Oregon State University Extension Service http://www.css.orst.edu/news/publicat/NewsNote/
CROP and SOIL
July 8 – Joint Field Day for the USDA-ARS/WSU Palouse
April, 1999 Conservation Field Station (morning) and WSU Spillman
Vol. 13, No. 4 Agronomy Farm (afternoon), Pullman, WA. For further
__________________________________________ information, contact Marguerite at the WSU Crop and
* Hyslop Farm Field Day Soil Sciences Extension office (Phone: 509-335-2915,
* Groundsel Email: email@example.com).
* 1998 Seed Production Research Report July 21 – Malheur Experiment Station Field Day. Contact
* Banded Fertilizer Influence on Stand of Peas, Beans, Clint Shock (Phone: 541-889-2174, Fax: 541-889-7831,
* and Sweet Corn Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) for details.
August 26 – Malheur Experiment Station Onion Variety
Day, 9 AM – 12 Noon. Registration starts at 8:30 AM
MDT. Please contact Janet Jones (541-889-2174) for
DATES AND PLACES details.
May 18 – Umatilla County Weed and Crop Tour, Pendleton.
For further information, contact Mary Corp at the
Umatilla County Extension Office (541-278-5403). CEREALS
May 26 – Hyslop Farm Field Day, Corvallis.
Hyslop Farm Field Day
June 10 – Malheur Experiment Station Weed Tour. Regis-
tration begins at 8:30 AM MDT. For further information, In accordance with tradition, Hyslop Farm Field Day will be
contact Janet Jones at 541-889-2174. held the last Wednesday of May - May 26. The cereals section
will be in the morning, seed crops in the afternoon. We will start
June 15 – Field Day – Columbia Basin Agricultural
at 8:30 AM and conclude cereals topics by noon. Lunch will be
Research Center, Pendleton. For more information,
provided on site. The afternoon seed crops session will begun at
contact Richard Smiley (Phone: 541-278-4186, Email:
1 PM and concluded by @4:30. Mark your calendars and plan to
attend. Schedule details will be provided to county agents via
June 16 – Field Day – Columbia Basin Agricultural email and in the May News and Notes.
Research Center, Moro. For further information, contact
Richard Smiley (Phone: 541-278-4186, Email: Tilt Update
I reported in the March News/Notes that Quadris had received a
June 17 – 84th annual WSU Lind Dryland Research Unit federal registration, including labeling for late head emergence
Field Day Lind, WA. Contact person is Bill Schillinger (Feekes 10.5). Novartis had sought a similar heading stage label
(Phone: 509-659-0355, Fax: 509-659-0699, Email: for Tilt as a Special Local Need (24C) in the Pacific Northwest
email@example.com) for details. and was granted registration in Idaho and Washington but not
Oregon. The Oregon Department of Agriculture denied the re-
July 7 – Field Day at WSU Wilke Research Farm, Daven- quest for want of more data and because there was a low prob-
port, WA. For more information, contact Diana Roberts ability that late season application of Tilt may result in residue
(Phone: 509-533-2048, Ext. 111, Fax: 509-533-2087, levels in excess of tolerances in some situations. So beware!
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org). You may hear that Tilt is being used as a late application, which
is legal in Washington and Idaho, but not Oregon.
News/Notes - 2
Hard White Wheats made of PVC pipe and screen and uses a 2-3 HP fan as its sole
power source. Estimated cost of materials is less than $500. A
OSU will have hard white winter and spring wheats to release, copy of the page from the article showing the cleaner design is
likely within the next year. A process has just begun to develop included on page 10 of this newsletter. As shown, the cleaner
a recommendation to Dean Thayne Dutson, through the newly has a capacity of about a ton of grain per hour. Adriel has indi-
formed Cereal Variety Advisory Committee, on how to release cated that greater capacity can be achieved by using larger di-
these first Oregon developed hard whites. You will see more ameter PVC pipe or by using a larger fan. Growers who are in-
information in the next News and Notes and also in Oregon terested in such cleaning equipment can likely come up with
Wheat Magazine on the process and options. other design options. For a complete copy of the article contact
Russ Karow. For specific questions about the cleaner contact
Klamath Falls Tour Adriel Garay.
