palmar                          Palm of the hand
Plantar                         Underside of the foot
Posterior                       Toward the rear of the body
Proximal                        Upper end of the bone
Superior                        Body parts toward the head

                                                         79
Burial Positions of the Body
Extended                       A	burial	position	where	the	body	is	laid	out	flat
Flexed                         A burial position where the body is laid on its side, (often in a foetal position)
                               with legs and arms bent to a greater or lesser degree towards the ribs
Prone                          A burial position where the body is laid out on its front
Supine                         A burial position where the body is laid out on its back

General Terms
Ante-mortem                    Alteration to the body that occurs before the death of an individual.
Articulation                   Area where adjacent bones contact with one another at a joint. In life, the
                               articulation	contains	cartilage	or	other	fibrous	tissues.
Carpals                        The eight bones of the wrist, which articulate with the metacarpals distally and the
                               ulna and radius proximally.
Cervical vertebrae             The seven bones making up the neck region of the vertebral column.
Clavicle                       The collar bone.
Condyle                        A rounded protuberance that occurs at the ends of some bones.
Coccyx                         Lower most element of the vertebral column consisting of four rudimentary
                               vertebrae fused to form a triangular bone that articulates with the sacrum.
Cranium                        Part of the skeleton that encloses the brain.
Epiphysis (pl es)              A secondary bone-forming centre attached to a bone and separated from it by
                               cartilage, commonly located at the ends of long bones, on the margins of certain
                               flat	 bones,	 and	 at	 some	 major	 tubercles	 and	 processes.	 	 After	 a	 certain	 period	
                               of development, which differs for each epiphysis, it fuses to the main bone and
                               no further growth occurs at that point. The timing of the fusion of the various
                               epiphyses is one of the methods which is used in the age determination of
                               unidentified	individuals	(Buikstra	&	Ubelaker,	1994).
Dental prosthetic              Dental	 implant	 that	 is	 used	 to	 anchor	 artificial	 teeth	 to	 the	 mandible	 or	 the	
                               maxilla.
Femur                          The thigh bone. The head of the femur articulates with the hip bone, the lower
                               end of the shaft articulates with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.
Fibula                         The long, thin outer bone of the lower leg, articulates with the tibia just below
                               the knee, and the distal end projects inferiorly to form the lateral part of the ankle
                               joint.
Foramen magnum                 Large hole in the occipital bone of the skull through which the spinal cord
                               passes.
Gonial angle                   The point of the angle of the mandible.
Humerus                        The bone of the upper arm, articulates with the scapula at the shoulder joint, and
                               the radius and ulna at the distal end of the shaft.
Lumbar vertebrae               The	 five	 bones	 of 	 the	 vertebral	 column	 that	 are	 situated	 between	 the	 thoracic	
                               vertebrae and the sacrum, in the lower part of the back.
Mandible                       The lower jaw.
Maxilla                        The upper jaw.
Metacarpal (pl s)              One	of 	the	five	bones	of 	the	hand	that	connect	the	wrist	to	the	fingers.
Metatarsal (pl s)              One	of 	the	five	bones	of 	the	foot	that	connect	the	ankle	to	the	toes.


                                                            80
Morphology                    This term refers to the prominent or principal aspects and outward appearance of
                              an anatomical or skeletal element, its overall shape, structure, colour, pattern etc.
Orbit                         The cavity in the skull that contains the eye.
Orbital margin                The bony border that surrounds the orbit.
Patella                       The lens-shaped bone that forms the kneecap.
Parietal                      Either of a pair of bones forming the top and sides of the cranium.
Pelvis (pl es)                The bony structure formed by the left and right hip bones, the sacrum and
                              coccyx.
Peri-mortem                   Alteration/s to the body that occurs on or around the time of death.
Process                       A localised projection, a bony prominence, (eg the frontal process of the
                              maxilla).
Phalanx (pl ges)              The	bones	of 	the	fingers	and	the	toes.
Post-mortem                   Alteration/s to the body that occurs after the time of death.
Pubis                         Anterior-inferior part of the bony pelvis that approaches the opposite part of the
                              bony pelvis at the midline.
Radius                        The outer and shorter bone of the forearm, head of the radius articulates with the
                              ulna, the distal end articulates with the bones of the wrist and the ulna.
Sacrum                        Curved	 triangular	 element	 of 	 the	 vertebral	 column	 consisting	 of 	 five	 fused	
                              vertebrae, articulates with the last lumbar vertebrae above, the coccyx below, and
                              the hip bones laterally.
Scapula (pl ae)               The shoulder blade.
Sphenoid                      A bone forming the base of the cranium behind the eyes.
Sternum                       The breast bone.
Talus                         The ankle bone.
Tarsals                       The seven bones of the ankle and proximal part of the foot, they articulate directly
                              with	the	metatarsals	distally	and	the	tibia	and	fibula	proximally.
Thoracic vertebrae            The twelve bones of the vertebral column to which the ribs are attached.
Tibia                         The shin bone: the inner and larger bone of the lower leg, articulates with the
                              femur	above,	with	the	talus	below,	and	with	the	fibula	to	the	side.
Thorax                        The chest - part of the body cavity between the neck and the diaphragm. The
                              skeleton of the thorax is formed by the sternum, costal cartilage, ribs, and thoracic
                              vertebrae of the vertebral column.
Trochanter                    A large, rounded elevation. Sole examples are located on the proximal part of
                              the femur as two large prominent rugged processes, termed the greater and lesser
                              trochanters.
Ulna                          The inner and longer bone of the forearm, articulates with the humerus and the
                              radius above and with the radius and indirectly with the wrist bones below.

12.3 Soil Analysis                                                                               by Jo McKenzie
12.3.1 Aims and Objectives
An extensive programme of soil sampling and analysis was undertaken as part of the Pheasant Wood evaluation,
with the aim of investigating the physical and chemical conditions prevailing both within individual burial pits
and	at	the	site	as	a	whole.		Several	key	objectives	provided	a	framework	for	this	exploration,	influencing	both	
the selection of analytical methods used and the design of the sampling strategy. These were as follows:
- To assess the overall environmental condition of the site. Environmental features noted during the site investigation
as having a potential bearing upon the condition of human remains included the site’s topographic position

                                                        81
(at	the	base	of 	a	gentle	slope),	soil	texture	(almost	entirely	heavy,	fine-grained	clay)	and	land	cover	variation	
(within an arable plot, but adjacent to a small woodland). Soil analysis aimed to assess the effect of all these
features upon the taphonomy of the burial pits.
- To investigate potential differentials in soil conditions between burial pits. Differences in key soil properties (such as
drainage) were noted during excavation to exist between burial pits. A soil sampling strategy was designed
with the aim of investigating these differences, both between burial pits and against ‘burial-free’ Pit 8.
- To assist with speculation upon the potential condition of human remains further down the stratigraphic sequence in each
pit, and thus the potential for future excavation/recovery of remains. With an excavation strategy of burial
non-disturbance, spot sample recovery from (especially) lower stratigraphic levels provided an opportunity to
extend the reach of the excavation overall.
- To add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site. As an integrated geo-archaeological study,
the soil analysis programme aimed to enhance overall archaeological understanding and interpretation of the
site.

12.3.2 Methodology
Sampling strategy. A total of sixty-seven spot samples for soil and deposit analysis were obtained by the author
during the evaluation of the burial pit site at Pheasant Wood, Fromelles. Samples were obtained from each pit
containing burials (Pits 1,2,3,4 and 5) and from one ‘burial-free’ pit (Pit 8). Excavated at the same time as the
other pits, Pit 8 was not used as a grave pit but left open and empty for approximately two years (Section 7.2)
Pit 8 was thus sampled as a ‘control’ for baseline soil condition in the absence of burials.
A similar sampling strategy was maintained through each pit, with a sequence of spot samples taken in a
vertical	(where	possible,	depending	on	the	position	of 	excavation	‘steps’)	section	through	the	various	backfills	
into each pit. These provided samples FR081/01-FR081/06 (Pit 1), FR082/01-FR082/06 (Pit 2), FR083/01-
FR083/06 (Pit 3), FR084/01-FR084/06 (Pit 4) and FR085/01-FR085/09 (Pit 5), with a complete sequence
through	the	primary	fill	and	into	natural	material	taken	from	Pit	8	(FR088/01-FR088/12).		In	the	burial	pits,	
once the burial layer was reached, a more individualistic sampling regime was undertaken, with four to six
additional samples taken at various points adjacent to skeletal material, surviving textiles, metal objects and
other areas of interest. In the less well preserved deposits of Pit 2, these further samples were used to extend
the sequence below the upper burial level. Samples were bagged and their position three-dimensionally
recorded.
Analytical techniques. Three techniques were used within this study: pH, organic matter content (SOM),
and total phosphate (total P). These were chosen as the most suitable means of providing the most
comprehensive and appropriate physical and especially chemical characterisation of the Pheasant Wood
sediments in the limited timeframe available. All techniques are well established in geoarchaeological study,
providing a solid basis for archaeological interpretation.
Analytical strategy. Due to time constraints, not all samples could be analysed for total phosphate (a time-
consuming procedure). It was therefore decided that two pits at either end of the ‘environmental spectrum’
- ie the driest, most free draining (Pit 2) and the wettest, most waterlogged (Pit 4) would be analysed in full
for	total	P,	with	Pits	1,3,	and	5	analysed	for	a	reduced	selection	of 	their	backfill	deposits	(but	all	burial-level	
samples).		A	reduced	series	of 	five	‘control’	Pit	8	samples	were	also	analysed.		This	strategy	allowed	a	complete	
picture of phosphate levels through two key pits as well as a more general view of the complete sample series,
with (crucially) every burial-related sample undergoing P-analysis. For the less time-consuming pH and SOM
analyses, every sample was processed.
Analytical methods. Prior to analysis, soils were air-dried for approximately three weeks and then sieved to 2 m
m.
The determination of soil pH was carried out following the standard method of Bascomb (1974). 10g of the
<2 m m fraction of each sample was weighed into a glass beaker, to which 25 m l distilled water was added.
This was stirred and left to stand for 30 minutes, after which determination of the pH of the solution was
made using a glass electrode pH meter calibrated to pH 4, 7 and 10 one hour prior to the commencement of
measurement. 2 ml of 0.01 m calcium chloride was then added by pipette to each soil solution and the pH
measured again using the same method as described above. The addition of calcium chloride simulates the
salts normally present in soil, thus making the solution more buffered against variability between samples,
and it is this second measurement that is quoted in the text. Soils were measured twice to ensure that a stable
measurement had been reached.

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The determination of soil organic matter was carried out using the Loss on Ignition method. Here, the
air-dried, <2 m m fraction was further oven-dried at 105oC to ensure complete dryness. Approximately 10g
of 	each	sample	was	then	accurately	weighed	out	into	a	crucible	and	placed	into	a	muffle	furnace	and	left	
overnight (16hrs) at 375oC (Ball, 1964). After being left to cool in a dessicator, the samples were then re-
weighed to determine the percentage loss of mass resulting from the ignition of the organic fraction. The
long-cool burn scheme was chosen out of caution and the possibility of shell, carbonates and clay fractions
being affected were a higher temperature used.
Total phosphate was determined through the sodium hydroxide fusion method, following the procedure
given in Smith and Bain (1982). Colorimetric determination of a 5 m l aliquot of the treated sample was then
undertaken using an ammonium molybdate/ascorbic acid reagent, with an allowance of 2 hours for colour
development. Standard solutions were made ranging from 0-10 mg P. The absorbance of the standards and
samples was measured in a 40 mm cell at 880 mm. The standards were used to plot a graph of absorbance
against relative concentration (mg P), from which the total phosphorus (mg/100g) was calculated for each
sample and then converted to total phosphate (P2O5/P2 = 9141.96/61.96 = x 2.29).

12.3.3 Results (see appendix 12.10 for tabulated results of analyses)
Soil morphology.		Field	and	laboratory	examination	of 	the	morphology	of 	soils	from	both	backfill	sequences	
and	burial	contexts	showed	soil	texture	to	be	universally	clay	to	silty	clay.		Flanders	clay	is	notably	fine-grained,	
giving it a very low water permeability (Nathanail 2001), and this property was very much in evidence both
during poor weather conditions at excavation, and in the laboratory. The waterlogged sample set took an
unusually	long	time	to	dry	(over	three	weeks),	and	clay	adhesion	was	significant,	with	dried	samples	extremely	
hard	and	difficult	to	break	up	and	sieve.		The	reddish-brown	to	grey	‘mottled’	appearance	of 	the	majority	of 	
the	backfill	deposits	testified	to	these	waterlogged,	poorly-draining	conditions,	with	mottled	areas	indicating	
hydromorphism – the uneven redistribution of iron through the deposit as a result of leaching through
surface	water	stagnation	(towards	the	top	of 	the	profile)	or	leaching	and	precipitation	through	water	table	
fluctuation	(lower	down	in	the	backfill	sequence	as	well	as	at	the	level	of 	burial)	(Goldberg	and	Macphail	
2006:		67).		At	these	lower	levels,	the	clay	is	chiefly	a	pale	grey	‘gleyed’	colour,	indicating	iron	reduction	under	
anaerobic,	permanently	waterlogged	conditions.		Standing	water	was	present	in	four	out	of 	the	five	burial	pits	
during excavation.

