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WILDLIFE ADVENTURES 2007 monasteries, walk in some of the most dramatic mountains you‟re ever likely to see, visit „Africa‟s Petra‟, as well as so TOUR DOSSIER much more. You really don‟t have any reason not to visit this unique and intriguing destination. ETHIOPIA EXPLORER PRE-DEPARTURE INFORMATION: Most clients arrive a few days prior to the official start day. (Adventurer Accommodated) This is to give them plenty of time to enjoy all that Addis Ababa has to offer. WildLife Adventures can organise any accommodation or activities you may require if you want to ETHIOPIA arrive early or stay on in Africa after your tour ends. Please contact us for assistance. 14 DAYS: ADDIS ABABA TO ADDIS ABABA (12 NTS HOTEL/GUESTHOUSE AND 1 NT On Day 1 clients should meet at the Holiday Hotel, Haile G/Selassie Road, Addis Ababa. Tel: (++ 251 1) CAMPING) 612081 at 18h00pm for the pre-departure meeting. This ITINERARY DAYS will give you all a chance to meet your fellow travellers and 1 Addis Ababa, city tour. Hotel or Guesthouse get to know your guides. The meeting will cover all the 2 Addis Ababa, visit the church, Merkato. Hotel or aspects of the trip. Please bring with you to this meeting: Guesthouse (B) your passport with relevant visa‟s and evidence of medical 3 Bahir Dar, visit Blue Nile falls. Hotel or and personal insurance. Please also bring the Local Guesthouse (BD) Payment. This must be paid to the tour leader prior to 4 Lake Tana. Hotel or Guesthouse (BD) departure and must be paid in Cash. The WildLife 5 Gondar. Visit church. Hotel or Guesthouse Adventures local payment is required to cover a wide variety (BD) of our on-tour expenses, which can include National Park 6 Simien Mountains. Camping (BD) entrance fees, excursions and activities, certain fresh foods, 7 Gondar. Hotel or Guesthouse (BD) vehicle tolls and entrance fees, as well as some 8 Lilabela. Flight to Lilabela visit church. Hotel or accommodation costs whilst travelling throughout Africa. Guesthouse (BD) The local payment is that portion of the tour cost which 9 Lilabela. Hotel or Guesthouse (BD) must be paid in cash to the WildLife Adventures tour leader 10 xum. Flight to Axum. Hotel or Guesthouse at the pre-departure meeting. (BD) 11 Axum. Hotel or Guesthouse (BD) Please note: Due to significant and unexpected rises 12 Addis Ababa. Flight to Addis Ababa Hotel or in the cost of fares with Ethiopian Airlines, a Guesthouse (B) surcharge of US$130 per person for all pax departing 13 Addia Ababa. Excursion to Mount Entoto. Hotel on KTEE Ethiopian Explorer, will come into effect for or Guesthouse (B) 2006. This amount will be collected locally by the tour 14 Addis Ababa, Tour Ends (B) leader, along with the local payment. * Optional add on to Harar: 3 days. See details below. If you have any questions regarding arrival prior to the tour or any other questions whatsoever, please contact WildLife INCLUDED IN THE TOUR PRICE: Adventures. If you are unable to attend the pre-departure Itinerary as specified. Highlighted text is also included. Fully meeting, please let WildLife Adventures know at least one equipped vehicle, private bus, 4x4 vehicle, domestic flights, week prior to your departure. services of tour leader, all accommodation, all boat transfers, entrance fees. Please note that due to limited Other pre-tour accommodation is also available. Please facilities, chalet and lodge accommodation may be on a contact the WildLife Adventures office for assistance. All sharing basis. B: Breakfast. L: Lunch. D: Dinner (All other meals whilst in Addis Ababa will be to your own expense. meals not shown will be to the clients account). Pre Dep. Meeting Point: Holiday Hotel Address: Haile G/Selassie Rd, Addis Ababa NOT INCLUDED IN THE TOUR PRICE: Contact Details: Tel: (++ 251 1) 612081 International Airfares, travel and medical insurance, Fax: (++ 251 1) 612627 personal spending money, visas, passports, vaccinations, Pre Dep Meeting: 18h00pm on Day 1 personal taxes (including departure and border taxes) all Tour Start Time: Approx. 14h00 on Day 1 optional activities, unscheduled or optional national / game Tour End Time: Tour ends on Day 15 after parks and other activities, gratuities, restaurant meals and breakfast drinks, and all other items of a personal nature. Tour End point: Holiday Hotel, Addis Ababa Contact Details: As above THE BEST OF ETHIOPIA: DAY 1 – Addis Ababa ‟Behold the vast and mysterious splendor that is Ethiopia! Arrive and check into your hotel. Later this evening you will This ancient land is a revelation of breathtaking gorges, have the chance to meet your tour leader and the other soaring mountains and lakes full of life. With the discovery members of your tour. All meals to the clients own expense. of ancient fossil remains of our very distant ancestors HOTEL (Holiday Hotel or similar) Haile G/Selassie Rd, Addis Ethiopia is often referred to as "The Cradle of Man". It is a Ababa land of fairytale castle cities and untouched grasslands. Contact details: same as above You‟ll visit the magnificent Blue Nile Falls, take a boat trip on the vast Lake Tana and explore isolated island ADDIS ABABA twenty of the islands that are found within the waters. Life Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, is a bustling African on Lake Tana goes on as it has done for centuries, and local city, dotted with Italian architecture, interesting churches people traverse the lake on tankwas, boats made from and friendly inhabitants. It is also a city of immense papyrus that are capable of holding enormous weights. The contrasts – the Addis Sheraton, with its „singing fountain‟ is monasteries themselves are fascinating and unlike any one of the most luxurious in all of Africa, yet you only need others outside Ethiopia, often decorated with bright to travel a few streets away to find yourself among busy frescoes. Because of their isolation they were used to store markets, dirt roads and the odd goat or two wandering the art treasures and religious relics from all over the country. streets. Local history says the Ark of the Covenant was kept on one of these islands when the city of Axum was under threat, DAY 2 – Addis Ababa and the remains of five Emperors - including the renowned Today we have a guided tour around the city, visiting Fasilidas - are to be found at Daga Istafanos. various sites including St George‟s Cathedral, the site of Emperor Haile Selassie‟s coronation, as well as the Merkato, DAY 5 – Gondar East Africa‟s largest market. Breakfast. This morning we drive along country roads to the town of Gondar, old capital of Ethiopia. The town is home to the ST GEORGE’s CATHEDRAL Royal Enclosure, a collection of well preserved castles built Built in 1896 in the traditional octagonal shape by the in the seventeenth century, and we spend some time Emperor Menelik II to commemorate his victory against exploring and learning about them. Afterwards we head to Italian forces at Adwa, this small cathedral is dedicated to Debre Berhan Selassie, thought by many to be the most the national saint of Ethiopia – the same saint that serves beautiful church in Ethiopia. Breakfast and dinner. as the British patron saint. DAY 6 – Simien Mountains MERKATO Heading north, we travel to the small village of Debark, on The Merkato is a vast area, almost the size of a small town the edge of the Simien Mountains National Park. This area is itself, which houses Addis‟ principal market. From spices to characterised by enormous chasms and gorges, and offers clothes to cattle, as well as souvenirs, the merkato is said to some of the most dramatic scenery in Africa. We make a sell almost everything that can be sold. The merkato is short trek to Sankaber, where we camp for the night. divided into many separate sections, each concentrating Breakfast and dinner. upon a particular type of product. It‟s huge, busy, and loud, but the merkato is an essential part of Addis Ababa, and is TREKKING one of the sights you can‟t afford to miss. The Simien Mountains are one of Africa‟s premier trekking destinations, and this tour includes a short trek to the DAY 3 – Bahir Dar village of Sankaber, where you will spend the night. The We fly today to Bahir Dar, a pleasant town situated on the trek included in this trip is graded B - Moderate and shores of the impressive Lake Tana, Ethiopia‟s largest lake consists of two short walks, approximately three hours each and the source of the Blue Nile. This afternoon we head out in length – one on the day of your arrival in the mountains, to the Blue Nile Falls, the second largest in Africa. Breakfast and one the following morning. You will be transported by and dinner. 4wd vehicle to the start point of the trek, at around 3,000m, although there will not be too many ascents and descents BLUE NILE FALLS while you are actually walking. Although no previous The famous explorer James Bruce, when he first laid eyes trekking experience is required for this trip and everyone on the Blue Nile Falls, described them as „a most can walk at his or her own pace, it is recommended that you magnificent sight, that ages, added to the greatest length of have a reasonable level of fitness before joining this trip – human life, would not deface or eradicate from my the more physically fit you are, the more easily your body memory.‟ Flowing from the mighty Lake Tana, the Blue Nile will adapt to hiking. We also recommend that you bring Falls were once the second largest in Africa, after Victoria hiking boots with ankle support as footing can be Falls in Zimbabwe. However, since the construction of a treacherous. Please note that this trek must not be used as hydro-electric dam upstream in 2003, the falls have been a way of reduced somewhat, and are quite different to those seen by getting fit - you must be fit before starting this trip. As Bruce. The walk to the falls takes you through the village of well as your tour leader, you will be accompanied by a scout Tis Isat, then crosses the river using an old and picturesque (compulsory for all visitors to the National Park), and mule bridge built by the Portuguese sometime in the seventeenth handlers will take care of your luggage, leaving you to carry century, before winding through small homesteads and only your day pack. Our porters will also take care of all ending up at a viewpoint over the falls. other necessary tasks, such as setting up the communal camp and cooking meals. Most food is fresh and DAY 4 – Lake Tana we try to limit tinned or dehydrated food. Our camping A full day visiting some of the many island monasteries that accommodation will be in twin share tents Basic equipment lie on Lake Tana. We travel by boat to visit some of the such as sleeping mats will be provided, but you will need more remote monasteries and churches, most of which date to bring your own sleep-sheet. Sleeping bags can be back to the thirteenth century and have interesting hired locally for around US$5. As we are trekking frescoes. Return to Bahir Dar for the night. Breakfast and through some of Ethiopia‟s most remote regions, please be dinner. prepared for very basic washing/toilet facilities. Our tour leader will carry a comprehensive medical kit throughout the Lake TANA duration of the trek. Lake Tana, one of the fabled sources of the Nile, is one of Ethiopia‟s greatest natural treasures. With a surface of DAY 7 – Simien Mountains – Gondar around 3,600 square kilometres, the lake is also famous for This morning we trek for a short while in the hope of seeing the series of ancient monasteries and churches located on some of the fascinating wildlife that lives in these mountains. You‟re almost guaranteed to see Gelada DAY 2 – Harar baboons, a striking species that is found nowhere else on A guided tour of Harar to see the mosques and interesting earth, and if we‟re lucky we may see Walia Ibex or the old architecture of the town, including the old city wall and Simien Fox. Afterwards we return to Gondar for the night. the house of the French poet Rimbaud. This evening you breakfast and dinner. may wish to go and see one of the most amazing sights in Ethiopia – the nightly feeding of the hyenas that live in the DAY 8 – Lalibela countryside nearby. Breakfast and dinner. We take a short flight to the isolated town of Lalibela, which is home to a spectacular collection of ancient churches hewn DAY 3 – Awash National Park- Addis Ababa out of the surrounding rock, so astounding that local legend Awash National park is one of the most beautiful parks in has it that they are the creations of angels. We visit the Ethiopia. The river Awash runs through a spectacular gorge; many churches within the town today. Breakfast and dinner. the park itself is home to 392 species of birds and many mammals including oryx, gazelles and antelopes. The river DAY 9 – Lalibela Awash is the longest river in Ethiopia; it does not run into Heading out into the rugged surrounding countryside, we the sea, but feeds into the Danakil depression close to travel along dirt tracks visiting some of the churches that lie Asayta and terminates in a series of lakes. After visiting the nearby, all made from the rock and dating back to around Park we will drive back to Addis Ababa where the tour ends the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Breakfast and diner upon arrival. Breakfast included. DAY 10 – Axum Please note: While it is our intention to adhere to the route Today we fly to Axum, the centre of a once great empire described above, there is a certain amount of flexibility built that was under the control of the legendary Queen of into the itinerary and on occasion it may be necessary, or Sheba. Axum is home to many fascinating tombs and desirable to make alterations. On Day 1 of your tour, you churches and has an unusual collection of stelae dating back will be advised of any amendments. to the third and fourth centuries. Breakfast and dinner. DAY 11 – Axum Today we have a full day sightseeing in Axum, including a visit to the Church of St Mary of Zion, which is believed to contain the Ark of the Covenant. Breakfast and dinner. DAY 12 – Addis Ababa We fly back to Addis Ababa where the rest of the day is at leisure. Breakfast. DAY 13 – Addis Ababa Today we make an excursion to Mount Entoto where you can see the old palace of Menelik II, the St Mary‟s Church, and a panoramic view of Addis. The rest of the day is at leisure. Breakfast. DAY 14 – Addis Ababa Tour ends after breakfast. Breakfast. If you would like to extend your stay in Ethiopia, and visit the Islamic city of Harar, this could be extended as follows: DAY 1 – Addis Ababa - Harar Drive to the walled city of Harar, a once important centre of Islamic scholarship. For many years the city was closed to Christians and early explorers were forced to enter in disguise, at their peril. Dinner included. HARAR Harar, an ancient city surrounded by great walls, has the most colourful market place in Ethiopia. Harar was for centuries the main center for Islamic learning and culture in Ethiopia, and a prosperous centre for the caravan trade. Harar is the spiritual heart of Ethiopia's large Muslim community. With almost a hundred mosques in a small city of less than one square mile (the highest concentration in the world), Harar is considered by some to be the fourth holiest Muslim city in the world. WILDLIFE ADVENTURES CC SOUTH AFRICA CLIENT BE FLEXIBLE! INFORMATION Our tour guides are trained not only to run informative, fun Central Reservations and Head Office and adventurous tours, but also to take control when things Unit 1, Westlake Business Park, 25 Bell Crescent, Westlake, don‟t run smoothly. 