Research Priorities for Fiscal Year 2007

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					National Association
         of
  Wheat Growers
          &
    National
Wheat Improvement
   Committee



Research Priorities
         for
  Fiscal Year 2007
      March 2006
                          Table of Contents
    NAWG / NWIC Research Priorities for Fiscal Year 2007

                                                         Pg(s)
Background information

     National Association of Wheat Growers               iii

     National Wheat Improvement Committee                iv

Executive Summary                                        1

     FY2007 Administration Proposed Redirections of
     USDA-ARS Research Programs                          1

     FY2007 Administration Proposed Terminations of
     USDA-ARS Research Programs                          2

     USDA-ARS Program Budget - Priority Research Needs   3

     USDA-ARS Buildings and Facilities Budget            5

     USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and
     Extension Service (CSREES)                          6

     US Department of State,
     US Agency for International Development             6

     USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service       7

     Other Research Items                                7

USDA-ARS Program Budget - Priority Research Needs

     Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to
     Cereal Rust Diseases - Executive Summary            9

     USDA-ARS Regional Small Grains Molecular
     Genotyping Laboratories                             12

     USDA-ARS Wheat Quality Enhancement                  17

     USDA-ARS Small Grains Germplasm
     Enhancement - Aberdeen, Idaho                       21



                                          i
USDA-ARS Buildings and Facilities Budget

      Plant Biosciences Center, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA                      22

      Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center (RRVAC),
      Fargo, ND                                                            24

      USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Unit, Raleigh, NC                   26

Impacts of Proposed USDA-ARS Funding Terminations

      Crop Production and Pest Control Unit, West Lafayette, IN            27

      Grain Marketing Production Research Center, Manhattan, KS            29

      Cereal Disease Laboratory, St. Paul, MN                              30

      Plant Science Unit, Raleigh, NC                                      31

      Northern Plains Agricultural Research Unit, Sidney, MT               32

      Cereal Crops Research Unit, Fargo, ND                                33

      Soft Wheat Quality Research Unit, Wooster, OH                        35

      Wheat, Peanut, and other Field Crops Research Unit,
      Stillwater, OK                                                       36

      Genetics, Quality, Physiology, and Disease Research Unit,
      Pullman, WA                                                          37

      Cereal Crops Research Unit, Madison, WI                              38

      Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative, ARS Headquarters, DC               40

Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to Cereal Rust Diseases

      Complete Text of Initiative                                          47

      Scientific Background and Overview of Major
      Cereal Rust Diseases                                                 54

Summary of US Wheat Production in 2005

      Acreage, Production, and $ Value                                     58

                    Note: A PDF version of this document is available at
                               http://www.wheatworld.org and
                  http://cropandsoil.oregonstate.edu/wheat/reports/NWIC/


                                           ii
National Association of Wheat Growers
The National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) in Washington, DC, serves as the
eyes and ears for America’s wheat producers and is their national advocacy
organization. Through a well-developed grassroots network and professional staff,
NAWG is in daily communication with the decision-makers in Congress, USDA, and
other government agencies and organizations that affect the lives and operations of our
farmer members.

NAWG works hard to ensure that the wheat producer’s voice is heard loud and clear on
Capitol Hill and is hard at work on several key issues. These issues include securing an
economic safety net for farmers, promoting federal funding of research, making
meaningful reforms to the federal crop insurance program, providing for competitive
transportation of crops, addressing competitiveness issues, environmental regulations,
new uses, conservation, biotechnology, credit, futures markets, the elimination of trade
sanctions on U.S. agricultural products, and others.

NAWG’s long record of achievements would not be possible without the participation
and leadership of its 21 state associations, which are made up of nearly 25,000
individual wheat producers.

Contacting NAWG:

      Daren Coppock....................................     CEO
      Jennifer Spurgat ..................................   Director, Farm Policy
      Mark Gaede.........................................   Director, Environmental Policy
      Melissa George ...................................    Director, Communications
      Annie Leftwood....................................    Assistant to the CEO


                       National Association of Wheat Growers
                       415 Second St. NE, Suite 300
                       Washington, DC 20002-4993

                       Phone..……….…………..202-547-7800
                       Fax…..…………………...202-546-2638
                       E-mail...…wheatworld@wheatworld.org
                       Website……http://www.wheatworld.org




                                                     iii
National Wheat Improvement Committee

The National Wheat Improvement Committee (NWIC) is a non-profit, independent
organization representing public and private wheat researchers from each of the four
major U.S. wheat-growing regions since 1959. The NWIC addresses issues that have a
direct or indirect effect on U.S. wheat; including areas of research, production,
marketing and end-use. The committee provides information and counsel to
congressional leaders and U.S. Agricultural policy makers, with the long-term goal of
improving wheat production, productivity, and marketing opportunities. NWIC members
serve as an expert committee and are willing to provide either written or verbal
testimony regarding wheat research issues in the United States.

The NWIC meets annually. Minutes of the Committee meetings, resolutions, and letters
are published each year in the Annual Wheat Newsletter and on the GrainGenes
website at http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/awn/.


      Members of the National Wheat Improvement Committee

             Dr. James Peterson (Chair)
                   Oregon State University
                   Ph: 541-737-4278; Email: cjp@orst.edu

             Dr. Dave Van Sanford, University of Kentucky
             Dr. Jose Costa, University of Maryland
             Dr. Ben Edge, Clemson University
             Dr. Brett Carver, Oklahoma State University
             Dr. Jackie Rudd, Texas A&M University
             Dr. Allan Fritz, Kansas State University
             Dr. Elias Elias, North Dakota State University
             Dr. Bill Berzonsky, North Dakota State University
             Dr. Jim Anderson, University of Minnesota
             Dr. Ruth Dill-Macky, University of Minnesota
             Mr. John Burns, Washington State University
             Dr. Luther Talbert, Montana State University
             Dr. Paul Murphy, North Carolina State University
             Mr. Ben Hancock, Wheat Quality Council, SD
             Mr. Bob Fesler, Horizon Milling, Logan, UT
             Mr. Daren Coppock, National Association of Wheat Growers, DC




                                        iv
    NAWG / NWIC Priorities for Fiscal Year 2007
                                Executive Summary
The National Association of Wheat Growers and National Wheat Improvement
Committee represent the entire US wheat industry including growers, researchers,
processors, and end-users. Wheat is key to economy of the US, with value of over
$7 billion at the farm gate. Wheat products are the foundation of the US milling and
baking industry, supporting millions of jobs and generating additional billions in end-
product value and business activity. As nearly ½ of US production is exported, US
wheat truly feeds the world.

Federal investments in wheat research are critical to economic viability and
stability of the US wheat industry. Wheat is primarily a public sector crop. Most
research and development is conducted at state universities and USDA-ARS research
facilities. The private sector has historically had little interest in wheat research
because of limited potential for economic returns from seed sales.

It is a challenging time for wheat growers and the wheat industry. We are struggling to
keep our family farms and industries profitable. We are faced with many external
pressures on production, including erratic weather, heat and drought; increasingly
virulent diseases and insects; increasing management requirements for environmental
health and sustainability. The US and international wheat markets are increasingly
competitive. Our customers demand superior processing quality, high nutritional value,
and high levels of food safety, but at low prices. Federal farm programs are targeted for
major reductions over the next several years. All these factors are placing great
pressure on profitability of growers and impact the entire wheat industry.

We recognize that federal resources are limited and Congress must make difficult
decisions for the coming fiscal year. However, we must emphasize the importance of
continued federal investments in agricultural research. These investments are critical
to improve productivity, profitability, disease and insect resistance, end-use quality, food
safety and security, environmental health, international competitiveness, to sustain
economic viability of wheat farming, and to maintain a healthy agricultural economy.

FY2007 Administration Proposed Redirections of USDA-ARS
Research Programs
NAWG and the NWIC SUPPORT the redirections of USDA- ARS research programs
as proposed by the Administration, as long as the redirections do not result in any
reduction in funding or change in how the funding is currently being used.
Congress has been responsive and addressed the needs of agriculture by provided
additional funding for critical USDA small grains research; funds above that requested
by the Administration. We are pleased the Administration FY2007 budget recognizes
the value of some of these programs and is asking Congress to ‘redirect’ the following
programs to high priority Administration initiatives. These are logical redirections of
existing funds to meet current and long-term priorities of the wheat community.


                                             1
Proposed redirections SUPPORTED by NAWG and the NWIC:

KANSAS, Manhattan - Grain Marketing Production Research Center

National Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative into Emerging Diseases – Crops       $ 96,994
Regional Molecular Genotyping into Genomics – Plants                          175,731
Wheat Quality Research into Genomics – Plants                                 420,028
                                                                             $692,753

NORTH CAROLINA, Raleigh - Plant Science Research Unit

National Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative into Emerging Diseases – Crops       $ 96,994
Regional Grain Genotyping Research into Genomics – Plants                     692,645
                                                                             $789,639

NORTH DAKOTA, Fargo - Cereal Crops Research Unit

Regional Molecular Genotyping into Genomics – Plants                         $ 175,731

WASHINGTON, Pullman - Genetics, Quality, Physiology, and Disease Research Unit

Regional Molecular Genotyping (Club wheat) – into Emerging Diseases – Crops $ 251,020
Root Diseases in Wheat & Barley – into Emerging Diseases – Crops            $ 72,552
                                                                            $ 323,572


FY2007 Administration Proposed Terminations of USDA-ARS
Research Programs
Congress has been very responsive to the needs of its constituents and the national
agricultural economy by supporting and initiating critical USDA-ARS research projects.
The Administration is proposing cuts totaling $10,441,482 to USDA-ARS small
grains programs (wheat, barley, and oats) which will critically undermine the
national public sector small grains research infrastructure. These proposed
reductions will harm the domestic agricultural economy, reducing our competitiveness in
world markets, and limiting our effectiveness in maintaining food security. The
proposed cuts are arbitrary and are not based on the productivity or need for these
research programs.

NAWG and the NWIC requests that Congress RESTORE FUNDING for the
following research programs that are of critical importance for small grains:

IDAHO                National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility       $1,918,565
Aberdeen             Aquaculture, National Plant Germplasm, Rainbow Trout,
                     Sustainable Aquaculture Feeds

INDIANA              Crop Production and Pest Control Unit                   $320,236
W. Lafayette         Genomics of Pest Resistance in Wheat
                     Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Oat Virus


                                            2
KANSAS               Grain Marketing Production Research Center               $1,031,038
Manhattan            Grain research, Karnal Bunt

MINNESOTA            Cereal Disease Laboratory                                 $310,971
St. Paul             Cereal Diseases

MONTANA              Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory         $1,759,199
Sidney               Northern Great Plains Ecosystems, Northern Plains
                     Agricultural Research Lab, Biological Weed Control

NORTH DAKOTA         Cereal Crops Research Unit                               $2,016,172
Fargo                Cereal Crops, National Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative,
                     Northern Crops Research, Wheat Quality Research

OHIO                 Soft Wheat Quality Research Unit                         $413,654
Wooster              Wheat Quality Research

OKLAHOMA             Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit         $219,665
Stillwater           Invasive Aphid Research

WASHINGTON           Genetics, Quality, Phys., and Disease Research Unit      $484,456
Pullman              Wheat Quality Research

WISCONSIN            Cereal Crops Research Unit                                $902,338
Madison              Cereal Crops Research

NATIONAL             ARS Headquarters                                         $1,065,188
                     National Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative




USDA-ARS Program Budget - Priority Research Needs
Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to Cereal Rust Diseases: $5,000,000

Highly virulent and aggressive new races of stem, leaf, and stripe rust have appeared in
the world, which now threaten the entire US production of wheat, barley, and oats. A
new race of stem rust, ‘Pgt-TTKS’ (isolate Ug99) appeared in Africa in 1999. If Pgt-
TTKS were to be introduced and become established in the US, wheat production
losses of over 1 billion bushels per year, worth approximately $4 billion at the farm gate,
are possible. A nationally coordinated Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to
Cereal Rust Diseases is needed with annual funding of $5 million to support
cooperative USDA-ARS and Land-Grant university cereal research efforts in 29
states where personnel, expertise, and facilities are already established. The
Administration also has recognized the need to take action, and the President’s FY2007
budget proposes $1.9 million in increased funding for Wheat Stem Rust. This funding
will help, but remains inadequate, as the proposal fails to provide funding for
collaborative research with key partners and programs at the Land-Grant Universities.
This Initiative corresponds to the President’s Emerging Diseases Initiative.



                                            3
USDA-ARS Regional Small Grains Molecular Genotyping Laboratories: $465,000

The National Wheat Improvement Committees express their appreciation to Congress
for bringing the Regional Small Grains Molecular Genotyping Laboratories in Raleigh,
North Carolina, and Fargo, North Dakota to their full funding level. We are requesting
additional funds for the two Regional Molecular Genotyping Laboratories that
have been established, but are not yet fully funded at the target level of $750,000
per laboratory. These funds are need so that the laboratories are fully functional and
can complete their mission to provide genomics information and molecular marker
information to small grains research programs in 36 states. This program request
corresponds with the President’s Plant Genomics Initiative.
                                                               FY2007 Request
        Manhattan, KS (central)                                        $70,000
        Pullman, WA (west)                                           $395,000


USDA-ARS Wheat Quality Enhancement: $2,340,000

The National Wheat Improvement Committee, National Association of Wheat Growers,
and North American Millers Association strongly recommend additional funding for
USDA-ARS Regional Wheat Quality Laboratories. These laboratories are critical to
provide US milling and baking industries, growers, and consumers with superior
quality grain and assure US competitiveness in international markets. This
program request corresponds with the President’s Plant Genomics Initiative. Specific
funding requests are:

Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory, Manhattan, KS                  $600,000
Engineering Research Unit, Manhattan, KS                             $600,000
Soft wheat quality laboratory, Wooster, OH                           $575,000
Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Lab, Fargo, ND               $300,000
Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, Pullman, WA                        $265,000


USDA-ARS Small Grains Germplasm Enhancement - Aberdeen, Idaho: $500,000

Funding is requested to establish a research geneticist position that will be divided
among wheat, barley, and oat germplasm enhancement. A portion of the funds
($100,000) will go to support cooperative enhancement and evaluation efforts by
university researchers under Specific Cooperative Agreements with USDA-ARS.
Germplasm enhancement is long-term, national responsibility of ARS and
important contribution to crop improvement. This new research initiative within the
National Small Grains Collection will speed the transfer of novel genes for a diversity of
traits from landrace and wild accessions into cultivars in producer’s fields. This program
request corresponds with the President’s Plant Genomics Initiative.




                                           4
USDA-ARS Buildings and Facilities Budget
Plant Biosciences Center, USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA

We greatly appreciated the action that Congress has taken to date, approving $3.96
million for planning and design in FY2004; $3 million and 3.625 Million for construction
in FY2005 and FY2006, respectively. We are respectfully requesting approval of
another installment in FY2007 towards $35.975 Million in remaining construction
costs.

This research location serves as a center of excellence for agricultural research of
importance to Pacific Northwest, as well as many other regions of the U.S. The plant
science research effort at the Pullman location is currently staffed with 29 ARS
scientists, including cereal chemists, physiologists, geneticists, botanists, molecular
biologists, plant pathologists, agricultural engineers, and soil scientists, as well as about
50 full and part-time federal technical staff. At the present time there is no room for
additional scientific staff to be housed in Johnson Hall (built in 1960). Additional
facilities are essential to the continued expansion and enhancement of existing modern
technology-based genomic, molecular biology, genetics, chemistry, and pest
management research programs of national importance in wheat, barley, and grain
legumes. A new 96,000 sq. ft. laboratory and office building is needed to provide space
for the scientists conducting fundamental and mission-oriented research.

Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center (RRVAC), Fargo, ND

An installment toward $37.6 Million is requested as needed to renovate 57,200 sq ft
of current facilities, construct new 30,000 sq ft laboratory and office building and an
accompanying 12,000 sq ft greenhouse complex. The FY2006 bill provided $3.7 million
for planning and design.

