AP EUROPEAN HISTORY Chapter 17 The 18th Century—An Age of by gabyion

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									AP EUROPEAN HISTORY: Chapter 17: The 18th Century*An
Age of Enlightenment

   A. German philosopher Emmanuel Kant defined the
      Enlightenment as follows:
      1. “Man‟s leaving his self-caused immaturity.”
      2. Motto of the period: “Dare to know!”
      3. “Have the courage to use your own intelligence.”
   B. The Paths to Enlightenment
      1. Many philosophers saw themselves as the heirs of
         the pagan philosophers of antiquity and the Italian
         humanists of the Renaissance who had revived the world
         of classical antiquity.
      2. Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757)
          a. Secretary of the French Royal Academy of Science
              from 1691 to 1741
          b. He never performed any scientific experiments nor
               made any scientific discoveries
          c. He possessed a deep knowledge of all the scientific
              work of earlier centuries and his own time
          d. He was able to communicate this body of scientific
              knowledge in a clear and witty way that was appealing
              to upper-class audiences with such works as Plurality
              of Worlds which praised and popularized the new ideas
              of a mechanistic universe
          e. His works announce the arrival of the Enlightenment
              because they popularize a growing skepticism toward
              the claims of religion and they portray churches as
              clear enemies of scientific progress
           f. He was considered one of the most important links
               between the scientists of the 17th Century and the
               philosophes of the 18th Century.
       3. Enlightened thinkers can be understood as
          secularists because they strongly recommended the
          application of the scientific method to the analysis
          and understanding of all aspects of human life
      4. European intellectual life in the 18th Century was
         marked by the emergence of secularization and a search
         to find the natural laws governing human life
      5. Isaac Newton and John Locke
         a. Both men provided deep inspiration for the
             Enlightenment by arguing that through rational
             reasoning and the human acquisition of knowledge one
             could discover natural laws governing all aspects of
             human society
      b. In Locke‟s “Essay Concerning Human Understanding”, he
         contributes to the development of Enlightenment
         ideas by arguing that a person‟s character was shaped by
         that person‟s environment (tabula rasa), not by
         innate ideas implanted in the brain by God
C. The Philosophes and Their Ideas
   1. They were literate intellectuals who meant to
      change the world by advancing reason and rationality
   2. Philosophes is the French word for philosopher
      given to these intellectuals despite the fact that not
      all of them were French and few were philosophers in
      the literal sense
   3. They were literary people, professors, journalists,
      statesmen, economists, political scientists, and most
      importantly social reformers
   4. They primarily came from upper and middle classes
   5. A fundamental motive driving the philosophes to
      demand ever greater freedom of thought and expression
      was their devotion to improvement and enjoyment of the
   6. A key new type of enlightened writing fueling
      skepticism about the „truths‟ of Christianity and
      European society was travel reports and comparative
      studies of old and new world cultures
   7. Enhanced France as the dominant country of European
   8. Paris was considered the recognized capital of
   9. Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)
      a. Protestant skeptic known for his criticism of
         traditional religious attitudes
      b. he attacked superstition, religious intolerance,
         and dogmatism
      c. he believed a society would benefit from the
         existence of many religions within it
      d. in his major work, Historical and Critical
         Dictionary, he states that the new rational
         principles of textual criticism should be applied to all types
         of writing including the Bible
  10. Charles de Secondat [the Baron de Montesquieu]
       a. came from French nobility
       b. life dedicated to travel, study, and writing
       c. ideas included in his works include an attack on
          traditional religion, the advocacy of religious
          toleration, the denunciation of slavery, and the use
        of reason to liberate human beings from their
    d. most famous work was The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
        1. comparative study of governments in which he
           attempted to apply the scientific method to
           the social and political arena to ascertain the „natural
           laws‟ governing social relationships of human beings
        2. said environment and geographical factors
           shaped a nation‟s type of government
        3. divided governments into 3 categories:
           republics, monarchies, and despots
        4. above all else he was concerned with
           maintaining balances among the various branches of
           government (Separation of Powers)
        5. work influential in shaping American government
11. Francios-Marie Arouet [Voltaire] (1694-1778)
    a. Son of a prosperous middle class family in
    b. French playwright known for his social satire
    c. Plays such as Oedipe and Henriade made him the
        darling of French intellectuals as well as
        well-received by English literary and social
    d. Major themes running through his works include
        a simple view of Jesus, religious toleration,
        and deism (based on Newton‟s great clockmaker concept of
        the universe)
    e. In his Philosophic Letters to the English
       (1733), he expressed a deep admiration for the
        English love of freedom, tolerance, and commercial excellence
    f. Although he touched on all themes important to
        the philosophes, he is best known for his
        criticism of religious intolerance, which became even more
        prevalent in his later writings such as Treatise on
        Toleration (1763)
12. Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
    a. son of a skilled craftsman from eastern France
    b. received a Jesuit education and later attended the
        University of Paris
    c. became a free-lance writer so he could be free to
        study and read in many subjects and languages
    d. was the most versatile of all the philosophes, as
        exemplified by the various types of provocative
        literature he wrote
   e. chief target of his disdain was Christianity which
       he termed the “most absurd and the most
       atrocious in its dogma”.
