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									CHAPTER 20

I. The Spread of Colonial Rule
        A. The Motives
                1. Need for raw materials and new markets and places for investment as a consequence of
                the Industrial Revolution
                         a. John A. Hobson’s Imperialism (1902) stressed economic motives
                2. Nationalism, power-politics, and balance of power considerations
                3. Social Darwinism: fittest nations have the most colonies/largest empire
                4. Also moral and religious motives
        B. The Tactics
                1. More colonies and direct control than earlier
                         a. A global land grab by the West, for economic and political-military reasons
                2. By 1900, only a few states escaped colonial status: Japan, Thailand, Afghanistan,
                Persia, and Ethiopia
        C. “Opportunity in the Orient”: The Colonial Takeover in Southeast Asia, mostly after 1800
                1. Singapore by Britain’s Stamford Raffles
                2. Vietnam by France
                3. Thailand remained independence because France and Britain found is a useful buffer
                4. The Philippines by the United States after the Spanish-American War of 1898
                         a. Philippine resistance under Emilio Aguinaldo failed to deter America
        D. Empire Building in Africa
                1. The Growing European Presence in West Africa
                         a. Little before 19th century
                                   1) Slave trade controlled by Africans
                                   2) Unhealthy climate and deadly diseases
                         b. Decline of slave trade in 19th century for moral reasons
                                   1) Britain the major power in ending international slave trade
                                   2) Slavery end in the United States in 1863/Civil War
                         c. Increase in “legitimate trade” in natural resources exchanged for textiles and
                         other manufactured products
                         d. More permanent Western presence
                                   1) The Gold Coast and Sierra Leone by Britain
                                   2) United States established Liberia
                         e. New class of western educated Africans emerged
                2. Imperialist Shadow Over the Nile due to weakening of Turkish/Ottoman rule
                         a. Muhammad Ali, Ottoman military officer, seized control of Egypt in 1805
                                   1) A modernizer and reformer
                                   2) Became the pasha or khedive, only loosely connected to Ottomans
                         b. Suez Canal completed in 1869 by Ferdinand de Lesseps
                         c. To protect its investment in the Suez Canal, Britain established an informal
                         protectorate over Egypt in 1881
                         d. In the Sudan, the Mahdi led a religious revolt
                                   1) Charles “Chinese” Gordon led British forces against the Mahdi, but he
                                   was killed in 1885 before being rescued

                        e. North Africa also broke away from direct Ottoman control
                                 1) French established colony of Algeria
                3. Arab Merchants and European Missionaries in East Africa
                        a. Demand for slaves increased because of plantation agriculture
                        b. Arab merchants on Zanzibar and into the interior in quest for slaves and ivory
                        c. Slave trade condemned by Christian missionaries, e.g. doctor David Livingston
                        d. Western missionary campaign succeeded in closing Zanzibar slave market in
                4. Bantus, Boers, and British in the South
                        a. South Africa: Dutch/Boers in 17th century, British during Napoleonic wars
                        b. Dutch Boers “trecked” away from British control, and established two small
                        republics, the Transvaal and the Orange Free State
                        c. Bantu resistance to encroaching Europeans led by Shaka
                5. The Scramble for Africa began in the 1880s
                        a. Between Britain, France, Belgium, Germany and Portugal
                        b. Not the result of trade or economic advantages
                        c. European rivalries were extended into the colonial arena
                                 1) If “A” does not seize a potential colony, then “B” will
                        d. Missionary factor
                        e. Social Darwinism and the “white man’s burden”
                                 1) David Livingstone’s “three Cs”: Christianity, commerce, civilization
                        f. Western technology including firearms gave European the advantage
                        g. Advances in disease protection, such as use of quinine against malaria
                        h. Berlin Conference, 1884, reduced military rivalry in Africa but did not slow
                        i. Some war scenarios
                                 1) Fashoda crisis between Britain and France
                        j. The Boer War, 1899-1902
                                 1) Diamonds and gold, and Boers v. the British
                                 2) Concentration camps
II. The Colonial System
        A. The Philosophy of Colonialism: “might makes right,” but by direct or indirect rule?
                1. Assimilation and Association
                        a. French vacillated between assimilation and association
                                 1) France in Vietnam: began as association and then tried assimilation
                                 but ultimately relied upon force
                        b. British opposed assimilation, and assumed colonial peoples were culturally
                        and racially distinct
                2. Colonialism in Action varied
                        a. France usually imposed a centralized administrative system
                        b. Britain tried to transform local aristocrats into British gentry
                        c. Africa, with fewer economic rewards, treated differently than places of greater
                        economic possibilities
        B. India Under the British Raj
                1. Benefits of British Rule
                        a. Relatively honest and efficient government
                        b. More educational opportunities
                                 1) Indian elite could train for British-introduced civil service exams
                        c. Outlawed sati and reduced thuggee (brigandage)
                        d. Introduced railroads, telegraph, postal service, a new penal code, and
                        improved health and sanitation conditions