7945, Cape Town, South Africa. PO Box 30661, Tokai, 7966, Cape Town, South Africa. Please remember that this is Africa after all, and that the Tel: (++ 27) 21 702 0643 Fax: (++ 27) 21 702 0644 itinerary stated has to be flexible and will depend on local Email: firstname.lastname@example.org conditions. Travelling in Africa is sometimes unpredictable. Web: www.wildlifeadventures.co.za By the very nature of travelling in remote areas there are unforeseen challenges to overcome and passengers should have a taste for adventure. Problems with road conditions, Dear WildLife Adventures client, weather, mechanical breakdown or accidents can delay and change the schedule of the tour. Please be prepared and Based on years of experience operating safaris in Africa, we pack a sense of humor! have put together a few important points that we hope will help you to understand the type of safaris we offer. This is a On every tour that we operate timing and itineraries will guide to prepare you for your holiday and maximum vary slightly because of changing conditions. Be prepared enjoyment. and expect this. BOOKING TERMS AND CONDITIONS WITH WILDLIFE In the event of any incidence that may affect safety, ADVENTURES security, and the well being of the tour participants, the All clients are responsible for reading and understanding this decision of the tour guide will be final. pre departure information, and also reading and signing the standard booking terms and conditions. Your participation in ROUTES & ITINERARY: this tour is based on these terms and conditions. WildLife Adventures operates multi country tours. On some tours our total distance covered is over five thousand ADVENTURE SAFARIS AND TOURS: kilometers and we visit 4 different countries! You need to be Adventure Safaris are for people whom love life and want to prepared therefore for long drives on certain days. Although embrace it with passion, who want to travel with other our vehicles are well maintained and serviced regularly, the people and care about wildlife and culture. A positive challenging African roads may sometimes cause temporary approach and flexibility are essential. Remember you are breakdowns. Do not panic and please be patient if this travelling in Africa. The nature of this tour will be should arise. WildLife Adventures are well represented with adventurous – hopefully that is the reason you have booked good support throughout Southern and East Africa. Should a in the first place. mechanical breakdown or incident occur, good back-up systems are in place, and there is no need for concern. Your PARTICIPATION: driver has been trained and will need to do on tour This tour does not call for any participation. Our crew may maintenance to his or her vehicle as part of their occasionally ask you for assistance, but porterage of 2 bags responsibilities. per client is included. It is vital that travellers have a positive attitude towards participation and joining in is what There will be sand and dust and hot African sun, but there turns a great trip into an unforgettable journey. will also be some gorgeous evenings spent around the campfires under the starry skies, some beautiful FOOD countryside, and some extraordinary tales about nature, Where your guides are scheduled to prepare food, they will exquisite photographic opportunities, and memories for a make every effort to prepare nutritious and filling meals. If lifetime! you have any problems with the food please discuss this directly with them. In Africa especially in the more remote We make every effort to follow the intended route of the areas, availability of foods and fresh products are often itinerary in our brochure, however changes sometimes need limited. This may result in the duplication of ingredients and to be made due to unforeseen circumstances beyond our meals. control. This may result in missed areas and activities, diversions, and variations on night stops. Occasional Discuss your specific food requirements especially in the operational uncertainties make it impossible to run case of dietary limitations with your crew. They will adventure trips exactly to the intended itinerary, so when wherever possible accommodate your needs. booking a trip you must accept that itineraries may differ from that published DRINKS You will be expected to purchase all of your own drinks. The company will not be responsible for accommodation Beer, cool drinks, bottled water, local wine and spirits, etc costs, or liable for any airfares or any other compensation to are usually readily available at reasonable prices. Bottled the client. water is normally available in most large towns. Discuss this in detail with your guide, as this could affect your health. GUIDES: Our guides are there to make sure that you have an Beware of dehydration and drink plenty of water. You will unforgettable trip. If there is anything that is upsetting you probably not be accustomed to African conditions and this whilst on tour, you need to approach the guide to give him a can affect you severely. fair opportunity to rectify the problem. Dealing with any problems that may arise whilst on tour, will prevent them from developing into something more problematic. The guide cannot help you if you remain quiet. It will be difficult for WildLife Adventures to address any complaint after a tour if you have not discussed this issue with your guide. If on tour could change from that stated in this dossier or in a serious matter arises on tour that you feel needs to be our brochures. brought to our head offices attention then the contact details are on this information sheet. Please feel free to Hotels, lodges or chalets where used will be simple, clean contact us by mail or by phone in the unlikely event of a basic travellers accommodation. In some cases ablution serious matter arising that your tour leader cannot deal facilities may be on a sharing basis. with. WITH REGARDS TO YOUR SAFTEY AND WELL BEING: Our guides are trained extensively, but please also Please take care in the vehicle whilst travelling - do not remember that the nature of an adventure safari is to give a move about unnecessarily for if the vehicle has to stop very broad range of experiences. Your guide cannot be suddenly you may fall. You must be seated and remain expected to be an expert on everything throughout many seated if the vehicle is moving. Take care when standing different countries! This is why we also contract the services that you do not bang your head! of local guides and experts to compliment the information that our guides can give you. There will also be occasions Do not carry all money or valuables on your person – use where your camp courier will need to sit in the cab with the the safe on the vehicle for money and passports. This safe is tour driver to do planning for meals and other aspects of the in the vehicle for your convenience. tour. If you feel that you are not getting enough information WildLife Adventures provides this safe in good faith, but please speak with your tour leader and we will rectify the cannot be held responsible for any losses or damages problem. Do not leave any valuables lying around. Your possessions Your guide will brief you on the nature of the tour and what are YOUR responsibility! to expect in the pre departure meeting. Thereafter he will have meetings with the group on a regular basis most Beware of pickpockets and it a good idea to walk in groups usually every evening to explain the next day‟s options, particularly at night and in African towns, markets etc. programs and activities. It is essential that if you are Check with your guide if you are in doubt. unhappy about any issues on the tour that you express your feelings to the guide. This should be done privately if it is a Do not buy anything out of the vehicle windows – ask your sensitive matter. Think of group dynamics and how crew to explain but when street vendors swamp the vehicle important they are to successful tours. Please don‟t wait things sometimes get stolen! until the end of the tour to raise any complaints if they arise. It is your responsibility to make the guides aware of Do not change any money on the black market. If you do so issues that need attention so that they can address any it is at your own risk! problems or make changes where necessary. Last person out of the vehicle please switch of all lights and TIPPING shut the door! Please keep all doors closed and locked at all Tipping is obviously entirely at your discretion, and based times. Your possessions are at risk. on how you feel the service has been. Our guides do go to great lengths to provide you with an experience of a The truck buzzer should be used with discretion. Please lifetime. They often go that extra mile to make that special remember that the driver can only stop when it is safe to do moment. Remember also that it is hours of behind the so. Do not therefore expect an immediate stop for toilet or scenes work that you may not be aware of that will make photographs after using the buzzer. your tour really special. Please consider all of this when you decide on your tip. Guiding is a 24-hour job that requires HEALTH AND FIRST AID dedicated effort. Any one participating in an adventure safari must be in good health. Please see our terms and conditions for further An indication of what is generally accepted and paid to the information on this. Please note that WildLife guides is: Adventures is not qualified to give you medical advice and you must contact your own doctor for - Driver/guides /couriers: USD 3 to 4 per day per client; - - information. Trainees USD 1 per day - National Parks Guides / optional activities: USD 1 to 2 Recommended vaccinations and other health protection vary per person from country to country. We recommend that you contact - Bar staff/waiters: 10% of bill if service is excellent your doctor and gain the correct medical advice about vaccinations. PASSENGER MANIFESTO: Your guides will ask you to complete details onto a All clients MUST have full medical and travel insurance cover passenger manifesto with all tour participants‟ passport before joining the tour. See booking terms and conditions details. This will be used for getting the group through for further information. borders smoothly and most importantly will reduce the amount of time we spend at border crossings. There is an emergency first aid kit on board every vehicle. This kit is for emergencies or serious medical conditions ACCOMMODATION AND FACILITIES: only. If items are used, clients will be asked to pay for The facilities in some of the areas that you will be visiting them. Clients are advised to bring a simple personal first aid are sometimes basic. PLEASE COME PREPARED! Participants kit, and details are supplied below. are usually very quick to adapt themselves to the conditions of the safari. It‟s all part of the adventure! It must be understood that your crew are not able to Whilst we have been specific about which lodges or hotels administer any drugs. It is the client‟s responsibility to we may use whilst on tour, please note that accommodation administer medication to him or herself, unless incapacitated, in which case that individuals travelling CONNECTING TRIPS AND SAFARIS IN AFRICA partner will administer medication. WildLife Adventures operates safaris, trips and expeditions all over Africa. Many of our trips are scheduled so that you Your major health risk is Malaria– so take your prophylactics can connect with other departing adventures. on time. The best way of avoiding malaria is to not get bitten in the first place! Cover up at night and keep your Please contact us for full details. tents closed at all times. Web: www.wildlifeadventures.co.za E-Mail: email@example.com Bilharzia is present in Africa. It is not an immediate life threatening disease! Simply have a test when you get back SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS home and the treatment is simple and effective. Do not let it Any client with any special requirements, dietary or spoil your swimming! otherwise, should notify our Head Office in writing at least one week prior to departure. We will do our very best to All water on the truck is clean and drinkable. Beware of any accommodate you. other water in Africa as it can make you sick! PHOTOGRAPHY Good personal hygiene is essential! Wash hands as often as Please bring your own film, as sources can be expensive and you can, and always before eating - but remember water is unreliable in Africa. Please remember that taking photos of precious in Africa. people can sometimes cause great offence and permission should be asked beforehand. In addition to this some Inform your crew about any medical problems or allergies. African governments do not allow photos to be taken at any This is essential and will be treated confidentially. Be sure to government, police or army post, borders, bridges or inform them if any medical conditions get serious. There are military roadblocks. If in doubt ask your guide. not always hospitals or doctors everywhere along the route. A TYPICAL DAY RUBBISH Generally clients will wake at 7:00 am on a traveling day All litter including cigarette buts must be thrown into and depart at approx 8:00 am after breakfast. Some days dustbins provided. Not even fruit peals or pips may be where the travelling distance is greater, an earlier rise is to thrown anyplace other than the dustbin. be expected. Where meals are included they are supplied at a stopover decided by your guides and we generally get to LOCAL LAWS AND CUSTOMS our hotel or camp in the late afternoon. Free days are at We are guests in each country we visit and it is only good your leisure. manners that we comply with their customs. All participants are required to obey the law and regulation of the countries VEHICLES visited and any passengers contravening such laws may be Your comfort and safety is our number one priority. required to leave the tour immediately with no right to Transportation for this tour will be on a private bus. refund of the tour fare. ROOMING ARRANGEMENTS VISITING OF AFRICAN VILLAGES Do not be concerned about coming alone, many of our As a form of respect and general courtesy towards local clients do. You will however be required to pay a single inhabitants and village dwellers, we do not encourage the supplement on the tour price. complete invasion of their privacy and homes by tourists. There are certain villages that allow tourist visits at a INSURANCE minimal fee. Many tourists are happy to pay for this small COMPREHENSIVE TRAVEL INSURANCE IS charge for the opportunity of seeing the way in which local COMPULSORY FOR ALL PASSENGERS! All travellers are inhabitants live. If in doubt ask your WildLife Adventures required to take insurance to cover cancellation and guide for advice. curtailment, baggage loss or damage, medical expenses, emergency travel, repatriation and personal accident before CONSERVATION leaving their country. It is the passenger‟s sole Most countries are members of CITES (Convention of responsibility to ensure that they are fully insured. This is International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna also part of our booking terms and conditions, so you will and Flora). Please do NOT purchase products made from mot be accommodated on any tour without adequate ivory and skins. These may be confiscated by customs. insurance. Guides will check your insurance policy at the pre Please be aware that the purchase of any wooden carvings departure meeting, and if you are not insured you will not places a strain on forest resources, and the removal of coral be allowed to join the tour. and shells is destructive to the reefs. Most travel insurance policies have a restriction on ECOTOURISM compensation for loss, damage or theft of single valuable The ultimate objective of eco-tourism is for clients to have a items (e.g. cameras). Please check your policy carefully pleasant and enriching experience of nature, and at the and if necessary insure valuable items separately, (e.g. same time, cause the least possible disturbance to under a home contents policy with a travel extension). ecosystems. Your guides have strict environmental policies Please take your insurance policy with you on safari. Please to adhere to, which we endeavour to instil in all of our also note that travel insurance provided with credit card passengers. Respect for local people, fellow travellers and payment is usually inadequate for travel of this nature. the places we visit are expected. Consider the environment at all times and be considerate in your approach to your INDEMNITY holiday. Passengers will be required to complete and sign an Indemnity Form prior to joining any adventure safari. Again these form part of our booking terms and conditions. If you do not sign the indemnity form you will not be HINT: Please take your toiletries and a change of clothing accommodated. with you on board the plane in case bags get miss- placed. VISAS AND PASSPORTS A CHECK LIST OF SUGGESTED ITEMS FOLLOWS All travelers will require a full valid passport, and it is your BELOW: responsibility to ensure that you have valid visas for all Some nights can be very cold in winter, so bring along some countries visited on your holiday, and / or sufficient blank warm clothing. pages for any visas and for entry/departure stamps. Your passport must be valid for at least six months after the end 1 day pack, to contain money, travel documents, water and of your holiday. If you have more then one passport, we camera equipment, etc. This will be allowed inside the safari recommend that you use one passport only for the entire vehicle. journey. This will save problems and potential delays at border crossings. Requirements differ depending on your 1 waist pouch or money belt. nationality - check with the appropriate embassies for details. CLOTHING & PERSONAL EFFECTS (PLEASE TAKE THE MINIMUM) It is your responsibility to ensure that you are in possession Most people make the mistake of taking along too much of the correct visas for your holiday and onward travel. clothing. Take along comfortable, casual and semi-casual, WildLife Adventures cannot accept responsibility for anyone “wash & wear” clothes. There will be opportunities to wash who is refused entry to a country because they lack the clothing OR have it washed along the way. Bright colours correct documentation. Please check the actual and white are not suitable for game viewing. Please also requirements with the necessary embassy. avoid clothing resembling army uniform (i.e. army jackets, caps, and trousers). Please dress appropriately when: Please also do not assume that any inaccuracies within your crossing borders (no bare feet, bare chests, no bikini tops, documentation will be detected or can be rectified - you no sunglasses or hats), when visiting markets, villages, and must ensure, that your "paper-work" is in order. There will towns and when travelling in the vehicle. be times during the trip, when your passport will be collected e.g. by your tour leader, hotel reception staff, or This list below is purely a guideline: police. 1 pair of smart/casual trousers 3 pairs of shorts OPTIONAL ACTIVITIES 7 shirts/T-shirts (any combination) All of our trips are designed so that you can choose 1 light cotton dress for the ladies according to your own particular budget, which excursions 2 fleece / jersey for the cool evenings you wish to partake in. Any activity marked „optional‟ will be 1 wind-breaker / water proof jacket to the client‟s expense. Your WildLife Adventures guides are 1 warm jacket able to assist with information of all the options on offer. 