16BW16EW.C - Ghandi's India by qye36108

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									                                           GANDHI’S INDIA

Performance Standard (16BW/16EW).C

Read a story or article about Mahatma Gandhi and complete a worksheet with information about Gandhi,
the geography of India/Pakistan and how these led to independence accordingly.
• Knowledge: identify the major events in Gandhi’s life and key items of the geography of the Indian
• Reasoning: summarize the information to show how Gandhi’s life and the physical and cultural
     geography of the area led to India’s independence; and
• Communication: make a chart of information and write a summary that is well-organized, well-
     focused and well-detailed; express all ideas in a way that provides evidence of knowledge and
     reasoning processes.


1.   In order to understand the development of significant political events (16BW) and understand
     Illinois, United States, and world environmental history (16EW), students should experience
     sufficient learning opportunities to develop the following:
       • Describe key events in the life of a significant political figure or group from the past.
       • Tell why knowledge of geography is necessary to understand the history of the people in a place
            or region.
2.   Have students review and discuss the following assessment task and show how the rubric will be used
     to evaluate their work.
3.   Discuss and list on the board the characteristics of physical and cultural geography. Discuss with
     students how understanding physical and cultural geography helps explain history. Discuss with
     students some aspects of Gandhi’s life. Use the information from the web sites for the discussion and
     list a few on the board.
4.   Give students the four column worksheet to make notes and gather information from the story or
5.   Read with the students the article about Gandhi and allow for students to make notes on the worksheet.
6.   Have students use the worksheet to write down information or notes about Gandhi’s early life, the
     lessons he learned in South Africa, his struggles in India, and the physical and cultural geography of
     the Hindu and Muslim partition of India/Pakistan.
7.   Have students write a summary of how the events in Gandhi’s life, influenced by the physical and
     cultural geography of India/Pakistan, helped India become independent.
8.   Evaluate each student’s work using the Social Science Rubric and add the scores to determine the
     performance level:
     •      Knowledge: the identification of major events of Gandhi’s life on the chart is complete and
     •      Reasoning: the summary about Gandhi’s life and the geography of the area showing why India
            became independent is well-reasoned and logical.
     •      Communication: the information on the chart and the summary were well-organized, well-
            detailed and well-focused; the knowledge and reasoning were completely and effectively

Examples of Student Work follow                           Materials/Resources:
                                                          • Board space
                                                          • Story or article on Gandhi
                                                          • Worksheet to list information
Time Requirements:                                        • Paper to write the summary
Five class periods                                        • Internet sites
                                    Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma means “great soul.”                  laws Gandhi returned to India and
                                             started to help the untouchables in the
                                             Hindu society. He called them “children
                                             of god” and said they were blessed
                                             because of their suffering.

                                                 Gandhi’s Leadership and Struggles in
                                                       Gandhi soon became a leader for
                                               independence from Great Britain.
                                               Gandhi hoped that after independence
                                               the Indian people would live like they
                                               had in the past. He thought the villages
                                               would take care of themselves by
                                               growing their food and making the
                                               products they needed.
        Mohandas Gandhi is considered                  He wanted his followers to
to be the father of his country because he     oppose the British through non-violent
helped India become independent from           protests and civil disobedience. He
Great Britain through nonviolent               helped to organize boycotts of British
protests. He wanted the people of India        goods and have people sit down in
to be free and have laws that were fair.       factories or in the middle of streets. He
                                               asked his followers to spend two hours
            Gandhi’s Early Life                every day spinning yarn so they would
        Gandhi was born in 1869. His           not buy cloth made in Great Britain.
parents were Hindu’s and they lived in         Sometimes women would lie on railroad
Western India. As a young man, Gandhi          tracks to stop trains. Gandhi stopped
traveled to London, England to study           wearing clothes from Europe and began
law. When he graduated he returned to          to spin yarn to make clothes. Gandhi
India, but could not find any work. He         and his followers were jailed or beaten,
decided to take a job in the country of        but would never fight.
South Africa where many Indian people
had gone to live. When he was traveling                    Partition of India
through South Africa he was told to get                After World War II ended India’s
off the train to make room for a person        long struggle for independence paid off.
from Europe. He refused and was                Great Britain agreed to grant
beaten. After this Mahatma decided he          independence to the area. It seemed that
would not accept injustice and he would        Gandhi’s non-violent protests achieved
defend his dignity as a man and an             its goal. However, soon after
Indian.                                        independence fighting start between two
        Since Gandhi was a lawyer he           religious groups the Hindus and the
used his knowledge of the law to help          Muslims. Leaders from India and Great
the Indian people living in South Africa.      Britain decided the best solution to the
He wanted to help them change unfair           fighting would be to partition (divide)
the subcontinent. In 1947 two nations                When India was partitioned
appeared on the map. One was India          Gandhi felt it was his greatest
and the other was called Pakistan which     disappointment of his life. Both sides
was made up of two regions called East      even blamed him for the fighting that he
(now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan.         tried to stop. He went on a fast to bring
These two regions were 1,100 miles          attention to the riots in Calcutta and
apart.                                      Delhi. The fast was successful and the
         This caused a great migration of   riots stopped.
people. Twelve million people were                   On January 30, 1948 a young
forced to move. The Hindus were to live     Hindu fanatic killed Gandhi while he
in India and the Muslims were to live in    was on his way to a prayer meeting in
Pakistan. The Hindu’s and Muslims           Delhi. Gandhi inspired people
moved because they were afraid they         throughout the world. In the United
would be tortured or persecuted by the      States he had an influence on Martin
other religion. There was still fighting    Luther King. In India today Gandhi is
which caused the deaths of one million      considered a great hero who led his
people. Many died from hunger, thirst       people to freedom thorough non-
and exhaustion along the way. People        violence.
lost all of their possessions.
                      Cultural and Physical Geography of India

     Cultural and Physical Geography         it collided with the continent of Asia.
        India is a very diverse country.     The tallest mountain range in the world,
India now has just under one billion         the Himalayas, was formed from this
people living in its borders. China is the   collision. They are on the border of
only country with more people than           Nepal and China.
India. There are 16 official languages in
India and 5 different religions. Millions
of poor people live in slums in very large
cities. Mumbai which was once called
Bombay has more than 16 million
people. This is about twice as many
people as there are in New York City.
Calcutta has a population of 12 million
        The land of India is also very
diverse. The land in northern part is the
area of the Himalayan Mountains.
These are the highest mountains in the       The map above shows India after the
world. South of the mountains is a large     partition. Look at the areas that were
river valley formed by the Ganges River.     once called East and West Pakistan.
Millions of people live in this area.        Notice how far apart the two regions are.
Hurricanes (typhoons) sometimes hit the      The Muslim land of Pakistan is
land at the mouth of the river causing       separated by 1,100 miles of India, which
much damage. Most of India lies near         was the area for Hindu’s to live.
the equator. This area has tremendous
rains called Monsoons. The area
depends on the Monsoons to get water
for their crops.

                                             This map above shows the subcontinent
The map above shows India at the end of      Adapted from the following articles:
World War II before it was partitioned.      http://www.mrdowling.com.
India is called a subcontinent because it    http://www.engagedpage.com.
is not big enough to be a continent. It      http://geography.miningco.com
was floating for 200 billion years before
Gandhi’s Early Life   Struggles in India   Partition of India   Geography of India
"Meets" (page 1)
"Meets" (page 2)
"Exceeds" (page 1)
"Exceeds" (page 2)
"Exceeds" (page 3)

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