A three-day tour of agriculture and agriculture issues in the Cereal Leaf Beetle
Klamath Basin has been arranged by Rodney Todd and fellow
county agents and experiment station faculty in the Klamath Cereal leaf beetle (CLB) is on the move in the Pacific North-
Basin. The tour will be May 4-6 and there is still room for addi- west. Brad Brown, Agronomist at the Parma Research Station in
tional participants. Contact Russ Karow if you are interested in Southwest Idaho, reported that CLB was found on the Station
participating. last year. Ben Simko, Malheur County Crops Agent, has been in
on-going communication with entomologists from the Idaho
Continuous Flow Grain Cleaner for Less than $500 Department of Agriculture. They reported a number of low-den-
sity finds in grower fields southwest of Payette. Ben will be
The tightening of dockage standards for wheat a number of monitoring for CLB in Oregon this year. The adult beetles are
years ago has resulted in a half dozen requests each year for in- good flyers and can move significant distances under their own
formation about on-farm cleaning equipment. Several companies power. Larva and eggs can also be moved with contaminated
make fans or small clipper cleaners for dockage removal, most hay over even longer distances. We encourage everyone in east-
systems costing several thousand dollars at a minimum. Adriel ern Oregon to watch for this insect this season. It will be on the
Garay, OSU Seed Lab Manager, recently sent me a copy of an move.
article he co-authored about a continuous flow grain cleaner. He
and Dr. Roberto Aguirre , National University, Palmira, The following information was taken from a Montana State
Columbia, had designed the cleaner for use by small farmers in University web site about CLB. This web site, including pictures
developing countries, but the design should be useful for and maps, can be found at
growers here in the PNW who wish to clean grain as it's moved http://scarab.msu.montana.edu/ipm/clbnotes.htm#A3.
between storage bins or readied for shipment. The cleaner is
Crop and Soil Science ............................ Area Code (541)
Extension Group .............. (Crops Office) FAX 737-1589 (Soils Office)...............................................FAX 737-5725
Arnold Appleby, Weed Control ........................ 737-5894 Russ Karow, Cereals ............................................737-5857
Ron Cook, Seed Certification ........................... 737-4513 Tracy Mitzel, Secretary, Soils Unit......................737-5712
Adriel Garay, Seed Laboratory ......................... 737-4464 Al Mosley, Potatoes .............................................737-5835
David Hannaway, Forages ................................ 737-5863 Barb Reed, Secretary, Crops Unit........................737-5854
John Hart, Soil Fertility..................................... 737-5714 Dan Sullivan, Soil/Water Quality ........................737-5715
Herb Huddleston, Soil Survey........................... 737-5713 Don Wysocki, CBARC ........................................278-4186
........................................................................................... Bill Young, Seed Production ...............................737-5859
OSU Cereals Extension Web Page.................................... http://www.css.orst.edu/cereals/
OSU Forage Information System Web Page..................... http://www.forages.css.orst.edu/
OSU Potato Web Page ...................................................... http://www.css.orst.edu/crops/potatoes/
OSU Seed Crops Extension Web Page ............................. http://www.css.orst.edu/seed-ext/
Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities, and materials—without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national
origin, age, marital status, disability, and disabled veteran or Vietnam-era veteran status—as required by Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education
Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Oregon State University Extension Service is an Equal Opportunity Employer.
News/Notes - 3
Damage plants). Both eggs and larvae can be found by examining the
Both adults and larvae of the cereal leaf beetle damage grain upper leaf surface.
crops with the larvae stage being the most damaging and the
target of control measures. Generally, the newer plant tissue is Economic Threshold
preferred with feeding occurring on the upper leaf surface caus- Boot stage is a critical point in plant development and impact of
ing characteristic elongated slits. cereal leaf beetle feeding damage can be felt on both yield and
grain quality. Before boot stage, the threshold is: 3 eggs and
Life Cycle and Description larvae or more per plant (including all the tillers present before
Adults are the overwintering stage, moving into grain fields and the emergence of the flag leaf). Larvae feeding in early growth
feeding for about 10 days on small grain and grass foliage after stages can have a general impact on plant vigor. When the flag
they become active in the spring. Adults prefer spring grains leaf emerges, feeding is generally restricted to the flag leaf
over winter grains. The adults are about 1/4 inch in length with which can significantly impact grain yield and quality. The
brightly colored orange-red thorax, yellow legs and metallic blue threshold is decreased at the boot stage to: 1 larvae or more per
head and wing covers. It is important to correctly identify the flag leaf.