   f. favored renunciation of chastity and narrow
       Christian definitions of acceptable sexual relations
       and expressions of love
   g. His most famous contribution to the Enlightenment‟s
       battle against religious fanaticism, intolerance, and
       prudery was his 28-volume Encyclopedia compiling
       articles by many influential philosophes
       1. this work was a major weapon for the philosophes
          versus old French society
       2. later editions saw a significant drop in price,
          which made it more accessible to the public
13. The belief in natural laws underlying all areas of
    human life led to the social sciences.
14. David Hume (1711-1776)
    a. Scottish philosopher who believed in the “science of man”
    b. Wrote Treatise on Human Nature which argued that
        observation and reflection, grounded in “systematized
        common sense” made conceivable a “science of man”.
15. Francois Quesnay (1694-1774)
    a. a highly successful French court physician
    b. leader of the Physiocrats
    c. along with Adam Smith, the Physiocrats considered
        founders of the modern discipline of economics
    d. believed land constituted the only source of true
    e. rejected mercantilist emphasis on money
    f. stressed the existence of the natural economic
       forces of supply and demand made it imperative that
       individuals should be left free to pursue their own
       economic self-interest
16. Adam Smith (1723-1790)
    a. Scottish philosopher and economist
    b. Wrote Wealth of Nations (1776) which was the best
         statement of laissez-faire economics written during
         that time
    c. Condemned use of protective tariffs
    d. Believed labor constituted the true wealth of a
    e. Believed the state should not interfere in economic
    f. Laid foundation for 19th Century economic
17. Baron Paul d‟Holbach (1723-1789)
    a. wealthy German aristocrat who settled in Paris
     b. preached a doctrine of strict atheism and
     c. wrote System of Nature (1770) which stated that men
        were machines and God was a mere product of the human
         mind and was unnecessary for leading a moral life
 18. Marie-Jean de Condorcet (1743-1794)
     a. French philosophe
     b. Believed in the idea of human perfectibility
     c. Major work was The Progress of the Human Mind which
         he wrote in hiding during the French Revolution‟s
         Reign of Terror
     d. Captured and executed during this period
19. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
     a. born in Geneva, Switzerland
     b. abandoned by his family at an early age
     c. spent his youth wandering about France and Italy
         holding various jobs
     d. with the money he made as a paid lover to an older
        woman, he went back to school where he studied music
         and the classics
     e. became a friend of Diderot who introduced him to
         Paris salons (never very comfortable in Paris social
     f. his political beliefs were expressed in two major
        1. Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of
           a. viewed primitive man as a noble savage
           b. said people adopted laws and governments to preserve
             their private property
           c. viewed government as an evil, but a necessary one
        2. The Social Contract (1762)
           a. tried to harmonize individual liberty with
              governmental authority
           b. stated that freedom is achieved by being forced to
              follow what is best for all people or the “GENERAL
           c. the general will represented a community‟s highest
              aspirations that are best for the entire community
           d. this work was the ultimate statement in
              participatory democracy
     g. believed that private property was the source of
         inequality and the chief cause of crimes
     h. he also wrote an influential novel entitled Emile
         (1762) which was one of the Enlightenment‟s most
          important works on education and proper child rearing
       i. sought a balance in his life between matters of the
           heart and mind
       j. this emphasis on the heart made him a precursor to
          the Romanticism movement of the early 19th Century
 20. The “Woman‟s Question” in the Enlightenment
       a. for centuries male intellectuals argued that the base
           nature of women made them inferior to men and
           made male domination of women necessary
       b. during the Enlightenment, thinkers such as Rousseau
           reinforced this view by pointing out the “natural”
           biological differences between men and women
       c. many philosophes argued that women were
           intellectually inferior and predisposed to child
       d. Diderot and Voltaire were notable exceptions,
           viewing women more as intellectual equals than most of
           their counterparts
 21. Mary Astell (1666-1731)
       a. daughter of a wealthy English coal merchant
       b. in her 1697 book, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies,
           she stressed the need for women to become better
       c. in her later work, Some Reflections upon Marriage,
           she argued for the equality of the sexes in marriage
 22. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
      a. English writer viewed by many as the founder of
          modern European feminism
      b. Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
           1. considered the strongest statement for the rights
              of women in the 18th Century
