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					  Presented By:
Deepak Sharma
 Jasmine Singh
 Supervisory
 Control
 And
 Data
 Acquisition

 From the dictionary:
 To “supervise” means to “oversee.” An overseer watches over
  and sets the direction but does not do the detailed work.
 Typically the overseer is charged with seeing “the big
  picture” and with directing the many elements of that
  picture to work in concert for maximum effect.
 • Supervisory Control generally entails:
 • such binary things as OPEN/CLOSE,
    ON/OFF, UP/DOWN etc.
 • Multiple choice options like recipes and
 • Set points for continuously variable
 Control means to “command”, “direct”, and
 Control also means to “regulate”, implying
 a careful and constant vigilance that ensures that the
 regulated process remains within acceptable limits.
Data Acquisition
   In order to make “big picture” decisions, the supervisor
    must be cognizant of salient conditions and facts about
    the process he is controlling.
   The supervisor must have data about the status of key
   The supervisor is tasked with integrating that data into
    information that he uses to issue supervisory commands.
Some Background on SCADA
 SCADA has been around as long as there have
 been supervisors.

 There have been supervisors since Adam and Eve.

 The way that SCADA is done has changed over the years as
  technology has provided new tools.

 SCADA is used in every field of human endeavor.
Common system components

    A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems:
   A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents
    process data to a human operator, and through this, the human
    operator monitors and controls the process.
   A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the
    process and sending commands (control) to the process.
   Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process,
    converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the
    supervisory system.
   Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices
    because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable
    than special-purpose RTUs.
   Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to
    the Remote Terminal Units
Systems concepts

 It refers to centralized systems which monitor and control
  entire sites
 Control actions are performed automatically by Remote
  Terminal Units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic
  controllers ("PLCs").
 The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC,
  while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance
  of the loop.
Data acquisition
 Begins at the RTU or PLC level
 Includes meter readings and equipment status reports
 Data is then compiled and formatted
 Control room operator using the HMI can make
 supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal
 RTU (PLC) controls.
 Data may also be fed to a Historian, often built on a
  commodity Database Management System, to allow
  trending and other analytical auditing.
 SCADA systems typically implement a distributed
  database, commonly referred to as a tag database,
  which contains data elements called tags or points
 A point represents a single input or output value monitored
    or controlled by the system.
   Points can be either "hard" or "soft".
   A hard point represents an actual input or output within
    the system, while a soft point results from logic and math
    operations applied to other points.
   Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a
    value, and the timestamp when it was recorded or
   A series of value-timestamp pairs gives the history of that
Human Machine Interface

 A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus
  which presents process data to a human operator, and
  through which the human operator controls the process.
 An HMI is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases
  and software programs, to provide trending, diagnostic
  data, and management information such as scheduled
  maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed
  schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-
  system troubleshooting guides.
 The HMI system usually presents the information to
  the operating personnel graphically, in the form of a
  mimic diagram.
 The HMI package for the SCADA system typically
  includes a drawing program that the operators or
  system maintenance personnel use to change the way
  these points are represented in the interface.
Alarm handling.
 The system monitors whether certain alarm conditions are
  satisfied, to determine when an alarm event has occurred.
 Once an alarm event has been detected, one or more
  actions are taken (such as the activation of one or more
  alarm indicators, and perhaps the generation of email or
  text messages so that management or remote SCADA
  operators are informed)
 In many cases, a SCADA operator may have to acknowledge
  the alarm event; this may deactivate some alarm indicators,
  whereas other indicators remain active until the alarm
  conditions are cleared.
SCADA Project Managment

Typical Project Management Phases of a Typical SCADA
 Identification.
 Initiation.
 Definition.
 Design.
 Acquisition.
 Project Closeout

 Identify need
 Prepare Preliminary estimate(Costs)
 Obtain approval for funds or resources to proceed to
  the next phase.
 This phase is normally informal, and does not require
  a lot of resources.
Typically SCADA will be required for some of the following
 To reduce power costs.
 To reduce staffing.
 To reduce future capital requirements.
 To improve level of service.
 To avoid environmental incidents.
 To comply with regulators requirements.
 It may not be possible to run the business without SCADA.
 To obtain a competitive edge
 To replace an existing aging system

 Validate project need.
 Establish concepts and scope.
 Establish Summary Work Breakdown Structure.
 Conceptual estimate (-30 to +50%)

 Appoint key team members
 Establish a preferred option (if not already done)
 Develop baseline and schedules for project management
 Assess risks
 Studies (eg. value management, economic)
 Develop contracting strategies Develop implementation
 Definitive estimate -15 to +25%
 Go/No-go decision

 Design Reviews
 Definition Report Reviews
 Funds Justification
 Design Estimate (-10%+10%)

 Specification and working drawing preparation
 Pre-construction estimate(after receipt of tenders) -5%+5%
 Procurement
 Construction
 Off-site fabrication
 Commissioning
 Practical completion
The key players at this stage are
 The supplier's project manager
 The contract superintendent
 The project manager
In this phase the project will go through a number of phases:
 Design (culminating in a design report from the supplier for approval)
 Configuration of SCADA master software
 Development of custom software
 Assembly of RTU's in factory, and testing
 Field installation of instrumentation, communications, and RTU's
 Commissioning
 Site acceptance testing
 Customer training
Project Closeout.