1 pair of walking/running shoes WildLife Adventures can book these excursions as an extra 1 pair of sandals/ reef shoes (useful for showers) service to our clients. Underwear and socks 1 swimming costume Remember these optional extras are operated by third party 1 sun hat local companies and not by WildLife Adventures. Some 1 towel activities are adventurous with accompanying risk. All 1 litre water bottle (essential) activities are undertaken at your own risk, and WildLife 1 torch with batteries (essential) Adventures will not be held responsible in any way. Toilet paper Bath soap EXTRA EXPENSES Toothbrush/toothpaste Sometimes political or civil unrest and other circumstances Shampoo & hair conditioner beyond the control of WildLife Adventures will mean the Deodorant group having to make alternative travel plans. We Comb/hair brush recommend that you bring emergency funds or have access Razor & blades (preferable battery operated shaver) to funds that you do not intend to use. Most insurance Suntan lotion/sun block policies refund only after you have paid out. Lip balm Hand cream & moisturizing cream LUGGAGE AND OTHER ITEMS Insect repellent Space in the vehicle is limited and we request that you pay Tissues or disposable moist tissues (e.g. Wet Ones) particular attention to the following guidelines. Washing powder We suggest your luggage is restricted to 15 kilograms (so Plastic bags (to pack wet/dirty clothing) you can comfortably carry it). Sunglasses We recommend that you utilize old or inexpensive luggage. Spectacles (if worn) – some people have trouble with Suitcases are NOT suitable. You may use a small/ medium contact lenses & dust sized rucksack, provided that it has no frame. Pen for immigration formalities Notebook PLEASE NOTE THAT ANY EXCESS LUGGAGE OVER THE ABOVE SPECIFIED WEIGHT LIMIT WILL NOT BE LOADED PERSONAL MEDICAL KIT INSIDE THE VEHICLE. EXCESS LUGGAGE WILL BE STORED We suggest that you take along the following: - AND ANY COSTS INCURRED WILL BE THE PASSENGERS Plasters/band aids RESPONSIBILITY. Aspirins/paracetamol Anti-diarrhoea pills (consult your pharmacist for advice) Throat lozenges Antiseptic cream Insect repellent Anti-malaria tablets (refer to the MALARIA section) Insect repellent (Jungle Formula) Fungal infection powder Rehydration powder Eye drops Sunscreen Moisturizer Any other medicines & toiletries you regularly use (e.g. tampons or condoms) BANKING There are full banking facilities available in the major towns and cities where one is able to change money and withdraw cash from your credit card. Your tour guide will advise further at the pre-departure meeting. PERSONAL SPENDING MONEY You should budget at least the equivalent of 300 – 500 US$, to cover optional activities you might like to try, as well as your drinks and the restaurant meals, crafts and souvenirs. YOURS IN SAFE TRAVEL, THE WILDLIFE ADVENTURES TEAM fortune for various nobles, including Ras Ali, a Christian of Oromo origin who dominated the court in Gonder. Kasa A BRIEF HISTORY became sufficiently effective as an army commander to be ETHIOPIA offered the governorship of a minor province. He also married Ali's daughter, Tawabech. Nevertheless, Kasa THE RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ETHIOPIA MONARCHY eventually rebelled against Ali, occupied Gonder in 1847, At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Gonder and compelled Ali to recognize him as chief of the western state consisted of the northern and central highlands and frontier area. In 1848 he attacked the Egyptians in Sudan; the lower elevations immediately adjacent to them. This however, he suffered a crushing defeat, which taught him to area was only nominally a monarchy, as rival nobles fought respect modern firepower. Kasa then agreed to for the military title of ras (roughly, marshal; literally, head reconciliation with Ali, whom he served until 1852, when he in Amharic) or the highest of all non-royal titles, again revolted. The following year, he defeated Ali's army rasbitwoded, that combined supreme military command with and burned his capital, Debre Tabor. In 1854 he assumed the duties of first minister at court. These nobles often were the title negus (king), and in February 1855 the head of the able to enthrone and depose princes who carried the empty church crowned him Tewodros II. title of negusa nagast. Tewodros II's origins were in the Era of the Princes, but his The major peoples who made up the Ethiopian state were ambitions were not those of the regional nobility. He sought the Amhara and the Tigray, both Semitic speakers, and to re-establish a cohesive Ethiopian state and to reform its Cushitic speaking peoples such as the Oromo and those administration and church. He did not initially claim groups speaking Agew languages, many of whom were Solomonic lineage but did seek to restore Solomonic Christian by the early 1800s. In some cases, their hegemony, and he considered himself the "Elect of God." conversion had been accompanied by their assimilation into Later in his reign, suspecting that foreigners considered him Amhara culture or, less often, Tigray culture; in other cases, an upstart and seeking to legitimise his reign, he added they had become Christian but had retained their "son of David and Solomon" to his title. languages. The state's largest ethnic group was the Oromo, but the Oromo were neither politically nor culturally unified. Tewodros's first task was to bring Shewa under his control. Some were Christian, spoke Amharic, and had intermarried During the Era of the Princes, Shewa was, even more than with the Amhara. Other Christian Oromo retained their most provinces, an independent entity, and its ruler even language, although their modes of life and social structure styling himself negus. In the course of subduing the had changed extensively from those of their pastoral kin. At Shewans, Tewodros imprisoned a Shewan prince, Menelik, the eastern edge of the highlands, many had converted to who would later become emperor himself. Despite his Islam, especially in the area of the former sultanates of Ifat success against Shewa, Tewodros faced constant rebellions and Adal. The Oromo people, whether or not Christian and in other provinces. In the first six years of his reign, the new Amhara in culture, played important political roles in the ruler managed to put down these rebellions, and the empire Zemene Mesafint--often as allies of Amhara aspirants to was relatively peaceful from about 1861 to 1863, but the power but sometimes as rases and kingmakers in their own energy, wealth, and manpower necessary to deal with right. regional opposition limited the scope of Tewodros's other activities. By 1865 other rebels had emerged, including Meanwhile, to the south of the kingdom, segments of the Menelik, who had escaped from prison and returned to Oromo population--cultivators and suppliers of goods Shewa, where he declared himself negus. exportable to the Red Sea coast and beyond--had developed kingdoms of their own, no doubt stimulated in part by the In addition to his conflicts with rebels and rivals, Tewodros examples of the Amhara to the north and the Sidama encountered difficulties with the European powers. Seeking kingdoms to the south. aid from the British government (he proposed a joint expedition to conquer Jerusalem), he became unhappy with The seventeenth through nineteenth century was a period the behaviour of those Britons whom he had counted on to not only of migration but also of integration, as groups advance his request, and he took them hostage. In 1868, as borrowed usable techniques and institutions from each a British expeditionary force sent from India to secure other. In the south, too, Islam had made substantial release of the hostages stormed his stronghold, Tewodros inroads. Many Oromo chieftains found Islam a useful tool in committed suicide. the process of centralization as well as in the building of trade networks. Tewodros never realized his dream of restoring a strong monarchy, although he took some important initial steps. By the second quarter of the nineteenth century, external He sought to establish the principle that governors and factors once more affected the highlands and adjacent judges must be salaried appointees. He also established a areas, at least in part because trade among the Red Sea professional standing army, rather than depending on local states was being revived. Egypt made incursions along the lords to provide soldiers for his expeditions. He also coast and sought at various times to control the Red Sea intended to reform the church, believing the clergy to be ports. Europeans, chiefly British and French, showed ignorant and immoral, but strong opposition confronted him interest in the Horn of Africa. The competition for trade, when he tried to impose a tax on church lands to help differences over how to respond to Egypt's activities, and finance government activities. His confiscation of these the readier availability of modern arms were important lands gained him enemies in the church and little support factors in the conflicts of the period. elsewhere. Essentially, Tewodros was a talented military campaigner but a poor politician. In the mid-nineteenth century, a major figure in Gonder was Kasa Haylu, son of a lesser noble from Qwara, a district on The kingdom at Tewodros's death was disorganized, but the border with Sudan. Beginning about 1840, Kasa those contending to succeed him were not prepared to alternated between life as a brigand and life as a soldier of return to the Zemene Mesafint system. One of them, crowned Tekla Giorgis, took over the central part of the Battle of Metema on the Sudanese border. Although the highlands. Another, Kasa Mercha, governor of Tigray, invaders were defeated, Yohannis himself was fatally declined when offered the title of ras in exchange for wounded, and the Ethiopian forces disintegrated. Just before recognizing Tekla Giorgis. The third, Menelik of Shewa, his death, Yohannis designated one of his sons, Ras came to terms with Tekla Giorgis in return for a promise to Mengesha Yohannis of Tigray, as his successor, but this respect Shewa's independence. Tekla Giorgis, however, gesture proved futile, as Menelik successfully claimed the sought to bring Kasa Mercha under his rule but was throne in 1889. defeated by a small Tigrayan army equipped with more modern weapons than those possessed by his Gonder The Shewan ruler became the dominant personality in forces. In 1872 Kasa Mercha was crowned negusa nagast in Ethiopia and was recognized as Emperor Menelik II by all a ceremony at the ancient capital of Aksum, taking the but Yohannis's son and Ras Alula. During the temporary throne name of Yohannis IV. period of confusion following Yohannis's death, the Italians were able to advance farther into the hinterland from Yohannis was unable to exercise control over the nearly Mitsiwa and establish a foothold in the highlands, from independent Shewans until six years later. From the which Menelik was unable to dislodge them. From 1889 until beginning of his reign, he was confronted with the growing after World War II, Ethiopia was deprived of its maritime power of Menelik, who had proclaimed himself king of frontier and was forced to accept the presence of an Shewa and traced his Solomonic lineage to Lebna Dengel. ambitious European power on its borders. While Yohannis was struggling against opposing factions in By 1900 Menelik had succeeded in establishing control over the north, Menelik consolidated his power in Shewa and much of present-day Ethiopia and had, in part at least, extended his rule over the Oromo to the south and west. He gained recognition from the European colonial powers of the garrisoned Shewan forces among the Oromo and received boundaries of his empire. Although in many respects a military and financial support from them. Despite the traditionalist, he introduced several significant changes. His acquisition of European firearms, in 1878 Menelik was decision in the late 1880s to locate the royal encampment at compelled to submit to Yohannis and to pay tribute; in Addis Ababa ("New Flower") in southern Shewa led to the return, Yohannis recognized Menelik as negus and gave him gradual rise of a genuine urban center and a permanent a free hand in territories to the south of Shewa. This capital in the 1890s, a development that facilitated the agreement, although only a truce in the long-standing introduction of new ideas and technology. The capital's rivalry between Tigray and Shewa, was important to location symbolized the empire's southern reorientation, a Yohannis, who was preoccupied with foreign enemies and move that further irritated Menelik's Tigrayan opponents pressures. In many of Yohannis's external struggles, and some Amhara of the more northerly provinces who Menelik maintained separate relations with the emperor's resented Shewan hegemony. Menelik also authorized a enemies and continued to consolidate Shewan authority in French company to build a railroad, not completed until order to strengthen his own position. In a subsequent 1917 that eventually would link Addis Ababa and Djibouti. agreement designed to ensure the succession in the line of Yohannis, one of Yohannis's younger sons was married to Menelik embarked on a program of military conquest that Zawditu, Menelik's daughter. more than doubled the size of his domain. Enjoying superior firepower, his forces overran the Kembata and Welamo In 1875 Yohannis had to meet attacks from Egyptian forces regions in the southern highlands. Also subdued were the on three fronts. The khedive in Egypt envisioned a "Greater Kefa and other Oromo- and Omotic-speaking peoples. Egypt" that would encompass Ethiopia. In pursuit of this goal, an Egyptian force moved inland from present-day Expanding south, Menelik introduced a system of land rights Djibouti but was annihilated by Afar tribesmen. Other considerably modified from that prevailing in the Egyptian forces occupied Harer, where they remained for AmharaTigray highlands. These changes had significant nearly ten years, long after the Egyptian cause had been implications for the ordinary cultivator in the south and lost. Tigrayan warriors defeated a more ambitious attack ultimately were to generate quite different responses there launched from the coastal city of Mitsiwa in which the to the land reform programs that would follow the revolution Egyptian forces were almost completely destroyed. A fourth of 1974 in the central and northern highlands, despite Egyptian army was decisively defeated in 1876 southwest of regional variations, most peasants had substantial Mitsiwa. inheritable rights in land. In addition to holding rights of this kind, the nobility held or were assigned certain economic Italy was the next source of danger. The Italian government rights in the land, called gult rights, which entitled them to a took over the port of Aseb in 1882 from the Rubattino portion of the produce of the land in which others held rist Shipping Company, which had purchased it from a local rights and to certain services from the rist holders. The ruler some years before. Italy's main interest was not the Ethiopian Orthodox Church also held land of its own and gult port but the eventual colonization of Ethiopia. In the rights in land to which peasants held rist rights. In the process, the Italians entered into a long-term relationship south, all land theoretically belonged to the emperor. He in with Menelik. The main Italian drive was begun in 1885 turn allocated land rights to those he appointed to office and from Mitsiwa, which Italy had occupied. From this port, the to his soldiers. The rights allocated by the king were more Italians began to penetrate the hinterland, with British extensive than the gult rights prevailing in the north and left encouragement. In 1887, after the Italians were soundly most of the indigenous peoples as tenants, with far fewer defeated at Dogali by Ras Alula, the governor of north- rights than Amhara and Tigray peasants. Thus, the new eastern Tigray, they sent a stronger force into the area. landowners in the south were aliens and remained largely so. Yohannis was unable to attend to the Italian threat because of difficulties to the west in Gonder and Gojam. In 1887 At the same time that Menelik was extending his empire, Sudanese Muslims, known as Mahdists, made incursions into European colonial powers were showing an interest in the Gojam and Begemdir and laid waste parts of those territories surrounding Ethiopia. Menelik considered the provinces. In 1889 the emperor met these forces in the Italians a formidable challenge and negotiated the Treaty of Wuchale with them in 1889 among its terms were those designated his thirteen-year-old nephew, Lij Iyasu, son of permitting the Italians to establish their first toehold on the Ras Mikael of Welo, as his successor. After suffering another edge of the northern highlands and from which they stroke in late 1908, the emperor appointed Ras Tessema as subsequently sought to expand into Tigray. Disagreements regent. These developments ushered in a decade of political over the contents of the treaty eventually induced Menelik uncertainty. The great nobles, some with foreign financial to renounce it and repay in full a loan Italy had granted as a support, engaged in intrigues anticipating a time of troubles condition. Thereafter, relations with Italy were further as well as of opportunity upon