           2. considered women being expected to be subservient
              to men was contrary to the true spirit of the
              Enlightenment which upheld the ideal of all
              humans possessing innate reason
           3. argued if all humans were blessed with innate
              reason that men and women should be treated as
              equals to men in education, economics, and politics
D. The Social Environment of the Philosophes
   1. The Enlightenment was not limited to any one class,
      but obviously its greatest appeal was to the
      aristocracy and the upper middle class
   2. Tended to be urban rather than rural
   3. Enlightenment left the common people unaffected for
      the most part
   4. Salons, particularly in Paris, were of great
      importance during the Enlightenment for all of the
          following reasons:
          a. provided a forum for the serious discussion of the
             ideas of the philosophes
          b. gave social mobility to both men and women
          c. were usually run by women for male guests
    A. Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
       1. Art
           a. by the 1730s a new style of art known as ROCOCO had begun
               to affect decoration and architecture all over Europe
           b. movement started in France but extremely popular in Germany
           c. emphasized grace and gentle action
           d. had a fondness for curves and liked to follow wandering lines
               of natural objects such as seashells or flowers
           e. highly secular
           f. Rococo had a sense of enchantment and exuberance
           g. Major Rococo artists:
               1. Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) [painter]—famous work is The
                   Pilgrimage to Cythera (1716-1717)
               2. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) [painter]—
                   masterpiece is the ceiling of the Bishop‟s Palace at
               3. Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753) [architect]—most famous
                   design was the pilgrimage church of the Vierzehnheiligen
               4. Domenikus Zimmermann (1685-1766) [architect]—famous
                   design was the pilgrimage church of Wies
           h. Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) was a famous neoclassical
               artist of the era; famous work was Oath of Horatii (1784)
       2. Music
           a. the 17th and 18th were formative years of classical music and
               saw the rise of the opera and oratorio, the sonata, the concerto,
               and the symphony
           b. the Italians were the first to create these genres, but were soon
               followed by the Germans, Austrians, and English
           c. Important Musicians
               1. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
                   a. German
                   b. Perfected Baroque musical style
                   c.    best known for his cantatas and motets
                   d. was equally capable of producing sublime religious as
                      well as boisterous secular music
                   e.    known for Mass in B Minor, St. Mathew’s Passion,
                      Coffee Cantata
               2. George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)
                   a. German
                   b. perfected Baroque musical style
             c. wrote music for large public audiences
             d. predominantly wrote operas and other secular music
             e.    best known for his religious music (Messiah)
          3. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
             a. Hungarian
             b. composed 104 symphonies
             c.    most famous works were oratorios—The Creation and
                 The Seasons which were both dedicated to the common
          4. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
             a. Austrian
             b. Along with Haydn caused a musical shift from Italy to
             c.    Known for his operas including: The Marriage of
                 Figaro, The Magic Flute, and Don Giovanni
   3. Literature
      a. The Development of the Novel
          1. 18th Century writers, especially in England, used the modern
             novel to attack hypocrisies of the era and provide
             sentimental entertainment for a growing audience
          2. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761)
             a. English
             b. Known for his use of sentiment and emotion
             c.    Most famous work was Pamela
          3. Henry Fielding (1707-1754)
             a. English
             b. Attacked the hypocrisy of his age
             c.    Wrote novels about people without scruples who
                 survived by their wits
             d. Most famous work was Tom Jones
      b. The Writing of History
          1. the most significant change in writing histories in the 18th
             Century was the removal of God as a causative factor of
          2. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon
             was the most significant historical work of the time period;
             gave the rise of Christianity as the chief cause for the fall of
             the empire
B. The High Culture of the 18th Century
   1. High culture refers to the literary and artistic culture of the
      educated and wealthy ruling classes
   2. High culture in 18th Century Europe was characterized by the
      enormous impact of the book, magazine, and newspaper
      publishing with England leading the way.