12.3.4 Discussion
Overview: pH. pH in calcium chloride ranges from a maximum of 7.7 (seen at the top of the Pit 2 sequence)
to a minimum of 4.1 (seen in both Pits 1 and 5). However, very few readings at this lower end of the
range are seen, with only 12 out of the 67 samples having a pH below 7, and only 4 below pH 6. The soils
and archaeological deposits sampled at Fromelles can therefore generally be described as neutral to slightly
alkaline,	and	finer	variations	within	this	range	in	each	profile	is	discussed	further	below.		Mild	alkalinity	within	
a relatively narrow range is to be expected for these soils, with pH having a tendency towards stability which
is particularly strong in clay, due to a chemical resistance to pH change known as the buffering capacity, in
which soils of intermediate pH status minimise the impact of changes in soil chemistry through the actions
of reserve ions located on, especially, clay minerals and organic matter (Brady and Weil 1999: 351). It thus
follows	that	for	human	activity	to	be	reflected	in	pH	values,	activity	must	be	of 	sufficient	intensity	to	overcome	
this natural buffer. This makes the smattering of notably lower, more acidic pH values seen throughout the
sequence of especial potential interest. These are concentrated in Pits 4 and 5, generally within the lower,
waterlogged levels of the pit, with the exception of FR084/04 (pH 4.6) which is located mid-way through the
backfill	sequence	in	Context	[4003],	and	are	discussed	further	below.
Overview: Soil organic matter. SOM levels are generally low throughout the sample sequence, with all except three
samples falling within the range 5.93 – 0.94% SOM. There is no clear pattern of SOM increase into the burial
levels	of 	the	pits,	a	possible	reflection	of 	the	highly	localised	conditions	of 	preservation	and	translocation	
of 	burial-related	materials	identified	in	the	pit-by-pit	discussion	below.		The	lowest	overall	levels	of 	organic	
matter are seen in Pit 2 – the driest, most well-drained pit, but also that closest to the woodland boundary,
and therefore in an area where we might expect a greater input of organic materials. These results indicate
that even if a greater organic input is present, the more well-drained soil conditions at this pit promote a level
of nutrient cycling more than capable of removing this, and presumably of cycling other soil chemical and
physical indictors too. Outstanding among the organic matter results are three huge readings- at 54%, 28.5%
and 14% SOM. All are taken from adjacent to textiles surviving within the burial environment and evidently
contain more textile than soil.


                                                          83
Overview: total phosphate. Total P values are generally fairly high to medium throughout, ranging from 624 –
151 mgP/100g soil. As with soil organic matter, no clear pattern of phosphate increase/decrease emerges
from	the	pit	backfill	sequences,	with	fluctuations	through	each	profile,	and	a	wide	range	of 	values	obtained	
even	from	what	might	be	expected	to	be	‘phosphate-rich’	burial	levels.		The	potential	for	this	to	reflect	very	
localised conditions of preservation is discussed below; however, it may also be connected to the particular
pH range of the sample set. Whereas in both acid (pH 1-5) and alkaline (pH 7-14) soils phosphorus leaches
relatively slowly, in slightly acid conditions (pH 6-7) phosphates are leached quite quickly (Heizer and Cook
1965, 13). With the pH of many of the samples only a little out of this ‘danger area’, it is possible that
differential leaching may be a factor in these very varied results; however, it is also the case that phosphorus
retention depends upon soil temperature, moisture availability, and the concentration of such minerals as
iron, aluminium and calcium, and there is no clear correlation between slightly acid/just alkaline pH and lower
phosphate values. Unsurprisingly, the notably higher phosphate values (all over 250 m gp/100g soil) are seen
adjacent to burial materials. Oddly, the pit which stands out as being the most consistently (relatively) high in
phosphate is control Pit 8 (discussed below).

12.3.5 Pit-by-pit Discussion and Interpretation
Pit 8 – Control. Pit 8, located at the eastern end of the site, was one of three pits on the site not used for burial,
and	has	therefore	been	used	in	this	analysis	as	a	control	against	the	other	five	sampled	pits	(7.4.2).		A	fairly	
complex	series	of 	backfills	are	seen,	partially	the	result	of 	erosion	and	slumping	over	the	two	years	that	the	pit	
remained	open	(7.2.3).		A	vertical	series	of 	eleven	spot	samples	through	four	fills	and	into	the	natural	subsoil	
at	 the	 base	 of 	 the	 excavated	 area	 (FR088/01-FR088/11)	 was	 therefore	 unable	 to	 take	 in	 every	 identified,	
although	a	single	sample	was	taken	to	the	north	of 	the	vertical	sequence,	through	notably	gritty	primary	fill	
[8014]	(FR088/12)	(Figure	17).		
pH	in	Pit	8	decreases	steadily	down-profile	from	an	alkaline	response,	before	rising	sharply	into	primary	fills	
[8011]	and	[8014]	and	natural	subsoil	[8016].		However,	this	variation	may	be	better	interpreted	rather	as	a	
dip	in	pH	at	context	[8022],	which	is	identified	as	an	animal	burrow.		Total	P	and	SOM	values	for	this	context	
do not show a corresponding variation, and it is possible that this lower pH may be derived from slightly
looser,	more	free-draining	material	in	the	burrow	infill.		SOM	is	generally	low,	mostly	in	the	region	of 	2-3	%,	
indicating a generally low organic matter content for these dense clays. This is predictable, with the dense clay
seen throughout Pit 8 showing little in the way of roots, vegetable material etc. The highest SOM value is
seen	at	the	base	of 	the	excavated	profile	in	subsoil	context	[8016].		This	can	almost	certainly	be	attributed	to	
the growth or ingress of organic material – leaf litter, some vegetation cover – during the period in which the
pit	was	left	open.		Down-profile	leaching	of 	this	SOM	through	lower	clay	layers	has	evidently	not	taken	place,	
with what is likely to have been a small differential still ‘visible’ in the soil. This may provide an explanation for
the	relatively	high	total	P	values	seen	throughout	the	profile	–	these	too	are	probably	attributable	to	vegetation	
input, perhaps partly as the result of material ingress during the time the pit was left open, or the growth of
vegetation	on	and	in	the	backfill	material	during	the	long	delay	between	excavation	and	infilling.		As	a	‘control’	
sequence, then, what Pit 8 shows most of all is the potential variability of soil chemical and physical properties
at the Pheasant Wood site, even without the complications of the burial environment.
Pit 1.		Twelve	samples	were	taken	from	this	first	burial	pit.		Six	of 	these	(FR081/01-FR081/06)	were	taken	
in	a	vertical	sequence	through	infill	deposits	[2002],	[2006],	and	[2013].		Here,	all	three	soil	properties	–	pH,	
SOM	and	total	P	–	vary	down-profile,	P	quite	significantly.		Higher	P	near	the	top	of 	the	profile	could	relate	to	
land cover and P derived from surface vegetation, though the % SOM at FR081/01 is not that great. Moving
into the level of the burials, a further six samples (FR081/07-FR081/12) were taken. These throw up some
interesting	suggestions.		A	significant	contrast	in	P-values	is	seen	between	samples	07	and	08,	taken	within	(08)	
and	outside	of 	(07)	the	German	groundsheet	identified	as	probably	having	held	or	wrapped	individuals	B12	
and	B22.		Total	P	values	inside	the	groundsheet	are	almost	double	that	outside,	indicating	significant	retention	
of a chemical signature, possibly by virtue of the fabric barrier. Evidence for such retention and/or lack of
movement is also seen elsewhere in the burial contexts, with a notably high total P value (286.84 m g/100g
soil) from FR081/12, taken to the immediate west of the surviving fabrics associated with the upper torso of
B12, and a far lower (177.11 mg/100g soil) value obtained from FR081/11 taken only approximately 15cm
further	out	from	the	body	area.		SOM	values	for	the	burial	layer	broadly	reflect	these	concentrations,	with	a	
notably high (for the sequence) SOM for FR081/12. It would appear that within this burial environment, P
–movement	may	be	very	restricted,	and	thus	a	P-signature	(and	thus	to	an	extent	a	SOM	signature)	may	reflect	
extremely local conditions. It is suggested that this is due to the extreme impermeability of the clay and to the
associated waterlogging of the soil.


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Pit 2.	 	 The	 first	 of 	 the	 two	 ‘complete	total	 P	 analysis’	 pits,	 Pit	 2	 was	 selected	for	 this	 as	 it	 represents	the	
driest, most free-draining pit sequence, located adjacent to the woodland edge. With a more degraded series
of 	deposits	than	those	seen	in	Pit	1,	the	entire	Pit	2	sample	sequence	(FR082/01-FR082/10)	relates	to	infill	
material	([2011]	and	[1012])	with	no	significant	spot	samples	of 	burial	material	accessed.		During	excavation,	
one reason for Pit 2’s free-draining status became obvious: the clear network of both large and small roots
extending throughout the pit, breaking up and aerating the clay matrix and facilitating not only drainage, but
biological activity (and therefore physical and chemical decomposition of materials and associated chemical
movement) in the form of microscopic soil and root fauna. Most likely as a result of this altered environment,
the	Pit	2	sequence	is	a	more	typical	expression	of 	an	anthropogenically	infilled	profile,	with	pH	showing	a	
generally	steady	alkaline	signal	with	a	slight	decrease	down	profile	which	reflects	the	free-draining	nature	of 	
the sequence. In the upper levels, however, both total P and SOM are notably lower. This is interesting, as
it would be assumed that the woodland would be responsible for some input of organic material, but this is
obviously	not	a	key	influence	in	itself 	in	terms	of 	organic/phosphatic	additions	to	the	pit.		Towards	and	into	
the burial layers, P increases sharply, but appears more ‘even’ between samples, perhaps indicating more of a
degree of P-cycling (again, as a result of increased drainage) and therefore a more ‘generalised’ signature for
this	profile.		Despite	improved	drainage	through	the	infill	and	upper	burial	layers,	excavation	showed	the	base	
of 	Pit	2	to	retain	standing	water,	and	therefore	that	no	matter	what	the	drainage	regime	of 	the	pit	backfills,	the	
impermeability of the underlying clay substrate proves a deciding factor for the taphonomy of the Pheasant
Wood grave pits.
Pit 3. With a far better preserved set of burial-related material, the sample set for Pit 3 is similar to that seen
at	Pit	1,	with	six	samples	through	ploughsoil	and	infill	sequence	[3002]-[3003]-[3006]	(FR083/01-FR083/06),	
and	a	further	four	spot	samples	at	various	points	adjacent	to	burial	materials	at	the	inhumation	level	[3010]	
(FR083/07-FR083/10). Situated to the east of Pit 2 and adjacent to the woodland, Pit 3 appears as if it could
have	more	of 	a	SOM	signal	derived	from	this,	with	higher	SOM	values	through	the	backfill	sequence	than	
seen elsewhere in the sample set, and certainly than Pit 2 to the immediate west. Pit 3 is also notably more
waterlogged at the burial level than Pit 2 – the result of a broken ceramic drainage pipe (7.1.3). pH values
for	Pit	3	are	steadily	alkaline,	as	in	Pit	2,	again	possibly	decreasing	slightly	towards	the	base	of 	the	profile	
and	the	burial	level.		Most	interesting	are	the	total	P	values,	which	show	significant	variation,	and	appear	to	
support	the	conclusions	reached	for	Pit	1.		Relatively	high	at	the	top	of 	the	profile	(presumably	as	a	result	of 	
vegetation	cover/woodland	influence),	these	drop	further	down	the	infill	sequence	before	rising	significantly	
into the burial level. The highest P-signature of the entire sample set is seen here, at sample FR083/08
(624.11 mgP/100g soil), at a spot just at the edge of the very well-preserved rubberised British groundsheet
containing individual B37 (7.1.3). To the other (western) side of the groundsheet, a second adjacent spot
(FR083/07) only slightly further out from the groundsheet edge shows a far lower P value of only 184.14
mgP/100g soil. Again, a possibly very localised soil chemistry, related to very precise conditions of burial,
is indicated. This interpretation is also supported by sample FR083/10, a spot sample adjacent to surviving
textile at the collar of individual B39. Despite being sampled as part of the surrounding soil context, the
extremely high SOM from this sample indicates that a high degree of organic material, presumably from the
textile, has leached into the clay immediately surrounding it, but appears to have progressed no further.
Pit 4. The most waterlogged pit of the entire sequence, Pit 4 shows a correspondingly high level of organic
preservation at the burial level, and as such was selected as the second ‘complete total P analysis’ pits, with a
sequence	of 	six	infill	samples	(FR084/01-FR084/06)	followed	by	four	spot	samples	taken	from	within	the	
burial matrix (FR084/07-FR084/10). Interestingly, pH shows a sequence of three alkaline responses from
the	upper	samples	followed	by	a	distinctly	acid	result	from	FR084/04,	located	within	infill	context	[4003].		No	
reason	for	this	strong	change	in	pH	can	be	identified,	apart	from	the	location	of 	the	sample	at	a	‘step-point’	
in the pit section, where it is possible that standing water over the course of the excavation may have affected
the pH. However, this is considered unlikely and the response appears genuine, with pH from this point in
the sequence varying strongly between samples, rising to 6 and 7 before once again dropping to 4.6 within the
burial matrix. Although no reason for this can be offered, what this once again illustrates is the potentially
inhibiting effect of the impermeability of the clay matrix on both physical and chemical movement within the
whole pit sequence. Clearly, the acidic conditions prevailing at FR084/06 show a clear chemical separation
from both FR084/03 (pH 7) above, and FR084/05 (pH 6) below.
As	is	the	case	with	the	other	burial	pits	(apart	from	Pit	2),	total	P	shows	significant	variation	between	both	the	
infill	sequence	and	the	burial	matrix	and	individual	spot	samples	within	that	matrix.		With	relatively	low	(for	
the sample set) values for the former, variation within the latter is extreme, with two samples taken adjacent
to	 surviving	 textile	 fragments	 showing	 significantly	 high	 total	 P	 in	 conjunction	 with	 extremely	 high	 SOM	
percentages (54.05% and 28.59%). By contrast, samples from the same clay matrix (4007) taken from slightly

                                                              85
further away from surviving organic fragments show comparatively low total P values and low SOM. Once
again, the inhibiting effect of this impermeable clay matrix on chemical cycling and decomposition is seen.
Pit 5.		The	final	pit	in	the	sampled	sequence,	Pit	5	is	located	at	the	southern	edge	of 	Trench	1,	and	was	notable	
for its depth, with the position of inhumations such that excavation into a secondary level of burial was
possible.		Consequently,	a	more	extensive	sequence	of 	infill	samples	was	achievable,	with	samples	FR085/01-
FR085/09	extending	from	ploughsoil	deposit	[1002]	down	to	just	above	(or	possibly	slightly	into)	lower	burial	
                                                                                                                         	
matrix	 deposit	 [1019].	 	 This	 sequence	 provided	 one	 of 	 the	 most	 interesting	 observations	 of 	 the	 analysis.	
pH	 through	 the	 upper	 infill	 sequence	 gave	 a	 predictably	 alkaline	 response,	 but	 dropped	 sharply	 into	 the	
upper burial deposit, recovering slightly before becoming increasingly acidic into the lower burial matrix (pH
4.1-4.2). This is surprising, as anaerobic, waterlogged environments are generally able to maintain a neutral
or slightly alkaline pH. Exceptions to this are environments high in organic matter, such as peat bogs (Caple
1994). Although SOM throughout the sample set is generally fairly low (and continues to be so throughout
this Pit 5 sequence, particularly into the lower burial matrix), this and to a certain extent the evidence from Pit
4 seems to indicate that as waterlogging increases, the pH of the Pheasant Wood pits may decrease. This may
have implications for the relative survival of inhumation materials, with potentially worse bone preservation,
but correspondingly better organic survival.
Once again, total P and SOM of the four samples taken from points within the upper burial matrix show a
high degree of localised variability, with (again) soils from adjacent to well preserved textile/organic materials
showing a high P value and slightly higher SOM than those slightly further away from extant burial material.