Menelik's death. strained as a result of the establishment of Eritrea as a colony and Italy's penetration of the Somali territories. Empress Taytu, who had borne no children, was heavily involved in court politics on behalf of her kin and friends, Italian ambitions were encouraged by British actions in most of who lived in the northern provinces and included 1891, when, hoping to stabilize the region in the face of the persons who either had claims of their own to the throne or Mahdist threat in Sudan, Britain agreed with the Italian were resentful of Shewan hegemony. However, by 1910 her government that Ethiopia should fall within the Italian efforts had been thwarted by the Shewan nobles; sphere of influence. France, however, encouraged Menelik thereafter, the empress withdrew from political activity. to oppose the Italian threat by delineating the projected boundaries of his empire. Anxious to advance French THE INTERREGNUM economic interests through the construction of a railroad The two years of Menelik's reign that followed the death of from Addis Ababa to the city of Djibouti in French Ras Tessema in 1911 found real power in the hands of Ras Somaliland, France accordingly reduced the size of its (later Negus) Mikael of Welo, an Oromo and former Muslim, territorial claims there and recognized Ethiopian sovereignty who had converted to Christianity under duress. Mikael in the area. could muster an army of 80,000 in his predominantly Muslim province and commanded the allegiance of Oromo Italian-Ethiopian relations reached a low point in 1895, outside it. In December 1913, Menelik died, but fear of civil when Ras Mengesha of Tigray, hitherto reluctant to war induced the court to keep his death secret for some recognize the Shewan emperor's claims, was threatened by time. Although recognized as emperor, Menelik's nephew, the Italians and asked for the support of Menelik. In late Lij Iyasu, was not formally crowned. The old nobility quickly 1895, Italian forces invaded Tigray. However, Menelik attempted to reassert its power, which Menelik had completely routed them in early 1896 as they approached undercut, and united against Lij Iyasu. At the outbreak of the Tigrayan capital, Adwa. This victory brought Ethiopia World War I, encouraged by his father and by German and new prestige as well as general recognition of its sovereign Turkish diplomats, Lij Iyasu adopted the Islamic faith. status by the European powers. Besides confirming the Seeking to revive Muslim-Oromo predominance, Lij Iyasu annulment of the Treaty of Wuchale, the peace agreement placed the eastern half of Ethiopia under Ras Mikael's ending the conflict also entailed Italian recognition of control, officially placed his country in religious dependence Ethiopian independence; in return, Menelik permitted the on the Ottoman sultan-caliph, and established cordial Italians to retain their colony of Eritrea. relations with Somali leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan. In addition to attempts on the part of Britain, France, and The Shewan nobility immediately secured excommunicating Italy to gain influence within the empire, Menelik was Lij Iyasu and deposing him as emperor from the head of the troubled by intrigues originating in Russia, Germany, and Ethiopian Orthodox Church a proclamation. Menelik's the Ottoman Empire. But, showing a great capacity to play daughter, Zawditu, was declared empress. Tafari Mekonnen, one power off against another, the emperor was able to the son of Ras Mekonnen of Harer (who was a descendant of avoid making any substantial concessions. Moreover, while a Shewan negus and a supporter of the nobles), was pursuing his own territorial designs, Menelik joined with declared regent and heir to the throne and given the title of France in 1898 to penetrate Sudan at Fashoda and then ras. By virtue of the power and prestige he derived from his cooperated with British forces in British Somaliland between achievements as one of Menelik's generals, Habte Giorgis, 1900 and 1904 to put down a rebellion in the Ogaden by the minister of war and a traditionalist, continued to play a Somali leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan. By 1908 the major role in government affairs until his death in 1926. colonial powers had recognized Ethiopia's borders except for Although Lij Iyasu was captured in a brief military campaign those with Italian Somaliland. in 1921 and imprisoned until his death in 1936, his father, Negus Mikael, continued for some time to pose a serious After Menelik suffered a disabling stroke in May 1906, his challenge to the government in Addis Ababa. The death of personal control over the empire weakened. Apparently Habte Giorgis in 1926 left Tafari in effective control of the responding to that weakness and seeking to avoid an government. In 1928 he was crowned negus. When the outbreak of conflict in the area, Britain, France, and Italy empress died in 1930, Tafari succeeded to the throne signed the Tripartite Treaty, which declared that the without contest. Seventeen years after the death of Menelik, common purpose of the three powers was to maintain the the succession struggle thus ended in favour of Tafari. political status quo and to respect each other's interests. Britain's interest, it was recognized, lay around Lake Tana Well before his crowning as negus, Tafari began to introduce and the headwaters of the Abay (Blue Nile). Italy's chief a degree of modernization into Ethiopia. As early as 1920, interest was in linking Eritrea with Italian Somaliland. he ordered administrative regulations and legal codebooks France's interest was the territory to be traversed by the from various European countries to provide models for his railroad from Addis Ababa to Djibouti in French Somaliland. newly created bureaucracy. Ministers were also appointed to advise the regent and were given official accommodations in Apparently recognizing that his political strength was the capital. To ensure the growth of a class of educated ebbing, Menelik established a Council of Ministers in late young men who might be useful in introducing reforms in 1907 to assist in the management of state affairs. The the years ahead, Tafari promoted government schooling. He foremost aspirants to the throne, Ras Mekonnen and Ras enlarged the school Menelik had established for the sons of Mengesha, had died in 1906. In June 1908, the emperor nobles and founded Tafari Mekonnen Elementary School in 1925. In addition, he took steps to improve health and that were linked to the traditional political order. Abolition of social services. the pattern of gult rights in the Amhara-Tigray highlands Tafari also acted to extend his power base and to secure and the system of land allocation in the south would have allies abroad. In 1919, after efforts to gain membership in amounted to a social and economic revolution that Haile the League of Nations were blocked because of the Selassie was not prepared to undertake. existence of slavery in Ethiopia, he (and Empress Zawditu) complied with the norms of the international community by The emperor took non-military measures to promote loyalty banning the slave trade in 1923. That same year, Ethiopia to the throne and to the state. He established new was unanimously voted membership in the League of elementary and secondary schools in Addis Ababa, and Nations. Continuing to seek international approval of the some 150 university-age students studied abroad. The country's internal conditions, the government enacted laws government enacted a penal code in 1930, imported in 1924 that provided for the gradual emancipation of slaves printing presses to provide nationally oriented newspapers, and their offspring and created a government bureau to increased the availability of electricity and telephone oversee the process. The exact degree of servitude was services, and promoted public health. The Bank of Ethiopia, difficult to determine, however, as the majority of slaves founded in 1931, commenced issuing Ethiopian currency. worked in households and were considered, at least among Amhara and Tigray, to be second-class family members. ITALIAN RULE AND WORLD WAR II Ethiopia signed a twenty-year treaty of friendship with Italy ITALIAN ADMINISTRATION IN ERITREA in 1928, providing for an Ethiopian free-trade zone at Aseb A latecomer to the scramble for colonies in Africa, Italy in Eritrea and the construction of a road from the port to established itself first in Eritrea (its name was derived from Dese in Welo. A joint company controlled road traffic. the Latin term for the Red Sea, Mare Erythreum) in the Contact with the outside world expanded further when the 1880s and secured Ethiopian recognition of its claim in emperor engaged a Belgian military mission in 1929 to train 1889. Despite its failure to penetrate Tigray in 1896, Italy the royal bodyguards. In 1930 negotiations started between retained control over Eritrea. A succession of Italian chief Ethiopia and various international banking institutions for administrators, or governors, maintained a degree of unity the establishment of the Bank of Ethiopia. In the same year, and public order in a region marked by cultural, linguistic, Tafari signed the Arms Traffic Act with Britain, France, and and religious diversity. Eritrea also experienced material Italy, by which unauthorized persons were denied the right progress in many areas before Ethiopia proper did so. to import arms. The act also recognized the government's right to procure arms against external aggression and to One of the most important developments during the post- maintain internal order. 1889 period was the growth of an Eritrean public administration. The Italians employed many Eritreans to HAILE SELASSIE: THE PRE-WAR PERIOD 1930 - 36 work in public service--particularly the police and public Although Empress Zawditu died in April 1930, it was not works--and fostered loyalty by granting Eritreans until November that Negus Tafari was crowned Haile emoluments and status symbols. The local population Selassie I, "Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of shared in the benefits conferred under Italian colonial God, and King of Kings of Ethiopia." As emperor, Haile administration, especially through newly created medical Selassie continued to push reforms aimed at modernizing services, agricultural improvements, and the provision of the country and breaking the nobility's authority. urban amenities in Asmera and Mitsiwa. Henceforth, the great rases were forced either to obey the emperor or to engage in treasonable opposition to him. After Benito Mussolini assumed power in Italy in 1922, the colonial government in Eritrea changed. The new In July 1931, the emperor granted a constitution that administration stressed the racial and political superiority of asserted his own status, reserved imperial succession to the Italians, authorized segregation, and relegated the local line of Haile Selassie, and declared that "the person of the people to the lowest level of public employment. At the Emperor is sacred, his dignity inviolable, and his power same time, Rome implemented agricultural improvements indisputable." All power over central and local government, and established a basis for commercial agriculture on farms the legislature, the judiciary, and the military remained with run by Italian colonists. the emperor. The constitution was essentially an effort to provide a legal basis for replacing the traditional provincial State control of the economic sphere was matched by rulers with appointees loyal to the emperor. tighter political control. Attempts at improving the management of the colony, however, did not transform it The new strength of the imperial government was into a self-sufficient entity. The colony's most important demonstrated in 1932 when a revolt led by Ras Hailu Balaw function was to serve as a strategic base for future of Gojam in support of Lij Iyasu was quickly suppressed and aggrandizement. a new non-traditional governor put in Hailu's place. By 1934 reliable provincial rulers had been established throughout As late as September 29, 1934, Rome affirmed its 1928 the traditional Amhara territories of Shewa, Gojam, and treaty of friendship with Ethiopia. Nonetheless, it became Begemdir, as well as in Kefa and Sidamo--well outside the clear that Italy wished to expand and link its holdings in the core Amhara area. The only traditional leader capable of Horn of Africa. Moreover, the international climate of the overtly challenging central rule at this point was the ras of mid-1930s provided Italy with the expectation that Tigray. Other peoples, although in no position to confront aggression could be undertaken with impunity. Determined the emperor, remained almost entirely outside the control of to provoke a casus belli, the Mussolini regime began the imperial government. deliberately exploiting the minor provocations that arose in its relations with Ethiopia. Although Haile Selassie placed administrators of his own choosing wherever he could and thus sought to limit the In December 1934, an incident took place at Welwel in the power of the rases and other nobles with regional power Ogaden, a site of wells used by Somali nomads regularly bases, he did not directly attack the systems of land tenure traversing the borders between Ethiopia and British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. The Italians had built projects were undertaken. One result was the construction fortified positions in Welwel in 1930 and, because there had of the country's first system of improved roads. In the been no protests, assumed that the international community meantime, however, the Italians had decreed miscegenation had recognized their rights over this area. However, an to be illegal. Racial separation, including residential Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission challenged the Italian segregation, was enforced as thoroughly as possible. The position when it visited Welwel in late November 1934 on its Italians showed favouritism to non - Christian Oromo (some way to set territorial boundary markers. On encountering of whom had supported the invasion), Somali, and other Italian belligerence, the commission's members withdrew Muslims in an attempt to isolate the Amhara, who supported but left behind their Ethiopian military escort, which Haile Selassie. eventually fought a battle with Italian units. Ethiopian resistance continued, nonetheless. Early in 1938, In September 1935, the League of Nations exonerated both a revolt broke out in Gojam led by the Committee of Unity parties in the Welwel incident. The long delay and the and Collaboration, which was made up of some of the intricate British and French manoeuvrings persuaded young, educated elite who had escaped the reprisal after Mussolini that no obstacle would be placed in his path. An the attempt on Graziani's life. In exile in Britain, the Anglo-French proposal in August 1935 -just before the emperor sought to gain the support of the Western League of Nations ruling - that the signatories to the 1906 democracies for his cause but had little success until Italy Tripartite Treaty collaborate for the purpose of assisting in entered World War II on the side of Germany in June 1940. the modernization and reorganization of Ethiopian internal Thereafter, Britain and the emperor sought to cooperate affairs, subject to the consent of Ethiopia, was flatly with Ethiopian and other indigenous forces in a campaign to rejected by the Italians. On October 3, 1935, Italy attacked dislodge the Italians from Ethiopia and from British Ethiopia from Eritrea and Italian Somaliland without a Somaliland, which the Italians seized in August 1940, and to declaration of war. On October 7, the League of Nations resist the Italian invasion of Sudan. Haile Selassie unanimously declared Italy an aggressor but took no proceeded immediately to Khartoum, where he established effective action. closer liaison with both the British headquarters and the resistance forces within Ethiopia. In a war that lasted seven months, Ethiopia was outmatched by Italy in armaments - a situation exacerbated ETHIOPIA IN WORLD WAR II by the fact that a League of Nations arms embargo was not The wresting of Ethiopia from the occupying Italian forces enforced against Italy. Despite a valiant defence, the next involved British personnel, composed largely of South six months saw the Ethiopians pushed back on the northern African and African colonial troops penetrating from the front and in Harerge. Acting on long-standing grievances, a south, west, and north, supported by Ethiopian guerrillas. It segment of the Tigray forces defected, as did Oromo forces was the task of an Anglo-Ethiopian mission, eventually in some areas. Moreover, the Italians made widespread use commanded by Colonel Orde Wingate, to coordinate the of chemical weapons and air power. On March 31, 1936, the activities of the Ethiopian forces in support of the campaign. Ethiopians counterattacked the main Italian force at The emperor arrived in Gojam on January 20, 1941, and Maychew but were defeated. By early April 1936, Italian immediately undertook the task of bringing the various local forces had reached Dese in the north and Harer in the east. resistance groups under his control. On May 2, Haile Selassie left for French Somaliland and exile - a move resented by some Ethiopians who were The campaigns of 1940 and 1941 were based on a British accustomed to a warrior emperor. The Italian forces entered strategy of preventing Italian forces from attacking