adults since other beetles, common in cropland, resemble the
CLB. Eggs are laid end to end singly or in groups of 2 or 3 on Host Plants
the upper leaf surface near the base of the leaf. Newly laid eggs Cereal leaf beetle has a wide host range including cultivated
are bright yellow, darkening to orange-brown and finally to grass hosts: barley, oats, wheat speltz, rye. Adults may feed on
black before they hatch. Egg hatch may take from 4 to 23 days corn, sorghum and sudangrass. Beetles may use resident or grass
depending on temperatures. weeds including; wild oats, quackgrass, timothy, canary grass,
reed canary grass, annual and perennial ryegrass, foxtail, or-
The larvae has a yellow body with brown head and legs. The chard grass, wild rye, smooth brome and fescues.
body is protected by a layer of slimy, fecal material which
makes them look like a slug. When working or walking in an
infested field the slimy covering will rub off on your clothing.
Although both adults and larvae cause feeding damage, the lar- WEED CONTROL
vae is responsible for majority of the damage. They feed on the Arnold Appleby
leaf surface between veins, removing all the green material
down to the lower cuticle resulting in an elongated windowpane III. Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris)
in the leaf. Severe feeding damage came give a frosted appear-
ance to the field. The larvae has 3 pairs of legs located close to Groundsel is a pesky annual that has thrived in western Oregon
the head end of the immature insect. for decades and recently has become more widespread east of
the Cascades. It grows in a wide variety of situations worldwide,
When larvae have completed their feeding they shed their slimy including vegetable fields, Christmas trees, grain fields, pepper-
covering and drop to the ground, hollowing out an earthen cell mint, alfalfa, orchards, fencerows, etc., etc.
for pupation. The pupal stage takes from 10 to 14 days to com-
plete. When new adults emerge from pupation they feed briefly It is a prolific seeder, and there are reports of 1,000 to 40,000
on grasses, before leaving the field and finding a suitable pro- seeds per plant. It can complete its life cycle very quickly and
tected overwintering site. Adults are strong, active flyers and thus produce several generations per year in our climate. Seeds
can move some distance. can be capable of germination 5 days after flowering. Ripe seeds
may be present 5 to 6 weeks after seedling emergence.
The first sign of damage in the spring is due to adult feeding on Groundsel seems to germinate in flushes during the year, de-
the plant foliage. While this is the first sign of adult activity, pending on conditions. In Oregon, the major germination is in
adults are not the target of control. Eggs and larvae are moni- early to mid-spring and again about 3 months later, but it seems
tored by plant inspection since thresholds are expressed as egg to be able to germinate at any time of year.
and larvae numbers per plant or per stem. Examine 10 plants per
location and select 1 location for every 10 acres of field. Count About the only good news about groundsel is that a very low
number of eggs and larvae per plant (small plants) or per stem percentage of the seeds survive more than 1 year in the soil.
(larger plants) and get an average number of eggs and larvae, There is some dormancy, and in dry and/or cold conditions, a
based on the samples you have taken. few seeds can persist up to 3 years.
Plant growth stage should be noted because the treatment
threshold changes with plant growth stage (3 eggs and larvae or
more per plant in smaller plants; 1 larvae per flag leaf in larger
News/Notes - 4
bromoxynil (non-resistant type), Goal, paraquat, Harmony Ex-
tra, Finesse, and Asulox.
The cinnabar moth enjoys eating groundsel, as well as tansy
ragwort, dusty miller, and other Senecio species, but its grazing
season is short, and groundsel has no difficulty in surviving be-
cause it can germinate and produce seeds during the time when
the cinnabar moth is inactive. The tansy ragwort flea beetle has
been known to eat groundsel in the lab, but it does not seem to
have any impact in the field.
A Different Approach Against Yellow Starthistle
As we all know, yellow starthistle is a widespread problem in
some parts of the state. It is not all that difficult to kill with her-
bicides, but it often occurs on low-value rangeland where annual
herbicide treatment just is not in the economic cards. Dr. Joe
DiTomaso, U. of California-Davis, and colleagues reported at
the national weed meetings their results from a non-chemical
approach. Briefly, they burned two separate areas three years in
succession and measured ground cover, seed bank, and effect on
other species. Burns were conducted in late June or early July
following seed dispersal and senescence of desirable grasses and
broadleaves but prior to viable seed production in yellow
Groundsel is first cousin to tansy ragwort and has the same toxic After one year, there was no reduction in starthistle cover, but
alkaloids. Animals might not choose to eat groundsel if they the burn reduced the soil seedbank by 74% and the number of
have the choice of other feed, but feeding hay from groundsel- seedlings the following year by 83%. Three consecutive years of
infested forage to horses and cattle is not advisable. There have burning reduced seedbank and seedling density by over 99%,
even been reports of human deaths from presence of seeds or and summer vegetative cover of the weed by 91%. Plant diver-
other parts of Senecio plants in wheat used for human food. sity and species richness increased significantly.