12.3.5 Conclusions
The	key	finding	to	emerge	from	this	very	variable	sample	set	is	that	the	dense,	fine-grained,	impermeable	
nature	of 	the	Flanders	clay	of 	which	the	Pheasant	Wood	site	is	formed	appears	to	have	created	an	inflexible	
set of burial conditions which has resulted in a fairly complex chemical and physical soil environment. How
does	this	answer	the	objectives	set	out	in	7.4.1?
- The overall site environment. It is clear from the physical situation of the majority of the pits (ie, generally
fairly	wet	and/or	waterlogged)	that	the	topography	of 	the	Pheasant	Wood	site	is	a	significant	factor	in	site	
taphonomy. With such an impermeable clay matrix, even a slight slope is likely to result in frequent standing
water, slow runoff and resultant waterlogging and gleying near to the water table, and hydromorphism further
up	the	profile.		It	is	extremely	likely	that	in	the	immediate	aftermath	of 	inhumation	and	backfilling	into	Pits	
1-5,	standing	water	 would	have	run	off 	 preferentially	through	 the	looser	 pit	backfills	into	 the	inhumation	
areas, probably quite rapidly creating a waterlogged micro-environment within which the impermeable, newly-
sheared spaded edges of the clay pit cuts created an effective barrier to water movement down through the
subsoil. Only in Pit 2, where a rooted, aerated environment prevailed, was through-running water apparently
able to pass out of the pit. It would appear likely that these environmental conditions will prevail into
the lower levels of each pit. Incidentally, in terms of organic matter (and therefore possibly phosphatic)
additions,	it	would	appear	that	the	adjacent	woodland	is	not	a	significant	influence	on	the	nature	of 	the	burial	
environment.
- Differences in soil conditions between burial pits. The analysis has shown that the many differences seen both
between	and	within	pits	can	be	ascribed	to	the	action	of 	the	clay	matrix,	firstly	in	creating	local	conditions	
of impermeability, and secondly by way of this discouraging biological activity and its accompanying
decomposition processes. However, this does not mean that the differentials in conditions of preservation
seen are therefore easily explicable – quite the opposite. The unexpectedly high total P values from control Pit
8 are a good example of this – where the processes of decomposition are so thoroughly arrested, the effects
of 	even	a	potentially	small	influence	(such	as	low-level	vegetation	development	during	the	time	in	which	the	
pit was left open) may have a clear and possibly confusing effect. On the plus side, it appears that within the
burial	matrix	at	least,	this		very	impermeability	has	acted	to	‘freeze’	a	significant	amount	of 	the	products	of 	
initial decomposition adjacent to their origin, making good interpretation possible, and good preservation
more likely, and creating a complex series of highly localised chemical environments throughout the burial
matrix of each pit.
- Can we speculate upon the potential condition of human remains further down the stratigraphic sequence in each pit? Yes,
possibly. Evidence from Pit 5 (and to a lesser extent Pit 4) appears to show a distinct drop in pH into the
lower regions of these pits and into properly waterlogged material. In the absence of high SOM values for
these sequences (especially in Pit 5) we may speculate that burial artefacts, most probably metal objects, may
have created more acidic conditions into the permanently waterlogged pit bases. This may have a negative


                                                            86
effect on bone survival; however, the bone seen so far in permanently waterlogged contexts (eg Pit 5)
appears in reasonable condition. The potential for a slightly changing set of environmental conditions to be
encountered during further excavation should therefore be borne in mind.
-Does the analysis add to the overall interpretation of activity at the Pheasant Wood site?	 Yes,	 several	 features	 stand	
out. It is clear that not only the clay matrix, but individual burial artefacts also appear to have acted to arrest
decomposition and nutrient leaching, such as the groundsheets in which several of the bodies were wrapped.
This may imply that bodies were fairly thoroughly wrapped, rather than merely carried, within these coverings.
A fairly hasty, or possibly not particularly organised programme of burial is also perhaps implied by the lack
of 	a	corresponding	significant	rise	in	pH	in	and	around	contexts	where	lime	spreading	is	identified	(eg	[2013]	
in	 Pit	 1,	 possibly	 [1018]	 in	 Pit	 5).	 	 This	 appears	 to	 indicate	 that	 lime	 spreading	 was	 neither	 extensive	 nor	
particularly carefully undertaken.

12.4     Ground Penetrating Radar Survey                                                                   by Iain Banks
In response to some criticism that the 2007 non-invasive survey did not include a traditional GPR survey this
was carried out in 2008 prior to the main evaluation work. The aim here was largely academic, to establish
whether this technique would produce clearer indications of the pits and any contents than the 2007 survey.
The	 previous	 survey	 was	 undertaken	 by	 Geofizz	 Ltd,	 a	 commercial	 operator,	 using	 a	 Future	 I-160.	 	 This	
instrument utilises an electromagnetic pulse to detect cavities, metal, solid objects and groundwater levels. It
has	been	successfully	employed	in	the	discovery	of 	a	crashed	Hurricane	fighter	in	central	London	in	2005,	and	
has been previously used to locate buried trench features and underground voids on WWI sites at Givenchy
and near Ypres. Given the potentially problematic nature of the clay soils at Fromelles it was decided to use
this equipment here in 2007. That Future I-160 survey succeeded in identifying the location of the railway, of
the fuel pipe on the western edge of the survey area and the varying water levels across the site – the latter of
which gave some very useful indications of pit depths (Pollard et al 2007, 23-4).
For the 2008 survey, a SIR-3000 ground penetrating radar was employed using a 200 MHz antenna. This antenna
gives	less	definition	towards	the	surface	than	the	400	MHz	antenna	more	normally	used	for	archaeological	
surveys, but it provides a stronger signal for the lower levels in the soil. The reason for selecting the 200 MHz
antenna was the nature of the local soils, which were known to be clay and prone to waterlogging. This meant
that the signal from the GPR would penetrate the soil less successfully than in drier conditions. The 200 MHz
antenna gave the best chance of overcoming the properties of the soil, particularly when the burials were
likely to be more than a metre below the surface of the soil.
The	survey	was	conducted	using	parallel	traverses	at	0.5	m	intervals	along	the	length	of 	the	field	from	the	
eastern end to the remains of the railway line. The results were processed through WinRADAN and through
Reflex,	both	of 	which	programmes	are	capable	of 	displaying	the	data	in	2D	and	3D.
The results of the survey indicated that the depth of the water table was roughly 2 m deep –which was in
keeping with the results of the 2007 survey. Beyond that, however, there was no clear indication in the data
of the presence of the pits. The pits should have been visible between 0.3 m and 1.5 m, but there is little in
the data to indicate the presence of the pits, and absolutely no indication of the contents (Figure 18 GPR plot
across	site	at	depth	of 	0.8	m).		Given	that	the	burial	pits	were	cut	into	heavy	clay	and	were	backfilled	with	the	
same clay, this was not entirely unexpected and it is in keeping with previous work elsewhere. Good results
have been obtained seeking burials within dry, sandy soils, but wet clays give only faint traces when containing
shallow burials; burials that lie well over a metre below the surface in wet clay may give little or no response
to GPR survey (eg Hammon et al 2000, 177-79; Schultz et al 2002).




                                                            87
                                                                                GPR Results (2008)

                                                   Extent of the site in 2007




                                                                                                               Extent of the site in 2008




                                                                                                                                            Pit 7




88
                                                                                                                           Pit 6
                                                                                                               Pit 3                           Pit 8
                                                                                                     Pit 2




         Figure 18: Results of the
                                                                                                                               Pit 5
                                                                                                                   Pit 4




     ground-penetrating radar survey.
                                        GPR grid
                                                                                                       Pit 1



                                                                                                               Location of railway
                                                                                                     (based on topographical survey in 2007)



                                                                                                                                               0       30 m
12.5 List of Contexts
Area         Context    Description                                   Interpretation/Relationships
Trench 1     1001       Light grey-brown clay silt                    Modern topsoil
Trench 1     1002       Mid grey-brown silty clay                     Post-WWI ploughsoil
Pit	6	       1003	      Light	orange/blue	clay	                       Backfill	of 	Pit	6
Trench 1     1004       Light yellow-orange clay                      Upper subsoil horizon
Trench 1     1005       Light grey-yellow silty clay                  Lower subsoil horizon
Pit 6        1006       Sub-rectangular cut                           Cut for Pit 6
-            1007       Cancelled                                     -
Trench	1	    1008	      Linear	east/west	cut	                         Cut	for	modern	field	drain
Trench	1	    1009	      Plastic	pipe	                                 Modern	field	drain
Pit	5	       1010	      Light	yellow-orange	clay,	blue-grey	lenses	   Upper	backfill	
-            1011       Not used                                      -
Trench	1	    1012	      Ceramic	pipe	                                 Pre-war	field	drain
Pit 5        1013       Soft blue-grey clay, light orange lenses      Body stain above upper
                                                                      burials
Pit 5        1014       Sub-rectangular cut with vertical sides       Cut for grave pit
Pit 5        1015       Dark grey clay                                Body stain against S side
Pit 5        1016       Soft light grey clay, black lenses            Body stain around upper burials
                                                                      (E)
Pit 5        1017       Soft light grey clay, black lenses            Body stain around upper burials
                                                                      (W)
Pit	5	       1018	      Waxy	blue-grey	clay,	black	lenses	            Lower	backfill,	above	
                                                                      lower burials
Pit 5        1019       Sticky black clay, calcined deposits          Body stain around lower burials
Pit 5        1020       Creamy-white fragments and lumps of           Lime deposit to N of B17
                        lime
Pit 5        1021       Creamy-white fragments and lumps of           Lime deposit over B08
                        lime
Trench 2     2001       Light grey-brown clay silt                    Modern topsoil
Trench 2     2002       Mid brown silty clay                          Post-WWI ploughsoil
Pit	2	       2003	      Light	yellow-brown	silty	clay,	blue-grey	     Upper	backfill	
                        lenses
Trench 2     2004       Mid yellow-brown silty clay                   Upper subsoil horizon
Trench 2     2005       Light yellow-brown silty clay +               Lower subsoil horizon
                        orange sand                                   to N
Pit	1	       2006	      Light	orange	silty	clay,	blue-grey	mottles	   Upper	backfill
Pit 2        2007       Sub-rectangular cut, vertical N side,         Cut for grave pit
                        Sloping S side
Pit 1        2008       Sub-rectangular cut with vertical sides       Cut for grave pit
Pit 1        2009       Creamy-white fragments and lumps of           Lime deposit near base of
                        lime                                          2006
Pit	1	       2010	      Orange	sand	with	yellow-grey	clay	mottles	    Lower	backfill,	above	
                                                                      lower burials
Pit 2        2011       Plastic light grey-brown silty clay           Body stain around upper
                                                                      burials
Pit	2	       2012	      Light	grey-brown	silty	clay	                  Lower	backfill	above	
                                                                      lower burials
Pit 1        2013       Sticky mid grey sandy clay, dark mottles      Body stain around upper
                                                                      burials
Pit 2        2014       Dense light blue clay                         Ypresian clay subsoil
Trench 3     3001       Light grey-brown clay silt                    Modern topsoil
Trench 3     3002       Mid brown silty clay                          Post-WWI ploughsoil
Pit	3	       3003	      Orange-brown/blue-grey/yellow-	               Upper	backfill,	above	
                        orange clay                                   upper burials
Trench 3     3004       Light orange silty clay                       Upper subsoil horizon