or Addis Ababa on May 5. Four days later, Italy announced the occupying neighbouring British possessions, while at the annexation of Ethiopia. same time pressing northward from East Africa through Italian Somaliland and eastern Ethiopia to isolate Italian On June 30, Haile Selassie made a powerful speech before troops in the highlands. This thrust was directed at the the League of Nations in Geneva in which he set forth two Harer and Dire Dawa area, with the objective of cutting the choices - support for collective security or international rail link between Addis Ababa and Djibouti. At the same lawlessness. The emperor stirred the conscience of many time, British troops from Sudan penetrated Eritrea to cut off and was thereafter regarded as a major international figure. Italian forces from the Red Sea. The campaign in the north Britain and France, however, soon recognized Italy's control ended in February and March of 1941 with the Battle of of Ethiopia. Among the major powers, the United States and Keren and the defeat of Italian troops in Eritrea. By March the Soviet Union refused to do so. 3, Italian Somaliland had fallen to British forces, and soon after the Italian governor initiated negotiations for the In early June 1936, Rome promulgated a constitution surrender of the remaining Italian forces. On May 5, 1941, bringing Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland together Haile Selassie re-entered Addis Ababa, but it was not until into a single administrative unit divided into six provinces. January 1942 that the last of the Italians, cut off near On June 11, 1936, Marshal Rodolfo Graziani replaced Gonder, surrendered to British and Ethiopian forces. Marshal Pietro Badoglio, who had commanded the Italian forces in the war. In December, the Italians declared the During the war years, British military officials left whole country to be pacified and under their effective responsibility for internal affairs in the emperor's hands. control. Ethiopian resistance nevertheless continued. However, it was agreed that all acts relating to the war effort--domestic or international - required British approval. After a failed assassination attempt against Graziani on Without defining the limits of authority, both sides also February 19, 1937, the colonial authorities executed 30,000 agreed that the emperor would issue "proclamations" and persons, including about half of the younger, educated the British military administration would issue "public Ethiopian population. This harsh policy, however, did not notices." Without consulting the British, Haile Selassie pacify the country. In November 1937, Rome therefore appointed a seven-member cabinet and a governor of Addis appointed a new governor and instructed him to adopt a Ababa, but for tactical reasons he announced that they more flexible line. Accordingly, large-scale public works would serve as advisers to the British military generation full of frustrated expectations, clashed with administration. forces bent on maintaining the traditional system. This interim Anglo-Ethiopian arrangement was replaced in CHANGE AND RESISTANCE January 1942 by a new agreement that contained a military The expansion of central authority by appointed officials convention. The convention provided for British assistance required a dependable tax base, and that in turn encroached in the organization of a new Ethiopian army that was to be on the established prerogatives of those who had been trained by a British military mission. In addition to attaching granted large holdings in the south and of gult-holders of officers to Ethiopian army battalions, the British assigned the Amhara-Tigray highlands. Consequently, in March 1942, advisers to most ministries and to some provincial without reference to the restored parliament, the emperor governors. British assistance strengthened the emperor's decreed a taxation system that divided all land into one of efforts to substitute, as his representatives in the provinces, three categories: fertile, semi fertile, and poor. A fixed levy, experienced administrators for the traditional nobility. But depending on category, was imposed for each gasha (forty such help was rejected whenever proposed reforms hectares) of land. threatened to weaken the emperor's personal control. The nobles of Gojam, Tigray, and Begemdir refused to accept any limitation upon the prevailing land tenure system The terms of the agreement confirmed Ethiopia's status as a and successfully battled the government over the issue. The sovereign state. However, the Ogaden and certain strategic emperor acknowledged defeat by excluding those provinces areas, such as the French Somaliland border, the Addis from the tax. When landlords elsewhere also protested the Ababa-Djibouti railroad, and the Haud (collectively termed tax, the emperor exempted them as well, contenting himself the "Reserved Areas"), remained temporarily under British with a flat 10 percent tithe on all but church land. But this administration. Other provisions set forth recruitment tax, traditionally collected by landlords, was simply passed procedures for additional British advisers should they be on to the tenants. In short, the emperor pursued policies requested. About the same time, a United States economic that did not infringe on the rights of the nobility and other mission arrived, thereby laying the groundwork for an large landholders. In 1951, in response to additional alliance that in time would significantly affect the country's pressure from the landlords, Haile Selassie further reduced direction. the land tax payable by landlords and not covered by previous exemptions; the peasant cultivator, as in centuries A British-trained national police administration and police past, continued to carry the entire taxation burden. force gradually took the place of the police who had served earlier in the retinues of the provincial governors. Some reform was also affected within the Ethiopian Opposition to these changes was generally minor except for Orthodox Church. In July 1948, Haile Selassie initiated a revolt in 1943 in Tigray--long a stronghold of resistance to steps, completed in 1956, by which he, rather than the the Shewans and another in the Ogaden, inhabited chiefly patriarch of Alexandria, would appoint the abun, or by the Somali. British aircraft brought from Aden helped patriarch, of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Thus, for the quell the Tigray rebellion, and two battalions of Ethiopian first time in sixteen centuries of Ethiopian Christianity, an troops suppressed the Ogaden uprising. The 1942 Anglo- Ethiopian rather than an Egyptian served as head of the Ethiopian agreement enabled the British military to disarm national church. The Ethiopian church, however, continued the Somali rebels and to patrol the region. to recognize the primacy of the Alexandrian see. This appointment was followed by the creation of enough new After Haile Selassie returned to the throne in 1941, the bishoprics to allow the Ethiopians to elect their own British assumed control over currency and foreign exchange patriarch. Abuna Basilios, the first Ethiopian archbishop, was as well as imports and exports. Additionally, the British elevated to the status of patriarch in 1959. The post-war helped Ethiopia to rehabilitate its national bureaucracy. years also saw a change in the church-state relationship; These changes, as well as innovations made by the Italians the vast church landholdings became subject to tax during the occupation, brought home to many Ethiopians legislation, and the clergy lost the right to try fellow church the need to modernize, at least in some sectors of public officials for civil offences in their own court. life, if the country were to survive as an independent entity. Acutely aware of his international image, Haile Selassie also In addition, the emperor made territorial demands, but was active on the diplomatic front Ethiopia was a founding these met with little sympathy from the British. Requests for member of the United Nations (UN) and the Organization of the annexation of Eritrea, which the Ethiopians claimed to African Unity (OAU). After the post-war relationship with be racially, culturally, and economically inseparable from Britain wound down, the emperor in 1953 asked the United Ethiopia, were received with awareness on the part of the States for military assistance and economic support. British of a growing Eritrean sense of separate political Although his dependence on Washington grew, Haile identity. Similarly, Italian Somaliland was intended by the Selassie diversified the sources of his international British to be part of "Greater Somalia"; thus, the emperor's assistance, which included such disparate nations as Italy, claims to that territory were also rejected. China, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), Taiwan, Yugoslavia, Sweden, and the Soviet Union. ETHIOPIA THE POST-WAR PERIOD, 1945-60: REFORM AND ETHIOPIA OPPOSITION ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE AND THE 1955 Despite criticism of the emperor's 1936 decision to go into CONSTITUTION exile, the concept of the monarchy remained widely In pursuit of reform, Haile Selassie faced the recalcitrance of accepted after World War II. The country's leaders and the the provincial nobility, other great landholders, and church church assumed that victory over the Italians essentially officials--all of whom intended to maintain their power and meant the restoration of their traditional privileges. Before privileges. Moreover, some provincial nobility opposed the long, however, new social classes stirred into life by Haile emperor because of their own long-held claims to the Selassie's centralizing policies, as well as a younger throne. Whatever his intentions as a reformer, Haile Selassie was a political realist and recognized that, lacking a strong military, he had to compromise with the Amhara and The bicameral Ethiopian parliament played no part in Tigray nobility and with the church. And, where required, he drawing up the 1955 constitution, which, far from limiting made his peace with other ethnic groups in the empire. For the emperor's control, emphasized the religious origins of example, he eventually granted autonomy over Afar areas imperial power and extended the centralization process. The that Addis Ababa could not dominate by armed force to the Senate remained appointive, but the Chamber of Deputies sultan of Aussa. In general, political changes were few and was, at least nominally, elected. However, the absence of a were compromised at the first sign of substantial opposition. census, the near total illiteracy of the population, and the In the 1950s, despite his many years as emperor and his domination of the countryside by the nobility meant that the international stature, there was almost no significant section majority of candidates who sought election in 1957 were in of the Ethiopian population on which Haile Selassie could effect chosen by the elite. The Chamber of Deputies was not rely to support him in such efforts. altogether a rubber stamp, at times discussing bills and questioning state ministers. However, provisions in the The emperor sought to gain some control over local constitution that guaranteed personal freedoms and government by placing it in the hands of the central liberties, including freedom of assembly, movement, and administration in Addis Ababa. He revised the administrative speech, and the due process of law, were so far removed divisions and established political and administrative offices from the realities of Ethiopian life that no group or individual corresponding to them. The largest of these administrative sought to act upon them publicly. units were the provinces (teklay ghizats), of which there were fourteen in the mid-1960s, each under a governor THE ATTEMPTED COUP OF 1960 AND ITS AFTERMATH general appointed directly by Haile Selassie. Each province Haile Selassie's efforts to achieve a measure of change was subdivided into sub provinces (awrajas), districts without jeopardizing his own power stimulated rising (weredas), and sub districts (mikitil weredas). Although the expectations, some of which he was unwilling or unable to structure outwardly resembled a modern state apparatus, satisfy. Impatient with the rate or form of social and political its impact was largely dissipated by the fact that higher- change, several groups conspired to launch a coup d'état on ranking landed nobles held all the important offices. December 13, 1960, while the emperor was abroad on one Younger and better-educated officials were little more than of his frequent trips. The leadership of the 1960 revolt came aides to the governors general, and their superiors from three groups: the commander of the Imperial contemptuously set their advice more often than not aside. Bodyguard Mengistu Neway, and his followers; a few security officials, including the police chief; and a handful of The emperor also attempted to strengthen the national radical intellectuals related to the officials, including government. A new generation of educated Ethiopians was Girmame Neway, Mengistu's brother. introduced to new enlarged ministries, the powers of which were made more specific. The emperor established a The coup was initially successful in the capital, as the rebels national judiciary and appointed its judges. Finally, in 1955 seized the crown prince and more than twenty cabinet he proclaimed a revised constitution. Apparently, he sought ministers and other government leaders. The support of the to provide a formal basis for his efforts at centralization and Imperial Bodyguard, the backbone of the revolt, was to attract the loyalty of those who gained their livelihood obtained without informing the enlisted men--or even a from relatively modern economic activities or who were majority of the officers--of the purpose of the rebels' better educated than most Ethiopians. actions. The proclaimed intent of the coup leaders was the establishment of a government that would improve the The younger leaders were mostly the sons of the traditional economic, social, and political position of the general elite. Having been educated abroad, they were favourably population, but they also appealed to traditional authority in disposed toward reform and were frequently frustrated and the person of the crown prince. No mention was made of in some cases alienated by their inability to initiate and the emperor. implement it. The remnants of the small number of educated Ethiopians of an earlier generation had been The coup's leaders failed to achieve popular support for their appointed to high government positions. But whatever their actions. Although university students demonstrated in previous concern with reform, they had little impact on favour of the coup, army and air force units remained loyal traditional methods, and by the mid-1950s even this earlier to the emperor, who returned to the capital on December reformist elite was considered conservative by the 17. The patriarch of the church, who condemned the rebels succeeding generation. as antireligious traitors and called for fealty to the emperor, supported the loyalists. Despite the coup's failure, it The new elite were drawn largely from the post-war succeeded in stripping the monarchy of its claim to universal generation and were generally the product of a half-dozen acceptance and led to a polarization of traditional and secondary schools operated by foreign staffs. A majority of modern forces. the students continued to come from families of the landed nobility, but they were profoundly affected by the presence GROWTH OF SECESSIONIST THREATS of students from less affluent backgrounds and by their Outside the Amhara-Tigray heartland, the two areas posing more democratically oriented Western teachers. the most consistent problems for Ethiopia's rulers were Eritrea and the largely Somali-occupied Ogaden and The 1955 constitution was prompted, like its 1931 adjacent regions. predecessor, by a concern with international opinion. Such opinion was particularly important at a time when some THE LIBERATION STRUGGLE IN ERITREA neighbouring African states were rapidly advancing under Eritrea had been placed under British military administration European colonial tutelage and Ethiopia was pressing its in 1941 after the Italian surrender. In keeping with a 1950 claims internationally for the incorporation of Eritrea, where decision of the UN General Assembly, British military an elected parliament and more modern administration had administration ended in September 1952 and was replaced existed since 1952. by a new autonomous Eritrean government in federal union with Ethiopia. Federation with the former Italian colony archconservative Ras Asrate Kasa as governor general, the restored an unhindered maritime frontier to the country. emperor was accused of "refeudalizing" the territory. The new arrangement also enabled the country to gain The extinction of the federation consolidated internal and limited control of a territory that, at least in its inland areas, external opposition to union Four years earlier, in 1958; a was more advanced politically and economically. number of Eritrean exiles had founded the Eritrean Liberation Movement (ELM) in Cairo, under Hamid Idris The Four Power Inquiry Commission established by the Awate's leadership. This organization, however, soon was World War II Allies (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and neutralized. A new faction, the Eritrean Liberation