As mentioned, groundsel is a very adaptable species and can Burning is a bad word in some areas of the state, but this is an
survive in a variety of conditions. It is strongly self fertile and approach that should be considered in those areas where the
likely to be relatively homozygous. Such weeds, if they have starthistle is most common and where burning is allowed.
initially invaded a particular habitat, may readily transmit their
adaptive traits to their offspring and continue to be successful.
Groundsel was a major player in the herbicide-resistance story. FORAGES
George Ryan of Puyallup, WA, first reported that simazine and David Hannaway
atrazine no longer controlled groundsel that had been treated
once or twice annually for 10 years. This was the first report in a Upcoming Conferences (refer to the Conferences section of the
long list of atrazine-resistant weeds. The multiple life cycles in a Forage Information System on the WWW for a more complete
year can lead to a more rapid selection of a herbicide-resistant list: URL is http://www.forages.css.orst.edu/Contents/
population. Recently, bromoxynil-resistant groundsel has been Conferences.html)
identified in Willamette Valley peppermint.
1. October 30-November 4, 1999 – American Society of
How to control it? Groundsel is not the easiest weed to control Agronomy Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. For details
with herbicides. 2,4-D and MCPA are poor. Sinbar no longer contact American Society of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe
provides much control in mint. Dicamba and diuron can be rated Road, Madison, WI 53711-1086 (phone: 608-273-8080;
as fair in most situations. Metribuzin is relatively effective on fax: 608-273-2021).
small groundsel but is even less effective than diuron on larger
plants (after Christmas in wheat). The herbicides that generally
give good control are clopyralid (Stinger, Curtail, Transline),
News/Notes - 5
SEED PRODUCTION If you would like a copy of Special Report 790/Revised May
Bill Young 1997 send your request to:
1998 Seed Production Research Report Sandy Sears
Agricultural and Resource Economics
The “1998 Seed Production Research” report is at the printer 219 Ballard Extension Hall
and will be available distribution the week of May 10. This an- Oregon State University
nual publication summarizes the investigations of OSU research Corvallis, Oregon 97331
and extension faculty and National Forage Seed Production Re- Phone: 541-737-1443
search Center scientists on seed crops. The report is made possi- E-mail: Sandy.Sears@orst.edu
ble by a grant from the Oregon Seed Council, which provides
the financial support for printing and distribution. The report Hyslop Farm Field Day
will be sent to the Oregon Seed Council’s mailing list of 1350
seed growers statewide. The Hyslop Farm Cereals and Seed Crops Field Day will be held
on Wednesday, May 26, from 8:30 a.m. until 4:00 p.m. In
A copy of this year’s Seed Report cover is on the back page of keeping with tradition, the morning will be devoted to cereal
this month’s newsletter; all 26 articles are listed. If you are inter- research and the afternoon to grass and legume seed work.
ested in receiving a copy (or copies) please tear off the last page
and return mail it to us; your mailing address label will identify Seed crops research will focus on grass and legume seed pro-
you. Requests can also be made via E-mail to Barb Reed duction. Several topics will be addressed by OSU extension and
(Barbara.J.Reed@orst.edu), Crop Science extension secretary. research staff, and USDA scientists from the National Forage
Seed Production Research Center. The afternoon’s schedule will
Grass and Legume Seed Value to Oregon’s Economy be included in next month’s Extension newsletter. Please plan to
You will recall that in last month’s newsletter I itemized grass
and legume seed statistics for 1998 in several detailed tables. In
this issue a pie graph and data table are presented on page 6
showing the economic contribution from each of Oregon’s agri- SOILS
cultural commodity groups. Note that the “Grass and Legume John Hart
Seeds” category represented 11% of Oregon’s total crop and
livestock sales in 1998! Banded fertilizer influence on stand of peas, beans and sweet
These preliminary figures, just released by the OSU Economic by John Hart, Russ Karow, and Neil Christensen
Information Office, report Oregon’s total agricultural sales were If the rain ever stops falling in western Oregon, spring crops can
over $3.2 billion last year. All crop commodities totaled be planted. Planting of spring crops will cause telephones to ring
$2,407,986,000 (75%); livestock sales added another and the usual round of questions, including “how much fertilizer
$798,249,000 (25%). Comparing 1998 sales ($3,206,226,000) can I band at planting?’ A standard answer begins “the amount
with 1997 sales ($3,307,006,000) one can compute a decrease of of fertilizer you can band depends on soil moisture, fertilizer
3.14 percent. The value received from all crop sales fell by 7.52 material, etc”. The voice on the other end of the telephone is
percent, while receipts from livestock sales showed a robust gain usually less than enthusiastic and again asks for a rate to apply.