                                                  89
Area        Context   Description                                   Interpretation/Relationships
Trench 3    3005      Light yellow-orange silty clay,               Lower subsoil horizon
                      orange gravel
Pit 3       3006      Sticky pale blue-grey clay                    Body stain around upper burials
Pit 3       3007      Sub-rectangular cut, sloping N side,          Cut for grave pit
                      vertical S side
Trench	3	   3008	     Narrow	linear	NNE/SSW	cut	                    Cut	for	pre-WWI	field	drain
Trench 3    3009      Light orange silty clay, ceramic pipe         Fill of broken pre-WWI
                                                                    Field fragments drain
Pit	3	      3010	     Light	orange	silty	clay,	blue-grey	mottles	   Lower	backfill,	above	lower	
                                                                    burials
Pit 3       3011      Creamy-white fragments and lumps of           Lime deposit in SE corner
                      lime
Pit 3       3012      Dense dark blue clay                          Ypresian clay subsoil
Trench 4    4001      Light grey-brown clay silt                    Modern topsoil
Trench 4    4002      Mid yellow-brown silty clay                   Post-WWI ploughsoil
Pit	4	      4003	     Orange-yellow	silty	clay,	light	blue-grey	    Upper	backfill,	above	
                      mottles                                       upper burials
Trench 4    4004      Light yellow-orange silty clay                Upper subsoil horizon
Trench 4    4005      Mid grey-yellow silty clay, blue-grey         Lower subsoil horizon
                      mottles
Pit 4       4006      Sub-rectangular cut with vertical sides       Cut for grave pit
Pit 4       4007      Soft mid grey clay, black lenses              Body stain around upper
                                                                    burials
Pit	4	      4008	     Plastic	mid	grey	clay,	black	lenses	          Lower	backfill,	above	
                                                                    lower burials
Pit	6?	     5001	     Ploughsoil	and	topsoil	                       Cancelled
Pit	6?	     5002	     Undisturbed	subsoil	                          Cancelled
Pit	6?	     5003	     Fill	of 	west	end	pit	6?	(actually	natural	   Cancelled
                      soil change)
Pit 6       6001      Compact dark brown clay with some             Topoil
                      stones
Pit	6	      6002	     Orange-brown	clay,	patches	of 	mixed	clay	    Part	of 	back	fill,	prob	1916.		
                      including blue-grey and brown clay.           Foot and lower leg found
                                                                    at bottom. Disposal of body
                                                                    parts at end
                                                                    of clean up
Pit 6       6003      Small patch of very compact blue-grey         Lump of basal clay within
	           	         clay		                                        backfill	6002
Pit	6	      6004	     Large	patch	of 	compact	blue-grey	clay.	      Part	of 	back	fill	of 	pit	6
                      Contains organic lens 6032
Pit	6	      6005	     Small	patch	of 	slightly	loos	e	dank	grey	    Part	of 	back	fill	of 	pit	6
                      clay
Pit	6	      6006	     Large	patch	of 	compact	dark	grey	clay	       Part	of 	back	fill	of 	pit	6
Pit	6	      6007	     Compact	blue	grey	clay	with	iron	staining	    Part	of 	backfill.		Slumped	 	
                      down side of pit
Pit	6	      6008	     Layer	of 	dark	brown	clay	                    Part	of 	backfill	of 	pit	6	may	
                                                                    represent initial covering of HR
                                                                    BP62
Pit 6       6009      Small patch of organic matter, very wet,      Related to HR BP62 and
                      sock                                          section permeating through
                                                                    which lay adjacent
Pit 6       6010      Small patch of iron concretion                Possibly relating to iron object
Pit	6	      6011	     Area	of 	iron	concretion,	loose	material,	    Part	of 	1916	backfill	water
                      may represent iron object                     percolation out of section




                                                  90
Area      Context   Description                                       Interpretation/Relationships
Pit 6     6012      Pit us straight sided on S side. N side           Cut of Pit 6. Different to cuts
                                                                      in more sloping, may have
                                                                      slipped (6007) pit 7 & 8, not as
                                                                      much slippage & weathering
Pit 6     6013      Grey blue clay, quite compact, few                Undisturbed topsoil in which
                    inclusions                                        pit was cut
Pit 6     6014      Very compact grey blue clay with quartz           Undisturbed subsoil
                    fragments
Pit 6     6015      Dark grey and orange mottled clay, very           Undisturbed subsoil
                    compact
Pit	6	    6016	     Mixed	clay	deposit,	consists	of 	blue-grey	       Part	of 	backfill	of 	pit	6.		
                    and orange clays.                                 Some iron pan dating to
	         	         	                                                 1918/19	when	pit	unfilled	see
                                                                      6029 Piece of wire within
                                                                      material
Pit	6	    6017	     Small	patch	of 	very	compact	blue-grey	           Part	of 	backfill.		Discrete	lump
                    clay                                              of clay. Relates to post-war
	         	         	                                                 backfill
Pit 6     6018      Small patch of compact blue grey clay             Discrete lump of clay within
	         	         	                                                 back	 fill	of 		1918/19
Pit	6		   6019	     Compact	orange-brown	clay	with	mineral	           Part	of 	backfill	of 	1918/19
                    staining. Iron and manganese panning

Pit	6	    6020	     Compact	blue-grey	mottled	clay	with	patch	        Part	of 	backfill	of 	1918/19
                    of organic material
Pit	6	    6021	     Patch	of 	relatively	loose	grey-brown	clay	       Patch	within	backfill	of 	1918/19

Pit	6	    6022	     Small	iron	concretion	                            Part	of 	backfill	in	1918/19
Pit	6	    6023	     Small	patch	of 	grey-brown	clay	&	stones	         Part	of 	backfill	of 	1918/19
Pit	6	    6024	     Compact	brown	clay	and	some	stones	               Part	of 	backfill	of 	1916
Pit 6     6025      Patch of stones and iron pan in dark              Part of tail of 1916
                    brown clay relating to layer 6026
Pit	6	    6026	     Loose	dark	brown	silty	clay,	patches	of 	         Tail	of 	backfill	of 	1916	
                    iron running across from western end of
                    pit
Pit 6     6027      Dark grey-blue clay some orange fe                Slip from side of pit 6, in 1916
                    mottling beginning
Pit 6     6028      Dark grey and orange clay, very compact           Undisturbed geological clay

Pit 6     6029      Broad irregular cut, showing weathering           Cut of Pit 6, cut in 1916 but
	         	         on	pit	edges	                                     backfilled	in	1918/19
Pit	6	    6030	     Light	brown	clay,	fairly	compact,	iron	           Part	of 	backfill	from	1918/19
                    staining
Pit	6	    6031	     Compact	pale	tan	clay,	very	sticky	and	wet	      Part	of 	backfill	from	1918/19
Pit	6	    6032	     Thin	line	of 	black	organic	matter	              Not	a	root.		Within	backfill	of
                                                                     6004
Pit 7     7001      Dark brown silty clay, very stiff                Topsoil
Pit	7	    7002	     Compact	blue-grey	clay	with	patches	of 	         Part	of 	the	backfill	of 	pit	7,	post		
                    light grey clay and mix                          war
Pit	7	    7003	     Loose	stick,	light	brown	clay	                   Part	of 	backfill	from	end	of 	WW1
Pit 7     7004      Slightly loose light brown clay, with tree roots Undisturbed A horizon
Pit	7	    7005	     Small	patch	of 	pale	brown	clay	with	no		        Lens	is	part	of 	post	war	backfill
                    inclusions                                       Lump of clay from spoil heap
Pit	7	    7006	     Compact	mix	of 	brown-grey	clay	                 Part	of 	post-WW1	backfill
	         	         Small	flecks	of 	brick	or	tile	



                                              91
Area     Context   Description                                    Interpretation/Relationships
Pit 7    7007      Compact pale orange clay with small patches    Material eroding from spoil
                   of blue grey clay. Patches of dark organic     heaps into Pit 7
                   clay 7016
Pit	7	   7008	     Compact	grey	brown	silty	clay,	dark	grey	      Part	of 	the	natural	infilling	of 	
                   clay inclusion 7016                            pit 7 after 1916
Pit 7    7009      Silty loose grey-brown clay                    Bottom of deposit of post-
	        	         	                                              WW1	backfill
Pit 7    7010      Black organic debris with feathered lower      Remains of vegetation growing
                   edge                                           at bottom of pit.
Pit 7    7011      Irregular cut, originally steep sided and      Original line of pit 7 after
	        	         flat	bottomed	                                 collapse	of 	sides	
Pit 7    7012      Double V-shaped cut with northern end          Interface between 1916 erosion
                   deepest                                        and the 1918/19
	        	         	                                              backfill
Pit 7    7013      Large chunk of fe concretion, roughly oval     May represent an iron object in
                   pit 7011                                       the in section and lying against
                                                                  original cut of base of the pit
Pit 7    7014      Densely compact clay with large amounts        Geological deposit cut by 1916
                   of iron pan staining the clay. Grit & stone    pit

Pit 7    7015      Soft grey-white clay with large mixture of     Part of natural undisturbed
                   subsoil                                        very small tones and sand, gritty
                   particles                                      cut by 1916 pit 7011
Pit 7    7016      Compact dark grey clay in patches in 7007      Part of collapse/erosion of
                   and 7008. Part of general collapse 1916        1916 pit
                   trench
Pit 7    7017      Small, roughly cigar shaped patch of fe        Entirely within natural deposit
                   concretion, roughly 0.100 m by 0.200 m         of 7018. Natural feature caused
                   wide                                           by waterlogging.
Pit 7    7018      Very compact mottled grey clay with            Undisturbed geological deposit
                   streaks of fe staining and quartz inclusion
Pit 7    7019      Compact pale orange and blue-grey clay        Undisturbed geological deposit
                                                                 underlying 1916 pit.
Pit 8    8001      Dark brown loamy claim, very compact          Topsoil
Pit	8	   8002	     Compact	deposit	of 	mixed	clays.		Blue-grey	 Back	fill	of 	Pit	8	in	post	WW1		
                   in colour with lenses of other colours        period
                   Fe concretions
Pit	8	   8003	     Very	compact	blue-grey	clay.		Holster		       Part	of 	backfill	of 	Pit	8	in	
                   shaped in section                             1918/19
Pit	8	   8004	     Slightly	loose	grey	brown	clay	with		         Part	of 	backfill	of 	pit	8	in	WW1		
                   fragments of building material in mix         period
Pit	8	   8005	     Compact	light	brown	clay	with	multi-	         Main	bulk	of 	backfill	of 	pit	8		
                   coloured                                      patches of clay       dating to
                                                                 post WW1 period
Pit	8	   8006	     Small	patch	of 	relatively	loose	orange	clay	 Small	patch	within	backfill	of 	
                   Stones with fe staining                       pit 8

Pit 8    8007      Compact orange clay with organic staining      Silting/erosion deposit within
                                                                  pit 8
Pit 8    8008      Compact creamy coffee coloured clay with       Part of erosion of Pit 8
                   orange and blue clay steaks
Pit 8    8009      Compact blue grey mottled clay                 Undisturbed geological layer
Pit 8    8010      Irregular cut of Pit 8 after erosion and       Cut of pit 1918/19 before
	        	         collapse		                                     backfill	undertaken
Pit 8    8011      Compact blue grey clay with orange             Part of erosion of Pit 8 and
                   mottling. Patches of very dense clay,          collapse of sides.
                   slightly grey in colour

                                              92
Area            Context    Description                                      Interpretation/Relationships
Pit	8	          8012	      Compact	pale	brown	clay	with	blue	grey	          Part	of 	backfill	of 	1916	pit.
                           streaks of fe staining and quartz inclusion
Pit 8           8013       Flat bottomed U shaped cut of original pit       Original cut of Pit 8 from 1916
                           in 1916 with 3 m width due to collapse
Pit 8           8014       Very compact grey-brown clay with                Material at bottom of 1916 pit
                           frequent quartz fragments
Pit 8           8015       Compact grey and orange clay. Patches            Undisturbed geological deposit.
                           of grey clay with quartz powered inclusions
Pit 8           8016       Very compact dark grey clay with orange          Undisturbed geological deposit
                           streaks.
Pit 8           8017       Compact grey clay with quartz powder             Part of undisturbed geology
                           within fragments                                 layer 8015
Pit 8           8018       Compact grey clay with quartz powder             Part of undisturbed geology
                           within                                           layer 8015
Pit	8	          8019	      Patch	of 	compact	brown	grey	silty	clay	         Patch	within	backfill	of 	1918/19.			
                           Fully within 8005
Pit 8           8020       Slightly loose orange gritty clay with fe        Patch of material within the
	               	          inclusions	                                      backfill	from	1918/19
Pit 8           8021       Compact grey clay c. 0.200 m x 0.100 m           Patch of clay within the
	               	          	                                                1918/19	backfill
Pit 8           8022       Dark grey clay                                   Animal burrow

12.6 List of Finds
Find     Body    Context   Trench        Spit   Pit        No         Material    Artefact
No               No        No            No     No         Pieces
1        -       1002      1             2      -          1          fe          Shell fragt/shrapnel
2        -       1002      1             2      -          Multiple   Lead        Shrapnel balls
3        -       1002      1             2      -          1          Lead        Bullet
4        -       1002      1             2      -          1          Ceramic     Pot sherd
5        -       1002      1             3      -          1          Lead        Bullet
6        -       1004      1             0      -          Multiple   Lead        Shrapnel balls
7        -       1003      1             2      6          Multiple   Lead        Shrapnel balls
8        -       2002      2             2      -          1          fe          Shell fragt/shrapnel
9        -       2002      2             0      -          1          fe          Nail or screw
10       -       2002      2             2      -          1          Lead        Bullet (303)
11       -       2002       2            2      -          Multiple   Lead        Shrapnel balls
12       -       1002       1            2      -          Multiple   fe          Shell fragments
13       -       1002       1            2      -          Multiple   Lead        Shrapnel balls
14       -       1002       1            2      -          1          Lead        Bullet (303)
15       -       1002       1            2      -          Multiple   Misc        Misc modern
16       -       2002       2            2      -          1          Misc        Misc metal
17       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Groundsheet eyelet
18       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Groundsheet eyelet
19       -       1002       1            2      -          Multiple   fe          Shell frags
20       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Ground sheet eyelet
21       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Ground sheet eyelet
22       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Button
23       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Button
24       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Button
25       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Button
26       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Button
27       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Button
28       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Eyelet
29       -       1010       1            1      5          1          Zinc        Eyelet
30       -       1010       0            0      5          1          Zinc/fe     Large eyelet