Front the United States) had failed to agree in its September 1948 (ELF), emerged in 1960. Initially a Muslim movement, the report on a future course for Eritrea. Several countries had ELF was nationalist rather than Marxist and received Iraqi displayed an active interest in the area. In the immediate and Syrian support. As urban Christians joined, the ELF post-war years, Italy had requested that Eritrea be returned became more radical and ant capitalist. Beginning in 1961, as a colony or as a trusteeship. This bid was supported the ELF turned to armed struggle and by 1966 challenged initially by the Soviet Union, which anticipated a communist imperial forces throughout Eritrea. victory at the Italian polls. The Arab states, seeing Eritrea and its large Muslim population as an extension of the Arab The rapid growth of the ELF also created internal divisions world, sought the establishment of an independent state. between urban and rural elements, socialists and Some Britons favoured a division of the territory, with the nationalists, and Christians and Muslims. Although these Christian areas and the coast from Mitsiwa southward going divisions did not take any clear form, they were magnified to Ethiopia and the northwest area going to Sudan. as the ELF extended its operations and won international publicity. In June 1970, Osman Salah Sabbe, former head of A UN commission, which arrived in Eritrea in February 1950, the Muslim League, broke away from the ELF and formed eventually approved a plan involving some form of the Popular Liberation Forces (PLF), which led directly to the association with Ethiopia. In December the UN General founding of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) in Assembly adopted a resolution affirming the commission's early 1972. Both organizations initially attracted a large plan, with the provision that Britain, the administering number of urban, intellectual, and leftist Christian youths power, should facilitate the UN efforts and depart from the and projected a strong socialist and nationalist image. By colony no later than September 15, 1952. Faced with this 1975 the EPLF had more than 10,000 members in the field. constraint, the British administration held elections on However, the growth of the EPLF was also accompanied by March 16, 1952, for a Representative Assembly of sixty- an intensification of internecine Eritrean conflict, particularly eight members. This body, made up equally of Christians between 1972 and 1974, when casualties were well over and Muslims, accepted the draft constitution advanced by 1,200. In 1976 Osman broke with the EPLF and formed the the UN commissioner on July 10. The constitution was Eritrean Liberation Front-Popular Liberation Front (ELF-PLF), ratified by the emperor on September 11, and the a division that reflected differences between combatants in Representative Assembly, by prearrangement, was Eritrea and representatives abroad as well as personal transformed into the Eritrean Assembly three days before rivalries and basic ideological differences, factors important the federation was proclaimed. in earlier splits within the Eritrean separatist movement. The UN General Assembly resolution of September 15, Encouraged by the imperial regime's collapse and attendant 1952, adopted by a vote of forty-seven to ten, provided that confusion, the guerrillas extended their control over the Eritrea should be linked to Ethiopia through a loose federal whole region by 1977. Ethiopian forces were largely structure under the emperor's sovereignty but with a form confined to urban centres and controlled the major roads and organization of internal self-government. The federal only by day government, which for all intents and purposes was the existing imperial government, was to control foreign affairs, DISCONTENT IN TIGRAY defence, foreign and interstate commerce, transportation, Overt dissidence in Tigray during Haile Selassie's reign and finance. Control over domestic affairs (including police, centred on the 1943 resistance to imperial rule known as local administration, and taxation to meet its own budget) the Weyane. The movement took advantage of popular was to be exercised by an elected Eritrean assembly on the discontent against Amhara rule but was primarily a localized parliamentary model. The state was to have its own resistance to imperial rule that depended on three main administrative and judicial structure and its own flag. sources of support. These were the semi pastoralists of eastern Tigray, including the Azebo and Raya, who believed Almost from the start of federation, the emperor's their traditional Oromo social structure to be threatened; representative undercut the territory's separate status the local Tigray nobility, who perceived their position to be under the federal system. In August 1955, Tedla Bairu, an endangered by the central government's growth; and the Eritrean who was the chief executive elected by the peasantry, who felt victimized by government officials and assembly, resigned under pressure from the emperor, who their militias. replaced Tedla with his own nominee. He made Amharic the official language in place of Arabic and Tigrinya, terminated The course of the Weyane was relatively brief, lasting from the use of the Eritrean flag, and moved many businesses May 22 to October 14, 1943. Although the rebels made out of Eritrea. In addition, the central government some initial gains, the imperial forces, supported by British proscribed all political parties, imposed censorship, gave the aircraft, soon took the offensive. Poor military leadership, top administrative positions to Amhara, and abandoned the combined with disagreements among the rebel leaders, principle of parity between Christian and Muslim officials. In detracted from the effectiveness of their efforts. After the November 1962, the Eritrean Assembly, many of whose fall of Mekele, capital of Tigray, on October 14, 1943, members had been accused of accepting bribes, voted practically all organized resistance collapsed. The unanimously to change Eritrea's status to that of a province government exiled or imprisoned the leaders of the revolt. of Ethiopia. Following his appointment of the The emperor took reprisals against peasants suspected of supporting the Weyane. Within six months after Somali independence, military Although a military resolution of the Weyane restored incidents occurred between Ethiopian and Somali forces imperial authority to Tigray, the harsh measures used by along their mutual border. Confrontations escalated again in the Ethiopian military to do so created resentment of 1964, when the Ethiopian air force raided Somali villages imperial rule in many quarters. This resentment, coupled and encampments inside the Somali border. Hostilities were with a longstanding feeling that Shewan Amhara rule was of ended through mediation by the OAU and Sudan. However, an upstart nature, lasted through the end of Haile Selassie's Somalia continued to promote irredentism by supporting the reign. After Haile Selassie's demise in 1974, separatist Western Somali Liberation Front (WSLF), which was active feelings again emerged throughout Tigray. in the Ogaden. Claims of oil discoveries prompted the resurgence of fighting in 1973. THE OGADEN AND THE HAUD Ethiopia's entry into the Somali region in modern times REVOLUTION AND MILITARY GOVERNMENT dated from Menelik's conquest of Harer in the late 1890s, In early 1974, Ethiopia entered a period of profound the emperor basing his actions on old claims of Ethiopian political, economic, and social change, frequently sovereignty. In 1945 Haile Selassie, fearing the possibility of accompanied by violence. Confrontation between traditional British support for a separate Somali state that would and modern forces erupted and changed the political, include the Ogaden, claimed Italian Somaliland as a "lost economic, and social nature of the Ethiopian state. province." In Italian Somaliland, the Somali Youth League (SYL) resisted this claim and in its turn demanded BACKGROUND TO REVOLUTION - 1960-74 unification of all Somali areas, including those in Ethiopia. The last fourteen years of Haile Selassie's reign witnessed growing opposition to his regime. After the suppression of After the British evacuated the Ogaden in 1948, Ethiopian the 1960 coup attempt, the emperor sought to reclaim the officers took over administration in the city of Jijiga, at one loyalty of coup sympathizers by stepping up reform. Much of point suppressing a demonstration led by the SYL, which the this effort took the form of land grants to military and police government subsequently outlawed. At the same time, officers, however, and no coherent pattern of economic and Ethiopia renounced its claim to Italian Somaliland in social development appeared. deference to UN calls for self-determination. The Ethiopians, however, maintained that self-determination was not In 1966 a plan emerged to confront the traditional forces incompatible with eventual union. through the implementation of a modern tax system. Implicit in the proposal, which required registration of all Immediately upon the birth of the Republic of Somalia in land, was the aim of destroying the power of the landed 1960, which followed the merger of British Somaliland and nobility. But when progressive tax proposals were submitted Italian Somaliland, the new country proclaimed an to parliament in the late 1960s, they were vigorously irredentist policy. Somalia laid claim to Somali-populated opposed by the members, all of whom were property regions of French Somaliland (later called the French owners. Parliament passed a tax on agricultural produce in Territory of the Afars and Issas, and Djibouti after November 1967, but in a form vastly altered from the independence in 1977), the north-eastern corner of Kenya, government proposal. Even this, however, was fiercely and the Ogaden, a vast, ill-defined region occupied by resisted by the landed class in Gojam, and the entire Somali nomads extending southeast from Ethiopia's province revolted. In 1969, after two years of military southern highlands that includes a separate region east of action, the central government withdrew its troops, Harer known as the Haud. The uncertainty over the precise discontinued enforcement of the tax, and cancelled all location of the frontier between Ethiopia and the former arrears of taxation going back to 1940. Italian possessions in Somalia further complicated these claims. Despite UN efforts to promote an agreement, none The emperor's defeat in Gojam encouraged defiance by was made in the colonial or the Italian trusteeship period. other provincial landowners, although not on the same scale. But legislation calling for property registration and for In the northeast, an Anglo-Ethiopian treaty determined the modification of landlord-tenant relationships was more frontier's official location. However, Somalia contended that boldly resisted in the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. it was unfairly placed so as to exclude the herders‟ resident Debate on these proposals continued until the mid-1970s. in Somalia from vital seasonal grazing lands in the Haud. At the same time the emperor was facing opposition to The British had administered the Haud as an integral part of change; other forces were exerting direct or indirect British Somaliland, although Ethiopian sovereignty had been pressure in favour of reform. Beginning in 1965, student recognized there. After it was disbanded in the rest of demonstrations focused on the need to implement land Ethiopia, the British military administration continued to reform and to address corruption and rising prices. Peasant supervise the area from Harer eastward and did not disturbances, although on a small scale, were especially withdraw from the Haud until 1955. Even then, the British numerous in the southern provinces, where the imperial stressed the region's importance to Somalia by requiring the government had traditionally rewarded its supporters with Ethiopians to guarantee the Somali free access to grazing land grants. Although it allowed labour unions to organize in lands. 1962, the government restricted union activities. Soon, even the Confederation of Ethiopian Labour Unions (CELU) Somalia refused to recognize any pre-1960 treaties defining was criticized as being too subservient to the government. the Somali-Ethiopian borders because colonial governments Faced with such a multiplicity of problems, the aging had concluded the agreements. Despite the need for access emperor increasingly left domestic issues in the care of his to pasturage for local herds, the Somali government even prime minister, Aklilu Habte Wold (appointed in 1961), and refused to acknowledge the British treaty guaranteeing turned his attention to foreign affairs. Somali grazing rights in the Haud because it would have indirectly recognized Ethiopian sovereignty over the area. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DERG The government's failure to effect significant economic and political reforms over the previous fourteen years-- combined with rising inflation, corruption, a famine that responsible to parliament. The new government probably affected several provinces (but especially Welo and Tigray) reflected Haile Selassie's decision to minimize change; the and that was concealed from the outside world, and the new cabinet, for instance, represented virtually all of growing discontent of urban interest groups--provided the Ethiopia's aristocratic families. The conservative backdrop against which the Ethiopian revolution began to constitutional committee appointed on March 21 included no unfold in early 1974. Whereas elements of the urban-based, representatives of the groups pressing for change. The new modernizing elite previously had sought to establish a government introduced no substantial reforms (although it parliamentary democracy, the initiation of the 1974 granted the military several salary increases). It also revolution was the work of the military, acting essentially in postponed unpopular changes in the education system and its own immediate interests. The unrest that began in instituted price rollbacks and controls to check inflation. As January of that year then spread to the civilian population in a result, the general discontent subsided somewhat by late an outburst of general discontent. March. The Ethiopian military on the eve of the revolution was riven By this time, there were several factions within the military by factionalism; the emperor promoted such division to that claimed to speak for all or part of the armed forces. prevent any person or group from becoming too powerful. These included the Imperial Bodyguard under the old high Factions included the Imperial Bodyguard, which had been command, a group of "radical" junior officers, and a larger rebuilt since the 1960 coup attempt; the Territorial Army number of moderate and radical army and police officers (Ethiopia's national ground force), which was broken into grouped around Colonel Alem Zewd Tessema, commander many factions but which was dominated by a group of of an airborne brigade based in Addis Ababa. In late March, senior officers called "The Exiles" because they had fled with Alem Zewd became head of an informal, inter-unit Haile Selassie in 1936 after the Italian invasion; and the air coordinating committee that came to be called the Armed force. The officer graduates of the Harer Military Academy Forces Coordinating Committee (AFCC). Acting with the also formed a distinct group in opposition to the Holeta approval of the new prime minister, Alem Zewd arrested a Military Training Center graduates large number of disgruntled air force officers and in general appeared to support the Endalkatchew government. Conditions throughout the army were frequently substandard, with enlisted personnel often receiving low pay Such steps, however, did not please many of the junior and insufficient food and supplies. Enlisted personnel as well officers, who wished to pressure the regime into making as some of the Holeta graduates came from the peasantry, major political reforms. In early June, a dozen or more of which at the time was suffering from a prolonged drought them broke away from the AFCC and requested that every and resulting famine. The general perception was that the military and police unit send three representatives to Addis central government was deliberately refusing to take special Ababa to organize for further action. In late June, a body of measures for famine relief. Much popular discontent over men that eventually totalled about 120, none above the this issue, plus the generally perceived lack of civil rank of major and almost all of whom remained anonymous, freedoms, had created widespread discontent among the organized themselves into a new body called the middle class, which had been built up and supported by the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police, and emperor since World War II. Territorial Army that soon came to be called the Derg (Amharic for "committee" or "council). They elected Major The revolution began with a mutiny of the Territorial Army's Mengistu Haile Mariam chairman and Major Atnafu Abate Fourth Brigade at Negele in the southern province of Sidamo vice chairman, both outspoken proponents of far-reaching on January 12, 1974. Soldiers protested poor food and change. water conditions; led by their non-commissioned officers, they rebelled and took their commanding officer hostage, This group of men