of 10.07 percent. Crop commodities declining by more than 10
percent included Grains (-45.39%), Hay & Forage (-25.74%), OSU Fertilizer Guides 11, 28, and 55 - sweet corn, bush beans,
Tree Fruit & Nuts (-21.68%) and Field Crops (-12.28%). and peas for western Oregon - contain the following statements
that expand on the conditions and rates of material that can be
The OSU Economic Information Office has just published the banded at planting.
“1998 Oregon County and State Agricultural Estimates” (Spe-
cial Report 790/Revised April 1999). This summary report, If the application of N plus potash exceeds 90 lb/a, a danger of
which contains estimates of agricultural production and value of seedling injury from the concentration of salt exists when fertil-
all farm and ranch sales, provides a quick overview of Oregon izer is banded at planting time. Fertilizer-salt injury can be re-
agriculture in the past year. duced by using two rather than one fertilizer band, not banding
close to the seed, and immediate irrigation at first sign of crop
injury. Salt injury from fertilizer is likely to be greater in sandy
compared to finer textured soil, and in dry compared to moist
News/Notes - 6
News/Notes - 7
soil. Phosphorus should be banded 2 to 3 inches to the side and Table 2. Seeding rate and stand count for beans, sweet corn, and
2 to 3 inches below the seed. peas planted in the same soil at pH 5.4 and 5.9. Stand
counts for corn and beans are an average of all treat-
Let’s consider some of the factors influencing the amount of ments, peas from check plots.
fertilizer that can be banded at planting and review some data
collected last spring for fertilizer banded with corn, beans, and Crop stand count
peas. The first factor is that any fertilizer material banded with Soil pH Corn Beans Peas
the seed will at least slow germination and emergence several
days and has the potential to reduce the stand. All crops are im- ---------plants/plot ------------
pacted by banded fertilizer. Phosphorous materials generally are
less harmful than nitrogen and potassium materials. Remember 5.9 52 188 116
the weasel word “generally.” Exceptions will be discussed in 5.4 60 192 113
this article. seeds planted/50 ft row 80 400 250
LSD at 0.05 10 33 18
Our trials last spring purposely attempted to inhibit germination critical soil pH* 5.8 5.5 60
and emergence, so many of the above principles for safe band-
ing of fertilizer were violated. We banded the fertilizer directly *soil pH below which OSU Fertilizer Guides recommend lime.
with the seed. We used fertilizers and rates of material designed
to reduce germination. Soil pH made no significant difference in stand count even
though the soil pH in the unlimed areas was below the level for
Sweet corn, beans, and peas were planted on May 7th 1998 at which lime application is recommended for all three crops. This
Hyslop Farm with an assortment of fertilizer materials on limed data is not revoking recommendation for lime at soil pH 5.4 or
and unlimed areas. Table 1 provides soil test data for the site. 5.9, only that stand was not affected in the first month of growth
Two rows, 25 feet long, of each crop were planted in each plot by soil pH. No stand count comparison was made at the recom-
at standard row widths and seeding rates. Corn was planted in mended soil pH.