                                                      93
Find   Body   Context   Trench   Spit   Pit   No         Material      Artefact
No            No        No       No     No    Pieces
31     -      1010      1        1      5     3          Glass         Tiny fragments
32     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
33     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Eyelet
34     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Eyelet
35     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
36     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
37     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
38     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
39     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
40     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
41     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
42     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
43     -      1010      1        1      5     2          Zinc          Button
44     -      1010      1        1      5     1          Zinc          Button
45     -      2006      2        3      1     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
46     -      2006      2        3      1     1          fe            Shell frag
47     -      2006      2        2      1     1          Lead          Bullet
48     -      1010      1        3      5     1          Glass         Small fragment
49	    B1	    1013	     1	       1	     5	    1	         Misc	         Calcified	bone
50     -      2006      2        2      1     1          fe            Shell frag
51     -      2006      2        2      1     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
52     -      2006      2        3      1     3          Lead          Shrapnel ball
53     -      2004      2        2      -     2          fe            Misc metal
54     -      2004      2        2      -     1          Lead          Bullet
55     -      2004      2        1      -     1          fe            Shrapnel
56     -      2004      2        1      -     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
57     -      1002      1        2      -     1          cu alloy      Drive band
58     -      2002      2        2      -     1          fe            Shrapnel
59     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
60     -      1010      1        0      5     1          fe            Bolt
61     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
62     -      1010      1        0      5     1          fe/cu alloy   Shell (driving band) frag
63     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Lead          Shrapnel balls
64     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Lead          Shrapnel balls
65     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Zinc          Eyelet
66     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Zinc          Eyelet
67     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Zinc          Eyelet
68     -      2006      2        0      1     1          cu alloy      Press stud
69     -      2006      2        2      1     1          Textile       Poss decayed sacking
70     -      1010      1        0      5     1          fe            Ident lump
71     -      3002      3        2      -     Multiple   fe            Small frags
72     -      3002      3        2      -     Multiple   Lead          Bullets
73     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Textile       Red, malodorous
74     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Glass         Clear sherd
75     BP02   1010      0        0      5     1          Textile       Decayed textile
76     -      1010      1        0      5     6          Zinc          Eyelets
77     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Lead          Bullet
78     -      2002      2        0      -     2          Lead          Shrapnel balls
79     -      2002      2        0      -     1          Lead          Bullet
80     -      2006      2        0      1     1          Lead          Shrapnel balls
81     -      1010      1        0      5     1          Zinc          Large eyelet
82     -      1010      1        0      5     1          fe            Ident object
83     -      3003      1        0      3     1          Lead          Bullet
84     -      3003      3        1      3     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball
85     -      3003      3        1      3     1          Lead          Bullet
86     -      3003      3        1      3     1          Lead          Shrapnel ball

                                              94
Find   Body    Context   Trench   Spit   Pit        No         Material    Artefact
No             No        No       No     No         Pieces
87     -       3003      3        2      3          1          Lead         Shrapnel ball
88     -       3003      3        2      3          1          Lead         Shrapnel ball
89     -       3003      3        2      3          1          cu alloy     drive band frag
90     -       1001      0        0      -          Multiple   Various      Various
91     -       2006      2        0      1          1          Zinc         Eyelet
92	    -	      2006	     2	       0	     1	         1	         Mod	         ?
93     B12     2006      2        0      1          1          Leather      Bayonet scabbard
94     B12     2006      2        0      1          2          fe + leather Swastika + tie
95     B12     2006      2        0      1          2          Wood         Frag
96     -       4002      4        2      -          1          Zinc         Button
97     -       2006      2        0      1          1          Zinc         Button
98     B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy/ Fastening
                                                               textile
99     -       2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Strap end
100    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Strap end
101    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Strap end
102    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Buckle
103    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Collar stud
104    B08     1016      1        0      5          1          Textile      Strap frag
105    -       4003      4        0      4          Multiple   cu alloy/ cu alloy frags + shrapnel
                                                               lead         balls
106    -       2006      2        0      1          Multiple   Zinc +       Eyelets and canvas frags
                                                               canvas
107    -       2006      2        3      1          1          Lead         Bullet
108    -       2006      2        3      1          Multiple   Lead         Shrapnel balls
109    -       2006      2        3      1          Multiple   fe           Shell frags
110    -       2006      2        3      1          2          cu alloy     Indent objects
111    -       2006      2        3      1          Multiple   Zinc         Eyelets
112    -       2006      2        3      1          1          Shell        Button
113    -       1001      2        0      -          1          cu alloy     Strap end
114    -       1001      2        0      -          Multiple   Lead         Bullets
115    -       1001      2        0      -          1          fe           Shell frag
116	   -	      1001	     1	       0	     -	         1	         Paper?	      Wallet?
117    BP05    2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Strap end
118    BP16    2006      2        0      1          1          fe           Indet object
119    BP16    2006      2        0      1          1          Leather      Cord on wrist
120	   BP05	   2006	     2	       0	     1	         1	         Leather	     Bayonet	scabbard	fitting
121    -       1013      1        0      5          1          fe/glass/ Gas mask
                                                               textile
122	   B12	    2006	     1	       2	     1	         1	         Textile	     ?
123    -       1001      2        0      -          2          Zinc         Eyelets
124    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Strap end
125    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          fe           Water canteen
126    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Press stud
127    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Press stud
128    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Press stud
129    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          fe + lead Ammo clip and bullet
130    B12     2006      2        0      1          1          fe + lead Ammo clip and bullets
131    -       1016      2        0      5          1          Lead         Shrapnel ball
132    -       1016      1        0      5          1          Textile      Button
133    -       1013      1        0      5          1          Brick        Fragment
134    -       1013      1        0      5          1          Textile      Textile
135	   -	      1013	     1	       0	     5	         3	         Textile	     Bullets	with	packaging?
                                                               and lead
136    B19     1019      1        0      5          1          Zinc         Eyelet
137    B29     1019      1        0      5          1          fe/textile Gas mask

                                               95
Find   Body   Context   Trench   Spit   Pit   No       Material    Artefact
No            No        No       No     No    Pieces
138    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
139    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Strap end
140    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
141    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
142    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
143    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
144    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        Textile     Pouch
145    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
146    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Rivet
147    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Rivet
148    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
149    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        fe          Eyelet
150    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        fe          Large buckle
151    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        fe          Eyelet
152    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        Leather     Strap
153    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        Leather     Strap
154    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
155    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
156    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Strap end
157    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Strap end
158    B12    2006      2        0      1     2        Zinc        Eyelet
159    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        fe          Charger
160	   B12	   2006	     2	       0	     1	    1	       Metal?	     Button
161	   B12	   2006	     2	       0	     1	    1	       Metal?	     Pouch
162	   B12	   2006	     2	       0	     1	    1	       Metal?	     Pouch
163	   B12	   2006	     2	       0	     1	    1	       Metal?	     Button
164    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Indet object
165    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
166    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
167    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
168    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        Mixed       Pouch
169    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        Mixed       Pouch
170    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
171    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Press stud
172    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Strap end
173    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
174    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
175    B12    2006      2        0      1     1        cu alloy    Buckle
176    -      4003      4        0      4     1        Brass       Brass cap
177    -      1019      1        0      5     6        cu alloy    Eyelets
178    B08    1017      1        0      5     1        fe/lead     Bullets and ammo clips
179    B08    1017      1        0      5     1        Mother of   Button
                                                       pearl
180    B08    1017      0        0      5     1        Leather     Brace straps
181    B09    1017      1        0      5     1        Leather     Brace straps
182    B23    1019      1        0      5     1        Leather     Brace straps
183    -      1019      0        0      5     2        Zinc        Eyelets
184	   B22	   2006	     2	       0	     1	    1	       Metal?	     Button
185    B20    2010      2        0      1     1        Rubber/     Line cable
                                                       metal
186    -      2006      2        0      1     3        Metal       Metal object
187	   B12	   2006	     2	       0	     1	    1	       Wood	       Rifle	butt	fragment
188    B30    2010      2        0      1     14       Metal       Eyelets
189    B29    2006      2        0      1     1        Metal       Eyelets and button
190    B29    2010      2        0      1     1        Metal       Button
191    -      2010      2        0      1     1        Metal       Button

                                              96
Find   Body   Context   Trench   Spit   Pit        No       Material    Artefact
No            No        No       No     No         Pieces
192    -      2010      2        0      1          1        Metal       Metal object
193    B29    2006      2               1          1        Textile     Coat hem fragment
194    B34    4007      4        0      4          1        Leather     Boot
195	   B37	   3006	     3	       0	     3	         1	       cu	alloy	   Rifle	cleaner
196    B37    3006      3        0      3          1        Textile     Rubberised groundsheet
197    B38    3006      3        0      3          1        cu alloy    Tunic belt buckle
198    B40    3006      3        0      3          1        Bone        Toothbrush
199    B40    3006      3        0      3          1        Leather     Belt
200    B40    3006      3        0      3          1        Textile     Gas mask/rubbersd bag
201    B39    3006      3        0      3          1        Mother of   Button
                                                            pearl
202    B36/   4007      4        0      4          1        Metal       ‘Rising Sun’ Badge
       BP54
203    B30    2010      1        0      1          1        Metal       Button
204    -      2003      2        0      2          1        Ceramic     Earthenware
205    B41    2011      2        0      2          1        Metal       Garment/eyelet
206    B36    4007      4        4      4          1        Metal       Badge
207    B36    4007      4        0      4          1        Metal       Safety pin
208	   -	     2012	     2	       0	     2	         1	       Leather	    Shoe?
209    -      2012      2        0      2          2        Leather     Material
210    B42    2011      2        0      2          2        Horn        Button
211    -      2011      2        2      2          1        cu alloy    Buckle
212    -      2011      2        0      2          1        Bone        Toothbrush
213    -      2011      2        0      2          1        Bone        Toothbrush
214    -      2003      2        0      2          1        Metal + Buckle
                                                            textile
215    -      2011      2        0      2          1        fe          Metal
216    B60    2011      2        0      2          1        Horn        Button
217    B31    4007      4        0      4          1        Paper       Match box
218    B50    2010      2        0      1          1        Glass       Eye-piece
219    B30    2010      2        0      1          1        Wood        Stick
220    B40    3006      3        0      3          1        Shell       Button
221	   B39	   3006	     3	       0	     3	         2	       Textile	    Tunic?	Vest?
222    B39    3006      3        0      3          1        Shell       Button
223    B39    3006      3        0      3          1        Horn        Button with thread
224    B39    3006      3        0      3          1        Rubber      Poss groundsheet
225    B37    3006      3        0      3          1        Textile     With leather & thread
226    B38    3006      3        0      3          1        Textile     Sock
227	   B37	   3006	     3	       0	     3	         2	       Horn	       Eyelet?	+	button
228    B37    3006      3        0      3          1        cu alloy    Buckle
229    B39    3006      3        0      3          2        Textile     Sock
230    B37    3006      3        0      3          1        Rubber      Tourniquet
231    B34    4007      4        0      4          1        Rubberised Collar of groundshhet
232	   B32	   4007	     4	       0	     4	         1	       Rubberised	 Band	for	goggles?
233	   B31	   4007	     4	       0	     4	         3	       Metal?	     Buckle/2	buttons
234    B31    4007      4        0      4          1        Leather     Wrist band
235    B35    4007      4        0      4          3        Rubberised Gas mask/goggles
236    B36    4007      4        0      4          1        Metal -     Wire
	      	      	         	        	      	          	        fixings	    bronze?	
237    B36    4007      4        0      4          2        Leather     Cord
238    B35    4007      4        0      4          1        Wood        Piece of wood
239    B35/   4007      4        0      4          3        Metal       2 button/1 buckle
       B36
240    B30    2010      2        0      1          1        Metal       Buckle
241    B35    3006      3        0      4          1        fe/alloy    General Service Button
242    B22    2010      2        0      1          1        Plastic     Dental prosthetic

                                              97
Find     Body   Context    Trench   Spit   Pit        No         Material     Artefact
No              No         No       No     No         Pieces
243      B60    2011       2        0      2          1          cu alloy/
                                                                 textile      Hook for collar
244      -      2010       2        0      1          1          Textile      Poss groundsheet
245      -      U/S        2        0      -          3          Zinc         Eyelets
246      -      4007       4        0      4          1          Lead         Shrapnel ball
247      -      4007       4        0      4          1          metal        Buttons
248      -      2006       2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Chargers
249      -      2006       2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Chargers
250      -      2006       2        0      1          1          Textile      Ground sheet
251      -      2010       2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Bullet
252      -      2010       2        0      1          1          cu alloy     Cartridge case
253      B30    2010       2        0      1          3          Metal        Eyelet
254      B30    2010       2        0      1          2          Metal        Rivet
255      B30    2010       2        0      1          3          Metal        Rivets
256      B22    2010       2        0      1          1          Metal        Object
257      B22    2006       2        0      1          2          Leather      Braces
258      B39/   4007       3        0      3          4          Metal        General Service and
         B40                                                                  other buttons
259      B47    2011       2        0      2          1          cu alloy     Button
260      B47    2011       2        0      2          4          fe + glass   Gas helmet eyepiece
261      B47    2011       2        0      2          1          cu alloy     Button
730      -      3002       3        2      -          Multiple   Lead         Shrapnel balls
740      -      3003       3        3      3          1          cu alloy     Drive band frags
750      -      3003       3        3      3          1          Lead         Bullet
760      -      1001       0        0      -          Multiple   Various      Various
770      -      3003       3        0      3          Multiple   fe           Shell
780      -      2006       1        0      1          Multiple   Lead         Shrapnel ball
790      -      2006       1        0      1          1          cu alloy     Drive band fragment
800      -      2006       2        0      1          1          Zinc         Eyelet
810      -      2006       2        0      1          1          Zinc         Eyelet
820      -      2006       2        0      1          1          Zinc         Eyelet
830      -      4003       4        0      4          1          cu alloy     Bullet
840      -      4003       4        1      4          1          cu alloy     Spring
850      -      4003       4        1      4          1          Lead         Shrapnel balls
860      -      4003       4        1      4          1          Lead         Shrapnel balls
870      -      4003       4        1      4          1          Lead         Shrapnel balls
880      -      4002       4        2      -          Multiple   Lead         Shrapnel balls
890      -      4002       4        2      -          Multiple   fe           Shell fragments