The RRVARC is currently staffed with 41 ARS scientists, including entomologists,
chemists, physiologists, geneticists, botanists, molecular biologists, and food
technologists, and 88 federal research support personnel. Additional and/or improved
facilities will facilitate the continued expansion and enhancement of existing modern
technology-based genomic, molecular biology, genetics, chemistry, and pest
management research programs of national importance in wheat, barley, oat, sunflower,
sugarbeet and potato. Accordingly, Congress directed ARS to conduct a facilities study
in FY2004 which shows a need for renovation of 57,200 sq. ft. of laboratory and office
space, a new 30,000 sq ft laboratory and office building with an accompanying 12,000
sq. ft. greenhouse/ headhouse complex. Estimated construction costs are $37.6 million.

USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Unit, Raleigh, NC

$2,250,000 is requested toward construction of a Field House/Seed
Handling/Equipment Storage Facility at the Lake Wheeler complex of North Carolina
State University.


                                            5
The Plant Science Research Unit develops and handles thousands of crosses,
populations, and homozygous lines of wheat, oat, barley, corn and rice each year.
Present facilities for handling seed are woefully inadequate. An independent, external
review in August, 2005, identified seed storage facilities as a critical need for the Unit.
In addition for the need to upgrade seed handling, storage for field equipment is also
needed. The proposed field house would be an insulated metal building on a concrete
foundation with finished interior space that contains two 1800 ft2 seed labs (one for
maize, one for small grains), each with two offices. A third, common lab of 1000 ft2
would be available as extra room during peak usage. Total size is approx. 7,200 ft2.


USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and
Extension Service (CSREES)
The NWIC and NAWG is supportive of basic, competitive plant science grant programs,
such as USDA-CSREES National Research Initiative (NRI), which provides valuable
supplemental support to some wheat and crop scientists. We support the
Administration proposal to increase funding for NRI, but not at the expense of the
core directed programs that are critical to maintain integrity of US agricultural
research. Competitive grants for agricultural research must be balanced with adequate
support for long-term USDA-ARS and CSREES directed-research programs that are
committed and responsive to the immediate needs of the US agricultural economy.

The NWIC and NAWG do not support the Administration proposal to continuously
‘re-complete’ the Hatch multi-State awards or redirect McIntire-Stennis formula
funds to competitively awarded multi-State grants . These funds provide critical
base support to land-grant university agricultural research programs. The move to
competitively funded grants would effectively cripple the long-term commitment of
University programs to improving agricultural productivity of growers at the state and
local level. Many core agricultural research programs, such as breeding, pathology,
entomology, end-use quality, and crop management, require long-term financial and
scientific investments and stable funding commitments. Research activities such as
these which are critical to our agricultural economy and food supply cannot be
effectively managed or supported through national or multi-state grant-funding
mechanisms.

US Department of State,
US Agency for International Development
Wheat production is fundamental to the food supply, food security, and economic
stability of the entire world. The US has long supported international agricultural
development through the US Agency for International Development. USAID’s support
to research to enhance the productivity and disease resistance of wheat has been
primarily through its funding of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
(CIMMYT), a flagship of the international center system of the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research (CGIAR.)




                                            6
The Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture, and Trade (EGAT), one of the 3
technical ‘pillar’ Bureaus of USAID, manages support to the CGIAR. The President’s
FY2007 budget proposal for EGAT is 15% lower that that requested to meet current and
expected commitments. This reduction comes on top of a similar reduction expected in
FY 2006, which will damage CIMMYT and other CGIAR center research programs if
enacted.

Both the current (FY 2006) and prospective (FY 2007) cuts will result in
devastating cutbacks in international agricultural research programs directed
through the CGIAR. The cuts will directly impact effectiveness of US agricultural
research programs, as many US crop scientists work in close collaboration with CGIAR
scientists on critical issues, such as resistance to major diseases and insects and
tolerance to environmental stress. US farmers will be severely impacted, as they
have long benefited from the research partnerships and germplasm developed through
the CGIAR centers. A leading study estimates benefits to US wheat production from
CIMMYT research and germplasm are worth billions of dollars.

NWIC and NAWG encourage Congress to impress upon USAID the importance of
support for the CGIAR network, which should be returned to its FY2005 level of
$25 million from EGAT. If at all possible, Congress should advise USAID to restore
that level from EGAT in FY 2006 as well. Reducing CGIAR support will undermine
global food security, and is especially serious for the US, since the CGIAR is the first
line of defense in meeting the challenge of new wheat rust epidemics. We encourage
and request that USAID restore the CGIAR contribution to $25 million, and maintain its
support and funding for the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement
(CIMMYT) and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
(ICARDA)--the CGIAR centers with global mandate for research on wheat and barley.

USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service
Statistical reports generated by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service
(NASS) are of critical importance to wheat producers, researchers, and end-users.
Prior to FY2004, NASS’s core survey and estimation program had not received an
increase in funding since 1990, leading to a reduction in the quality of survey data on
which NASS estimates are based. The NWIC supports the Administration’s FY2007
proposal for an increase of $3.9 million to continue NASS’s efforts to restore quality and
modernization of the basic USDA agricultural estimates program that supports the US
agricultural market system. This will build on FY2004 – FY2006 increases approved to
meet this goal, covering most agricultural commodities produced in the US, including
wheat.

Other Research Items
The NWIC supports efforts to sequence the wheat genome through collaborative
national research grants, such as sponsored by USDA-CSREES National Research
Initiative and the National Science Foundation, including research as needed to
develop a physical map of the wheat genome.



                                           7
USDA-ARS Program Budget


 Priority Research Needs


         FY2007




           8
Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to Cereal Rust Diseases
Amount requested: $5,000,000 to USDA-ARS Program Budget

Recommendation: The National Wheat, Barley, and Oat Improvement Committees,
National Associations of Wheat and Barley Growers, American Malting Barley
Association, and North American Millers Association strongly recommend funding of a
nationally coordinated Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to Cereal Rust Diseases.
Annual funding of $5 million is requested to support cooperative USDA-ARS and Land-
Grant university cereal research efforts in 29 states where personnel, expertise, and
facilities are already established. This Initiative corresponds with the President’s
Emerging Diseases Initiative. Alternative title: Cereal Rust Disease Initiative.

Justification: Highly virulent and aggressive new races of stem, leaf, and stripe
rust have appeared in the world, which now threaten the entire US production of
wheat, barley, and oats. A new race of stem rust, ‘Pgt-TTKS’ (isolate Ug99) appeared
in Africa in 1999. Evaluations by USDA-ARS in 2005 confirmed that nearly all varieties
in the US spring wheat region (MN, SD, ND, and MT) are susceptible to this race,
placing 16 million acres and 500 million bushels of production at critical risk. Varieties
grown on up to half of the 30 million acres that comprise the US hard winter wheat
region (TX, OK, CO, KS, NE, and SD) also are highly susceptible. If Pgt-TTKS were to
be introduced and become established in the US, wheat production losses of over 1
billion bushels per year, worth approximately $4 billion at the farm gate, are
possible. All commercial barley varieties grown in the US are highly susceptible to Pgt-
TTKS. This race threatens 4.2 million acres of barley planted throughout the Great
Plains with potential economic losses of over $500 million.

Leaf rust causes serious losses in wheat production nearly every year. From 2000 to
2004, US losses to leaf rust were estimated at over 100,000,000 bushels, worth over
$350 million. The leaf rust pathogen evolves rapidly in response to deployment of new
resistant varieties. Most varieties and genes are defeated within a few short years of
release. Breeders are now exhausting genes and sources of resistance to combat this
serious disease.

Since 2001, major shifts in stripe rust virulence have caused devastating losses in the
southern and central Plains, eastern wheat region, and Pacific Northwest. In 2004
alone, US losses to stripe rust were estimated at $360 million. Resistant varieties have
been identified, but their resistance is based on relatively few genes. US production is
highly vulnerable to this rapidly evolving pathogen.

The US Congress appropriated $668,250 to USDA-ARS in FY06 to help support
Federal and State research on stripe rust. This partial funding was a very welcome and
important first step in reducing losses to rust diseases. However, additional funds must
be obtained if we are to address US vulnerability, particularly to the new stem rust
threat, and effectively coordinate national cereal rust research activities. The
Administration also has recognized the need to take action, and the President’s
FY2007 budget proposes $1.9 million in increased funding for Wheat Stem Rust. This
will again help, but remains inadequate, as the proposal fails to provide funding for
collaborative research with key partners and programs at the Land-Grant Universities.

                                           9
Program Solution: Immediate action must be taken to assess US vulnerability, identify
new sources of genetic resistance, and deploy more durable disease resistance in US
cereal varieties. Critical research activities include:

       1) Rust pathology, race monitoring, and assessment of germplasm to current and
       newly identified races of rust diseases throughout the world

       2) Gene discovery, germplasm enhancement, development of molecular markers
       to identify and exploit new and existing resistances to rust diseases.

       3) Develop regionally adapted varieties with improved, more durable rust
       resistance. Establish and coordinate uniform rust screening nurseries and utilize
       molecular markers to introduce and pyramid effective seedling and adult plant
       resistance genes.

       4) Collaborate with international research centers to monitor development and
       spread of new rust races and establish vulnerability of US varieties before races
       are introduced into the US. Coordinate international nursery evaluations and
       exchange of germplasm with enhanced rust resistance.

Budget and Justification: USDA-Agricultural Research Service must take the
leadership role in this effort, but the scientific resources of the entire wheat, barley, and
oat research communities must be mobilized to prevent major production losses to new
and evolving races of stem, leaf, stripe, and crown rust diseases. Funding is to be
targeted to ARS cereal research units and to Land-Grant universities through Specific
Cooperative Agreements and Regional Action Plans to maximize impact and exploit
existing personnel, expertise, and facilities.

Rust Pathology, Assessment, and Race Monitoring

       USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Laboratory, St. Paul, MN                       $750,000

Germplasm Enhancement, Gene Discovery, Development of Molecular Markers

       USDA-ARS Cereal Genetics Research Units                                 $1,100,000
              Manhattan, KS; Raleigh, NC; Fargo, ND; Pullman, WA;
              Aberdeen, ID ($220,000 per Research Unit)

       Wheat Genetic Resource Center                                           $250,000
              Kansas State University

       Barley Genomics Project                                                 $250,000
              Oregon State University, University of Minnesota, North Dakota
              State University, Virginia Tech University

Regional Variety Development, Evaluation, and Implementation

       Plains Spring Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, St. Paul)                         $250,000
              South Dakota State University, North Dakota State University,
              University of Minnesota, Montana State University


                                                10
      Eastern Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, Raleigh)                                  $300,000
             Virginia Tech, University of Georgia, University of Florida, Clemson University, North
             Carolina State University, University of Kentucky, University of Maryland, Louisiana State
             University, University of Arkansas, Ohio State University, Purdue University, Michigan
             State University, University of Missouri

      Plains Winter Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, Lincoln)                            $350,000
             Texas A&M University, Oklahoma State University, Kansas State University, University of
             Nebraska, Colorado State University, South Dakota State University

      Western Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, Pullman)                                  $250,000
             Washington State University, Oregon State University, University of Idaho, Utah State
             University, University of California-Davis

      Barley Western and Eastern Regions                                        $250,000
             (USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, Raleigh)
             Oregon State University, Washington State University, University of Idaho, University of
             California-Davis, Montana State University, Virginia Tech University

      Plains Spring Barley Region (USDA-ARS, St. Paul)                          $250,000
             University of Minnesota, North Dakota State University, South Dakota State University

      Oat, Spring and Winter Regions                                            $250,000
            (USDA-ARS, St. Paul, Raleigh)
             North Carolina State University, University of Florida, Louisiana State University,
             University of Illinois, Purdue University, University of Wisconsin, North Dakota State
             University, University of Minnesota

International Exchange, Coordination, Evaluation, Pathogen Monitoring

      International Centers for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT)
      and Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA)       $200,000

      Germplasm introduction, screening, distribution        $50,000
           Oklahoma State University, Texas A&M, Oregon State University

ARS Overhead (10%)                                                              $500,000


Suggested Report Language: Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to Cereal Rust
Diseases (alternative title: Cereal Rust Disease Initiative): Highly virulent and
aggressive new races of stem, leaf, and stripe rust have appeared in the world, which
now threaten the entire US production of wheat, barley, and oats. The Committee
provides an increase of $5,000,000 in FY07 to fund the Initiative to Reduce US
Vulnerability to Cereal Rust Diseases. The Initiative is to be administered by USDA-
ARS to support cooperative cereal rust research efforts by ARS and Land-Grant
university scientists throughout the US.




                                                11
USDA-ARS Regional Small Grains Molecular Genotyping Laboratories

Amount requested: $465,000 to USDA-ARS Program Budget
Recommendation: The National Barley, Oat, and Wheat Improvement Committees
express their appreciation to Congress for bringing the Regional Small Grains Molecular
Genotyping Laboratories in Raleigh, North Carolina, and Fargo, North Dakota to their
full funding level. We are requesting additional funds for the two Regional
Molecular Genotyping Laboratories that have been established, but not yet fully
funded; Manhattan, KS (partially funded at $680,000), and Pullman, WA (partially
funded at $355,000). Funding of $750,000 per laboratory is required to make each lab
fully functional, therefore additional funds requested for FY2007 are:

                                                               FY2007 Request
Manhattan, KS (central)                                              $70,000
Pullman, WA (west)                                                  $395,000

This program request corresponds with the President’s Plant Genomics Initiative.

Justification: The USDA-ARS Regional Molecular Genotyping Laboratories are a
critical resource to facilitate application of genomics information and DNA molecular
marker technologies in improvement and breeding of wheat, barley and oats. Molecular
information for small grains is being compiled daily through the International Triticeae
expressed sequence tag (EST) consortium (ITEC), the USDA-ARS Wheat Endosperm
sequencing project, the NSF Wheat Genome project, the US Barley Genome Project,
the USDA-NRI-CGP funded barley EST project and the newly funded CSREES NRI
CAP grants for Wheat and Barley Applied Genomics.

A major gap remains between the discovery of molecular information and the use of that
information in practical wheat, barley, and oat improvement programs. In order to
counter threats to the nation’s crops from natural or maliciously introduced pathogens
and maintain our position in the world marketplace, plant breeders must be equipped
with gene-specific markers that give them rapid access to traits of value.

Regional genotyping laboratories overcome barriers to practical use of markers through
application of automated DNA extraction, and high-throughput marker screening
procedures. They provide a bio-informatics interface between rapidly expanding
molecular genetic data and practical public and private breeding programs. With
regional focus and responsibilities, the laboratories can more effectively address priority
traits and constraints for specific production areas, market classes, and breeding
programs.

Objectives:
  • Identify new DNA markers associated with resistance to important production
      risks like cereal rusts, Fusarium head blight, powdery mildew, wheat streak
      mosaic virus, Karnal bunt, and cold or heat injury. Identify new DNA markers
      associated with enhanced end-use quality.



                                            12
   •   Create marker profiles of cultivars and breeding lines cross-linked to other
       genetic information currently available; including cooperative regional nurseries,
       USDA-ARS National Small Grains Germplasm Center, and USDA-NAL crop
       databases.
   •   Develop and deploy breeder-friendly markers for important genes derived from
       wild relatives and other exotic germplasm resources.
   •   Develop and deploy new high throughput technology for marker assisted
       selection in breeding programs.

Impact: By providing the biotechnology tools to enhance end use quality and
resistance to production risks, these regional laboratories will benefit all components of
the wheat, barley, and oat industries, from producers to consumers in the public and
private sectors. Research is now underway to develop and apply molecular markers
toward improvement of:
    • Yield and disease resistance in barley, while maintaining malting quality
    • Grain protein content in wheat using genes from Triticum diccocoides
    • Resistance to Fusarium head blight (scab) in wheat and barley.
    • Durable resistance to stem, stripe, leaf and crown rust, and powdery mildew
    • Winter survival in winter wheat, barley, and oats.