       a. an important aspect of the growth of publishing and reading in
          the 18th Century was the development of magazines such as
          England‟s Spectator for the general public
       b. in 1702 the first daily newspaper was published in London
       c. by 1780, 37 other English towns had their own newspapers
   3. Education and Universities
       a. most schools in 18th Century Europe were elitist and designed
          to serve the needs of the upper class
       b. the curriculum of these secondary schools largely
          concentrated on the Greek and Latin classics with little
          attention paid to mathematics, the sciences, and modern
       c. most universities of this era produced little intellectual growth
          and scholarship although there were exceptions such as the
          University of Gottingen in Hanover and the University of
       d. an important development in education in Europe in the 18th
          Century was a broader and more practical university
          curriculum by the end of the century
C. Crime and Punishment
   1. by the 18th Century, most European states had a hierarchy of
       courts to deal with civil and criminal cases
   2. except in England, judicial torture remained an important means of
       obtaining evidence before a trial
   3. punishments for crimes were often public and gruesome
   4. public executions were a basic part of traditional punishment
   5. appalled by unjust laws and brutal punishments of their times,
       some philosophes sought to create a new approach to justice
   6. philosophes thought that punishments should serve as deterrents
       not as exercises in brutality
   7. by the end of the 18th Century, a growing sentiment against
       executions and torture led to a decline in both corporal and capital
D. The World of Medicine
   1. in the 18th Century, medicine was practiced by a hierarchy of
   2. below the physicians were the surgeons, who were still known as
       barber-surgeons well into the 18th Century from their original dual
   3. surgeons primary job was to bleed patients and perform surgeries
       without painkillers and often times in filthy conditions
   4. during the 18th Century surgeons began to separate themselves
       from barbers and began undergoing training in dissecting corpses
       and studying anatomy more systematically
   5. medical practitioners such as apothecaries, midwives, and faith
       healers, primarily served the common people in the 18th Century
        6. despite appeals, hospitals remained in an infantile stage in the 18th
     E. Popular Culture-------------------------------------------
        1. refers to the often unwritten and unofficial culture passed down
            orally that was fundamental to the lives of most people
        2. its distinguishing characteristic is its collective and public nature
        3. the Carnival (festival leading up to Lent) of the Mediterranean
            world was a period of intense sexual activity and gross excesses
        4. the same sense of community evident in religious festivals was
            also present in the chief gathering places of the common people,
            the local taverns and cabarets
        5. in some countries the favorite drinks of poor people (gin in
            England/vodka in Russia) had devastating effects as poor people
            often drank themselves into oblivion
        6. the rich were also heavy drinkers (usually port and brandy)
        7. despite a widening cultural gap between rich and poor, urban fairs,
            boxing matches, and horse races often brought people of all
            classes together
        8. chapbooks, printed on cheap paper containing both spiritual and
            secular content, were short brochures sold to the lower classes by
            street peddlers
        9. chapbooks proved that popular culture did not have to be spread
            exclusively orally anymore
        10. literacy rates in 18th Century Europe were especially high in cities
            a. literacy rate of male artisans and workers rose from 28% in
                1710 to 85% by 1789
            b. literacy rate of women remained a constant 15% throughout the
            c. peasants remained largely illiterate
            d. the spread of literacy was closely linked to primary education
            e. the emphasis of the Protestant reformers on reading the Bible
                had led Protestant states to take greater interest in primary
        A. despite the anti-religious sentiments of many of this era‟s
             philosophes, music and art had religious themes during this time
        B. most Europeans were still Christians
        C. even many of the church‟s harshest critics didn‟t think society
             could function without religious faith
        D. The Institutional Church
             1. in the 18th Century, churches, both Catholic and Protestant still
                 played a major role in social and spiritual areas in European
             2. the established Catholic and Protestant churches were
                 basically conservative institutions that upheld society‟s
                 hierarchical structure, privileged classes, and traditions
3. the church run by priest or pastor remained the center of
   religious practice
4. the church kept records of births, deaths, marriages, provided
   charity for the poor, supervised whatever primary education
   there was, and cared for orphans
5. church/state relations
   a. Lutheranism---Scandinavia and northern Germany
   b. Anglicanism---England