12.7     List of Samples
Area     Sample No     Context No   Size       Description
Pit 5    1             1013         S          Lime
Pit 5    2             1013         S          Pupae case
Pit	1	   3	            2009	        S	         Lime	in	lower	part	of 	backfill	2006
Pit 1    4             2009         L          Lime from directly above upper burials
Pit 5    5             1015         S          Dark grey deposit against S side of pit
Pit	2	   6	            2003	        L	         Lime	in	lower	part	of 	backfill	2003
Pit 2    7             2003         S          Discoloured lime from level of upper burials
-        8             -                       Cancelled
-        9             -                       Cancelled
-        10            -                       Cancelled
-        11            -                       Cancelled
Pit 5    12            1016         L          Pupae cases with black concentrations at top of 1016
Pit 1    13            2006         S          Pupae case


                                                    98
Area     Sample No     Context No          Size              Description
Pit 3    14            3006                S                 Discoloured lime from directly above upper burials
15       -             -                   -                 Cancelled
Pit 5    16            1017                S                 Pupae cases associated with B09
Pit 1    17            2006                S                 Soil with textile, associated with B12 for element analysis
Pit 1    18            2006                S                 Possible grass
Pit	1	   19	           2006	               S	                Insect	remains	(floated	up	in	water	that	filled	base	of 	pit)
Pit 1    20            2010                S                 Soil associated with possible decayed ferrous object E of
B30
Pit 1    21            2010                M                 Stretchy material associated with sample 20 (= SF 244)
Pit 1    22            2010                M                 Crystalline material in SW corner of trench

12.8 List of Drawings
Area     Drawing No    Sheet No          Subject                                                            Scale
Pit 5    1             1                 W-facing section across upper part of cut                          1:10
Pit 5    2             1                 Plan of possible spade cuts along S side of cut                    1:20
Pit	2	   3	            2	                E-facing	section	across	upper	pit	fill	                            1:10
Pit 7    4             3                 E-facing section across Pit 7                                      1:20
Pit 8    5             3                 E-facing section across Pit 8                                      1:`0
Pit 6    6             4                 E-facing section across Pit 6                                      1:10
Pit 6    7             5                 W-facing section across Pit 6                                      1:10

12.9 List of Photographs
Photo    Zone   Zone        Context No             Subject                  Description                            From
No              No
1        Pit    8           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 8 area before trenching            E
2        Pit    7           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 7 area before trenching            E
3        Pit    6           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 6 area before trenching            E
4        Pit    5           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 5 area before trenching            E
5        Pit    4           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 4 area before trenching            E
6        Pit    3           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 3 area before trenching            E
7        Pit    2           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 2 area before trenching            E
8        Pit    1           Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Pit 1 area before trenching            E
9        Tr     1/2         Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Trench 1/2 - Pits 6 and 5              S
10       Tr     1/2         Topsoil                Pre-ex shot of           Trench 1/2 - Pits 6 and 5              N
11       Tr     1           001                    Post-ex shot of          Spit 1 (north end,) section 1          N
12       Tr     1           001                    Post-ex shot of          Spit 1, section 2                      N
13       Tr     1           001                    Post-ex shot of          Spit 1, section 3                      N
14       Tr     1           001                    Post-ex shot of          Spit 1, section 4                      N
15       Tr     1           001                    Post-ex shot of          Spit 1, section 5                      N
16       Tr     1           1003-1009              Pre-ex shot of           General view of N end of               S
                                                                            trench
17       Tr     1           1003-1009              Pre-ex shot of           North end of trench                    S
18       Tr     1           1001-1009              W facing section         N 2-3 m                                W
19       Tr     1           1001-1009              W facing section         N 2-3 m , 2nd section (to S)           W
20       Tr     1           1001-1009              W facing section         M 2-3 m , 3rd section (to S)           W
21       Pit    5           1010                   SFs 17, 18               Ground sheet eyelets in situ           N
22       Pit    5           1010                   SFs, 19, 20              Ground sheet eyelets in situ           S
23       Pit    5           1010                   SFs 22-31                Ground sheet eyelets in situ           N
24       Pit    5           1010                   SFs 22-34                Ground sheet eyelets in situ           N
25       Pit    5           1010                   SF 28                    Decayed eyelet (to left                N
                                                                            of scale)
26       Pit    1           2006                   Working shot of          Of circular hold/vopid in              N
	        	      	           	                      	                        Pit	1	fill
27	      Pit	   1	          2006	                  Detail	shot	of 	         Circular	hole/void	in	Pit	1	fill	      N


                                                                99
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No       Subject               Description                     From
No             No
28      Pit    5      1010, 1014       W facing section      Through pit 5 (with targets)    W
29      Pit    5      1010, 1014       Working shot          during removal of 1010          W
                                                             (between ranging rods)
30      Pit    5      1010, 1014       Working shot          During removal of 1010          W
                                                             (detail)
31      Pit    2      2003             Pre-ex shot of        Pit 2                           SE
32      Pit    2      2003             Pre-ex shot of        Pit 2                           N
33      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    W
34      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    W
35      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    W
36      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    W
37      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    S
38      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    S
39      Pit    5      1010, 1004       Possible spade cuts   In plan, south edge of pit 5    S
40      Pit    1      2005, 2006       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1                           S
41      Pit    1      2005, 2006       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1                           E
42      Pit    1      2005, 2006       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1                           S
43      Pit    1      2005, 2006       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1                           W
44      Pit    1      2005, 2006       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1                           N
45      Pit    1      2005, 2006       Pre-ex shot of        Pit                             NW
46      Pit    1      2006, SF68       Detail shot of        SF 68 in situ                   S+A
47      Pit    5      BP 01, 02,       Detail shot of        BPs 01-03 in situ               N
                      03
48      Pit    5      BP 01, 02,       Wider shot of         BPs 01-03 in situ               N
                      03
49      Pit    5      BP 01            Detail shot of        BP 01 in situ                   N
50      Pit    5      BP 02,           Detail shot of        BPs 02 + 03 in situ,            N
                      03                                     withtextile SF 75
51      Pit    5      BP 01            Detail shot of        Additional articulated          N
                                                             part of BP 01 in situ
52      Pit    1      -                Detail shot of        BP04 in situ                    S
53      Pit    1      2006-2005        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     E
54      Pit    1      2006-2005        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     N
55      Pit    1      2005-2006        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     W
56      Pit    1      2005-2006        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     S
57      Pit    1      2005-2006        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     E+A
58      Pit    1      2005-2006        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     E+A
59      Pit    1      2005-2006        Pre-ex shot of        Pit 1 after trench widening     E+A
60      Pit    3      3003, 3005       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 3                           S
61      Pit    3      3003, 3005       Pre-ex shot of        Pit 3                           S
62      Pit    5      1016, 1013       Working shot of       Of 1016, 1017 during            N+A
                                                             removal of 1013
63      Pit    5      1016, 1013       Working shot of       Of 1016, 1017 during            N+A
                                                             removal of 1013
64      Pit    5      1016             Working shot          During removal of 1013          N
65      Pit    5      1016             Working shot          During removal of 1013          N
66      Pit    1      2006             SFs 80-82             Ground sheet eyelets in situ    S
67      Pit    1      2006             SFs 80-82             Ground sheet eyelets in situ    S
68      Pit    1      SFs 92-95        Working shot of       Bayonet scabbard &              S
                                                             trenching tool handle in situ
69      Pit    1      SFs 92-95        Working shot of       Bayonet scabbard &              S
                                       trenching tool        handle in situ
70      Pit    1      SFs 92-95        Working shot of       Bayonet scabbard &              S
                      trenching tool   handle in situ



                                                  100
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject           Description                     From
No             No
71      Pit    1      SFs 92-95    Working shot of   Bayonet scabbard &              S
                                   trenching tool    handle in situ
72      Pit    1      SFs 92-95    Working shot of   Bayonet scabbard &              S
                                   trenching tool    handle in situ
73      Pit    4      4003, 4005   Pre-ex shot of    Pit 4                           E+A
74      Pit    4      4003, 4005   Pre-ex shot of    Pit 4                           E+A
75      Pit    4      4003, 4005   4003, 4004        Pit 4                           S
76      Pit    5      BP 11        BP 11             In situ                         N
77      Pit    1      B 12,        Working shot of   Strap ends and buckle           S
                      SFs 100-2                      in situ
                                                     with articulated hand           S
78      Pit    1      B 12,        Working shot of   Strap ends and buckle           S
                      SFs 100-2                      in situ
                                                     with articulated hand
79      Pit    1      B 12,        Working shot of   Strap ends and buckle           S
                      SFs 100-2                      in situ
80      Pit    1      2006         Working shot of   Strap ends and buckle in situ   S
81      Pit    1      B12          Working shot      Socks partially uncovered       W
82      Pit    1      B12          Working shot      Socks partially uncovered       W
83      Pit    1      B12          Working shot      Socks partially uncovered       W
84      Pit    1      B12          Working shot      Socks partially uncovered       W
85      Pit    1      SF106        Working shot      eyelets and canvas SF 106       N
86      Pit    1      SF106        Working shot      eyelets and canvas              N
87      Pit    1      B12          Working shot      Feet of B 13 with socks         E
                                                     in situ
88      Pit    1      B12          Working shot      Feet of B 13 with socks         E
                                                     in situ
89      Pit    1      B13          Working shot      Feet of B 13 with socks -       E
                                                     wide shot
90      Pit    1      SF 117 B05   Working shot      Strap end                       E+A
91      Pit    1      SF117 BP05   Working shot      Strap end - wide shot,          E+A
                                                     BP8 in background
92      Pit    1      BP05         Working shot      Lower legs with puttees         E
                                                     and socks
93      Pit    1      BP05         Working shot      lower legs with puttees         E
                                                     and socks
94      Pit    1      BP12,        Working shot      SFs 118, 119 articulated        S+A
                      BP16                           hand, leather thong and
                                                     fe object
95      Pit    1      BP12,        Working shot      SFs 118, 119 articulated        S+A
                                                     hand,
                      BP16                           leather thong and fe object
96      Pit    1      BP12,        Working shot      SFS 118, 119 articulated        S+A
                                                     hand,
                      BP16                           leather thong and fe object
97      Pit    1      BP12,        Working shot      SFs 118, 119 articulated        S+A
                      BP16                           hand, leather thong and
                                                     fe object
98      Pit    1      2006         Working shot      Puttees on left leg of BP15     E+A
99      Pit    1      2006         Working shot      Puttees on left leg of BP15     E+A
100     Pit    1      2006         Working shot      Puttees on left leg of BP15     E+A
101     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of    Sample 17 textile probably      E+A
                                                     associated with BP15
102     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of    Femur and cu alloy buckle,      E
                                                     press studs and textile
                                                     SF 120

                                             101
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject            Description                      From
No             No
103     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Femur and cu alloy buckle,       E
                                                      press studs and textile SF 120
104     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Femur and cu alloy buckle,       E
                                                      press studs and textile SF 120
105     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Femur and cu alloy buckle,       E
                                                      press studs and textile SF 120
106     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Femur and cu alloy buckle,       E
                                                      press studs and textile SF 120
107     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 in bright         S
                                                      sunshine
108     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 in bright         S
                                                      sunshine
109     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 in bright         S
                                                      sunshine
110     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 in bright         S
                                                      sunshine
111     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 - overcast        S
112     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 - overcast        S
113     Pit    6      1003         Pre-ex shot of     W end of pit 6 - overcast        S
114     Pit    5      1013         Working shot of    Gas mask SF 121 in situ          N+A
115     Pit    5      1013         Working shot of    Gas mask SF 121 in situ          W+A
116     Pit    5      1013         Working shot of    Textile SF 122 in situ           W+A
117     Pit    5      1013         Working shot of    Gas mask and textile in situ,    W+A
                                                      SFs 121, 122
118     Pit    5      2006         Working shot of    SFs 121, 122, B08, B09           NW
119     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Eyelet and ground sheet          E+A
                                                      remains SF 123
120     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Eyelet and ground sheet          E+A
                                                      remains SF 123
121     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Eyelet and ground sheet          E+A
                                                      remains SF 123
122     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Artefacts associated with        E+A
                                                      B 12: SFs 124-30
123     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Artefacts associated with        E+A
                                                      B 12: SFs 124-30
124     Pit    1      2006         SFs 124-30         Artefacts associated with        S
                                                      B12
125     Pit    1      2006         SFs 124-30         Artefacts associated with        S
                                                      B12
126     Pit    1      2006         SFs 124-30         Artefacts associated with        S
                                                      B12
127     Pit    5      1013         Working shot of    Textile SF 134 in lower          S
	       	      	      	            pit	1	fill	1013	
128     Pit    1      2006         Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 1        S
                                                      B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22
129     Pit    1      2006         Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 1        S
                                                      B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22
130     Pit    1      2006         Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 1        E
                                                      B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22
131     Pit    1      2006         Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 1        W
                                                      B12 + 20, BP16, 21, 22
132	    Pit	   1	     2006	        Detail	shot	       B12	and	finds	associated	        E	+	A
                                                      with torso
133	    Pit	   1	     2006	        Detail	shot	       B12	and	finds	associated	        E	+	A
                                                      with torso