Budget justification:
  • Each laboratory is to be led by a Category 1
                                                             Item Description        Cost
     research scientist that develops new methods
     to improve molecular marker systems and             1 Research Scientist      $ 100,000

     genotyping in cereal crops.                         1 Service Scientist       $ 75,000
  • A Category 3 or 4 service scientist is to
     manage operations of the genotyping lab.            2 Support Technicians     $ 100,000

  • Two support technicians will assist these            Indirect Research Costs   $ 35,000
     scientists.
  • Indirect research costs include utilities, repair    Materials and Supplies    $ 250,000
     and maintenance, etc.                               Equipment                 $ 115,000
  • Materials and supplies costs are significant for
     a facility of this type and are estimated to be     ARS HQ Administrive Costs $ 75,000
     $2.00 per sample.                                   Total                     $ 750,000
  • Equipment costs are significant at startup and
     reduce over time.




                                           13
Genotyping Laboratories - Updates and Budget Justifications
EAST: RALEIGH, NC (This laboratory is fully funded)

A Category 1 lead scientist runs the laboratory with support from two technical staff
positions. The laboratory is part of the USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, which
includes lead scientists in small grains pathology and small grains breeding. The
Department of Crop Science at North Carolina State University has lead scientists in
small grain breeding and in molecular genetic analysis. The genetics and statistics
departments at North Carolina State University include persons with expertise in
molecular marker development and bioinformatics. Collaborations have been
established with breeding programs in IL, IN, MI, OH, NY, PA, MD, VA, KY, NC, SC,
GA, FL, LA, and AR. Private breeding companies active in the region include Syngenta,
Pioneer Hi-bred, Agripro, and WestBred. The crops covered by the Raleigh lab include
soft red and white winter wheat, specialty-purpose wheats, winter barley, and winter
oats.

Priority traits for molecular genotyping in the East Region are:

       Quality traits: Protein functionality, sprouting resistance, milling and baking
       quality in wheat; groat protein content in oats and alternative end-use traits in
       barley.

       Production Risks: Resistance to powdery mildew, Hessian fly, Septoria tritici and
       Stagonospora nodorum in wheat; resistance to Fusarium head blight, leaf rust
       and stripe rust in wheat and barley; resistance to crown rust and winter injury in
       oats; resistance to cereal leaf beetle and barley yellow dwarf virus in wheat and
       oats.


NORTHERN PLAINS: FARGO, ND (This laboratory is fully funded)

A Category 1 scientist and two technical support positions have been filled. The
laboratory is part of the USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit of the Northern Crop
Science Laboratory with lead scientists in wheat and barley genetics and genomics,
plant pathology, and wheat and oat quality. The Department of Plant Sciences and
Dept. of Plant Pathology at NDSU have lead scientists in wheat and barley breeding,
genetics, and plant pathology and grain quality. Collaboration has been established
with breeding programs in ND, SD, MN, WI, and other states as appropriate. There are
currently 18 small grain breeding and genetics programs in those four states. Private
breeding companies active in the region include Agripro, Busch Agricultural Resources,
Inc. and WestBred. The crops covered by the Fargo genotyping lab are six-and two-
row barley, spring oat, Durum, hard red, and hard white spring wheat. The laboratory
provided 135,000 data points to researchers and breeders in 2005.




                                            14
Priority traits for molecular genotyping in the North Central Region are:

       Quality traits: Protein quantity, gluten strength, kernel color and sprouting
       resistance, milling and baking quality in wheat; deoxynivalenol toxin in wheat and
       barley; protein, malt and nutritional quality traits in barley; milling and nutritional
       quality (including protein, antioxidants, lipids and nutritional fiber) in oat.

       Production Risks: Resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley;
       resistance to sawfly, tan spot, Stagonospora blotch, leaf and stem rust in wheat;
       resistance to leaf and stem rust, barley stripe, net and spot blotch, and scald in
       barley; resistance to crown rust and stem rust in oat.


CENTRAL: MANHATTAN, KS (This laboratory is partially funded at $680,000)

A Category 1 research scientist, Category 3 scientist, and one technician are on board.
The laboratory is part of the Plant Science and Entomology Research Unit of the Grain
Marketing Production Research Center in Manhattan, KS, which has research scientists
with expertise in germplasm development, mapping, disease and insect resistance, and
molecular biology. Location of the lab at Kansas State University adds expertise in
wheat breeding, molecular genetics, grain quality and virtually all areas of wheat
research. Collaboration has been established with public breeding programs in the hard
winter wheat region with CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, and TX. Additional collaborative
research is being done in the soft winter wheat region with AR, IL, IN, KY, and VA.
Private breeding companies active in the region include Agripro, WestBred, and Trio
Research. The crops covered by the Manhattan genotyping lab include hard winter
wheat, soft winter wheat, spring and winter oat and winter barley. The laboratory
provided nearly 200,000 data points in 2005 for breeding and research.

Priority traits for molecular genotyping in the Central Region are:

       Quality traits: Improved gluten functionality, noodle quality, and bread baking
       quality for hard wheat; forage and grain feed/food quality for oat and winter
       barley.

       Production Risks: Resistance to tan spot, Septoria leaf blotch, barley yellow
       dwarf, Russian wheat aphid, leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust, Karnal bunt, wheat
       streak mosaic virus, wheat curl mite, Fusarium head blight, Hessian fly,
       preharvest sprouting, aluminum toxicity, drought, and heat injury in wheat; leaf
       rust and scald in barley; and crown rust in oat.


WEST: PULLMAN, WA (This laboratory is partially funded at $355,000)

A temporary postdoctoral Research Associate currently serves as the principal scientist;
recruitment is underway for a permanent Category 4 scientist (Service Scientist). A
research technician has been reassigned to 50% time in support, and a second full-time
technician has been hired. The laboratory is part of the Wheat Genetics, Quality,

                                             15
Physiology, and Disease Resistance Unit at Pullman WA. The unit includes lead
scientists in germplasm development, molecular genetics, breeding, disease resistance,
abiotic stress tolerance and grain quality in the Western Wheat Quality Laboratory. The
Departments of Crop and Soil Sciences and Plant Pathology at WSU have lead
scientists with expertise in barley and wheat germplasm improvement, molecular
genetic analysis, cropping systems research, and diseases of wheat and barley.
Collaboration has been established with wheat and barley breeding programs in CA,
OR, ID and WA. The laboratory is expected to generate 25,000 data points in support
of small grain improvement programs this year. Private companies active in the region
include Agripro, Busch Ag. Res. Inc., Coors and WestBred. Other states including AK,
AZ, NM, and WY grow cultivars developed from those breeding programs. The crops
covered by the Pullman genotyping lab include hard and soft winter wheat, hard and
soft spring wheat, club wheat, spring barley and winter malting barley.

Priority traits for molecular genotyping in the Western Region are:

      Quality Traits: Starch composition, gluten strength, noodle color and texture,
      milling quality, club wheat flour functionality, and sprouting resistance in wheat;
      improvement of feed and malting quality in barley.

      Production Risks: Resistance to stripe rust, eyespot, Cephalosporium stripe,
      Fusarium crown rot, winter injury, and Hessian fly in wheat; and barley.




                                           16
USDA-ARS Wheat Quality Enhancement
Amount Requested: $2,340,000 to USDA-ARS Program Budget

Recommendation: The National Wheat Improvement Committee, National Association
of Wheat Growers, and North American Millers Association strongly recommend
additional funding for USDA-ARS Regional Wheat Quality Laboratories. These
laboratories are critical to provide US milling and baking industries, growers, and
consumers with superior quality grain and assure US competitiveness in international
markets. This program request corresponds with the President’s Plant Genomics
Initiative. Specific funding requests are:

      Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory, Manhattan, KS           $600,000
      Engineering Research Unit, Manhattan, KS                      $600,000
      Soft wheat quality laboratory, Wooster, OH                    $575,000
      Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Lab, Fargo, ND        $300,000
      Western Wheat Quality Laboratory, Pullman, WA                 $265,000

Justification: From 1987 to 2003, U.S. wheat exports decreased by approximately
45% (from 43.2 million metric tons [MMT] to 23.8 MMT). This represents a major loss
in US share of the world market and loss of approximately $1.6 billion in sales per
year (1999 dollars). During this same time period, U.S. competitors maintained or
increased their market shares. For example, Australian exports increased by
approximately 100% (from 9.3 MMT to 19 MMT). Market competition will continue to
increase as our competitors enhance their abilities to target specific customer end-use
quality needs and thus increase their wheat exports.

This increased funding for USDA-ARS and improvement in wheat quality is essential in
order for the U.S. to reverse its decline in market share. Securing and improving the
quality of the various classes of wheat produced in the U.S. in order to meet the needs
of both domestic and international customers has always been a monumental task. The
majority of U.S. released varieties (all wheat classes) are impacted by the four ARS
Wheat Quality Laboratories (WQL) and related research programs. The ultimate goal
of providing additional funds to the WQL’s and related programs is to improve
the ability of U.S. producers to meet the needs of domestic and international
customers by offering consistently high quality grain with proven end-use
performance.

Proposed Research, Personnel, and Equipment Needs:

Programs: Research programs initiated with new funding in FY 02 will be continued on
a permanent basis and new technologies will be implemented to maximize the benefits
of additional funding. The wheat quality laboratories will continue working on developing
rapid methods for measuring gluten strength in wheat of all classes, as gluten strength
is one of the best indicators of end-use potential, thus, a rapid method would greatly
impact the overall wheat marketing system. The ERU will enhance current efforts
utilizing optics, imaging, spectroscopy, and acoustics to measure and predict end-use
characteristics, and select kernels expressing desirable traits to accelerate breeding
programs.


                                           17
Personnel: The SWQL (Wooster) proposes to hire two new support staff and one new
postdoctoral research associate to conduct research on the molecular basis of soft
wheat quality traits and to support the test line program evaluations. The HWWQL
(Manhattan) proposes to hire a new Food Technologist/Food Processing Engineer and
two new support staff positions to focus on development of textural and quality
prediction methods and non-bread (Asian alkaline noodle, tortilla, etc.) products as well
as develop programs to research bio-industrial uses and vital gluten quality of hard
winter wheat. A post-doctoral research scientist will also be hired to support current
research on biochemical properties of hard winter wheat. The ERU (Manhattan)
proposes to hire a scientist/engineer to work directly with wheat improvement teams to
exploit current high-speed detecting and sorting technology as they seek to develop
highly marketable varieties that are well characterized for specific quality attributes, and
hire a post-doc to develop new quality detection and sorting technologies. The WWQL
(Pullman) proposes to hire one new baking technician to support end-product research
and address shortages in breeder line evaluation capability and one new postdoctoral
scientist to conduct research on flour pentosans and dough water absorption. The
HRS&DWQL (Fargo) proposes to fill a vacant research position, hire a post doc
research assistant to investigate novel uses of spring and durum wheat for international
baked products, develop rapid assay(s) for measuring gluten strength, and initiate
research to characterize the underlying processes and factors that determine end-use
quality at the molecular level through a functional genomics/proteomics approach.

Equipment: The SWQL (Wooster) will purchase additional equipment for solvent
retention capacity, rheological dough testing, baking ovens, dough sheeters, and
equipment and supplies to evaluate crackers, Middle Eastern-type breads (flat-, pocket-,
French-, and hearth-types) to determine export quality requirements. The HWWQL
(Manhattan) will purchase new food processing equipment to expand non-bread
utilization research. ERU proposes to purchase a single kernel NIR sorter. The
HRS&DWQL (Fargo) will improve and modernize the spring wheat pilot mill facilities
and upgrade durum experimental milling equipment. The WWQL (Pullman) will
purchase equipment to “finger-print” end-use quality genes.

Location Updates and Research Contributions Enabled by Increased Funding:

Of the original $3.25 million requested in FY2002 by the National Wheat Improvement
Committee, National Association of Wheat Growers, and North American Millers
Association, budgets have been increased by a total of $1.535 million. These increases
included $800,000 in FY02 ($200,000 for each lab), $60,000 for the WWQL in FY03,
and $675,000 in FY04 ($225,000 each for SWQL, HWWQL, and WWQL). The funds
have been utilized as follows:

Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory (SWQL) – Wooster Ohio

   • Expand, test, and apply new testing programs for domestic cracker production and
     export-type breads.
   • Evaluate the potential of new waxy wheats for cake baking.



                                            18
  • Study flour storage problems related to deteriorated gluten protein strength.
  • Expand the use of different solvent retention capacity tests to predict soft wheat
    flour qualities for new end-uses.
  • Multidisciplinary collaborative research to identify and apply genetic marker
    assisted selection of new soft wheat quality attributes among new soft wheat test
    lines.
  • Develop and modified small-scale testing methods that predict performance in
    automated industry processing.
  • Identify the molecular basis of specific quality traits and study effects of wheat
    growing conditions on wheat milling and baking product functionality through
    multidisciplinary collaborative research.
  • Modernize or replace aging equipment and upgrade support apparatus to meet
    industry’s needs and scientific research requirements.
  • Add a new support staff positions to expand test line evaluation program research
    and change to safer analytical processes.


Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL) – Manhattan Kansas

  • Increase relevant quality testing of new breeding lines for white pan-type bread.
  • Developed and implemented new methods to evaluate hard winter wheats for non-
    bread products including Asian noodles and tortillas.
  • Identify the molecular basis of specific quality traits and study effects of wheat
    growing conditions on product functionality through multidisciplinary collaborative
    research.
  • Develop and modify small-scale testing methods that predict performance in
    automated industry processing and investigate and improve processing quality,
    such as the study of dough improvers on frozen dough quality.
  • Increased research staff with hiring of new Cereal Chemist to expand research on
    the use of spectroscopic techniques that can provide real time prediction of flour
    and dough quality such as the use of FTIR to predict optimum mixing time of
    dough
  • Hired new postdoctoral researchers to improve the evaluation of hard winter
    wheats for tortillas and Asian noodles and to develop rapid methods for predicting
    tortilla and noodle quality such as developing NIR calibrations to predict PPO
    activity.
  • Hired two technicians to increase the evaluation and screening of hard winter
    wheats for both bread and non-bread uses.


Western Wheat Quality Laboratory (WWQL) – Pullman Washington

  • Hired a new Asian Food Specialist to define the commercial requirements of wheat
    foods in Pacific Rim Asia and to discover the underlying physical, chemical and
    genetic basis of these traits.
  • Initiate new research and test development for quality assessment of other Asian
    food products (various types of noodles, steam breads).



                                         19
  • Quality gene discovery – additional technical support will bring this sector of the
    WWQL to full capability. Research identifies genetic variation for quality and sets
    targets for superior new varieties.
  • Infrastructure support – Replaced outdated equipment with new instrumentation
    including a Farinograph dough analyzer.


Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory (HRS&DWQL) -
      Fargo, North Dakota

  • Increased relevant quality testing of new breeding lines for white bread and pasta.
  • Evaluated quality and protein characteristics of flour millstreams and their impact
    on flour blending processes. Determined that individual flour mill streams
    contained different quantities of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits,
    which impacted bread baking properties.
  • Developed and improved methodologies for small scale testing to secure and
    maintain the quality of wheat breeding test lines and commercial cultivars for
    domestic and export markets.
  • Replaced worn and obsolete equipment and increased testing capabilities through
    the purchase of Buhler spring wheat milling equipment, an extensigraph for dough
    rheology analyses, and a farinograph and mixograph for evaluating mixing
    properties.