would remain at the forefront of political requesting redress from the emperor. Attempts at and military affairs in Ethiopia for the next thirteen years. reconciliation and a subsequent impasse promoted the The identity of the Derg never changed after these initial spread of the discontent to other units throughout the meetings in 1974. Although its membership declined military, including those stationed in Eritrea. There, the drastically during the next few years as individual officers Second Division at Asmera mutinied, imprisoned its were eliminated, no new members were admitted into its commanders, and announced its support for the Negele ranks, and its deliberations and membership remained mutineers. The Signal Corps, in sympathy with the uprising, almost entirely unknown. At first, the Derg's officers broadcast information about events to the rest of the exercised their influence behind the scenes; only later, military. Moreover, by that time, general discontent had during the era of the Provisional Military Administrative resulted in the rise of resistance throughout Ethiopia. Council, did its leaders emerge from anonymity and become Opposition to increased fuel prices and curriculum changes both the official as well as the de facto governing personnel. in the schools, as well as low teachers' salaries and many other grievances, crystallized by the end of February. Because its members in effect represented the entire Teachers, workers, and eventually students--all demanding military establishment, the Derg could henceforth claim to higher pay and better conditions of work and education-- exercise real power and could mobilize troops on its own, also promoted other causes, such as land reform and famine thereby depriving the emperor's government of the ultimate relief. Finally, the discontented groups demanded a new means to govern. Although the Derg professed loyalty to the political system. Riots in the capital and the continued emperor, it immediately began to arrest members of the military mutiny eventually led to the resignation of Prime aristocracy, military, and government who were closely Minister Aklilu. He was replaced on February 28, 1974, by associated with the emperor and the old order. Colonel Alem another Shewan aristocrat, Endalkatchew Mekonnen, whose Zewd, by now discredited in the eyes of the young radicals, government would last only until July 22. fled. On March 5, the government announced a revision of the In July the Derg wrung five concessions from the emperor-- 1955 constitution--the prime minister henceforth would be the release of all political prisoners, a guarantee of the safe return of exiles, the promulgation and speedy civilian demands. By mid-November, Aman, opposed by the implementation of the new constitution, assurance that majority of the Derg, was attempting unsuccessfully to parliament would be kept in session to complete the appeal directly to the army for support as charges, many aforementioned task, and assurance that the Derg would be apparently fabricated, mounted against him within the Derg. allowed to coordinate closely with the government at all He retired to his home and on November 23 was killed levels of operation. Hereafter, political power and initiative resisting arrest. The same evening of what became known lay with the Derg, which was increasingly influenced by a as "Bloody Saturday," fifty-nine political prisoners were wide-ranging public debate over the future of the country. executed. Among them were prominent civilians such as The demands made of the emperor were but the first of a Aklilu and Endalkatchew, military officers such as Colonel series of directives or actions that constituted the "creeping Alem Zewd and General Abiye Abebe (the emperor's son-in- coup" by which the imperial system of government was law and defense minister under endalkatchew), and two slowly dismantled. Promoting an agenda for lasting changes Derg members who had supported Aman. going far beyond those proposed since the revolution began Following the events of Bloody Saturday, Brigadier General in January, the Derg proclaimed Ethiopia Tikdem (Ethiopia Tafari Banti, a Shewan, became chairman of the PMAC and First) as its guiding philosophy. It forced out Prime Minister head of state on November 28, but power was retained by Endalkatchew and replaced him with Mikael Imru, a Shewan Major Mengistu, who kept his post as first vice chairman of aristocrat with a reputation as a liberal. the PMAC, with Major Atnafu as second vice chairman. Mengistu hereafter emerged as the leading force in the Derg The Derg's agenda rapidly diverged from that of the and took steps to protect and enlarge his power base. reformers of the late imperial period. In early August, the Preparations were made for a new offensive in Eritrea, and revised constitution, which called for a constitutional social and economic reform was addressed; the result was monarchy, was rejected when it was forwarded for approval. the promulgation on December 20 of the first socialist Thereafter, the Derg worked to undermine the authority and proclamation for Ethiopia. legitimacy of the emperor, a policy that enjoyed much public support. The Derg arrested the commander of the In keeping with its declared socialist path, the Derg Imperial Bodyguard, disbanded the emperor's governing announced in March 1975 that all royal titles were revoked councils, closed the private imperial exchequer, and and that the proposed constitutional monarchy was to be nationalized the imperial residence and the emperor's other abandoned. In August Haile Selassie died under landed and business holdings. By late August, the emperor questionable circumstances and was secretly buried. One of had been directly accused of covering up the Welo and the last major links with the past was broken in February Tigray famine of the early 1970s that allegedly had killed 1976, when the patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, 100,000 to 200,000 people. After street demonstrations Abuna Tewoflos, an imperial appointee, was deposed. took place urging the emperor's arrest, the Derg formally deposed Haile Selassie on September 12 and imprisoned In April 1976, the Derg at last set forth its goals in greater him. The emperor was too old to resist, and it is doubtful detail in the Program for the National Democratic Revolution whether he really understood what was happening around (PNDR). As announced by Mengistu, these objectives him. Three days later, the Armed Forces Coordinating included progress toward socialism under the leadership of Committee (i.e., the Derg) transformed itself into the workers, peasants, the petite bourgeoisie, and all antifeudal Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC) under the and anti-imperialist forces. The Derg's ultimate aim was the chairmanship of Lieutenant General Aman Mikael Andom creation of a one-party system. To accomplish its goals, the and proclaimed itself the nation's ruling body. Derg established an intermediary organ called the Provisional Office for Mass Organization Affairs (POMOA). THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER, 1974-77 Designed to act as a civilian political bureau, POMOA was at Although not a member of the Derg per se, General Aman first in the hands of the All-Ethiopia Socialist Movement had been associated with the Derg since July and had lent (whose Amharic acronym was MEISON), headed by Haile his good name to its efforts to reform the imperial regime. Fida, the Derg's chief political adviser. Haile Fida, as He was a well-known, popular commander and hero of a opposed to other leftists who had formed the Ethiopian war against Somalia in the 1960s. In accordance with the People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP), had resourcefully Derg's wishes, he now became head of state, chairman of adopted the tactic of working with the military in the the Council of Ministers, and minister of defense, in addition expectation of directing the revolution from within to being chairman of the PMAC. Despite his standing, however, General Aman was almost immediately at odds By late 1976, the Derg had undergone an internal with a majority of the Derg's members on three major reconfiguration as Mengistu's power came under growing issues: the size of the Derg and his role within it, the opposition and as Mengistu, Tafari, and Atnafu struggled for Eritrean insurgency, and the fate of political prisoners. supremacy. The instability of this arrangement was resolved Aman claimed that the 120- member Derg was too large in January and February of 1977, when a major shootout at and too unwieldy to function efficiently as a governing body; the Grand (Menelik's) Palace in Addis Ababa took place as an Eritrean, he urged reconciliation with the insurgents between supporters of Tafari and those of Mengistu, in there; and he opposed the death penalty for former which the latter emerged victorious. With the death of Tafari government and military officials who had been arrested and his supporters in the fighting, most internal opposition since the revolution began. within the Derg had been eliminated, and Mengistu proceeded with a reorganization of the Derg. This action left The Derg immediately found itself under attack from civilian Mengistu as the sole vice chairman, responsible for the groups, especially student and labour groups who People's Militia, the urban defense squads, and the demanded the formation of a "people's government" in modernization of the armed forces - in other words, in which various national organizations would be represented. effective control of Ethiopia's government and military. In These demands found support in the Derg among a faction November 1977, Atnafu, Mengistu's last rival in the Derg, composed mostly of army engineers and air force officers. was eliminated, leaving Mengistu in undisputed command. On October 7, the Derg arrested dissidents supporting the agitating for a broad-based democratic government run by ETHIOPIA’S ROAD TO SOCIALISM civilians, not by the military. In February 1977, the EPRP Soon after taking power, the Derg promoted Ye-Itiopia initiated terrorist attacks--known as the White Terror-- Hibretesebawinet (Ethiopian Socialism). The concept was against Derg members and their supporters. This violence embodied in slogans such as "self-reliance," "the dignity of immediately claimed at least eight Derg members, plus labour," and "the supremacy of the common good." These numerous Derg supporters, and soon provoked a slogans were devised to combat the widespread disdain of government counteraction--the Red Terror. During the Red manual labour and a deeply rooted concern with status. A Terror, which lasted until late 1978, government security central aspect of socialism was land reform. Although there forces systematically hunted down and killed suspected was common agreement on the need for land reform, the EPRP members and their supporters, especially students. Derg found little agreement on its application. Most Mengistu and the Derg eventually won this latest struggle proposals-- even those proffered by socialist countries-- for control of the Ethiopian revolution, at a cost to the EPRP counselled moderation in order to maintain production. The of thousands of its members and supporters imprisoned, Derg, however, adopted a radical approach, with the Land dead, or missing. Reform Proclamation of March 1975, which nationalized all rural land, abolished tenancy, and put peasants in charge of Also slated for destruction was MEISON, proscribed in mid enforcement. No family was to have a plot larger than ten 1978. In coordination with the government, MEISON had hectares, and no one could employ farm workers. Farmers organized the kebeles and the peasant associations but had were expected to organize peasant associations, one for begun to act independently, thus threatening Derg every 800 hectares, which would be headed by executive dominance of local governments throughout the country. In committees responsible for enforcement of the new order. response to the political vacuum that would be left as a Implementation of these measures caused considerable result of the purging of MEISON, the Derg in 1978 promoted disruption of local administration in rural areas. In July the union of several existing Marxist-Leninist organizations 1975, all urban land, rentable houses, and apartments were into a single umbrella group, the Union of Ethiopian Marxist also nationalized, with the 3 million urban residents Leninist Organizations (whose Amharic acronym was organized into urban dwellers' associations, or kebeles EMALEDEH). The new organization's duty was similar to that analogous in function to the rural peasant associations of MEISON-- promoting control of Ethiopian socialism and obtaining support for government policies through various Although the government took a radical approach to land political activities. The creation of EMALEDEH symbolized reform, it exercised some caution with respect to the the victory of the Derg in finally consolidating power after industrial and commercial sectors. In January and February having overcome these challenges to its control of the 1975, the Derg nationalized all banks and insurance firms Ethiopian revolution. and seized control of practically every important company in the country. However, retail trade and the wholesale and WAR IN THE OGADEN AND THE TURN TO THE SOVIET export-import sectors remained in private hands. UNION The year 1977 saw the emergence of the most serious Although the Derg ordered national collective ownership of external challenge to the revolutionary regime that had yet land, the move was taken with little preparation and met materialized. The roots of the conflict lay with Somali with opposition in some areas, especially Gojam, Welo, and irredentism and the desire of the Somali government of Tigray. The Derg also lost much support from the country's Muhammad Said Bare to annex the Ogaden area of Ethiopia. left wing, which had been excluded from power and the Somalia's instrument in this process was the Western decision-making process. Students and teachers were Somali Liberation Front (WSLF), a Somali guerrilla alienated by the government's closure of the university in organization, which by February 1977 had begun to take Addis Ababa and all secondary schools in September 1975 advantage of the Derg's political problems as well as its in the face of threatened strikes, as well as the forced troubles in Eritrea to attack government positions mobilization of students in the Development Through throughout the Ogaden the Somali government provided Cooperation Campaign (commonly referred to as zemecha) supplies and logistics support to the WSLF. Through the first under conditions of military discipline. The elimination of the half of the year, the WSLF made steady gains, penetrating Confederation of Ethiopian Labour Unions (CELU) in favour and capturing large parts of the Ogaden from the Dire Dawa of the government-controlled All-Ethiopia Trade Union area southward to the Kenya border. (AETU) in December 1975 further disillusioned the revolution's early supporters. Numerous officials originally The increasingly intense fighting culminated in a series of associated with the revolution fled the country actions around Jijiga in September, at which time Ethiopia claimed that Somalia's regular troops, the Somali National THE MENGITSU REGIME AND ITS IMPACT Army (SNA), were supporting the WSLF. In response, the The transition from imperial to military rule was turbulent. Somali government admitted giving "moral, material, and In addition to increasing political discontent, which was other support" to the WSLF. Following a mutiny of the particularly intense in the late 1970s, the Derg faced Ethiopian garrison at Jijiga, the town fell to the WSLF. The powerful insurgencies and natural calamities throughout the Mengistu regime, desperate for help, turned to the Soviet 1980s. Union, its ties to its former military supplier, the United States, having foundered in the spring over the Derg's poor POLITICAL STRUGGLES WITH THE GOVERNMENT human rights record. The Soviet Union had been supplying Following the establishment of his supremacy through the equipment and some advisers for months. When the Soviet elimination of Tafari Banti, Mengistu declared himself Derg Union continued to aid Ethiopia as a way of gaining chairman in February 1977 and set about consolidating his influence in the country, Somalia, which until then had been power. However, several internal and external threats a Soviet client, responded by abrogating its Treaty of prevented Mengistu from doing this. Various insurgent Friendship and Cooperation with Moscow and by expelling all groups posed the most serious threat to the Derg. The EPRP Soviet advisers. challenged the Derg's control of the revolution itself by The Soviet turnaround immediately affected the course of the war. Starting in late November, massive Soviet military SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGES assistance began to pour into Ethiopia, with Cuban troops Although Addis Ababa quickly developed a close relationship deploying from Angola to assist the Ethiopian units. By the with the communist world, the Soviet Union and its allies end of the year, 17,000 Cubans had arrived and, with had consistent difficulties working with Mengistu and the Ethiopian army units, halted the WSLF momentum. On Derg. These difficulties were largely the result of the Derg's February 13, 1978, Mogadishu dispatched the SNA to