32 inch rows at the rate of 26,000 seeds/a. Beans were planted in
24 inch rows at the rate of 174,000 seeds/a. Peas were planted in Peas
8 inch rows at a rate of 300,000 seeds/a. Three replications of
each crop were planted in an area with a soil pH of 5.4 and in an Fertilizer materials were the primary influence on stand count. A
area with a soil pH of 5.9. All plants in each plot were counted list of fertilizer materials is provided in table 3. Stand counts for
on June 4th. peas are given in table 4. Ammonium thiosulfate banded with
peas seeds severely decreased stand count while lime banded
Table 1. Soil test data with the seed had no affect on emergence. Even though the soil
pH recommended for planting peas is higher than either soil pH
pH P K Ca Mg in this trial, banding lime with the seed at planting gave no ad-
vantage to stand count after one month. Conversely, ammonium
ppm ------- meq/100g-------- thiosulfate banded with pea seeds inhibited emergence of any
seeds in some plots. Ammonium thiosulfate, at any rate, should
unlimed 5.4 197 183 5.4 0.6 not be banded with seeds, especially peas.
limed 5.9 188 212 7.3 0.7
Table 2 provides stand counts for the three crops. The average
stand count was 75% of the seeding rate for corn and only 50%
for beans. The check plot stand count for peas was also 50% of
the seeding rate. The weather was probably a factor that de-
creased stand count. May 7th, the planting date, was one of four
days without rain in May of 1998. After planting almost 5 inches
or rain fell during the remainder of May, approximately 3 inches
above the 30-year average. The continual rain created a crust on
the silt loam soil that inhibited seedling emergence. The rain was
beneficial in ameliorating the affect of fertilizer salt placed with
the seed. Drier and warmer weather may not have produced
higher average stand counts, but stand counts from the untreated
plots should have been higher if the rainfall was normal.
News/Notes - 8
Table 3. Fertilizer treatments and abbreviations used. Table 5. Stand count of beans as influenced by fertilizer
Material Rate Abbreviation
Treatment No Lime Lime
Lime 250 Lime
Ammonium thiosulfate 10 gal/a ATS No fertilizer 265 A 219 B
Potassium chloride, 0-0-60 60 lb/a K2O KC160 KC1 60 180 C 185 C
Potassium sulfate, 0-0-50 60 lb/a K2O K2SO4 60 K2SO460 228 B
Ammonium sulfate- KC160 + ASAP 100 65 D
ammonium 100 lb/a P2O5 ASAP 100
Phosphate, 16-20-0-14.5 LSD 0.05 33
Monoammonium phosphate Seeds planted 400
11-52-0 100 lb/a P2O5 MAP
18-46-0 100 lb/a P2O5 DAP The recommendation in the OSU fertilizer guide for beans is to
Urea 46-0-0 45 lb N/a Urea band no more than 60 lb K20/a, 2 inches to the side and 2 inches
Potassium chloride and below the seed. Data in table 5 substantiates the need to keep 60
Annomium nitrate 60 lb K2O/a+30 lb N/a 90 N+K2O lb of K2O/a as KCl separated from the seed. If more than 60 lb
75 lb K2O/a+45 lb N/a 120 N+K2O K2O/a is to be banded with the seed or the band will be closer
90 lb K2O/a+60 lb N/a 150 N+K2O than 2 inches to the seed row, consider using potassium sulfate
as a source of K. When 60 lb K20/s was banded with bean seeds
as potassium sulfate stand reduction was half that using potas-
sium chloride as the potassium source.
Table 4. Stand count of peas as influenced by fertilizer
treatment. Sweet Corn
Treatment Stand count Corn stand was not significantly different from that of the check
when lime was added or when MAP and lime were added, table
plants/plot 6. Changing the phosphorous source from MAP to DAP sub-
stantially reduced stand count. Banding nitrogen as urea with the
ATS 20 seed reduced the stand approximately 50%. Both urea and DAP
Lime 121 produce free ammonia which is toxic to the germinating seed.
LSD 0.05 18 Table 6. Stand count of corn as influenced by fertilizer
Seeds planted 250
Treatment No Lime Lime
Beans No fertilizer 72 AB 80 A
MAP 69 B 79 AB
Lime unexplainably reduced the stand count of beans compared DAP 50 C 49 CD
to the plot with no fertilizer added, table 5. Any potassium mate- Urea 34 E 40 DE
rial also reduced bean stand count compared to the check. Potas- 90 N + K2O 56 C
sium chloride, with or without the addition of lime, reduced the 120 N + K2O 51 C
stand by approximately one-third. When potassium chloride was 150 N + K2O 35 E
mixed with a nitrogen and phosphorus source, 16-20-0-14.5, the
result was devastating - a stand count 25% of the check. In con- LSD 0.05 10
trast to the substantial reductions in stand count from banding Seeds planted 80
potassium chloride with bean seeds, banding potassium sulfate
only slightly reduced the stand count compared to the check.