                                          20
USDA-ARS Small Grains Germplasm Enhancement - Aberdeen, Idaho

Amount requested: $500,000 to USDA-ARS Program Budget

Recommendation: The National Wheat, Barley, and Oat Improvement Committees,
National Associations of Wheat and Barley Growers, and the North American Millers
Association request establishment of a research geneticist position at the USDA
Aberdeen facility with funding of $500,000 per year. This position will be divided
between wheat, barley, and oat germplasm enhancement. A portion of the funds
($100,000) will go to support cooperative enhancement and evaluation efforts by
university researchers under Specific Cooperative Agreements with USDA-ARS. This
program request corresponds with the President’s Plant Genomics Initiative.

Justification: Small grain producers, processors and consumers depend on a steady
supply of high yielding wheat, barley, and oat varieties with resistance to an array of
biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition, major emphasis has been placed on value-
added traits in recent years resulting in varieties with a diversity of end uses. New
varieties frequently contain genes that were mined from the National Small Grains
Collection (NSGC) in Aberdeen, ID through the use of conserved accessions as
parental material. This process, called germplasm enhancement, whereby novel genes
are used to enhance variety development programs is fundamental to genetic progress
in all crop species. Nevertheless, timely improvement of the diverse array of traits that
will underpin future national and international competitiveness in the U. S. small grains
community requires more efficient utilization of this national resource. Because quality
and yield requirements are so stringent, breeders are sometimes reluctant to take
advantage of unique genes available in obsolete varieties or wild species conserved in
the NSGC because years of ‘pre-breeding’ is needed to transfer useful traits into high-
yielding, high-quality genetic backgrounds.

Approach: Enhancement of the germplasm pools of important field crops is a
responsibility of the ARS because it addresses national, long-term plant
improvement goals. This new research initiative within the NSGC will speed the
transfer of novel genes for a diversity of traits from landrace and wild accessions into
cultivars in producer’s fields. The products of this proposed research will be 1)
improved germplasm of wheat, barley, and oat containing new genes for end-use
quality and biotic and abiotic stress and 2) new molecular markers useful in quickly
transferring these genes at low cost into breeding lines without transferring unwanted
genes in the process. Such research is ideal for the Aberdeen location because of the
accessibility of extensive germplasm resources within the NSGC, the presence of active
barley, oat, and wheat breeding programs at the site, and the availability of new state of
the art facilities in the Advanced Genetics Laboratory of the NSGC Facility. This project
would cooperate closely with scientists at the ARS genotyping laboratories and with
plant breeders throughout the US. This work would be possible with the addition of a
new category 1 ARS position within the NSGC CRIS project and associated budget for
support staff, materials, and supplies.




                                           21
               USDA-ARS BUILDINGS & FACILITIES BUDGET

USDA-ARS Plant Biosciences Center, Pullman, WA

Amount Requested: Installment towards $39.6 Million remaining construction costs

We greatly appreciated the action that Congress has taken to date, approving $3.96
million for planning and design in FY2004; $3 million and 3.625 Million for construction
in FY2005 and FY2006, respectively. We are respectfully requesting approval of
another installment in FY2007 towards $35.975 Million in remaining construction
costs.

The USDA-ARS Plant Bioscience Research in Pullman, WA forms an international
center of excellence for agricultural research. Scientists conduct research of importance
to Pacific Northwest producers, as well as many other regions of the U.S. and the world.
Research in Pullman currently provides basic knowledge and improved germplasm for
developing, maintaining, and improving all market classes of wheat as well as barley;
evaluates the milling and baking quality of wheat breeding lines for the best quality and
maximum yields; performs fundamental research on the genetic mechanisms involved
in wheat tolerance of diseases and abiotic stress; houses the newly-initiated Western
Regional Plant Genotyping Laboratory, houses the Western Regional Plant Introduction
Station, responsible for the collection, maintenance, evaluation, documentation and
distribution of the germplasm of over 2,600 plant species; conducts fundamental and
applied research on the diseases of roots in the cereal grains; develops germplasms
and cultivars of grain legumes; and conducts multidisciplinary research on the principles
and practices that enhance soil, water and air quality.

The plant science research effort at the Pullman location is currently staffed with 29
ARS Category 1 and 4 scientists, including cereal chemists, physiologists, geneticists,
botanists, molecular biologists, plant pathologists, agricultural engineers, and soil
scientists, as well as about 50 full and part-time federal technical staff. In addition to the
federal staff approximately 100 Washington State University (WSU) students and
cooperative scientists conduct collaborative research using Federal equipment and
supplies. Producers, commodity groups, and consumers depend on and support this
partnership to find solutions to critical agricultural and environmental problems. The
plant research effort is housed almost entirely within Johnson Hall (built in 1960) on the
WSU campus, with a small amount of space in outlying buildings. The Western Wheat
Quality Laboratory is housed in a separate building. The Western Regional Plant
Introduction Station also has scientists and support staff in Prosser, WA.

The Pullman plant research programs continue to grow to address the numerous needs
of their many customers and stakeholders, as evidenced by the newly-initiated Plant
Genotyping Laboratory. At the present time there is no room for additional scientific
staff to be housed in Johnson Hall; the new genotyping effort will have to be
accommodated in the laboratories of existing scientists. Additional facilities are
essential to the continued expansion and enhancement of existing modern technology-
based genomic, molecular biology, genetics, chemistry, and pest management research
programs of national importance in wheat, barley, and grain legumes. This enhanced


                                             22
capacity will address short and long term needs of the USDA/ARS and also address
broader regional, national and international problems facing American agriculture,
including the WSU efforts in fruit and horticultural crops.

A new 96,000 sq ft laboratory and office building is needed to provide space for the
scientists conducting the fundamental and mission-linked research described
above. Additional research programs are currently being developed for and supported
by numerous national and regional customer/stakeholder groups.

The stakeholders are firmly committed to the continued growth of the Pullman plant
research effort. This research has had monumental economic impact for the Pacific
Northwest producers and end users. These facility enhancements will assist the
Pullman staff to maintain high productivity and leadership in addressing important
agricultural research problems.




                                         23
USDA-ARS Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center, Fargo, North Dakota

Amount Requested: Installment towards $37.6 Million construction costs

An installment toward $37.6 Million is requested as needed to renovate 57,200 sq ft
of current facilities, construct new 30,000 sq ft laboratory and office building and an
accompanying 12,000 sq ft greenhouse complex. The FY2006 bill provided $3.7 million
for planning and design.

The USDA-ARS Red River Valley Agricultural Research Center (RRVARC) in Fargo,
North Dakota is an international center of excellence for agricultural research. Scientists
conduct research of importance to northern Great Plains producers, as well as many
other regions of the U.S. and the world. RRVARC research currently provides basic
knowledge and improved germplasm for developing, maintaining, and improving hard
red spring wheat, durum wheat, barley and oat; evaluates the milling and baking quality
of hard red spring and durum wheat breeding lines for the best quality and maximum
yields; houses the only national sunflower research program consisting of 7 scientists
from different disciplines; improves the quality and profitability of sugarbeet and potato
production through fundamental research on germplasm enhancement, crop protection,
and post harvest physiology; develops ways to reduce the negative impact of foreign
chemicals in food producing animals and in the processing of food; develops and
expands knowledge on the physiology, genetics, and molecular biology of weeds to
improve existing and discover new environmentally sustainable weed management
strategies; and develops new and improved genetic, molecular and biochemical
approaches for the management of insects pests and improved utilization of beneficial
insects.

The RRVARC is currently staffed with 41 ARS Category 1 and 4 scientists, including
entomologists, chemists, physiologists, geneticists, botanists, molecular biologists, and
food technologists, and 88 federal research support personnel. In addition to the federal
staff approximately 100 North Dakota State University (NDSU) students and cooperative
scientists conduct collaborative research in RRVARC facilities. Producers, commodity
groups, and consumers depend on and support this partnership to find solutions to
critical agricultural and environmental problems. Current program funding for the Center
is approximately $14.3 million. Center facilities include the Biosciences Research
Laboratory (built in 1964) and the Northern Crop Science Laboratory (built in 1988), both
on the NDSU campus, as well as the East Grand Forks, MN Potato Worksite. Additional
RRVARC staff conduct research on wheat/oat quality, and are housed in NDSU facilities.

RRVARC programs continue to grow to address the numerous needs of their many
customers/stakeholders. At present time there is little room for additional scientific staff
to be housed in the Northern Crop Science Laboratory, and significant remodeling is
needed to provide optimal research space within the Biosciences Research Laboratory.
Additional and/or improved facilities will facilitate the continued expansion and
enhancement of existing modern technology-based genomic, molecular biology,
genetics, chemistry, and pest management research programs of national importance in
wheat, barley, oat, sunflower, sugarbeet and potato. This enhanced capacity will
address short and long term needs of the RRVARC and also address broader regional,
national and international problems facing American agriculture.

                                             24
Renovation of 57,200 sq ft of laboratory and office space is needed at the Biosciences
Research Laboratory. This renovation will provide state of the art research facilities for
existing programs in weed genetics and management, insect genetics and biochemistry,
and food animal safety research. A new 30,000 sq ft laboratory and office building with
an accompanying 12,000 sq ft greenhouse/headhouse complex is needed to provide
space for up to 9 additional scientists conducting genomic, molecular biology, and pest
management research crops mentioned above. Additional research programs are
currently being developed for and supported by numerous national and regional
customer/stakeholder groups.

The stakeholders are firmly committed to the continued growth of the RRVARC. Their
research has had significant economic impact for the Northern Great Plains producers
and end users. These facility enhancements will assist the Center staff to maintain high
productivity and leadership in addressing important agricultural research problems.




                                            25
USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Unit, Raleigh, NC

Amount Requested: $2,250,000 toward construction of a Field House /
Seed Handling / Equipment Storage Facility

Justification: The genetics, breeding, and pathology programs in the Plant Science
Research Unit develop and handle thousands of crosses, populations, and homozygous
lines of wheat, oat, barley, corn and rice each year. Utmost priority must be placed on
maintaining genetic purity and viability of the plant material developed and researched
by scientists in the Unit. Present facilities for handling seed, including threshing,
shelling, weighing, organizing for planting, subsampling for laboratory tests, and
storing under cold, low humidity conditions are inadequate. We presently have
just one 1080 ft2 room for maize seed handling, which is shared by three scientists; and
a 600 ft2 room for three other scientists handling wheat, oat, barley, and rice. The
rooms are not equipped for debris and dust ventilation associated with threshing and
shelling activities. The configuration of the present rooms does not allow for storage of
harvested grain following harvest. There are presently just two cold storage units with
humidity control, each only 144 ft2. An independent, external review of the Plant
Science Research Unit in August 2003 recommended “Seed storage facilities are a
critical need. Funds should be allocated immediately to begin construction of a new
seed storage and handling facility at Lake Wheeler”.

In addition for the need to upgrade seed handling, storage for our field equipment is
also needed. We have a significant investment in field equipment (planters, sprayers,
combines, tractors, etc.), valued at approximately $900,000. At the present time, some
of this equipment must be stored in areas exposed to the weather. In addition to being
exposed to the weather, some of the equipment must be stored at remote locations, not
under USDA/ARS control. The proposed new facility would allow for storage all of our
field equipment in a common, secure building. Approximately half of the proposed new
building would house field equipment. A small portion of the storage area would be
used as a shop for maintenance of field equipment.

Proposal: The proposed field house would be an insulated metal building, on a
concrete foundation, with plumbing, electrical, and some finished interior space
containing two 1800 ft2 seed labs (one for maize, one for small grains), each with space
for two offices. A third, common lab of 1000 ft2 would be available as extra room during
peak usage. A section of each lab would be ventilated for dust and debris during
threshing activities. The building would contain approximately 700 ft2 in cold
temperature, humidity controlled seed storage, divided into two or three sections. The
building should also contain rest room facilities with showers. The remainder of the
building will be used for storage and shop area with drive-through overhead doors to
allow for seed loading and unloading. A covered shed along one side of the building
would be used for parking. Total size is approximately 7,200 ft2. The site work should
include utilities, water well, septic system, concrete work, and a graveled yard/drive
area. The proposed location would be at the Lake Wheeler complex of North Carolina
State University. Estimated cost is $2,250,000.




                                          26
Impacts of Proposed Funding Terminations
USDA-ARS Crop Protection and Pest Reduction Research Unit
West Lafayette, Indiana

The Administration’s FY 2007 proposed budget contains a decrease of $320,236 for
three small grains programs in the Crop Protection and Pest Reduction Research Unit
at West Lafayette, Indiana. These programs are important contributors to the small
grains industries in the U.S.

1. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus ($74,250 decrease) and Oat Virus Research ($232,786
decrease)

Importance: Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) causes one of the most economically
important diseases of wheat, barley, and oats in North America. Chronic BYDV
problems have contributed substantially to the decline in U.S. oat acreage. BYDV has
been an increasing problem in the southeastern United States in recent years and
economic losses due to BYDV continue to be significant. The situation is complicated by
the existence of several strains of the virus. There is no full-time position, either in
USDA-ARS or state agricultural experiment stations, devoted exclusively to this
problem. Continued research by USDA-ARS Small Grains Viral Disease Laboratory at
West Lafayette and cooperating state institutions, specifically the University of Illinois,
Urbana, IL, is essential to more efficiently select for BYDV resistance and understand
the potential for oat plants to resist infection to several virus strains. The importance of
this research is emphasized by the ongoing support of the National Oat Improvement
Committee, the North American Millers Association and the National Wheat
Improvement Committee.

Impact of funding elimination: The continued development of barley yellow dwarf
resistant oat by the USDA-ARS Laboratory at West Lafayette and cooperating state
institutions will come to a virtual halt as there will no longer be sufficient funds for
conventional breeding, identification of new resistance genes, or the development of
more efficient methods for resistance selection. While the disease pressure varies from
year to year the most BYDV resistant oat varieties are only moderately resistant. This
program has a national focus. Continued oat production in the United States depends
upon the development of oat cultivars that have significantly higher BYDV resistance.
Because BYDV is also an important disease of wheat and barley, this research will
likely provide new knowledge with application to the development of BYDV resistant
wheat and barley varieties.

2. Genomics of Pest Resistance in Wheat. ($13,200 decrease)

Importance: The Small Grains Research Program in the Crop Protection and Pest
Reduction Research Unit at West Lafayette, Indiana, is at the forefront of characterizing
resistance to fungal, viral and insect pests of wheat. This includes the development of
tools for genomic and proteomic analyses of pest resistance, determining entire genetic
and biochemical pathways leading to pest resistance, and applying this information to
develop wheat germplasm and cultivars that have new and durable resistance to all


                                            27
important pests. This research has rapidly progressed with the identification of many
genes that are currently being tested to determine their role in resistance to this wide
array of pathogens/pests. This research is also providing new information towards crop
improvement.

Impact of funding elimination: The proposed budget would reduce the money
earmarked for supplies and materials. Research in which all of these genes (several
hundred) can be analyzed simultaneously after infection and in different cultivars costs
approximately $20,000 per experiment. Consequently, even a modest reduction has a
significant impact on the ability of this research team to identify and characterize genes
that are essential for resistance and then apply this information to the development of
resistant cultivars. This reduction in operating funds would severely constrain the
progress in this fundamental and applied research.




                                           28
USDA-ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center
Manhattan, KS

The Administration’s FY 2007 proposed budget contains a decrease of $1,031,038 for
small grains programs at the Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in
Manhattan, KS. Each of these programs is an important contributor to the
competitiveness of the small grains industries in the U.S.

1. Grain Research. ($486,029 decrease)
The USDA-ARS Regional Molecular Genotyping Laboratory at Manhattan is a critical
resource to facilitate the application of genomics information and DNA molecular marker
technologies in genetic improvement of small grains. In order to counter threats to the
nation’s crops from natural or maliciously introduced pathogens and maintain our
competitive position in the world marketplace, plant breeders must be equipped with the
best technology. The genotyping lab provides high throughput DNA extraction and
marker screening technology to both public and private breeders of small grains crops.