                                                102
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject            Description                     From
No             No
134	    Pit	   1	     2006	        Detail	shot	       B12	and	finds	associated	       E	+	A
                                                      with torso
135     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Bound legs B20                  E+A
136     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Bound legs B20                  E+A
137     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Bound legs B20                  E+A
138     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     Bound legs B20                  E+A
139	    Pit	   1	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   B12	and	finds	associated	       E	+	A
                                                      with torso
140	    Pit	   1	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   B12	and	finds	associated	       E	+	A
                                                      with torso
141     Pit    5      BP           Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 5       S+A
                                                      B8, 9 10, 13, 17, 19
142     Pit    5      BP           Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 5       S+A
                                                      B8, 9, 10, 13, 17, 19
143     Pit    5      BP           Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 5,      E
                                                      B8, 910, 13, 17, 19
144     Pit    5      BP           Working shot       Of human remains in Pit 5,      E
                                                      B8, 9, 10, 13, 17, 19
145     Pit    1      B12          Detail shot of     Head and chest with artefacts   S
146     Pit    1      B12          Detail shot of     Head and chest with artefacts   S
147     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
148     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
149     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
150     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
151     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
152     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
153     Pit    4      Pit 4        General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
154     Pit    4      4003         General shot of    Pit 4 evaluation sondage        E
155     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          E+A
                                                      with labels
156     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          N+A
                                                      with labels
157     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          W+A
                                                      with labels
158     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          S+A
                                                      with labels
159     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          S+A
                                                      with labels
160     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          S+A
                                                      with labels
161     Pit    5      1016/1017    General view of    Human remains in pit 5          E+A
                                                      with labels
162     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B08 and B09                     E+A
163     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B08 and B09                     N+A
164     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B08 and B09                     N+A
165     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B08 and B09                     S+A
166     Pit    5      1016         Detail shot of     B08 & B09                       S
167     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B19 and B28                     E+A
168     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B19 and B28                     E+A
169     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B25 and B28                     N +A
170     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B25 and B28                     N+A
171     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     BP27 and gasmask SF137          W+A
172     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     BP27 and gasmask SF137          W+A
173     Pit    5      1016         Detail shot of     BP 26                           E
174     Pit    5      1016         General shot of    BP 26                           E
175     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     BP 10, 13, 24                   W+A

                                             103
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject            Description                       From
No             No
176     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     BP 10, 13, 24                     W+A
177     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     BP 10, 13, 24                     W+ A
178     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B17                               W
179     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B17                               W+A
180     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B17                               N+A
181     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B17                               S+A
182     Pit    5      1016/1017    Detail shot of     B17                               SE +
                                                                                        A
183     Pit    5      SF179 B08    Wide shot          Of button in situ                 E
184     Pit    5      SF 179 B08   Detail shot of     Button                            E
185     Pit    5      SF182 B23    Wide shot          Of leather brace straps in situ   E+A
186     Pit    5      SF182 B23    Detail shot of     Leather brace straps in situ      E+A
187     Pit    5      SF177        Wide shot          Of eyelets in situ                E+A
188     Pit    5      SF177        Detail shot of     Eyelets in situ                   E+A
189     Pit    5      SF181 B09    Wide shot          Leather brace straps in situ      E+A
190     Pit    5      SF181 B09    Detail shot of     Leather brace straps in situ      E+A
191     Pit    5      SF180 B08    Wide shot          Leather brace straps in situ      E+A
192     Pit    5      SF180 B08    Detail shot of     Leather brace straps in situ      E+A
193     Pit    5      SF178 B08    Wide shot          Ammoclips in situ                 ENE
194     Pit    5      SF178 B08    Detail shot of     Ammoclips in situ                 ENE
195     Pit    5      SF178 B08    Wide shot          Of bullets and ammoclips          ENE
                                                      in situ
196	    Pit	   1	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   Textile	(collar?)	and	buckles	    -
                                                      associated with B12
197	    Pit	   7	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   Textile	(collar?)	and	buckles	    S
                                                      associated with B12
198	    Pit	   7	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   Textile	(collar?)	and	buckles	    S
                                                      associated with B12
199	    Pit	   7	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   Textile	(collar?)	and	buckles	    S
                                                      associated with B12
200	    Pit	   7	     2006	        Detail	shot	of 	   Textile	(collar?)	and	buckles	    N
                                                      associated with B12
201     Pit    7      SF 173       Detail shot of     Buckle with scale                 N
202     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     SF 173 buckle with scale          E
203     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     SF 174 buckle with scale          E
204     Pit    1      2006         Detail shot of     SF 174 buckle with scale          E
205     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    BP 29                             S
206     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    BP 29                             S
207     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Textile (collar) associated       S
                                                      with B12
208     Pit    1      2006         Working shot of    Textile (collar) associated       S
                                                      with B12
209     Pit    7      7009         Pre-ex shot of     W end of Pit 7                    S
210     Pit    7      7009         Pre-ex shot of     W end of Pit 7                    S
211     Pit    7      7009         Pre-ex shot of     W end of Pit 7                    S
212     Pit    7      7009         Pre-ex shot of     E end of Pit 7                    S
213     Pit    7      7009         Pre-ex shot of     E end of Pit 7                    S
214     Pit    7      7009         Pre-ex shot of     E end of Pit 7                    S
215     Pit    7      7009         General shot of    E end of Pit 7                    S
216     Pit    7      7009         Detail shot of     E end of Pit 7                    S
217     Pit    7      7009         Detail shot of     W end of Pit 7                    S
218     Pit    5      -            Working shot of    Tony Pollard                      S
219     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of     Trauma to skull                   N
220     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of     Trauma to skull                   N
221     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of     Trauma to skull                   N


                                               104
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject                Description                    From
No             No
222     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of         Trauma to skull and            N
                                                          tourniquet
223     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of         Trauma to skull and            N
                                                          tourniquet
224     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of         Trauma to skull, with button   N
                                                          and leather cord
225     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of         Trauma to skull, with button   N
                                                          and leather cord
226     Pit    3      B37          Working shot of        Button and leather cord,       N
                                                          with skull trauma
227     Pit    7      -            W facing section       Through pit 7 - wideshot       W
228     Pit    7      -            W facing section       Through pit 7 North part       -
229     Pit    7      -            W facing section       Through pit 7 south part       -
230     Pit    7      -            E facing section       Through pit 7 in sun shadow    E
231     Pit    7      -            Working shot           Of pit before 3D scan          N
232     Pit    7      -            Working shot           Of pit before 3D scan          E
233     Pit    7      -            Working shot           Of pit before 3D scan          S
234     Pit    7      -            Working shot           Of pit before 3D scan          S
235     Pit    7      -            Working shot           Of pit before 3D scan          S
236     Pit    7      -            Working shot           Of pit before 3D scan          W
237     Pit    1      -            General view of        Burials in Pit 1               S
238     Pit    1      -            General view of        Burials in Pit 1               S
239     Pit    1      -            General view of        Burials in Pit 1               W
240	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
241	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
242	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
243	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
244	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
245	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
246	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
247	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
248	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
249	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
250	    Pit	   5	     1016/1017	   Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             -
251     Pit    1      B20          Detail shot of         Legs                           W
252     Pit    1      B12 - B22    Detail shot of         Skull and torso                S
253     Pit    1      B30 - B50    General shot           Bodies 30 and 50               E
254     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Full body                      E
255     Pit    1      B22          General shot of        B22                            E
256     Pit    1      B12          Shot of                chest with artefacts           SW
257     Pit    1      B12          Shot of                Chest with artefacts           NE
258     Pit    1      B12          Shot of                Pelvis and legs                NE
259     Pit    1      B12          Shot of                C/UP of braces                 NE
260     Pit    1      B12          Shot of                Pelvis and legs                S
261     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Skull, chest and left arm      S
262     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Skull, chest and right arm     S
263     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Full body                      S
264     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Full body                      N
265     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Feet detail                    S
266     Pit    1      B30          Shot of                Full body                      S
267     Pit    1      B30          Shot of                Full body                      N
268     Pit    1      B30          Close up of            Damage to skull                S
269     Pit    1      B30          Close up of            Damage to skull                E
270     Pit    1      B30          Close up of            Scepulse damage                E
271     Pit    1      B30          Close up of            Scepulse damage                N
272     Pit    1      B30          Shot of                Pelvis to right foot           N

                                             105
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject                Description                  From
No             No
273     Pit    1      B30          Close up of            Of right hand and both       E
                                                          feet of B22
274     Pit    1      B30          Close up of            Both feet and north end      E
                                                          of stick
275     Pit    1      B22          Shot of                Pelvis and braces detail     NE
276     Pit    1      B22          Close up of            Belt buckles SF73 and 74     E
277     Pit    1      B22          Close up of            Face - enterior view         E
278     Pit    1      B22          Close up of            Posterior view               W
279     Pit    1      B12          Close up of            Face and enterior            W
280     Pit    1      B12          Close up of            Left laterel view            N
281     Pit    1      B12/22       Close up of            Right hand B12/              S
                                                          Left hand of B22
282     Pit    1      B20          Shot of                Legs and ties around them    W
283     Pit    1      B20          Close up of            Feet                         SE
284     Pit    1      B50          Shot of                Right hand                   E
285     Pit    1      B50          Close up of            Skull and left arm of B30    E
286     Pit    1      B50          Close up of            Skull, left thorax and arm   W
287     Pit    1      B50          Close up of            Skull, left thoraz and arm   N
288     Pit    1      B50          Close up of            Skull, left thorax and arm   E
289     Pit    1      B50          Shot of                Body and left hand N         N
290     Pit    1      BP52         Shot of                left arm below stick SF219   -
                                                          and above B5
291	    Pit	   1	     B51	         Shot	of 	              Left	femur/tibia/fibula	     E
                                                          and front
292	    Pit	   1	     B51	         Shot	of 	              Left	femur/tibia/fibula	     W
                                                          and front
293     Pit    1      SF218        Shot of                Gas mask west of B50 and     E
                                                          under BP52
294     Pit    1      SF219        Shot of                Long stick in east end       N
                                                          of grave
295     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       S
296     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       E
297     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       N
298     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       W
299     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       W
300     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       N
301     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       E
302     Pit    1      2006         General shot of        Human remains in Pit 1       S
303     Pit    1      B12          Detail shot of         B12 chest and skull          S
304     Pit    1      B12          Close up of            Chest and skull              N
305     Pit    1      B12          Close up of            Braces on pelvis area        N
306     Pit    1      B22          Close up of            Braces on pelvis area        N
307	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
308	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
309	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
310	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
311	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
312	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
313	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
314	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
315	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
316	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
317	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
318	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
319	    Pit	   1	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	           -
320     Pit    8      8012         General shot of        W-facing section             W

                                               106
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No    Subject            Description                    From
No             No
321     Pit    8      8012          Detail shot of     W-facing section, N half       W
322     Pit    8      8012          Detail shot of     W-facing section, S half       W
323     Pit    8      8012          General shot of    E-facing section               E
324     Pit    8      8012          Detail shot of     E-facing seciton, S half       E
325     Pit    8      8012          Detail shot of     E-facing section, N half       E
326     Pit    3      -             General shot of    Human remains in Pit 3         N
327     Pit    3      -             General shot of    Human remains in Pit 3         W
328     Pit    3      -             General shot of    Human remains in Pit 3         E
329     Pit    3      -             General shot of    Human remains in Pit 3         S
330     Pit    3      -             General shot of    Human remains in Pit 3         N
                                                       with ranging rods
331     Pit    3      -             General shots of   Human remains in Pit 3         W
                                                       with ranging rods
332     Pit    3      -             General shots of   Human remains in Pit 3         E
                                                       with ranging rods
333     Pit    3      -             General shots of   Human remains in Pit 3         S
                                                       with ranging rods
334     Pit    3      -             General shots of   Human remains in Pit 3         S
                                                       with ranging rods
335     Pit    3      -             General shots of   And labels                     N
336     Pit    3      -             General shots of   And labels                     W
337     Pit    3      -             General shots of   And labels                     E
338     Pit    3      -             General shots of   And labels                     S
339     Pit    3      -             General shots of   And labels                     S
340     Pit    3      B39 and B40   General view of    B39 and B40                    E
341     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 upper body                 E
342     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 upper body                 E
343     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 upper body                 E
344     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 upper body                 S
345     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 toothbrush, gasmask,       E
                                                       bag and belt
346     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 money belt only            E
347     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 toothbrush                 E
348     Pit    3      B40           Detail shot of     B40 lower body                 -
349     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     B39 legs and feet              E
350     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     B39 legs and feet              N
351     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     B39 pelvis                     E
352     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     B39 pelvis                     E
353     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     B39 torso                      E
354     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     B39 head and right arm         S
355     Pit    3      B39           General view of    B39                            S
356     Pit    3      B38           General view of    B38                            N
357     Pit    3      B37           Detail shot of     Left arm and head of B37       N
358     Pit    3      -             Detail shot of     Buckle                         N
359     Pit    3      -             General view of    Upper body and buckle          N
360     Pit    3      B38           General view of    B38 trauma skull front         W
361     Pit    3      B38           General view of    B38 trauma skull front         W
362     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     Legs under B39                 W
363     Pit    3      B39           Detail shot of     Legs under B39                 S
364     Pit    3      B37           General view of    B37                            W
365     Pit    3      B37           Detail shot of     B37 legs and ground sheet      W
366	    Pit	   3	     B37	          Detail	shot	of 	   B37	rifle	cleaner	             W
367	    Pit	   3	     B37	          Detail	shot	of 	   B37	rifle	cleaner	and	scale	   W
368     Pit    3      B37           Detail shot of     B37 buckle and leather cord    W
369     Pit    3      B37           Detail shot of     B37 buckle and leather cord    W
                                                       in context