                  2. The Cost of Colonialism
                           a. Economic costs
                                    1) British rule introduced cheaper British textiles, ruining local textile
                           b. Little effort to introduce democratic institutions
                           c. Local officials used the zamindar tax collection system to worsen peasants
                           d. Psychological cost due to British arrogance and contempt for Indians
                           e. Lead to a cultural collision for many, e.g. E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India
         C. Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia: economic profit the aim, usually through indirect rule
                  1. Administration and Education
                           a. Indirect rule not always possible
                                    1) British abolished Burmese monarchy and rule directly
                                    2) In Vietnam, France ruled the south directly but the north indirectly
                                    through the Vietnamese emperor
                           b. All colonial regimes were slow to create democratic institutions or to adopt
                           educational reforms
                                    1) To educate the natives meant not “one coolie less, but one rebel more”
                  2. Economic Development
                  3. Colonialism and the Countryside
         D. Colonialism in Africa
                  1. Indirect Rule
                  2. The British in East Africa
                  3. British Rule in South Africa
                  4. Direct Rule
III. The Emergence of Anticolonialism
         A. Stirrings of Nationhood
         B. Traditional Resistance: A Precursor to Nationalism
                  1.The Sepoy Rebellion
IV. Conclusion

1. “The White Man’s Burden, Black Man’s Sorrow”—Is there validity to Kipling’s entreaty, or is it,
consciously or not, a cover for national (racial?) chauvinism and profit seeking? Is Kipling’s appeal a
literary work which can only be understood in the limited context of its era? Why or why not? How does
the excerpt by Morel differ from Kipling? According to Morel, what is the impact of “the white man”
upon African society? Is his critique fair and accurate? Why and or why not? Are both Kipling and Morel
patronizing towards black African society? If so, how? (page 579)

2. “Indian in Blood, English in Taste and Intellect”—Is Macaulay an “objective” observer of Indian
culture and literature? Is Macaulay’s consideration of the matter of language choice based on objective
criteria? Why or why not? Were people in colonial administrations likely to pick a language other than
their own? Are linguistic questions handled more objectively today? Why or why not? Give an example
or two. (p. 583)

3. “The Effects of Dutch Colonialism in Java”—What details of colonial exploitation are included in this
excerpt? How does Dekker demonstrate his admiration for the native Javanese farmers? Considering the
amount of time spent by the writer in the East Indies, what irony does this excerpt reflect? Would the

Javanese peasants have agreed with Dekker’s criticism of Dutch policies? Why or why not? Would the
Javanese today agree with Dekker’s praise of the peasant life-style? (p. 586)

4. ““There’s a European, There’s a European!””—Does Baba’s account of the arrival of the Europeans
seem accurate? Why or why not? According to this excerpt, who were “the winners” and who were “the
losers” when the Europeans arrived in rural Nigeria? What were the specific improvements that the
British brought to Nigerian society? What might have been the debits? (p. 590)

5. “The Ndebele Rebellion”—What elements of Western imperialism does this excerpt reveal? Does
Ndansi Kumalo’s account seem accurate? How does this event compare with Baba’s account of the
British arrival in Nigeria? What are the similarities and differences in the two events? Why? Was the
success of European imperialism in Africa simply the result of superior military technology or were there
other factors involved? (p. 591)

6. “The Civilizing Mission in Egypt”— Why might the words Qassim Amin uses to describe the speed of
European progress around the world be appealing to some non-Westerners? What does Amin find
admirable about the West and Westerners? What does he suggest is possibly less admirable? How does he
perceive Egypt and its relation to the West in comparison to other states, in Africa and elsewhere? Is the
use of the veil in Islam the handicap that Amin claims? Why and or why not? (p. 592)

7. “To Resist or Not to Resist”— What are the claims and arguments that Hoang Cao Khai and Phan Dinh
Phung posed to each other in either justifying or resisting the French takeover of Vietnam? Who has the
best case, and why? What elements of Confucianism are there in the two letters? What do they suggest
about Chinese cultural imperialism, if anything? From the vantage point of the early twenty-first century,
who won the argument? (p. 595)

1. Have students look at world maps showing conditions in 1815, 1860 and 1900 to give them a grasp of
the changing geographic extent of imperial holdings during the 1800s. Quantified calculations of colonial
populations, resources and square-mile areas could impart heightened understanding.

2. Invite students to probe the social and belief structures of peoples conquered during the nineteenth
century, and have them assess the results of contact with their European overlords.

3. Assign students to study and then compare and contrast the issues and circumstances involved in the
activities of the Mahdi and the Boers, and such European imperialists’ responses to them (such as the
Kruger telegram, the deal for Tanganyika, etc.).

4. Have students study the statements of Rhodes, Kipling, Lugard, Sarraut, et al. to get a “feel” for the
rhetoric of imperial apologists. It might prove useful in this regard to have them examine the responses of
such individuals to the Sepoy Rebellion and other such events, which could provide a deeper
understanding of mixed motivations in stressful situations.

5. Have students examine the ideas and assumptions behind policies of assimilation and association and
their links to economic exploitation. Ask students to note where specific policies were used, and why, in
order to develop an overall assessment of the causes, nature and results of imperialism.

6. Have students examine the role of racial and economic motives and beliefs in different imperial areas.
A juxtaposition of these practices with contemporaneous interracial and economic developments in the

United States (especially the South) might provide added insight and, for some, enhance the
persuasiveness of Kiplingesque perceptions.

7. Have students discuss or debate the premise that, on balance, Western imperialism brought little benefit
to the West.

8. Have students debate the following: “British rule in India was on balance overwhelmingly beneficial to
the vast majority of Indians.”


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