Impact of funding elimination: The following objectives would be eliminated or
delayed by the proposed decrease:
   • Identify new DNA markers associated with resistance to important production
      risks like cereal rusts, Fusarium head blight, powdery mildew, wheat streak
      mosaic virus, Karnal bunt, enhanced end-use quality, and cold or heat injury.
   • Create marker profiles of cultivars and breeding lines to facilitate the most
      efficient planning of crosses and selection methods.
   • Implement marker-assisted selection for grain crop improvement programs in KS,
      TX, OK, CO, NE, and SD.
   • Develop and deploy new high throughput technologies for marker-assisted
      selection.

2. Karnal Bunt Research ($545,010 decrease, including $121,913 decrease of base
funding)
Karnal bunt is a minor disease in terms of yield loss, but poses a significant economic
threat to the U. S. wheat export industry due to international quarantine regulations by
many of our trading partners. International deregulation is the best solution to the KB
problem. However, international phytosanitary deregulation is usually a slow and
complex process. In the meantime, the Karnal Bunt Research Consortium is working on
several options to mitigate the economic impact of Karnal bunt. These will help U.S.
wheat producers and grain companies compete in an uncertain regulatory environment.

Impact of funding elimination: The proposed budget would eliminate funding to the
multi-state Karnal Bunt Research Consortium that is funded through the Plant Science
and Entomology Research Unit in Manhattan. This Consortium includes USDA-ARS,
Kansas State University, Texas A&M University, and Oklahoma State University.
Research objectives are: 1) screen for resistance in existing varieties, 2) develop new
resistant varieties, 3) develop molecular markers to assist resistance breeding, 4)
determine the epidemiology of the disease and develop improved pest risk assessment
models, 5) test alternative cropping strategies to mitigate losses, and 6) develop
alternative phytosanitary certification and marketing strategies.


                                          29
USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory
St. Paul, Minnesota

The USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) is a Federal research facility with the
national mandate of providing improved methods for controlling barley, oat, and wheat
diseases that are effective, safe, and environmentally friendly, mainly through the
deployment of resistant cultivars.

Impact of funding elimination: The FY07 Administration proposed budget calls for
eliminating program increases that were added by Congress in FY03, FY04, and FY05.
The elimination of these funds would cut $310,971 (gross) or $279,874 (net to location)
from the CDL budget, a reduction of approximately 15% of the total funding for the unit.
At least one permanent scientist, one post-doctoral, and one technician position would
be terminated. Additional cuts in operating expenses will also need to be made to
handle the reduction.

The project that would be most affected is "Genetics, Population Biology, and host-
parasite interactions of cereal rust fungi and their diseases". Rust diseases of small
grain cereal crops (wheat, barley, and oats) were estimated to reduce the small grain
harvest in the US by an annual average of over 66 million bushels during the period of
2001-2005. Losses would have been much greater if rust resistant small grain varieties,
made possible by cooperative research between the CDL and small grain breeders
across the US, were not available to producers. The alarming vulnerability of US wheat
and barley to a virulent new race of wheat stem rust now spreading in East Africa,
demonstrates the need for sustained funding of cereal rust research at the CDL to deal
with these rapidly evolving plant pathogens.

If the funding reduction is approved by Congress, none of the work outlined above will
be accomplished. This research is critical to the CDL's mission to reduce losses in
wheat, oat, and barley to major diseases including leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust, crown
rust, and Fusarium head blight through research on the biology of the pathogens that
cause these diseases and on methods to enhance disease resistance in small grains.
In addition to losing these positions, all other funding for remaining projects will be
jeopardized, as cuts in travel, repair and maintenance, supplies and equipment will be
necessary to meet the proposed cuts. Further erosion of base funding in out years due
to inflation, salary increases, and rescissions will no doubt further hinder the ability of
the CDL to respond to the changing disease situation in small grain cereals.




                                           30
USDA/ARS Plant Science Research Unit
Raleigh, NC

Impact of funding elimination: The proposed Base Reduction to the Plant Science
Unit in Raleigh will impact 11 full-time, and 4 part-time employees, resulting in total loss
(personnel plus operating budget) of $1,495,157. These scientists research Global
Climate Change, specifically the effects of elevated ozone, carbon dioxide, and
temperature change on major U.S. crops (soybean, wheat, cotton, rice, peanut, and
clover).

Increased ozone from burning fossil fuels results in $7.1 billion loss in yield per year. In
order to sustain and increase agricultural productivity, the research in Plant Science
Unit is necessary for developing mitigation strategies and for developing new plant
varieties that can grow and yield well in a changing climate. In addition, this research
provides the scientific basis for the U.S. EPA air quality standards.

The research conducted in this proposed base reduction is unique; the Plant Science
Unit is the only research unit in the U.S. determining the effects of elevated ozone,
carbon dioxide, and temperature on important U.S. crops. (Total restoration of
$1,495,157)




                                            31
USDA-ARS Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory
Sidney, Montana

Recent Accomplishments: Funding received by the Sidney Agricultural Systems
Research Unit for cropping systems research in FYs ’03, ’04, and ’05 is making
significant progress toward solving problems facing the small grains industry in eastern
Montana and western North Dakota. In FY06 partial funding was also provided for a
new facilities support position in the lab’s biological control programs targeting weeds,
pests and diseases including wheat and barley crops. The arrival of two new scientists
in 2004 and two more in 2005 immediately improved collaborative research efforts
within the unit as well as with the industry and regional universities. Several new
interdisciplinary, laboratory and field research projects have been launched and have
already resulted in significant progress in the areas of weed control, biological fungicidal
seed treatments (eg., net blotch, crown rot), fertility and water management of malting
barley and spring wheat rotations. Malting barley work focuses on improving
acceptance rates (proteins, color and plumps) of 6-row varieties by reducing risk to
growers through integrated approaches to irrigation/nitrogen and weed management.
Spring wheat (mostly durum) research on reducing weed control and tillage costs
through integrated use of cultural practices and rotations to increase economic viability
of the systems.

Impact of funding elimination: The FY07 Administration proposed budget calls for
eliminating funding research added by Congress in FYs ’03, ’04, and a $75,000
enhancement funding in FY05, along with $118,800 in new FY06 funding for a support
person for the new biocontrol quarantine facility being built at the lab. The elimination of
$1,759,199 in gross funding from the Sidney budget would represent a reduction of
more than 33% of the total funding for the Laboratory. Four scientists, six technical
support positions (including the quarantine position) and a post-doctoral researcher
would be terminated. The proposed termination of funds for these positions would
severely hinder the small grains research in the region, and the cancellation of at least
two major research efforts in irrigated and dryland production with a sharp curtailment of
other related research. Loss of funding would preclude much research currently directed
toward development of irrigated integrated cropping systems. Research on
economically significant weed management in dryland and irrigated cropping rotations
probably could not be done. Programs on biological control of soil-borne fungal
diseases of small grains would be significantly reduced. Also, since these positions
would not be contributing their share of the overhead for building maintenance, utilities,
and administration, other projects would have to pick up the slack causing an overall
reduction in research effort.




                                            32
USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit
Fargo, ND

Recent Accomplishments: Funding received by the Fargo Cereal Crops Research
Unit for cereal crops research, wheat quality, and small grains genotyping in FYs ’01,
’02, ’03, and ’04 has resulted in significant progress toward solving problems facing the
small grains industry. Three scientist and several technical support staff positions were
made possible by this funding. The arrival of two new scientists in 2002 and a third in
2003 immediately improved collaborative research efforts within the Cereals unit and
has already resulted in significant research progress. Examples of research
accomplishments achieved because of this additional funding:
    • Identification of new resistance from wild germplasm and synthetic hexaploid
        wheats against Stagonospora nodorum blotch and tan spot of wheat (crosses to
        introgress resistance into HRS wheat have already begun).
    • Identification of multiple host selective toxins of Stagonospora nodorum that
        contribute significantly to disease in wheat.
    • Identification and mapping of toxin sensitivity genes in wheat contributing to its
        susceptibility to SNB disease. This information, combined with toxin
        identification, gives breeders a better understanding of what traits to select for
        when developing SNB resistant cultivars.
    • Identification of two major resistance genes for barley net blotch, one on
        chromosome 6H effective against multiple races of P. teres f. teres and one on
        4H responsible for resistance to P. teres f. maculata. These genes and their
        corresponding molecular markers can be used to introgress good levels of net
        blotch resistance into barley germplasm.
    • Identification and mapping of three avirulence genes in the net blotch pathogen
        P. teres f. teres. This information has helped identify a gene for gene system
        between barley and P. teres f. teres. It is also critical to breeders when selecting
        for durable resistance due to the fact that the field population is known to have
        the ability to shift virulence when confronted with the selection pressure of major
        resistance genes.
    • Identification and mapping of resistance genes for tan spot and Stagonospora
        nodorum blotch in wheat including toxin insensitivity genes and other major
        resistance genes that will be useful for introgression into breeding programs.
    • Identification of host selective toxins of Cochliobolus sativus that contribute
        significantly to spot blotch disease in barley.
    • Identification of three novel glutenin and 29 novel gliadin proteins which may
        have potential for improving wheat end-use quality.
    • Identification of molecular markers useful for chromosome identification and
        potentially useful for tagging desirable traits in wheat.
    • Identification of FHB resistance in tetraploid wheat related to durum. Almost 400
        tetraploid wheat accessions were screened and 52 accessions were identified
        with high levels of Type II resistance, including Persian wheat, cultivated emmer
        wheat, Polish wheat, and oriental wheat. Because these cultivated wheats
        possess the same type genomes as durum wheat, the resistant lines identified in
        this study should be very useful to durum breeders for developing FHB resistant
        germplasm and cultivars.



                                            33
   •   Demonstration that pearling can add value to sprouted wheat.
   •   Over the past 5 years, collaboration of the wheat quality lab with public breeding
       programs has resulted in the release of more than 30 commercial cultivars of
       hard red spring wheat and 10 cultivars of durum.
   •   The wheat quality lab participated in the Overseas Varietal Analysis program
       sponsored by U.S. Wheat Associates in efforts to enhance overseas
       marketability of U.S. wheat.
   •   The wheat quality lab contributed substantial time and effort on the annual
       evaluation of pre-released experimental lines of spring wheat for the Wheat
       Quality Council, which serves commercial milling and baking industries in testing
       and identifying potentially new cultivars from all classes of wheat.
   •   In addition, the WQL has continued valuable collaborations with the region’s
       wheat breeders to test annually the quality of hard red spring and durum wheat
       breeding lines in efforts to ensure that only the highest quality wheats are
       developed and released to the public.

Northern Plains Genotyping Laboratory: Facilities to house this laboratory have
undergone major renovation, major equipment has been purchased, the scientist and
technicians are on board, and the laboratory is fully functional. Working relationships
are being developed with the breeding and research communities, and the lab is
already an integral part of two large cooperative research proposals involving wheat and
barley researchers across the country. Other collaborations involve projects to: 1)
identify molecular markers associated with malt quality in barley, 2) map microsatellite
markers and determine their suitability for tagging agronomic traits in durum, and 3)
map the preharvest sprouting trait in durum. High throughput genotyping protocols
have been developed and 135,000 data points were delivered last year as part of
screening for FHB, leaf rust, and protein quality. This facility is expected to provide
state of the art genomics technological support to enhance activities of barley, oat, and
wheat breeders across the Northern Plains.

Impact of funding elimination: Three scientist and five technical support positions
would be directly impacted and lost. Research on economically significant foliar and
head diseases of wheat and barley would be sharply curtailed. Foliar diseases such as
Stagonospora nodorum blotch and tan spot are highly significant, especially in the Great
Plains region, and their significance appears to be increasing each year. Research
currently directed toward characterizing these systems, identifying sources of
resistance, and deploying resistance genes into adapted lines and cultivars probably
could not be done. Loss of funding would preclude the genotyping laboratory from
bringing the power of modern genomics technologies to public breeding programs.
Finally, the magnitude of the funding termination (representing about 43% of the unit’s
research budget) would indirectly impact other unit research, including programs on
cereal quality, disease resistance, and genetics.




                                           34
USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Research Unit
Wooster, OH

Recent Accomplishments: New funding received by the Wooster, OH Soft Wheat
Quality Research Unit in FY 02 and FY 04 addressed several new challenges facing the
domestic and export utilization qualities of soft wheats. Those funds supported two new
technical support staff positions and made possible the addition of two post doctoral
positions. Examples of research accomplishments achieved because of these
additional funds include:
   •   Equipment and instruments to determine how wheats differ in milling quality attributes of
       vital commercial importance.
   •   Research to establish a testing program to evaluate the qualities of soft wheats for
       domestic cracker production and export-type Middle-Eastern flat and hearth breads.
   •   Multidisciplinary collaborative research to identify and apply genetic marker assisted
       selection of new soft wheat quality attributes for new soft wheat lines.
   •   Identify the molecular basis of specific quality traits and study effects of wheat growing
       conditions on wheat milling and baking product functionality through multidisciplinary
       collaborative research.
   •   Pastry baking quality of small scale breeders’ test lines is being evaluated with greater
       accuracy at an earlier developmental stage.
   •   Modernize and replace aging testing equipment and upgrade support apparatus to meet
       industry’s needs and scientific research requirements.
   •   The quality evaluation research program was expanded 30% to increase the numbers of
       breeders test lines evaluated annually.
The Soft Wheat Quality Lab (SWWQL) continues to perform research and service in the
enhancement of wheat quality for the Eastern United States. Our critical evaluations
inform soft wheat breeders which small percentage of their lines satisfy various milling
quality essential attributes and baking quality attributes for various pastry products,
crackers, cakes, cookies, biscuits, pretzels, pie dough, and potentially North African and
Middle-Eastern flat and hearth breads.

Impact of Funding Elimination: The FY 07 budget proposes to eliminate the recent
FY01-FY04 add-on funding ($413,654). The two technicians added with those funds
would be lost, affecting research for two scientists’ CRIS projects. One addresses the
vitally important commercial milling characteristics of soft wheats. The other concerns
the cracker/export qualities of soft wheats and how their end-use qualities are accepted
and utilized by our many importing countries. The remaining daily base funding of the
SWQL would fall well below the already “in the red” level of FY01. As such, it would fail
to support two long-time permanent career technician positions and one of our two
permanent scientist positions. Our research efforts would be reduced to about nil and
the test line quality evaluation program would be cut approximately in half of the FY01
output and severely restrict the utility of the testing program which annually evaluates
unique quality attributes of 6,000 soft wheat test lines from 17 state university breeding
programs and 6 private soft wheat breeding programs in the eastern half of the U.S.
The development and testing of wheats for the North African and Middle Eastern import
markets and for nearly 100% of the Eastern United States traditional soft wheat markets
would be stopped or severely restricted. Funding cuts would significantly impact our
ability to provide guidance to federal, state, and private programs and will reduce
research capacity needed to improve domestic and export soft wheat quality traits and
address quality-related issues and problems in the marketplace.

                                              35
USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit
Stillwater, Oklahoma

The Administration’s proposed budget for FY07 calls for the termination of a research
project added by Congress in FY04. This project was listed as “Invasive aphid
research” in House Report 108-193 under the Agricultural Research Service, with the
following language:

Invasive aphid research: The NWIC is concerned about the emergence of new
virulent strains of Russian Wheat Aphids in the Middle East and in South America that
are able to kill newly developed wheat and barley crops resistant to this devastating
pest. U.S. wheat, barley, and soybean production are now vulnerable to attack by new
virulent strains of Russian Wheat Aphid and Greenbug. The Committee provides an
increase of $250,000 in fiscal year 2004 to the ARS Research Station at Stillwater, OK
for expanded research focused on monitoring collecting, characterizing and testing of
this new virulent strain of aphids.

ARS currently receives $219,665 to fund this important project. Funding was sufficient
to establish the research project which focuses on monitoring, collecting, characterizing,
and testing for new virulent aphids in populations within the U.S. and from around the
world. The objective is to identify new virulent aphids before they attain economic pest
status. As these new virulent aphids are identified, proactive containment protocols are
then initiated with USDA-APHIS; and, screening and testing for new sources of plant
resistance can begin with cooperating plant breeding programs.