assist preoccupation with internal matters and the promotion of the WSLF, but the Somali forces were driven back toward Ethiopian variations on what Marxist-Leninist theoreticians the border. After the Ethiopian army recapture of Jijiga in regarded as preordained steps on the road to a socialist early March, the Somali government decided to withdraw its state. The Derg's status as a military government was forces from the Ogaden, leaving the Ethiopian army in another source of concern. Ethiopia's communist allies made control of the region. However, in the process of eliminating an issue of the need to create a civilian "vanguard party" the WSLF threat, Addis Ababa had become a military client that would rule a people's republic. In a move geared to of Moscow and Havana, a situation that had significant ensure continued communist support, the Derg formed the international repercussions and that resulted in a major Commission to Organize the Party of the Workers of realignment of power in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia (COPWE) in December 1979, with Mengistu as its chairman. At COPWE's second congress, in January 1983, it ERITREAN AND TRIGRAYAN INSURGENCIES was announced that COPWE would be replaced by a genuine After 1974, insurgencies appeared in various parts of the communist party. Accordingly, the Workers' Party of country, the most important of which were centred in Ethiopia (WPE) was proclaimed on September 12. Eritrea and Tigray. The Eritrean problem, inherited from Haile Selassie's regime, was a matter of extensive debate About the same time, work continued on a new constitution within the Derg. It was a dispute over policy toward Eritrea for the planned People‟s Republic. On February 1, 1987, the that resulted in the death of the PMAC's first leader, General proposed constitution, which had been submitted to the Aman, an Eritrean, on November 23, 1974, so-called public for popular debate and changes the prior year, was "Bloody Saturday." Hereafter, the Derg decided to impose a finally put to a vote. Although the central government military settlement on the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) claimed an 81 percent approval of the new constitution and the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF). Attempts (with modifications proposed by the public), the to invade rebel-held Eritrea failed repeatedly, and by mid- circumstances of its review and approval by the general 1978 the insurgent groups controlled most of the population were called into question. The task of publicizing countryside but not major towns such as Keren, Mitsiwa, the document had been entrusted to the kebeles and the Aseb, and a few other places. Despite large commitments of peasant associations--organizations that had a state arms and training from communist countries, the Derg failed security mission as well as local administrative duties. to suppress the Eritrean rebellion. Observers noted that little commentary or dissent was possible under such circumstances. Additional criticism By the end of 1976, insurgencies existed in all of the included the charge that the proposed constitution was not country's fourteen administrative regions (the provinces designed to address or even understand Ethiopian needs; in were officially changed to regions in 1974 after the fact, many noted that the constitution was "almost an revolution). In addition to the Eritrean secessionists, rebels abridged translation of the Soviet Constitution of 1977" were highly active in Tigray, where the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), formed in 1975, was demanding ETHIOPIA IN CRISIS: FAMINE AND ITS AFTERMATH - social justice and self-determination for all Ethiopians. In 1984-88 the southern regions of Bale, Sidamo, and Arsi, the Oromo Toward the end of the 1980s, several crises, including Liberation Front (OLF) and the Somali Abo Liberation Front famine, economic collapse, and military setbacks in Eritrea (SALF), active since 1975, had gained control of parts of the and Tigray, confronted the Derg. In addition, as democratic countryside, and the WSLF was active in the Ogaden. Under reform swept through the communist world, it became Ali Mirah's leadership, the Afar Liberation Front (ALF) began evident that Addis Ababa no longer could rely on its allies armed operations in March 1975, and in 1976 it coordinated for support. some actions with the EPLF and the TPLF. FAMINE AND ECONOMIC COLLAPSE Despite an influx of military aid from the Soviet Union and Ethiopia had never recovered from the previous great its allies after 1977, the government's counterinsurgency famine of the early 1970s, which was the result of a drought effort in Eritrea progressed haltingly. After initial that affected most of the countries of the African Sahel. The government successes in retaking territory around the late 1970s again brought signs of intensifying drought. By major towns and cities and along some of the principal the early 1980s, large numbers of people in central Eritrea, roads in 1978 and 1979, the conflict ebbed and flowed on Tigray, Welo, and parts of Gonder and Shewa were an almost yearly basis. Annual campaigns by the Ethiopian beginning to feel the effects of renewed famine. armed forces to dislodge the EPLF from positions around the northern town of Nakfa failed repeatedly and proved costly By mid-1984 it was evident that another drought and to the government. Eritrean and Tigrayan insurgents began resulting famine of major proportions had begun to affect to cooperate, the EPLF providing training and equipment large parts of northern Ethiopia. Just as evident was the that helped build the TPLF into a full-fledged fighting force. government's inability to provide relief. The almost total Between 1982 and 1985, the EPLF and the Derg held a failure of crops in the north was compounded by fighting in series of talks to resolve the Eritrean conflict, but to no and around Eritrea, which hindered the passage of relief avail. By the end of 1987, dissident organizations in Eritrea supplies. Although international relief organizations made a and Tigray controlled at least 90 percent of both regions. major effort to provide food to the affected areas, the persistence of drought and poor security conditions in the north resulted in continuing need as well as hazards for famine relief workers. In late 1985, another year of drought was forecast, and by early 1986 the famine had spread to control of Eritrea was limited to the Keren-Asmera-Mitsiwa parts of the southern highlands, with an estimated 5.8 triangle and the port of Aseb to the southeast. The TPLF's million people dependent on relief food. Exacerbating the victories in Tigray ultimately led to its total conquest by the problem in 1986 was locust and grasshopper plagues. rebels and the expansion of the insurgency into Gonder, Welo, and even parts of Shewa the following year. The government's inability or unwillingness to deal with the 1984-85 famine provoked universal condemnation by the THE PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF ETHIOPIA international community. Even many supporters of the On September 10, 1987, after thirteen years of military Ethiopian regime opposed its policy of withholding food rule, the nation officially became the People's Democratic shipments to rebel areas. The combined effects of famine Republic of Ethiopia (PDRE) under a new constitution and internal war had by then put the nation's economy into providing for a civilian government. The PMAC was a state of collapse. abolished, and in June of that year Ethiopians had elected the National Shengo (National Assembly), a parliament. The primary government response to the drought and Despite these changes, members of the now-defunct Derg famine was the decision to uproot large numbers of still ran the government but with different titles. For peasants who lived in the affected areas in the north and to example, the National Shengo elected Mengistu to be the resettle them in the southern part of the country. In 1985 country's first civilian president; he remained, however, the and 1986, about 600,000 people were moved, many WPE's general secretary. Other high-ranking Derg and WPE forcibly, from their home villages and farms by the military members received similar posts in the new government, and transported to various regions in the south. Many including the Derg deputy chairman, Fikre-Selassie peasants fled rather than allow themselves to be resettled; Wogderes, who became Ethiopia's prime minister, and many of those who were resettled sought later to return to Fisseha Desta, WPE deputy general secretary, who became their native regions. Several human rights organizations the country's vice president. claimed that tens of thousands of peasants died as a result of forced resettlement Despite outward appearances, little changed in the way the country was actually run. Old Derg members still were in Another government plan involved villagization, which was a control, and the stated mission of the WPE allowed response not only to the famine but also to the poor security continued close supervision by the government over much situation. Beginning in 1985, peasants were forced to move of the urban population. Despite the granting of "autonomy" their homesteads into planned villages, which were to Eritrea, Aseb, Tigray, Dire Dawa, and the Ogaden, the clustered around water, schools, medical services, and 1987 constitution was ambiguous on the question of self- utility supply points to facilitate distribution of those determination for national groups such as the Eritreans, services. Many peasants fled rather than acquiesce in except within the framework of the national government. relocation, which in general proved highly unpopular. And although the constitution contained provisions to Additionally, the government in most cases failed to provide protect the rights of citizens, the power of peasant the promised services. Far from benefiting agricultural associations and kebeles was left intact. productivity, the program caused a decline in food production. Although temporarily suspended in 1986, CHANGES IN SOVIET POLICY AND NEW villagization was subsequently resumed. INTERNATIONAL HORIZONS The Soviet Union policies changed toward its allies among GOVERNMENT DEFEATS IN ERITREA AND TIGRAY the developing countries in the late 1980s, changes that In March 1988, the EPLF initiated one of its most successful appeared likely to result in significant reductions in its military campaigns by striking at Ethiopian army positions hitherto extensive support of Ethiopia. By then it was on the Nakfa front north of the town of Afabet, where the evident that the Soviet-Ethiopian relationship had Derg had established a base for a new attack against the undergone a fundamental reorientation. The change was insurgents. In two days of fighting, the Eritrean rebels partly the result of the new directions in Soviet foreign annihilated three Ethiopian army divisions, killing or policy undertaken by Mikhail Gorbachev. But other capturing at least 18,000 government troops and seizing contributing factors were strong undercurrents of Soviet large amounts of equipment, including armour and artillery. disapproval of Ethiopia's conduct of its internal affairs and of Subsequently, the town of Afabet, with its military stores, Addis Ababa's inability to make effective use of the aid that fell to the EPLF, which then threatened all remaining Moscow sent. The implications of this changed policy for Ethiopian military concentrations in northern Eritrea. Ethiopia were likely to be profound, inasmuch as continued high levels of military assistance were vital to the pursuit of The Ethiopian army's defeat in Eritrea came after setbacks Mengistu's military solution in Eritrea as well as to the fight during the preceding week in Tigray. Using the same tactics against other internal insurgencies. employed by the EPLF, the TPLF pre-empted a pending Ethiopian offensive in Tigray with a series of attacks on ETHIOPIA ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY government positions there in early March. A government John Markakis has remarked of Ethiopia that "the dominant attack against central Tigray failed disastrously, with four element in this culture and its major distinguishing feature Ethiopian army divisions reportedly destroyed and most of is the Christian religion." Yet almost all of the analysis of their equipment captured. In early April, the TPLF took the Orthodox Christianity as practiced by Ethiopians has focused town of Adigrat in northern Tigray, cutting the main road on the Amhara and Tigray. The meaning of that religion for link between Addis Ababa and Eritrea. the Oromo and others is not clear. For some Oromo who achieved significant political power in Amhara kingdoms in The March 1988 defeats of the Ethiopian army were the eighteenth century and after, adherence to Christianity catastrophic in terms of their magnitude and crippling in seemed to be motivated by nothing more than expediency. their effect on government strategy in Eritrea and Tigray. The capability of government forces in both regions By the mid-twentieth century, some educated Amhara and collapsed as a result. Subsequently, Ethiopian government Tigray had developed scepticism, not so much of doctrine-- although that also occurred--as of the church's political and In addition to standard holy days, most Christians observe economic role. They had developed similar feelings toward many saint's days. A man might give a small feast on his the clergy, most of whom were poorly educated. personal saint's day. The local voluntary association (called Nevertheless, the effects of the church's disestablishment the maheber) connected with each church honours its and of the continuing social upheaval and political patron saint with a special service and a feast, two or three repression impelled many Ethiopians to turn to religion for times a year. solace. Belief in the existence of active spirits--many malevolent, FAITH AND PRACTICE some benevolent--is widespread among Ethiopians, whether The faith and practice of most Orthodox Christians combine Christian, Muslim, or pagan. The spirits called zar can be elements from Monophysite Christianity as it has developed male or female and have a variety of personality traits. in Ethiopia over the centuries and from a non-Christian Many peasants believe they can prevent misfortune by heritage rejected by more educated church members but propitiating the zar. usually shared by the ordinary priest. According to Monophysite doctrine, Christ is a divine aspect of the The protective adbar spirits belong to the community rather Trinitarian God. Broadly, the Christian elements are God (in than to the individual or family. The female adbar is thought Amharic, Egziabher), the angels, and the saints. A hierarchy to protect the community from disease, misfortune, and of angelic messengers and saints conveys the prayers of the poverty, while the male adbar is said to prevent fighting, faithful to God and carries out the divine will. When an feuds, and war and to bring good harvests. People normally Ethiopian Christian is in difficulty, he or she appeals to these pay tribute to the adbars in the form of honey, grains, and angels and saints as well as to God. In more formal and butter. regular rituals, priests communicate on behalf of the community, and only priests may enter the inner sanctum of Myths connected with the evil eye (buda) vary, but most the usually circular or octagonal church where the ark people believe that the power rests with members of lowly (tabot) dedicated to the church's patron saint is housed. On occupational groups who interact with Amhara communities important religious holidays, the ark is carried on the head but are not part of them. To prevent the effects of the evil of a priest and escorted in procession outside the church. eye, people wear amulets or invoke God's name. Because The ark, not the church, is consecrated. Only those who feel one can never be sure of the source of illness or misfortune, pure, have fasted regularly, and have generally conducted the peasant has recourse to wizards who can make themselves properly may enter the middle ring to take diagnoses and specify cures. Debteras also make amulets communion. At many services, most parish members and charms designed to ward off satanic creatures. remain in the outer ring, where debteras sing hymns and dance. The belief system, Christian and other, of peasant and priest were consonant with the pre-Revolutionary social order in Weekly services constitute only a small part of an Ethiopian its stress on hierarchy and order. The long-range effects on Orthodox Christian's religious observance. Several holy days this belief system of a Marxist-Leninist regime that require prolonged services, singing and dancing, and ostensibly intended to destroy the old social order were feasting. An important religious requirement, however, is difficult to evaluate in mid-1991. Even though the regime the keeping of fast days. Only the clergy and the very introduced some change in the organization of the church devout maintain the full schedule of fasts, comprising 250 and clergy, it was not likely that the regime had succeeded days, but the laity is expected to fast 165 days per year, in significantly modifying the beliefs of ordinary Christians. including every Wednesday and Friday and the two months END that include Lent and the Easter season.
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