The recommendation in the OSU fertilizer guide for sweet corn
is to band less than 90 lb/a N plus K2O, 2 inches below and to
the side of the seed row. Applying 90 lb/a N plus K2O with the
seed resulted in a stand count 70% of the seeding rate. An addi-
tional 30 lb/a N plus K2O did not significantly decrease the stand
News/Notes - 9
count compared to the stand count from the 90 lb/a N plus K2O. integrates the Seed Laboratory, Seed Certification and Founda-
Adding 150 lb/a N plus K2O reduced the stand count to the low- tion Seeds of Oregon State University. We would like you to
est of all the treatments. meet its new director, Dr. Lee Schweitzer.
Back to the question how much fertilizer can be added with the We would be more than delighted if you can join us to celebrate
seed. The initial answer stands: the amount of fertilizer depends these special occasions. In an informal setting, we can visit
upon fertilizer source, soil moisture, and distance of the band about how we have "controlled" the backlog and how we can
from the seed. The trial reported here showed the affect of fer- best contribute to the seed industry community in the future. We
tilizer material. Some fertilizer materials, such as ammonium will have demonstrations on several new methods, some of
thiosulfate, urea and DAP should not be banded with or near the which are ready for next season and others are in the research
seed. phase. Since it is the Lab's 90th anniversary, maybe you can help
us cut the cake too. Highlights of demonstrations are:
The fertilizer guides recommend that less than 90 lb/a N plus
K2O, be banded with seed if the fertilizer band is separated from • Innovations taking place in Data Entry (will show the com-
the seed by at least a 2inches. The recommendation is reason- mon database being developed with Certification), how to
able, but stand may be reduced if the highest rate of material is access the daily testing flow information through the
used. Banding MAP or K2SO4 with or near the seed has little or Internet.
no detrimental effect on stand establishment. Make your own
estimates of how much material to band with the seed as you • Innovations being made in Purity Testing. The traditional
consider the material, distance the seed is separated from the method as well as Semi-automated systems using a Stereo
fertilizer, and the soil moisture that will be present through ger- Dynascope and Video System.
mination, emergence and early growth.
• Research on FAST SEARCHES for specific contaminants
References in large bulk samples. The sample can be 5, 10, 20 times
larger than a regular bulk(depending on need of customer).
Gardner, E.H., T.L. Jackson, N.S. Mansour, and H.J. Mack. Demo will be available on following:
1984. Fertilizer Guide – Peas (Western Oregon – West of
Cascades). OSU Extension Service Publication FG55. To find Rough Bluegrass in Bentgrass.
To find Poa annua in Tall Fescue.
Jackson, T.L., H. Gardner, N.S. Mansour, H.J. Mack, and T.A. To find Jointed goatgrass in wheat.
Doerge. 1983. Fertilizer Guide – Sweet Corn (Western Ore- Others are being developed.
gon – West of Cascades). OSU Extension Service Publication
FG11. • Information on Viability. New results of Bluegrass germi-
nation research and why TZ testing is important for Oregon
Mansour, N.S., H.J. Mack, E.H. Gardner, and T.L. Jackson. Seed Industry.
1983. Fertilizer Guide – Bush Beans (Western Oregon –
Western of Cascades). OSU Extension Service Publication • The new Ploidy test for Ryegrass (already being used). Ac-
FG28. curate, fast method of testing for ploidy without increasing
Acknowledgements—Neil, Russ, Steve Petrie and the pH Phacts
and Phiction class for aiding with establishment and collecting • The X-ray method to reveal internal problems in seeds (ab-
stand count data. Cenex and Western Farm Service, Tangent, for normalities, fissures, insect infestation).
donation of seed and fertilizer material.
• Dr. Reed Barker and his research team will present a dem-
onstration on DNA testing in seed labs, with emphasis on a
concept for a DNA-based alternative to seedling root fluo-
SEED LABORATORY rescence tests in ryegrass.
Open House - OSU Seed Laboratory
Day: Wednesday May 5, 1999; 8AM-12M.
It has been 90 years of dedicated service in seed testing. This
year, OSU is also starting the Seed Services Program, which
News/Notes - 10
News/Notes - 11
Extension Crop and Soil Science
107 Crop Science Building
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331-3002
Crop and Soil News/Notes is published by the
Extension Unit of the Department of Crop and Soil
Science, Oregon State University. The newsletter is
published monthly from September through May,
with one summer issue being published during the
month of July.