                                              107
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject            Description                    From
No             No
370     Pit    3      B37          Detail shot of     B37 torniquet                  W
371     Pit    3      -            General view of    B37 torniquet in context       W
372     Pit    3      BP48         General view of    BP48                           W
373     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         W
374     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         S
375     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         E
376     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         W
377     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         S
378     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         S
379     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         E
380     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         E
381     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         W
                                                      with tripod
382     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         W
383     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 4         E
384     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 5         W
385     Pit    4      -            General view of    Human remains in pit 5         S
386     Pit    4      -            General view of    Burials in pit 4 with tripod   E
                                                      and ranging rods
387     Pit    4      -            General view of    Burials in pit 4 with tripod   SW
                                                      and ranging rods
388     Pit    4      -            General view of    Burials in pit 4 with tripod   E
                                                      and ranging rods
389     Pit    4      -            General view of    Pit 3 burials with labels      N
390     Pit    4      -            General view of    Pit 3 burials with labels      W
391     Pit    4      -            General view of    Pit 3 burials with labels      E
392     Pit    4      -            General view of    Pit 3 burials with labels      S
393     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of     B34                            W
394	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Boot	find	no	194	              W
395	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Boot	find	no		194	             W
396	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Boot	find	no	194	              W
397	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Boot	find	no	194	              W
398	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Gasmask	collar	find	no.231	    W
399	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Gasmask	collar	find	no.231	    W
400	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Boot	find	no	194	              E
401	    Pit	   4	     -	           Detail	shot	of 	   Boot	find	no	194	              E
402     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of     B31                            E
403     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of     B31                            E
404     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of     B31 skull                      E
405     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of     B31skull                       E
406     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of     B34                            E
407     Pit    4      BP54         Detail shot of     BP54                           W
408     Pit    4      BP54         Detail shot of     BP54                           W
409     Pit    4      B36          General view of    B36                            W
410     Pit    4      B36          General view of    B36                            W
411     Pit    4      B36          Detail shot of     Lower body of B36              W
412     Pit    4      B36          Detail shot of     Torso and skull of B36         W
413     Pit    4      B36          Detail shot of     Skull and neck of B36          W
414     Pit    4      B36          Detail shot of     Skull and neck of B36          W
415     Pit    4      B36          Detail shot of     Skull of B36                   E
416     Pit    4      B36          Detail shot of     Skull of B36                   E
417     Pit    4      BP53         Shot of            BP53 skull also showing        W
                                                      BR. cord around arm of B36
418     Pit    4      BP53         Shot of            BP53 skull also showing        W
                                                      BR. cord around arm of B36


                                              108
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject                Description                    From
No             No
419     Pit    4      BP53         Detail shot of         BP53 also showing BR. cord     W
                                                          around arm of B36
420     Pit    4      BP53         Detail shot of         BP53 also showing BR. cord     W
                                                          around arm of B36
421     Pit    4      B49          Detail shot of         B49                            W
422     Pit    4      B49          Detail shot of         B49                            W
423     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33                            E
424     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33                            E
425     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33 with detail of left arm    E
426     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33 left arm                   W
427     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33 chest                      W
428     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33 chest                      W
429     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33 head                       W
430     Pit    4      B33          Detail shot of         B33 head                       W
431     Pit    4      B32          General view of        B32                            E
432     Pit    4      B32          General view of        B32                            E
433     Pit    4      B32          General view of        B32 detail of skull            E
434     Pit    4      B35          General view of        B35                            W
435     Pit    4      B35          General view of        B35                            W
436     Pit    4      B35          Detail shot of         Of lower body                  W
437     Pit    4      B35          Detail shot of         Of lower body                  W
438     Pit    4      B35          Detail shot of         Upper body                     W
439     Pit    4      B35          Detail shot of         B35 left arm, B36 right arm,   W
                                                          B35 skull not excavated
440     Pit    4      B55          Detail shot of         B55                            W
441     Pit    4      B55          Detail shot of         B55                            W
442     Pit    4      B55          Detail shot of         B55                            W
443	    Pit	   3	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             S
444	    Pit	   3	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             S
445	    Pit	   3	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification	             S
446     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    SW part of trench              S
447     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    SE part of trench              S
448     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    NE part of trench              E
449     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    N central part of trench       N
450     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    NW part of trench              W
451     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    SW part of trench              W
452     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        W
453     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        S
454     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        E
455     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        N
456     Pit    1      B50          Detail shot of         Left hand of B50               E+A
457     Pit    1      B50          Detail shot of         Left hand of B50               E +A
458     Pit    4      -            Photos with targets    In trench 4 from N to NE       N
459     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        N
460     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        W
461     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        W
462     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        W
463     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        W
464     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        W
465     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        S
466     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        S
467     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        S
468     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        E
469     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        E
470     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        E
471     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets    Holding camera over pit        E

                                             109
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject               Description                      From
No             No
472     Pit    3      -            Photos with targets   Holding camera over pit          E
473     Pit    6      B64          Shot of               B64 lower leg in base of pit     S
474     Pit    6      B64          Shot of               B64 lower leg in base of pit     E
475     Pit    6      B64          Shot of               B64 lower leg in base of pit     E
476     Pit    6      B64          Shot of               B64 lower leg in base of pit     E
477     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
478     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
479     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
480     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
481     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
482     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
483     Pit    4      B34          Detail shot of        B34 and boot SF 194 in situ      S
484     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of        Matchbox SF 217 and other        S
	       	      	      	            	                     finds	in situ
485     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of        Matchbox SF 217 and other        S
	       	      	      	            	                     finds	in situ
486     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of        Matchbox SF 217 and other        S
	       	      	      	            	                     finds	in situ
487     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of        Matchbox SF 217 and other        S
	       	      	      	            	                     finds	in situ
488     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of        Matchbox SF 217 and other        S
	       	      	      	            	                     finds	in situ
490     Pit    4      B31          Detail shot of        Matchbox SF 217 and other        S
	       	      	      	            	                     finds	in situ
491     Pit    6      B64          Detail shot of        Disarticulated bones             S
492     Pit    6      B64          Detail shot of        Disarticulated bones             S
493     Pit    6      B64          Detail shot of        Disarticulated bones             S
494     Pit    6      B64          Detail shot of        Disarticulated bones             S
495     Pit    3      BP56 +       Shot of               Body parts in lower pit 3        E
                      BP57
496     Pit    3      BP56 +       Shot of               Body parts in lower pit 3        E
                      BP57
497     Pit    3      BP           Shot of               Body parts in lower part Pit 3   E
498     Pit    3      BP56 +       Shot of               Body parts in lower part Pit 3   N
                      BP57
499     Pit    3      BP56 +       Shot of               Body parts of lower part Pit 3   N
                      BP57
500     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials with ranging rods        S
501     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials with ranging rods        W
502     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials                          E
503     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials                          S
504     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials                          W
505     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials with labels              S
506     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials with labels              E
507     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials with labels              S
508     Pit    2      -            General view of       Burials with labels              W
509     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B41 with cranial trauma          W+A
510     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B41 with spine trauma            W+A
511     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B41 pelvis (position)            W+A
512     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        Group B43, BP44, BP45            W+A
513     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B46                              W+A
514     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B42                              W+A
515     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B42 cranial damage               W+A
516     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of        B42 spine (vertebrae             W+A
                                                         displaced)


                                              110
Photo   Zone   Zone   Context No   Subject                Description                   From
No             No
517     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B42 spine, non-fused          S
                                                          epiphylis
518     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B42 pelvis not fused          S
519     Pit    2      -            General view of        B42                           S
520     Pit    2      -            General view of        B47                           W+A
521     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B42 and B47                   W+A
522     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         Gas mask in situ of B47       W+A
523     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B47 spine (displacement)      E
524     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B47 lower femur               E
525     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B60                           E
526     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         B60 (spine) and right foot    E
                                                          to B43
527     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         BP61 + BP59                   E
528     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         BP59                          E
529     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         BP58                          E
530     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         Toothbrush by arm of B47      E
531     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         Gasmask in situ B47           E
532     Pit    2      -            General view of        East facing section           E
533	    Pit	   2	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification,	ranging	   W	+	A
                                                          rods marks top end of cut
534	    Pit	   2	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification,	ranging	   W	+	A
                                                          rods marks top end of cut
535	    Pit	   2	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification,	ranging	   W	+	A
                                                          rods marks top end of cut
536	    Pit	   2	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification,	ranging	   W	+	A
                                                          rods marks top end of cut
537	    Pit	   2	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification,	ranging	   W	+	A
                                                          rods marks top end of cut
538	    Pit	   2	     -	           Photos	with	targets	   For	rectification,	ranging	   W	+	A
                                                          rods marks top end of cut
539     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         BP63                          A
540     Pit    2      -            Detail shot of         BP64                          A
541     Pit    2      -            General view of        BP63, BP64 labels show        E
                                                          their location in pit
542     Pit    6      6002         General shot of        E-facing section              E
543     Pit    6      6002         General shot of        W-facing section              W
544     Pit    2      -            General view of        E end of pit 2 exposed in     S
                                                          plan
545     Pit    2      -            General view of        E end of pit 2                E
546     Pit    3      -            General view of        West end of pit 3 exposed     S
547     Pit    3      -            General view of        West end of pit 3             SW
548     -      -      -            Working shot           Last day                      S
549     -      -      -            Working shot           Last day                      S
550     -      -      -            Working shot           Last day                      S
551     Pit    3      -            General view of        East end of pit 3 exposed     S
552     Pit    3      -            General view of        East end of pit 3 exposed     S
553     Pit    3      -            General view of        East end of pit 3 exposed     S
554     Pit    1      -            General view of        East end of pit - no chalk    W
                                                          board
555     Pit    1      -            General view of        East end of pit - no chalk    NW
                                                          board
556     Pit    1      -            General view of        East end of pit - no chalk    E
                                                          board
538-    -      -      -            -                      Working shots                 -
1038


                                             111
12.10 Soil Analytical Data
Sample      Context     pH    pH CaCl   SOM (%)   Total Phosphate (mg/100g soil)
FR081/01    2002        8     7.4       4.97      NA
FR081/02    2006        7.9   7.6       3.44      202.02
FR081/03    2006        7.7   7.4       2.88      236.42
FR081/04    2006        7.8   7.4       3.13      NA
FR081/05    2013        7.4   7.3       3.63      164.26
FR081/06    2013        5.9   7.2       2.75      NA
FR081/07    2013        7     6.7       5.31      127.09
FR081/08    2013        7.1   7.1       4.13      200.61
FR081/09    2010        7.8   7.4       1.43      191.78
FR081/10    2010        7.9   7.5       1.63      187.16
FR081/11    2013        7.8   7.6       4.52      177.11
FR081/12    2013        7.9   7.7       5.56      286.64
FR082/01    2002        8     7.6       2.30      151.60
FR082/02    2011        8.2   7.7       2.21      234.36
FR082/03    2011        8.1   7.7       2.42      158.03
FR082/04    2011        7.9   7.5       3.27      152.60
FR082/05    2011        7.8   7.5       2.61      188.16
FR082/06    2012        7.7   7.5       3.07      231.95
FR082/07    2012        7.7   7.6       3.06      243.60
FR082/08    2012        7.8   7.6       3.13      252.49
FR082/09    2012        7.7   7.5       3.27      219.90
FR082/10    2012        7.8   7.6       3.16      229.54
FR083/01    3002        8.1   7.5       4.90      NA
FR083/02    3003        8.1   7.4       4.87      207.65
FR083/03    3003        7.9   7.6       4.40      NA
FR083/04    3003        7.6   7.4       3.52      195.19
FR083/05    3006        7.7   7.6       3.13      NA
FR083/06    3006        8     7.7       5.02      235.37
FR083/07    3006/3010   7.8   7.6       3.75      184.14
FR083/08    3006/3010   7.7   7.4       3.91      624.11
FR083/09    3006/3010   7.7   7.4       3.87      282.62
FR083/10    3006/3010   7.8   7.5       14.18     260.52
FR084/01    4002        8     7.5       4.49      168.12
FR084/02    4003        8.1   7.5       3.53      186.35
FR084/03    4003        7.7   7         3.59      202.02
FR084/04    4003        4.8   4.6       4.38      201.82
FR084/05    4003/4007   6.1   6         2.51      171.49
FR084/06    4007        7.2   7         2.29      190.77
FR084/07    4007        6.8   6.8       28.59     379.04
FR084/08    4007        4.6   4.6       3.33      171.09
FR084/09    4007        7.8   7.5       2.29      183.74
FR084/10    4007        6.8   6.7       54.05     332.84
FR085/01    1002        8     7.3       5.43      NA
FR085/02    1010        8.1   7.2       3.62      207.24
FR085/03    1010        7.8   7.4       1.75      NA
FR085/04    1010        7.5   7.4       3.87      NA
FR085/05    1013        7.4   7.2       3.58      218.09
FR085/06    1013        7.5   7.1       2.33      NA
FR085/07    1016/1017   4.3   4.1       2.02      172.69
FR085/08    1018        6.7   6.8       2.42      NA

                                          112
Sample     Context   pH    pH CaCl   SOM (%)   Total Phosphate (mg/100g soil)
FR085/09   1019      4.1   4.2       0.94      NA
FR085/10   1018      7.8   7         2.62      182.18
FR085/11   1018      7     7.1       4.27      421.22
FR085/12   1018      6.7   6.7       5.93      244.41
FR085/13   1018      7.2   7.1       3.04      251.03
FR088/01   8002      8     7.6       3.24      218.09
FR088/02   8002      7.9   7.5       3.45      NA
FR088/03   8002      7.6   7.4       3.07      NA
FR088/04   8002      7.7   7.4       2.93      205.64
FR088/05   8002      7.6   7.2       3.07      NA
FR088/06   8005      7.5   7.1       2.77      NA
FR088/07   8005      7.5   7         3.96      242.00
FR088/08   8022      7.1   6.7       3.30      NA
FR088/09   8022      7     6.5       3.65      234.96
FR088/10   8011      7.8   7.4       3.42      NA
FR088/11   8016      7.6   7.2       5.48      251.84
FR088/12   8014      7.6   7.4       2.98      NA




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