Impact of funding termination: Termination of this funding would mean that one
permanent full-time scientist position and one permanent full-time technician position
would be terminated. This congressionally mandated ARS research project, designed
to protect U.S. grain crops from the introduction of new, genetically virulent aphid pests,
would also be terminated. These devastating aphid pests attack barley, wheat, and
sorghum every year and cause an estimated $250 million in crop losses. Termination of
this project would mean U.S. grain crop production would remain vulnerable to the
introduction, natural or intentional, of new damaging aphid pests.




                                           36
USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research
Pullman, WA

Recent Accomplishments: Increased funding received by the Pullman, WA Wheat
Genetics, Quality, Physiology and Disease Research Unit in FYs ’02, ’03, and ’04 has
resulted in significant progress towards solving problems facing the small grains
industry. The proposed reduction of $484,456 in gross funding which includes these
increases, would result in nearly a one-half reduction in program including the
elimination of one of two scientists and half of the essential technical support staff
positions. The additional funding has resulted in a number of significant
accomplishments. Examples include:
    • A new scientist was hired to improve Pacific Northwest wheats for use in Asian
       food products. This scientist has established a research program to discover the
       underlying physical, chemical and genetic basis of commercial quality
       requirements of wheat foods in Pacific Rim Asia. In the one year this program
       has been in existence, the scientist has identified six previously unknown genes
       responsible for food product discoloration, a major determinant of acceptability of
       U.S. wheat in the Asian market.
    • Identification of the genetic basis for hard vs. soft wheat kernel texture;
       identification of novel sources of superior quality in collaboration with
       international cooperators; provided millers and food manufacturers with an
       expanded range of specific quality wheats for new and healthy consumer
       products.
    • Performed industry outreach activities which provide Cargill, Nabisco, ADM,
       General Mills, ConAgra, Cereal Foods Processors and others the opportunity to
       participate in the development of new, superior quality wheat varieties. Provided
       farmers with informational brochures to help them choose high-quality varieties
       that enhance U.S. wheat quality and the vitality of rural agriculture.

Nearly all western states’ experimental wheat breeding lines –thousands each year --
are extensively evaluated by the Western Wheat Quality Lab (WWQL). This work
identifies the few lines good enough to be released to farmers. Recent successes
include 'Chukar,' a club wheat with exceptional quality for pastry products, and 'Finch,' a
winter wheat that has consistently topped the yield trials throughout the Pacific
Northwest while maintaining outstanding quality. In addition, an entirely new form of
wheat, “waxy” wheat, has been developed in the WWQL and the first commercial soft
white waxy variety, ‘Penawawa-X’, is scheduled for release in 2007. This new kind of
wheat provides heretofore untapped opportunities for product development; the Kellogg
Company and others are actively involved in developing new products and uses for this
novel wheat. Varieties evaluated by the WWQL contribute to more than 98% of the
current soft white wheat production of the Pacific Northwest.

Impact of funding elimination: The proposed cuts would result in nearly a one-half
reduction in program including the elimination of the Asian Foods Specialist scientist
and half of the technical support staff positions. Research currently directed toward
acceptability of U.S. wheats to the Asian food market, to which nearly 90% of the Pacific
Northwest wheats are exported, would be reduced to nearly ineffectual levels. In
addition, research on several economically significant wheat quality characteristics,
which impact both domestic and foreign markets, would be sharply curtailed.

                                           37
USDA-ARS Cereal Crops Research Unit
Madison Wisconsin

The FY07 Administration proposed budget calls for eliminating funding for two research
projects that were added by Congress in FY01 and FY02 and enhancement funding
added in FY05 and FY06 . The elimination of $902,338 in gross funding from the
CCRU, would represent a reduction of approximately 39.2% of the total funding for the
unit. Two scientist positions, two technician positions and a post-doctoral researcher
would be terminated.

Impact of funding elimination: One of the projects that would be affected is
“Improving the Nutrient and Phytonutrient Status of Oats and Barley”. Dr. Mitchell Wise
has developed an oat tissue culture system to study metabolic pathways involved in the
biosynthesis of secondary products having antioxidant activity in oat. Specifically, he
will determine the control mechanisms for the synthesis of a group of compounds
termed avenanthramides that are uniquely produced by oats. These compounds
alleviate stress-induced oxidative damage in model animals and they demonstrate anti-
atherosclerotic properties as determined by in-vitro cellular assays. Unfortunately, in
the oat crop, avenanthramide biosynthesis is subject to pronounced genotype-
environment interactions. There are three major forms of avenanthramide found in the
grain and these occur in varying quantities and relative proportions, depending on
cultivar and growth conditions. Avenanthramide biosynthesis in the tissue culture
system is responsive to elicitation with specific elicitors; Dr. Wise believes this provides
an excellent model system with which to evaluate factors regulating this pathway. In
addition, to facilitate nutritional studies on the health effects of avenanthramides in
mammals, Dr. Wise is synthesizing avenanthramides in quantities sufficient for feeding
studies in model animals. These synthetic natural products not only provide the
necessary quantities required for feeding studies, they also preclude any carry over of
trace metabolites resulting from the use of grain extracts. Thus, the work in Dr. Wise’s
lab will result in a more detailed understanding of the nutritional effects of
avenanthramides and the factors regulating their production in the oat crop.

The second project that would be reduced is “Analysis and Control of Gene Expression
in Barley to Influence Quality and Pathogen Resistance”. “The objective of this project
is discovering genes important to barley quality through the use of functional genomics.
Specifically, barley gene chips and high throughput reverse genetics is being used to
identify genes that regulate seed responses to gibberellin (GA). Gibberellins affect the
activities of many enzymes involved with the hydrolytic degradation of macromolecules,
processes that are integral to malting of barley. In addition, GA is an important
phytohormone regulating diverse biological processes directly affecting many
agriculturally important traits. For example, the “green revolution” of 1960s and 1970s is
mainly due to the genetic change of GA regulatory genes, which led to dwarf wheat and
rice. Mutations of the GA regulatory genes increased wheat and rice yields by one to
two fold. Knowledge of a plant’s response to GA and the availability of regulatory genes
can be directly applied to molecular breeding and biotechnology for improvement of
barley quality traits such as malting quality, preharvest sprouting, yield, lodging and
flowering.



                                            38
The scientists on these two projects plan to collaborate in the analysis of oat gene
expression, using the barley gene chip, in tissue cultured cells induced to form
avenanthramides. This will indicate which genes are induced by the elicitor and identify
regulatory sites in the pathway of avenanthramide synthesis.

The third project that would be affected is “Physiological and Biochemical Regulation of
Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cereal Tissues” led by Dr. Cynthia Henson. Dr. Henson is
using advanced metabolomics and statistical tools to determine chemical profiles that
are reliably associated with the best malting quality. These metabolic profiles will be
translated into biochemical marker information that can be used by geneticists and
breeders to more efficiently breed barleys with superior malting quality. Additionally, Dr.
Henson is collaborating with a Unit scientist assigned to the “Analysis and Control of
Gene Expression in Barley to Influence Quality and Pathogen Resistance” project to
elucidate changes in the barley metabolome as a function of pathogen infection and
resistance.

Should the program cuts be retained, none of the work outlined above will be
accomplished. Also, since these projects would not be contributing to the overhead for
building maintenance, utilities, and administration, other projects would have to
contribute an even higher percentage of their research monies to operate the new
facility, thereby reducing their research output.




                                           39
USDA-ARS National Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative
ARS Headquarters

Priority: Maintain FY2001 and FY2003 Funding Additions of $1,065,188

Background: Fusarium Head Blight of wheat and barley emerged in the past decade
as a widespread and powerful enemy of American agriculture. This disease, also
known as ‘Scab’, inflicts yield and quality losses on farms in at least 23 states. Food
industries throughout the U.S. incur losses from the cost of dealing with the mycotoxin-
contaminated grain that often accompanies scab infection. Combined losses to all
steps in the food system are difficult to estimate, but the bill at the farm-gate alone is
estimated to exceed 5.0 billion dollars since 1990.

Scab of wheat and barley is one of several plant disease complexes accorded special
status in the federal budgeting system. The existing private, state, and federal
research system of the U.S handles most of the newly emergent pests and diseases.
But some, like wheat and barley scab, present unusual challenges that warrant new
approaches to research. There are several reasons why scab is a special problem
requiring new approaches:

       Scab is an economic threat to growers, processors and consumers of wheat and
       barley throughout much of the U.S.
       Research is required in a wide array of disciplines, with possible solutions
       including:
                resistant varieties (from conventional or biotechnology approaches),
                alternative residue and rotation management schemes,
                crop protection via chemical and biological controls, and
                detoxification or alternative processing of contaminated grain.
       The interaction of the scab pathogen with local and regional farming practices is
       complex and poorly understood.
       Recent experience clearly signals that no single institution can bring to bear the
       critical mass of research this problem demands.
       Scab solutions are likely to be both site and system specific, which dictates
       involvement of local experts in all of the at least 23 directly affected states.
       Opportunities for acquiring competitive funds for scab research from traditional
       federal sources are extremely scarce.

During the past seven years, federal and state scientists have worked closely with
growers, input providers, millers, and food processors from across the country to design
and fund a national, multi-disciplinary, and multi-institutional research system that can
win the war on scab in the most efficient manner possible. The result of these efforts is
the U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative (USWBSI). The Initiative’s goal is simple:
create the conditions necessary for a swift and complete technological triumph in the
war against Fusarium Head Blight. The Initiative employs an annual, transparent, and
consultative process to identify and fund a best-case research agenda. Relevance of
targeted research is assured by the central role that growers, processors and other
industry stakeholders play in the Initiative's work. Accountability and relevance to
practical solution discovery are guiding principals for the Initiative. The USWBSI is


                                            40
guided by a broad-based Steering Committee with representatives from all stakeholder
groups and regions. The Steering Committee has recruited national leaders in each of
the major research areas to serve on committees that advise the Steering Committee
on research agendas.

The Scab Initiative’s research and steering committees undertook a process in 1998
that generated a comprehensive first-year research plan involving 111 projects in six
research areas to be executed by 66 scientists from 19 Land Grant colleges and the
USDA’s Agriculture Research Service (ARS). Every conceivable solution area was
considered, and the resulting mix of research projects is truly comprehensive. The
prioritization process was competitive by its very nature, since researchers had to
demonstrate their ability to contribute to the overall solution. On the other hand, the
final research agenda consisted of a mix of projects identified via both directed and
purely competitive processes. In almost all cases, funds proposed by the Initiative were
heavily leveraged by existing sources of investments in personnel, facilities, and
supplies.

In 1999, the Scab Initiative’s research and steering committees once again collaborated
to generate a comprehensive research plan for 2000. This plan incorporated 1999-
funded research projects that were successfully meeting their goals, new high priority
research projects, and 5 baseline budget additions for USDA-ARS. In total, 73
scientists from 22 land grant universities and the USDA-ARS engaged in 104 projects
during 2000.

Congress appropriated an additional $800,000 in 2001 (and maintained in 2002) which
brought the total amount in appropriations to $6.1M. After various administrative costs
were removed, and some funding was directed to the base budgets of ARS scab
research projects, the total funding for U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative-
recommended projects was slightly more than $5M. The Initiative’s research plan for
2001 included a total of 83 scientists from 24 land grant universities and the USDA-ARS
engaged in 109 projects across 25 states. The recommended research plan for 2002
was similar in scale, with 109 projects funded in 26 states.

A careful analysis by Scab research leaders revealed a significant gap between the
ideal and actual funding level in all research areas. Due to lack of funds, the Initiative
has been forced to turn away excellent and promising research proposals. In both 2001
and 2002, the combined budgets of the non-funded proposals exceeded $1.5M. So, in
2003, Congress increased the amount appropriated $600,000 for Scab research, which
was maintained in 2004 and again in 2005, although with small rescissions. This
increase brought the total funding for USWBSI recommended projects to more than
$5.2M, after various administrative costs were removed, and half of the additional
funding was directed to the base budgets of ARS scab research projects. The final
research plan/budget for FY03, FY04, and FY05 is listed in Table 1. Although the
research plan/budget for FY06 has not yet been finalized, a summary of the expected
recommendation is included in the table below.




                                           41
      Table 1. Status of Federal Research Funding in FY03-FY06.

                                 FY06            FY05          FY04          FY03
       Annual Budget            $5.05M           $5.15M        $5.2M        $5.03M
       Projects                   116             119           117           113
       Principal
                                   84              81            79           79
       Investigators
       Institutions*               27              23            25           24
       States**                    25             23             26           27
      * Includes USDA-ARS and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)
      ** Includes Mexico

With the additional congressional allocations (FY01 and FY03), the USWBSI had been
able to fund about 95% of the proposals received annually that are worthy of funding.
However, in FY06, the Initiative was only able to fund about 87% of the proposals
received, and the majority of projects that did get funded were at reduced levels from
the amounts originally requested.

Recent Accomplishments: Below is a list of just a few of the accomplishments
resulting from research being conducted through the Initiative:

        enabled release of 12 new varieties of wheat with improved levels of
        resistance.
        identified and retired highly susceptible varieties.
        enabled the release of five wheat and one barley germplasm lines to breeders
        for use in developing new varieties with novel sources of resistance.
        enabled implementation of labor intensive, time consuming, but absolutely
        necessary routine FHB and DON screening of breeding materials in field and
        greenhouse nurseries using trained personnel in at least 17 states.
        increased the rate of development of FHB resistant varieties with through new
        technologies such as DNA marker assisted selection and doubled haploid
        methodologies.
        reduced the time taken to develop spring sown varieties through the use of
        winter nurseries in the southern hemisphere.
        enabled the establishment of four Uniform Fusarium Head Blight Screening
        Nurseries to provide invaluable information for breeding and cultivar release
        through multi-state coordinated evaluations.
        developed elite spring wheat, winter wheat and barley breeding stocks
        (germplasm) having multiple genes conferring enhanced resistance to FHB
        infection, spread, kernel damage, and toxin accumulation; this germplasm has
        been released for use as parents to accelerate the development of improved
        varieties having multiple genes for enhanced resistance.
        developed and released to producers initial varieties having multiple FHB
        resistance genes.




                                            42
identified new sources of FHB resistance in wild relatives of wheat which have
been incorporated into common wheat and also durum wheat.
regional genotyping centers are providing high throughput DNA marker
analyses to track and select for major FHB resistance in variety development.
established four regional laboratories which provide mycotoxin DON testing for
over 50 cooperating USWBSI scientists in 27 states; these labs play a central
role in the development of wheat and barley varieties that are resistant to FHB
and mycotoxin accumulation.
identified minimal mycotoxin concentrations that pose risks to human immune
system; these can be used in future for rational safety assessments and
establishment of appropriate tolerance levels in grains/foods by federal and
international regulators.
generated data in multi-state uniform fungicide trials to support Section 18 and
24c exemptions to FIFRA to enable the use of fungicides in several states for
suppression of FHB.
identified two "next generation" triazole fungicides that provide improved control
of FHB - Both are tied up in triazole review and there is hope in industry
that submission and review may occur in 2006.
generated data in multi-state uniform fungicide trials to support Section 3
registrations of above mentioned products.
completed wind tunnel work to identify optimal droplet sizes to be used for
aerial fungicide applications.
built a coalition of researchers working on biological control to develop a
uniform biological test across several environments, similar to the uniform
fungicide test.
commenced work to optimize aerial application in field situations.
designed protocols to optimize fungicide coverage on the heads of wheat and
barley through nozzle configuration and application timing to provide the best
possible FHB suppression with available fungicides.
developed systems for the rapid assessment of anti-Fusarium candidate
genes. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been adapted for wheat and
can identify wheat genes that facilitate Fusarium’s entry into the plant. The
moss transformation system allows rapid testing of potential anti-Fusarium
genes, prior to introduction into barley or wheat.
re-introduced a gene into wheat that controls the activities of multiple antifungal
defensive genes and has given positive results in whole plant tests. This
represents a new anti-Fusarium strategy.
transformed barley and wheat with gene constructs that target anti-Fusarium
gene expression directly in the path of infection in the spike, avoiding the main
vegetative portions of the plant.
deployed disease prediction models for Fusarium head blight in 23 states east
of the Rocky Mountains.
developed and test the next generation of disease prediction models that will
allow spring wheat producers to customize model predictions based on level of
FHB resistance in their cultivar.
documented the impact of integrated management options including planting
date, variety selection and crop rotation on the disease development.