 Project Final report
 Closeout of any outstanding defects and
 Final completion
 Post implementation review (PIR) as required
Smart Oilfield and Platforms
Case Study –
ONGC Enterprise wide SCADA
The Project Envisaged
 Enterprise Wide SCADA for all Production and Drilling Facility of
  ONGC Spread across India and in Arabian Sea.
 The project is envisaged by core design and engineering team of ONGC
  under the initiative of Chairman of ONGC Limited
 Main reason for ONGC to think about such LARGE architecture
    Efficient Real time Monitoring of the Production and Drilling
     Parameters across all the assets in India
    Remote control of the production well in case of Offshore platform
    Facilitate offline analysis of the Valuable/ High Producing Wells
     through third party E&P Applications.
    Provide summarised information to the management for effective
     decision making
    Total Facelift in the day to day operation of ONGC Production and
     Drilling facility to improve the efficiency
The Scope of Supply and Work
 Scope of Supply
    Supply of Three Tier SCADA Architecture as Production SCADA and
     Drilling SCADA spread across 19 Assets in India. The Production SCADA is
     ABB SCADAvantage and Drilling SCADA is NOV solution
    RTU with FF based Instrument for the Production installation to enable
     data acquisition and asset management.
    Supply of 16 Data Centres including the corporate data centre across India
     to enable efficient operation of respective Assets.
    UPS for all the 250 plus tier 1 control room of production and drilling
     SCADA along with FCBC for 85 no of remote RTU with solar chargers.
    SAP, Epinet, VRC- Integrations of Real-time and History Data.
    Disaster Recovery Solution for the corporate data centre.
 Scope of Work
    Erections and Commissioning of above scope and warranty for one year
    AMC of 6 years after warranty
Unique Features of the
SCADA Project
   Single Largest Instrumentation- Automation – IT Solution project finalised
    in India – 95 musd
   Largest three tier network of near real time process data monitoring. The no
    of HMI Station in a single largest Network - 1300 Plus HMI Stations and 600
    Plus Servers
   Largest Project in term of the FF based Instrumentations and automation
    solution – 7500 FF instrument and 850 FFH1 segments
   First Ever project with FF and Hart based RTU and Asset Management.
   Largest project in terms of Field Instrumentation scope of supply
   Largest Oil and Gas producing wells connected to the SCADA system – 18000
   Single largest contract to build 179 Control rooms, 16 Data centres and 75
    Mobile Control rooms
                                                                                    ONGC SCADAvantage System Architecture
                                                                                      Casual Web User
                           Tier 3 Corporate (Delhi)                                                                                                     Tier 3 Disaster Recovery Centre (Mumbai)

                                                                                                                                                                         to Enterprise       SCADA Vision
                                    to Enterprise                                                                                                                         Applications
                SCADA Vision
                                       Common                                                         Internet                                                              DB Svr
                                        DB Svr
                                                                                                                                            Web       Network Mgt                                           Applicaitons
Applicaitons                                              Web      Network Mgt


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tier 3 in Delhi with backup
                                                                                                   Fiber Optic Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            in Mumbai
                                                                                                                                                                             From Drilling
                                          From Drilling                                                                                                                        SCADA
                                                                                                                                       2x HMI, 1x      Corporate Data
  2x HMI, 1x      Corporate Data            SCADA
                                                                                                                                       Help Desk       Users
  Help Desk       Users                                                                                                    Link
                                                                                                                          active if    Worksations
                                                                                                                          DRC in

                                                                                13 x Tier 2 Asset data Center

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           13 x Tier 2 Locations
                                                                                                       to Enterprise
                                                             SCADA Vision
                                                                                                          DB Svr
                                 Laser      Event
                                                                                                                                 Web      Network Mgt

                                                                                        Redundant LAN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           163 x Tier 1 Onshore SCADA
                                                                                                                From Drilling
                                                                                 Training     Training            SCADA
                           Workstation1 Workstation n                            Simulator    Workstations
                           multi-purpose multi-purpose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           8 x Tier 1 Offshore SCADA
                           8 x Tier 1 Offshore (Typical)                                                                                                172 x Tier 1 Onshore (Typical)

                                                                                                                                                                SCADA Vision

                           SCADA Vision

    Laser       Event

                                                                                                                                        Laser       Event
                                                       Web       Applications

                                 Redundant LAN
                                                                                                                                                             Redundant LAN

                ...               TDMA Radio
                                                                                                                                                                         Terminal Server

    Workstation1 Workstation n
                                                                                                                                           ...                       SpreadSpectrum Radio
    Multi-purpose Multi-purpose
                                                                                                                                  Workstation1 Workstation n

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           278 x RTU Locations
                                                                                                                                  Multi-purpose Multi-purpose

    Multi-Well Platforms        Multi-Well Platforms             Existing Equipment                                                   4 CBM Wells
                                                                                                                                                                    ...                  12 High Prod. Wells
     RTU                        RTU
                                                                                                                                                                Remote Low
                                                                                                                                                                Power RTUs
                                                                DCS Links via OPC                                                                               polled via two
                                                                                                                                                                 Tier 1 sites
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