   c. Calvinism---Scotland, the United Provinces (Netherlands),
       and some Swiss cantons and German states
   d. Roman Catholicism---Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, the
       Hapsburg Empire, Poland, and most of southern Germany
       1. the Catholic church remained hierarchically structured
           with a wide gulf in the standard of living still existing
           between the upper clergy and lower clergy
       2. Catholic countries began a “nationalization” process of
           the church within their borders
       3. Jesuits, who wielded great power in France, Spain, and
           Portugal through their running of secondary schools,
           missionary work in colonies, and role as advisors to
           Catholic kings, soon were viewed targets for elimination
       4. Over a 14 year period beginning in 1759, the Jesuits not
           only saw their influence end in these countries but their
           religious order cease to exist
       5. The end of the Jesuits was paralleled by a decline in
           papal power
       6. Austria, through its Edict on Idle Institutions (1782),
           suppressed all the contemplative monastic orders,
           allowing only those that provided charitable or
           educational services to survive (cut the number of
           monks in Austria by 50%)----------------------------------
6. toleration and religious minorities
   a. despite religious hard-liners such as Louis XIV of France
       and Maria Theresa of Austria, some progress was made
       toward the principle of religious toleration in Europe
   b. however, heretics were still persecuted during the 18th
       Century with the last known burning of a heretic taking
       place in 1781.
   c. Joseph II of Austria led the way in terms of religious
       toleration with his Toleration Patent of 1781 which
       recognized Catholicism‟s public practice, granted
       Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox the right to
       worship privately; in all other ways, his subjects were
       considered equal
7. toleration of Jews
       a. the Jews remained the most despised religious minority in
       b. the largest number of Jews (Ashkenazic) lived in eastern
          Europe where they were restricted in their movements,
          forbidden to own land or hold many jobs, forced to pay
          burdensome special taxes, and subject to periodic and
          often violent outbursts of public wrath (relatively tolerant
          Poland was the only exception to this treatment in eastern
       c. the Jews (Sephardic) were also kicked out of Spain and
          soon migrated to Turkish lands as well as religiously
          tolerant cities such as Amsterdam, Venice, London, and
          Frankfurt where Jews were relatively free to participate in
          banking and commercial activities that they had been
          traditionally involved in since the Middle Ages
       d. some Enlightenment thinkers favored a new acceptance of
          Jews and urged that governments grant full citizenship to
       e. many Europeans favored the assimilation of Jews into the
          mainstream of society, but only by the conversion of Jews
          to Christianity
       f. perhaps the most tolerant of the 18th Century monarchs
          toward Jews was Joseph II of Austria who made limited
          reforms by:
          1. freeing Jews from nuisance taxes and allowing them
               more job opportunities and freedom of movement
          2. encouraging Jews to learn German to better assimilate
               into Austrian society
          3. still restricted Jews from owning land or worshiping in
E. Popular Religion in the 18th Century
    1. Catholic piety
       a. it is difficult to assess the religiosity of Europe‟s Catholics
          during this era
       b. despite the Reformation, much popular devotion was still
          directed to an externalized form of worship focusing on
          prayers to saints, pilgrimages, and devotion to relics and
       c. many clergymen of the time felt that their parishioners were
          more superstitious than devout
    2. Protestant revivalism
       a. by the 17th Century, Protestant churches had settled down
          into well-established patterns controlled by state
          authorities and served by a well-educated clergy
       b. more and more, Protestant churches became
          bureaucratized and bereft of religious enthusiasm
c. in response to rationalism and deism, many ordinary
   Protestant churchgoers began searching for greater depths
   of religious experience which eventually sparked Pietism
   1. begun in Germany in the 17th Century by a group of
       German clerics who wished their religion to be more
       personal and transformative
   2. spread by the teachings of Count Nikolaus von
       Zinzendorf (1700-1760) and his Moravian Brethren
   3. utterly opposed to the rationalist movement within
       Lutheran church
d. John Wesley (1703-1791) led a Protestant revival in England
   1. created and controlled his evangelical Methodist church
       using revivalist techniques
   2. his message appealed to the lower classes neglected by
       the socially elitist Anglican Church of the time
   3. wanted to keep Methodist teachings within the umbrella
       of Anglican church but his movement left the Anglican
       church after his death
   4. his movement proved that the need for spiritual
       experience had not been expunged by the 18th Century
       search for reason

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