                                   43
        evaluated potential mechanisms causing high mycotoxin levels in the
        asymptomatic wheat
        documented the potential for rain splash as a mechanism of pathogen
        dispersal.
        clarified the relationship between mycotoxin level and different measurements
        of disease. This information can then be used by breeders to refine variety
        development procedures.
        improved understanding of the national and global genetic diversity in
        Gibberella zeae, the fungus that causes scab.
        led the seminal efforts leading to the sequencing of the entire genome of
        Gibberella zeae.
        identified numerous genes in the fungus that control pathogenicity and
        mycotoxin production. These are potential targets for innovative control
        strategies.
        discovered new sources of natural resistance genes, leading to significant
        broadening of the germplasm base with which breeders can work.
        created a seamless network of research assets that makes full use of the real-
        time communication enabled by the World Wide Web.

The speed and magnitude of the success the industries and organizations involved
have had in generating funds and associated research plans are arguably
unprecedented in the history of U.S. public agriculture research. The US research
community is now fully engaged in the challenge of eliminating scab as a destructive
force in the U.S. food system. There is now a substantial solution-discovery engine up
and running. There are two fundamental challenges deserving of continued heightened
focus: 1) increasing the productivity of the resources committed to scab research, and
2) reducing the time lag between discovery of a solution and its implementation. We
believe that we’ve only begun to scratch the surface of the wealth of opportunities for
synergistic collaboration on both of these issues. One means of addressing the first
challenge (scientific productivity) is full employment of modern communication
technologies, i.e., the Internet. The Internet has already played a significant role in the
Initiative’s history, both through email list servers, and through a central Web site, but
further development is still needed, specifically in the area of real-time communication.
The second challenge, the lab vs. real-world time lag, requires pro-active forward
thinking by across-discipline alliances representing all aspects of the continuum from
the lab and field to the consumers table. In both cases, although great progress has
been made, these challenges still require continued investment.

See WWW.SCABUSA.ORG for detailed information.




                                            44
USWBSI’s SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDED FUNDING BY STATE
                    FY99 – FY06

     State                      FY99-06
     Arkansas                       $557,864
     California                     $756,061
     Georgia                        $298,470
     Iowa                            $78,257
     Idaho                          $165,000
     Illinois                     $1,278,487
     Indiana                      $1,702,819
     Kansas                       $1,708,430
     Kentucky                       $623,943
     Louisiana                      $223,925
     Maryland                       $666,292
     Michigan                     $4,357,436
     Minnesota                    $6,196,485
     Missouri                     $1,409,101
     Montana                        $175,733
     North Carolina                 $469,929
     North Dakota                 $8,677,783
     Nebraska                       $882,322
     New Jersey                     $257,440
     New York                       $511,890
     Ohio                           $914,164
     Oklahoma                       $247,364
     Pennsylvania                   $556,917
     South Dakota                 $2,294,378
     Texas                          $131,684
     Virginia                       $752,652
     Washington                     $532,999
     Wisconsin                      $644,779
     Mexico                         $814,829
     Grand Total                 $37,887,433




                      45
Initiative to Reduce

  US Vulnerability
         to
Cereal Rust Diseases




         46
Initiative to Reduce US Vulnerability to Cereal Rust Diseases
Full text of the Research Initiative by:

                       National Wheat Improvement Committee
                       National Association of Wheat Growers

                      National Barley Improvement Committee
                       National Barley Growers Association
                       American Malting Barley Association

                        National Oat Improvement Committee
                         North American Millers’ Association

The threat to US agriculture

Highly virulent and aggressive new races of stem, leaf, and stripe rust have appeared in
the world, which now threaten the entire US production of wheat, barley, and oats.
Immediate action must be taken to assess US vulnerability, find new sources of genetic
resistance, and deploy more durable disease resistance in US cereal varieties.

The cereal rust diseases are the most devastating foliar fungal diseases of wheat,
barley, and oats in the world. Rust epidemics have caused massive crop losses and
major famines throughout recorded history. A number of rust epidemics have occurred
in North America, including the stem rust epidemics of 1954 and 1955 which resulted in
loss of $350,000,000 to the US wheat crop. Rust pathogens are broadly adapted,
evolve rapidly, and spread quickly via wind over long distances. Since the 1960’s, US
researchers have been relatively successful in reducing losses to rust diseases through
breeding and pathology research and deployment of an array of resistance genes.
Genetic resistance continues to be the most effective and economical means of control.
However, it is difficult to achieve and sustain long-lasting resistance due to the genetic
diversity of the pathogen and its ability to rapidly develop new races and virulence.

A highly virulent new race of stem rust, ‘Pgt-TTKS’ (isolate Ug99), first appeared in
Africa in 1999. This race is now a serious and imminent threat to world wheat and
barley production. With long-distance travel of rust spores by wind and on clothing, it is
only a matter of time before it reaches the US. In the US spring wheat region, nearly all
varieties now being grown are highly susceptible to this new race. Spring wheat is
grown on over 16 million acres, producing over 500 million bushels of grain each year.
The US hard winter wheat region produces 1.2 billion bushels of grain from 30 million
acres each year. Up to half of this acreage is now planted to susceptible varieties. The
remaining half is being protected by only 1 or 2 resistance genes, which could be lost to
a single mutation in the rust pathogen. If Pgt-TTKS were to be introduced and become
established in the US, production losses of over 1 billion bushels per year, worth
approximately $4 billion at the farm gate, are possible.

As with wheat, barley is extremely vulnerable to this new rust threat. All commercial
barley varieties grown in the US are highly susceptible to race Pgt-TTKS. If this virulent


                                           47
race becomes established in the US, it would threaten 4.2 million acres of barley
planted throughout the Great Plains. Potential economic losses could reach over $500
million.

Leaf rust causes serious production losses nearly every year. From 2000 to 2004, US
losses to leaf rust were estimated at over 100,000,000 bushels, worth over $350 million.
The leaf rust pathogen evolves rapidly in response to deployment of new resistant
varieties. Most varieties and genes are defeated within a few short years of release.
Breeders are now exhausting genes and sources of resistance. Of over 50 major
resistance genes identified in wheat; only a handful of genes remain effective.
Researchers must now focus on deployment of more durable, partial resistance genes,
which are inherently more difficult to identify and manipulate.

Barley leaf rust can be a limiting factor for barley production in the south, Mid-Atlantic,
west, and Upper-Midwest regions of the US. Yield losses up to 32% have been
reported. In the Mid-Atlantic region, barley leaf rust was kept in check for over 30 years
by incorporation of the resistance gene Rph7. A pathotype with virulence for Rph7
appeared in the southeast in 1990 and is now well established. All major commercial
barley cultivars grown in the US are now susceptible to leaf rust. This disease will
continue to cause significant losses in barley until new sources of resistance are
identified and incorporated into new varieties.

Until recently, stripe rust was considered a disease of the Pacific Northwest region only.
A major shift in pathogen virulence and adaptation has now placed all of US wheat
production at risk. Since 2001, new races have caused devastating losses in the
southern and central Plains, and eastern wheat region. This race shift caught breeders
and pathologists unprepared. There was little resistance in varieties or the germplasm
base of these regions. In 2004, US losses to stripe rust were estimated at $360 million.
Losses in Kansas alone were estimated at $95 and $139 million in 2001 and 2003.
Resistant varieties have been identified, but their resistance is based on relatively few
genes. US production remains highly vulnerable to this rapidly evolving pathogen.

Barley stripe rust is a serious disease in several regions of the world and causes yield
losses of up to 70%. In April of 1991, the stripe rust pathogen was detected for the first
time in the US. The rust has since spread to all western barley producing states. The
disease can be devastating in the winter barley producing areas of Texas, the
southeast, California, and the Pacific Northwest. Stripe rust also is a serious threat to
spring barley production in the intermountain region of Colorado, Montana, and Idaho.
Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and mapping quantitative
resistance genes and transferring these genes into adapted varieties via marker
assisted breeding. The challenge now is to improve the durability of resistance by
cataloging and pyramiding both quantitative and qualitative resistance genes.

The US Congress appropriated $500,000 in FY06 to help support Federal and State
research on stripe rust. This partial funding was a welcome and important first step in
reducing losses to rust diseases. However, additional funding must be obtained if we
are to address US vulnerability, particularly to the new stem rust threat, and effectively
coordinate rust research activities.


                                            48
For the US oat crop, crown rust is the most damaging of the rust diseases, threatening
over 4 million acres and 100 million bushels of production each year. Production losses
from crown rust across the US in 2005 were at least 2 million bushels. Additional
economic losses could be associated with reduced grain quality. At least 96 resistance
genes have been reported in oat species. However, the average effective life span of
major gene resistance is only three to five years. In 2005, the major resistance gene in
use, Pc68, was totally defeated in Canada. With favorable weather conditions, this new
race could become widespread over the US in 2006. Molecular markers and breeding
resources are needed to identify and manipulate partial resistance genes that can
provide more durable and non-race specific resistance.

Complacency, erosion of public research

When stem rust devastated wheat production in the 1950’s, the US responded with
major investments in rust research and breeding. No significant losses to stem rust
have occurred since 1960 and crop yields have more than doubled. Resistance genes,
such as Sr6, 17, 24, and 31, were widely deployed and have remained effective for
many years.

With this long-term success, however, the wheat community has become complacent.
The appearance of Pgt-TTKS is a critical wake-up call. Our genetic base for stem rust
resistance has been largely unchanged for decades. With Pgt-TTKS, many of these
key resistance genes, including Sr6, 17, and 31, are now no longer effective. In the
case of stripe and leaf rust, the ‘easy’ major gene resistances have either been
defeated, or soon will be.

Development of varieties with more diverse and durable rust resistance is now being
hindered by: 1) lack of critical information on pathogens, pathogen variability, and
genes, or combinations of genes that confer effective resistance in varieties and
germplasm; 2) lack of support to advance and implement molecular marker
technologies as needed to identify and select genes and gene combinations that
provide durable rust resistance in cereal varieties.

In contrast to corn and soybean, cereal research remains largely in the public sector.
Public investments in agricultural research have declined substantially, impacting all
basic and applied cereal research efforts. Throughout the US, applied research efforts,
such as variety breeding and disease screening, have been reduced, discontinued or
redirected. Cereal producers are at greater risk than ever before to the appearance of
these new and exotic rust races.

The Administration has now recognized the need to take action, and the President’s
FY2007 budget proposes $1.9 million in increased funding for Wheat Stem Rust. This
will help, but the funding remains inadequate, as the proposal fails to provide funding for
collaborative research and variety development with key partners and programs at the
Land-Grant Universities.




                                           49
Immediate action needed to prevent production loss of $ billions

An aggressive, coordinated research effort is needed to reduce critical vulnerability of
US wheat, barley, and oat production to rust diseases. Immediate steps must be taken
to identify and introduce new germplasm, genes, and varieties with improved and
sustainable rust resistance. The USDA-Agricultural Research Service must take the
leadership role in this effort. However, scientific resources of the entire small grain
research community must be mobilized. To maximize impact and return on
investments, funding is needed for Federal, State, and International programs where
personnel, expertise, and facilities are already established.

New rust races, such as Pgt-TTKS for stem rust, will impact food supply, food prices,
and stability of many countries. In 2005, Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug agreed to
lead a new Global Rust Initiative to prevent rust disease epidemics and catastrophic
losses in the developing world. The US research community must step forward and join
in this effort, not only for the sake of economic stability of US producers, but for world
food security.

Critical research needs

Rust Pathology and Assessment

      1. Assess vulnerability of cereal varieties and germplasm to current and newly
      identified races of rust diseases throughout the world

      2. Monitor development, evolution, and spread of new rust races

      3. Identify sources of genetic resistance to the rust diseases, characterize race
      specificity of resistances, and develop molecular markers

      4. Investigate function of rust resistance genes in cereals and the function of
      avirulence genes in the pathogen.

      5. Communicate and coordinate information on current and emerging rust threats
      throughout the cereal industry

Germplasm Enhancement, Gene Discovery, Development of Molecular Markers

      1. Identify and develop cereal germplasm with novel sources of disease
      resistance. Utilize genetic resources of the National Small Grains Collection and
      conduct ‘pre-breeding’ and marker development to facilitate their use.

      2. Identify and introgress resistances from wild and related species into modern
      cereal germplasm

      3. Identify and utilize molecular markers to facilitate transfer of major, minor,
      adult plant, and novel genes for rust resistance



                                           50
Regional Variety Development, Evaluation, and Implementation

      1. Establish and coordinate uniform screening nurseries to identify varieties,
      germplasm, and genes with effective seedling and adult plant disease resistance

      2. Utilize molecular markers to introgress and pyramid resistance genes

      3. Develop, release, and deploy varieties with improved, more durable resistance
      to rust diseases

International Exchange, Coordination, Evaluation, and Pathogen Monitoring

      1. Coordinate and support US-based international nurseries and germplasm
      evaluation and exchanges and global database management

      2. Monitor development, evolution, and spread of new rust races and vulnerability
      of US varieties and germplasm

      3. Introduce, evaluate, and distribute elite germplasm from International
      Agricultural Research Centers with enhanced rust resistance


Total of Additional Funding Requested:                            $5,000,000

Rust Pathology and Assessment

      USDA-ARS, Cereal Disease Laboratory, St. Paul, MN
                       Stem rust                        $350,000
                       Leaf rust                        $200,000
                       Crown rust                       $100,000
                       Molecular genetics               $100,000

      Justification: The USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory has provided leadership for US
      pathology research on stem, leaf, and crown rust since 1915. Technical and operating
      support is a critical need for these existing ARS Pathologists to launch new rust research
      efforts. Priority research needs include identification and survey of rust races, evaluate
      rust response of germplasm and varieties, identify and characterize plant resistance
      genes, develop molecular markers for resistance genes and to characterize pathogen
      diversity, and investigate molecular genetics of pathogenicity.

Germplasm Enhancement, Gene Discovery, Development of Molecular Markers

      USDA-ARS Manhattan, KS                                      $220,000
               Raleigh, NC                                        $220,000
               Fargo, ND                                          $220,000
               Pullman, WA                                        $220,000
               Aberdeen, ID                                       $220,000




                                             51
      SAES          Wheat Genetic Resource Center                 $250,000
                    Kansas State University

                    Barley Genomics Project                       $250,000
                    Oregon State University, University of Minnesota,
                    North Dakota State University, Virginia Tech University

      Justification: USDA-ARS cereal genetics research programs are located in each major
      production region and conduct relevant research on biotic and abiotic production
      constraints and germplasm base of each major market class. Complementary basic
      research on genetics and gene discovery also is conducted by programs and Centers of
      Excellence at several State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAES). Technical support
      for both USDA-ARS and collaborative SAES programs is needed to advance gene and
      marker discovery and gene deployment for rust resistance.

Regional Variety Development, Evaluation, and Implementation

      Eastern Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, Raleigh)                            $300,000
             Virginia Tech, University of Georgia, University of Florida, Clemson University,
             North Carolina State University, University of Kentucky, University of Maryland,
             Louisiana State University, University of Arkansas, Ohio State University, Purdue
             University, Michigan State University, University of Missouri

      Plains Winter Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, Lincoln)                      $350,000
             Texas A&M University, Oklahoma State University, Kansas State University,
             University of Nebraska, Colorado State University, South Dakota State University

      Plains Spring Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, St. Paul)                     $250,000
             South Dakota State University, North Dakota State University, University of
             Minnesota, Montana State University

      Western Wheat Region (USDA-ARS, Pullman)                            $250,000
             Washington State University, Oregon State University, University of Idaho, Utah
             State University, University of California-Davis

      Barley Western and Eastern Regions                                  $250,000
             (USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, Raleigh)
             Oregon State University, Washington State University, University of Idaho,
             University of California-Davis, Montana State University, Virginia Tech University

      Plains Spring Barley Region (USDA-ARS, St. Paul)                    $250,000
             University of Minnesota, North Dakota State University, South Dakota State
             University

      Oat, Spring and Winter Regions                                      $250,000
            (USDA-ARS, St. Paul, Raleigh)
             North Carolina State University, University of Florida, Louisiana State University,
             University of Illinois, Purdue University, University of Wisconsin, North Dakota
             State University, University of Minnesota




                                              52
      Justification: Technical support is needed for ARS Regional nursery programs and
      coordinated, collaborative research involving both ARS and SAES researchers.
      Research needs include screening and evaluation of regional nurseries, germplasm
      stocks, varieties, mapping populations, molecular markers, disease monitoring nurseries
      and support of public variety development efforts. Action plans and funding priorities are
      to be established and implemented with input from ARS Regional programs, National
      Wheat, Barley and Oat Improvement Committees, and Regional Wheat Improvement
      Committees. Priorities and collaborative research efforts will evolve as new research,
      germplasm, and information becomes available. Funds are directed to SAES
      researchers each year through Specific Cooperative Agreements.

International Exchange, Coordination, Evaluation, and Pathogen Monitoring

      CIMMYT/ICARDA - International nurseries                             $200,000

      Germplasm introduction, screening, distribution                     $50,000
             Oklahoma State University, Texas A&M, Oregon State University

      Justification: International screening nurseries are critical to determine viability of
      resistance genes and germplasm, characterize pathogen diversity and geographic
      distribution, and provide ‘early warning’ of changes in rust races in ‘hotspots’ of Africa,
      Asia, and South America. Support is needed to facilitate collaborative research and
      germplasm exchange between US researchers and CIMMYT/ICARDA scientists.
      Collaborations with the International Centers provide US researchers with access to test
      sites, germplasm, and scientific information that are otherwise unavailable or difficult to
      arrange. Support is needed to facilitate quarantine increase and distribution of
      germplasm introductions into the US. Priority nurseries include the International Oat
      Nursery, which is coordinated by Florida SAES and focused on South America for
      evaluations of crown and stem rust.

ARS Overhead (10%)                                                        $500,000




                                              53
Scientific Background and Overview of Major Cereal Rust Diseases

STEM RUST
Stem rust of wheat, durum, and barley (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici;
abbreviated Pgt) is possibly the most destructive of cereal diseases. Losses can be
severe over large areas and whole fields completely destroyed. Stem rust infections
are favored by warm days (25-30C) and mild nights with sufficient moisture for dew
formation. Wind can effectively distribute stem rust urediniospores over great
distances. The sexual stage of stem rust occurs on common barberry, which then
serves as the breeding ground for new pathogenic races. Barberry also serves as a
bridge to carry the fungus from one cereal crop to the next. The use of effective genetic
resistance in combination with the eradication of the common barberry has been the
most economic and durable solution to bring this disease under control.

In February 1999, high severities of stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici;
abbreviated Pgt), were observed on previously stem rust resistant wheat lines at the
Kalengyere Research Station, in Kabale, Uganda. The new race, labeled ‘Pgt-TTKS’
(isolate Ug99) was subsequently shown to attack the stem rust resistance genes Sr31
and Sr38, two previously effective genes. The gene Sr31 is found on the 1BL.1RS
translocation from rye, and has been widely deployed in much of the CIMMYT wheat
germplasm throughout the world, as well as in wheats developed in Europe, China, and
to a lesser extent in the United States. Wheat cultivars and germplasm carrying the
Sr31 gene typically also have broad agronomic adaptability, as well as carry resistance
to leaf rust (Lr26), stripe rust (Yr9), and powdery mildew (Pm8). The gene Sr38 was
originally found in the wheat relative Triticum ventricosum, and was bred into cultivated
wheat through ‘VPM1’, a germplasm line developed in France. Wheats that carry Sr38
also carry the leaf rust resistance gene Lr37 and the stripe rust resistance gene Yr17.
Sr38 has not been deployed in cultivars as widely as Sr31, however it can be found in
cultivars in Australia, Western Europe, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
The Sr38/Lr37/Yr17 linkage group is being extensively used in wheat breeding
programs of the eastern US.

This past year USDA-ARS initiated testing of US wheat germplasm in Kenya. Levels of
susceptibility are sufficient to warrant concern and immediate action by researchers with
both USDA-ARS and State Agricultural Experiment Stations. Very few U.S. wheat
cultivars appear to have adequate resistance against race TTKS. Preliminary
evaluations have suggested stem rust resistance genes Sr13, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32,
33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 44, and Tmp were effective. Among these, Sr24, 29, 36, and
Tmp are thought to be present in Great Plains Hard Red Winter Wheat germplasm.
However, Sr24 is the only gene known to be widely deployed. Sr2, the only known
durable adult-plant, slow-rusting gene for stem rust resistance, is effective but may be
rare in the US germplasm pool.

In barley, losses to stem rust were minimal due to the planting of cultivars with the
durable resistance gene Rpg1. However, in 1989, a pathotype (Pgt-QCCJ) with
virulence for Rpg1 became widespread in the northern Great Plains, damaging barley
fields in both the United States and Canada. Race QCCJ remains a threat to barley
production in the region. The stem rust race Pgt-TTKS is a new and added threat to US


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barley because it is also virulent on cultivars carrying Rpg1. Preliminary evidence
suggests that rpg4, a resistance gene derived from line Q21861, may confer partial
resistance to Pgt-TTKS; however, more research is needed to confirm this.

Among the cereal crops, oat may be the most vulnerable to stem rust in terms of lack of
host resistance. Compared with the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp.
tritici), the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae) is highly variable and new
virulence evolves rapidly. In 2005, nine races were identified in the US rust surveys.
The current population of oat stem rust has virulence for all named resistance genes
except for Pg16. To date, oat stem rust has caused only minor damage due to lack of
favorable weather and low levels of inoculum. Nonetheless, given increasing climate
variability and genetic vulnerability, new sources of rust resistance need to be identified
and moved into modern oat varieties.

LEAF RUST
Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common and widespread
disease of wheat in the US and world-wide. Yield losses vary depending on the stage
of crop development when the initial infections occur, but can be from 35 to 70%. Leaf
rust produces urediniospores that are wind dispersed over thousands of kilometers.
Urediniospores are carried into the atmosphere by thermal updrafts and are often
deposited onto the wheat crop by rainstorms. Leaf rust develops in southern states
each year and infection progresses northward through the spring and early summer.

The wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, is highly variable in its virulence to leaf
rust resistance genes in wheat. Although the alternate host of leaf rust, Thalictrum
speciossissum is not present in North America, the population size of P. triticina is
sufficiently large to provide ample opportunity for mutation and selection to occur.
Every year 40-60 races that differ for virulence to leaf rust resistance genes are
identified in the US by the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory.

Long lasting or durable resistance to leaf rust has been difficult to achieve. Although
over 50 Lr genes have been identified and designated, few of these condition effective
resistance to the predominant leaf rust races in the US. There are many examples of
virulent leaf rust races increasing in response to wheat cultivars with specific seedling
resistance genes. At present, many commonly grown wheat cultivars in all the wheat
classes are susceptible to leaf rust. Resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) in the hard
winter wheat region is currently based primarily on major seedling resistance genes.
Several genes may be defeated by some races, but retain some utility in combinations.

Genes that are currently undefeated in the Plains region include Lr19 and Lr52.
Molecular markers are available for many of these genes. Although major genes have
generally not been durable, they may have special utility for controlling fall epidemics of
leaf rust in the southern plains region. Genes that are most effective in the adult plant
stage and condition a non-specific resistance have been the most durable over time.
The most characterized of these genes is Lr34. Cultivars with Lr34 often have a
moderate level of resistance, although high rust severity levels can occur if initial
infections occur early in the crop development stage. Wheat genotypes with
combinations of Lr34, Lr46 and other nonspecific resistance genes may offer the best
chances for developing cultivars with high levels of durable leaf rust resistance.

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Barley leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei, can be an important factor in limiting barley
production in the south, Mid-Atlantic, west, and Upper Midwest regions of the United
States. With the exception of varieties from Virginia, most of the US barley cultivars are
susceptible to leaf rust. Researchers at Virginia Polytechnic Institute have worked to
improve barley resistance to leaf rust since the 1950’s. Resistance genes Rph2 and
Rph6 were initially used in their efforts. Since the late 1960’s, the resistance gene Rph7
from Cebada Capa was bred into nearly every Virginia barley variety. This gene
provided protection from leaf rust for over 20 years, until new virulence was discovered
in the P. hordei population in 1990. Nineteen major leaf rust resistance genes have
been described in barley. None are effective against all of the known virulence types of
P. hordei in the world. Leaf rust will continue to cause significant losses in barley until
more effective sources of resistance are identified and incorporated in adapted
germplasm.

STRIPE RUST
Stripe rust of wheat is caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici; abbreviated Pst, and
stripe rust of barley by P. s. f.sp. hordei; abbreviated Psh. These two pathogens are
somewhat similar to the stem rust pathogen, except that they prefer to attack and cause
damage when temperatures are relatively cool (as opposed to stem rust, which prefers
warmer temperatures). Over the past 50 years, wheat stripe rust was rather limited to
causing severe losses in the northwestern region of the US. (typically northern
California, Oregon, and Washington). Barley stripe rust was first found in the US in
1991 in Texas, and has since migrated to the more conducive climate of the Pacific
Northwest. Beginning in 1999, wheat stripe rust began to occur and cause significant
losses in the south-central portions of the US, in addition to the Pacific Northwest.
Stripe rust epidemics in the eastern US caused significant economic losses in 2005 and
large acreages were treated with fungicides.

Resistance to stripe rust in the hard winter wheat and southeast wheat region is not well
characterized. Most experimental lines in regional nurseries appear to have very little
seedling resistance. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance has been durable
under heavy pressure in the Pacific Northwest. Markers for resistance in the variety
Stephens are now being developed in Pullman, WA. CIMMYT also has also been
successful developing durable stripe rust resistance using 4-6 minor adult-plant genes.
There are three or four additional unnamed slow rusting genes for stripe rust.
Combining HTAP with CIMMYT Lr/Yr resistant lines appears to have great promise for
producing highly resistant lines with good durability.

Barley stripe rust was first reported in South America in 1975 and in the US in 1991. The
disease has subsequently spread throughout all western states and reached the
Canadian prairies in 2005. Locally severe epidemics have led to significant crop losses
and reduced the profitability of barley production due to costs for necessary fungicides.
Considerable progress has been made in characterizing US germplasm for resistance
through use of national and international nurseries. Current cultivars are moderately to
highly susceptible. An intensive effort to characterize, map, and introgress quantitative
disease resistance genes available in the ICARDA/CIMMYT program has led to a catalog
of mapped resistance genes. These alleles have been introgressed into current cultivars
singly, and in multiple combinations. The challenge and opportunity at this point is to

                                           56
expand the catalog of resistance genes, develop gene-specific markers, and efficiently
introgress these resistance genes into U.S. varieties. This effort should maximize the
probability of achieving durable resistance to this devastating disease.

Crown Rust of Oats
Oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata Corda var. avenae) occurs worldwide and can be the
most damaging disease of oats. Resistance to oat crown rust has traditionally been
based on single race-specific genes that confer a hypersensitive disease reaction.
Initially, crown rust resistance genes from hexaploid cultivated oat, Avena sativa were
used. At least 96 Pc genes have been reported in Avena species. Despite the large
number and sources of resistance genes available, the average effective life span of
new crown rust resistant oat cultivars is three to five years. The rapid loss of the
effectiveness of Pc68 in Canada is the most recent example of this phenomenon.
Because of the ability of P. coronata to render any new race-specific single gene
resistance ineffective, there is renewed interest in using race non-specific, partial
resistance in oat improvement programs. However, breeding for partial resistance is
complicated by its more complex inheritance. It is usually only expressed in adult
plants, is not easily measured, its effects can be confounded by the presence of race-
specific genes acting against a portion of the P. coronata population in the field, and
often is found in agronomically unsuitable germplasm. Numerous sources of partial
resistance to oat crown rust have reported, including several accessions developed by
the Cereal Disease Laboratory in conjunction with the University of Minnesota. Three
quantitatively acting resistance loci were identified in the most resistant of these
accessions, MN841801. There is little current information on the genetic basis of partial
resistance to crown rust in other sources. There is also a great need to identify
molecular marker-rust resistance associations useful in applied breeding programs.




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2005 US Wheat Production

 Planted and Harvested Acreage, Average Yield, Total Production, $ Value of Production
                                       Acres          Ave. Grain                          Value of
       State        Acres Planted     Harvested         Yield    Grain Production        production
                    thousand acres   thousand acres     bushel        thousand bushels   thousand $’s
 Alabama                       100               45          50                 2,250           6,750
 Arizona                        85               81         99.5                8,060          33,756
 Arkansas                      220              160          52                 8,320          27,456
 California                    570              369         76.3               28,155          99,005
 Colorado                    2,570            2,219         24.4               54,035         180,894
 Delaware                       52               51          70                 3,570          10,532
 Florida                        18                8          45                   360           1,080
 Georgia                       280              140          52                 7,280          21,476
 Idaho                       1,260            1,200         83.8              100,590         337,876
 Illinois                      630              600          61                36,600         117,120
 Indiana                       360              340          72                24,480          77,112
 Iowa                           20               15          50                   750           2,325
 Kansas                     10,000            9,500          40               380,000       1,254,000
 Kentucky                      390              300          68                20,400          65,280
 Louisiana                     110              100          48                 4,800          15,360
 Maryland                      155              140          66                 9,240          27,720
 Michigan                      600              590          66                38,940         122,661
 Minnesota                   1,820            1,745          41                71,470         257,076
 Mississippi                    70               65          50                 3,250          10,725
 Missouri                      590              540          54                29,160          99,144
 Montana                     5,340            5,235         36.8              192,480         696,537
 Nebraska                    1,850            1,760          39                68,640         223,080
 Nevada                         14                8        100.6                  805           2,638
 New Jersey                     28               23          53                 1,219           3,840
 New Mexico                    450              270          36                 9,720          30,132
 New York                      100               95          54                 5,130          15,647
 North Carolina                560              435          57                24,795          75,625
 North Dakota                9,090            8,835         34.4              303,765       1,074,981
 Ohio                          860              830          71                58,930         188,576
 Oklahoma                    5,700            4,000          32               128,000         428,800
 Oregon                        955              895         59.8               53,560         180,934
 Pennsylvania                  150              145          54                 7,830          26,622
 South Carolina                170              165          52                 8,580          23,166
 South Dakota                3,315            3,193         41.8              133,420         480,861
 Tennessee                     240              150          56                 8,400          28,140
 Texas                       5,500            3,000          32                96,000         316,800
 Utah                          163              148          48                 7,099          25,707
 Virginia                      180              160          63                10,080          29,232
 Washington                  2,280            2,225         62.6              139,300         476,005
 West Virginia                   7                5          60                   300             915
 Wisconsin                     208              182         56.4               10,262          29,376
 Wyoming                       169              152         30.7                4,665          15,395
 Total
                            57,229           50,119              42         2,104,690       7,140,357
 United States



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