Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in Asian and Pacific Mega Cities Yujiro OGAWA/ email@example.com Executive Director, Asian Disaster Reduction Center Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan Abstract The research will be focused to the following two points in the last fiscal year of EQTAP project phase I 1. Proposed Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning, which draws up urban disaster measures from the city planning side. 2. Grasping the environmental situation for every procedure in order to apply the Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in Asian and Pacific Cities. In Tokyo, Metro Manila, and Shanghai, the research of current environmental situation is planned. This is to grasp the subject on application of the Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in cites of the APEC countries. Key Words: urban Planning, urban disaster prevention 1. Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning At First, it is proposed Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning, which draws up urban disaster measures from the city planning side. Proposed Standard Method consists of these following steps: 1. The Present Condition of the City 2. Disaster risks of the City 3. Present situation of land use a) Identification of Issues in micro zone b) Identification of Issues in whole city 4. Urban Planning Approach for the issues 5. Applicable Urban Planning Projects 6. Prioritization of Implementation of the Projects 7. Placement of Disaster Prevention Urban Plan in Master Plan 8. Adjustment between other urban plans in the City This is a fundamental technique for drawing up the fundamental plan of urban disaster prevention. It is based on the example, which I specifically drew up for two cities in the Kanto district in the beginning of the 1990s. 1.1 The Present Condition of the City The following fundamental information is grasped in " Present Condition of the City" of the 1st step. 1. Past Earthquake History: (Earthquake History Required for Presumption of assumptions Earthquake in the city) 2. Information of Geology, Foundation: (Earth Surface Earthquake Motion, Geology Foundation Information Required for Presumption of Liquefaction) 3. Present situation of the land use 4. Population: (by district level, sex, ages) 5. Building Situation (structure, the year of built, use) 6. Roads, parks, green areas, etc 7. Past History :of disaster (Information for Grasp of Calamity Dangerous Places, Such as Tsunami Flood, Landslide, and Fire) 8. Restriction of the urban planning 9. The distribution of industrial facilities like factories 10. The distribution of the dangerous materials 1.2 Disaster risks of the City The second step, “the Disaster Risk in the city”, is to grasp of the following Risks in the city based on the data obtained from the above-mentioned date of current condition. 1. Ground Acceleration Risk (Probabilistic Estimation of the earthquake or the acceleration distribution of the earth surface according to the earthquake motion of reappearance probability during a fixed period) 2. Tsunami Risk (record of tsunami, the height of waves, time to reach, flooded area) 3. Liquefaction Risk 4. Building Corruption Risk by Ground Acceleration 5. Civil engineer-works structure by Ground Acceleration 6. Fire, fire spread Risk 7. Evacuation Risk of fire, tsunami 8. Infrastructure Situation As for grasping such risks, it is desirable to grasp in the smallest possible classification, i.e., the classification in districts. 1.3 Present situation of land use " Present situation of the land use," which is the third step, is divided into two parts. The first part is to identify the issues in urban disaster policy by each district. It is a desirable scale about ‚Pkm 2 ,which the small classification grasped at the 2nd step was collected about from 10 to several ten. In this section, the next two points will be analyzed. 1. By using maps of the each district, it should gather a distribution of buildings, such as an actual residence, the distribution of public engineering-works institutions such as a road, and a park, the distribution of the public facility which should functioned at the time of the calamity, such as a police, a hospital, an evacuation area, etc, and the road plan currently planned. 2. The risks of having been obtained at Step 2 in each area are shown on a map, and grasp the risks according to item that an area has. 3. From comparison of 1 and 2, it will be extracted the subject on the disaster prevention which should correspond in each area as field-a route or a point, and extract the countermeasures over each subject. The third step of the second phase extracts the subject on disaster prevention for the whole region of the city. This is for taking into consideration the subject on the disaster prevention, which is not appearing within the target city, for example, the existence of the airfield adjoined or shared between the level of an area with the target, an adjoining city region, a large-scale park and a golf course, and a dry riverbed etc. 1.4 Urban Planning Approach for the issues "Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning to solve the issues " which is the 4th step works on the countermeasures over the subject on the disaster prevention as the area exception extracted at Step 3, and the whole city region. Here, since an approach on city planning is taken, it decides upon the countermeasures from the following three viewpoints. A) Land Use Plan B) City Area Maintenance Plan C) Infrastructure Maintenance Plan In a land use plan, countermeasures, such as use and preservation of a green tract of land, planned city area formation, and preservation of farmland, are defined. It will be defined in a city area maintenance plan, which is housing maintenance plans, such as maintenance of a high-density residence and fireproofing wooden residence. The city area redevelopment, which is overcrowded, the over-aged maintenance plan of a business district, etc. such a station square etc will be defined as well. In an infrastructure maintenance plan, the plan of the infrastructure of the park from the side on disaster prevention, such as reservation of the evacuation site and evacuation route and transportation of urgent goods, a road, and others is defined. 1.5 Applicable Urban Planning Projects The extraction and selection of the individual projects based on a city planning-policy, which are explained in the 5th step, it will be extracted the menu of the applicable projects for realizing the land use plan a city area maintenance plan, and an infrastructure maintenance plan defined at Step 4. 1.6 Prioritization of Implementation of the Projects In "examination of the priority of an individual projects and presumption of working expenses" which are the 6th step, realization of city structure strong against a calamity, is shown by the examination of the priority which should be begun the projects in consideration of the urgency of the subject on disaster prevention. Also, realization of city structure strong against a calamity, is shown by the priority seen from enterprise investment which decreases the urgency, those projects investment expense is presumed and expense concerning solution of the subject in disaster prevention nature, i.e., 1.7 Placement of Disaster Prevention Urban Plan in Master Plan In "positioning in a city higher rank plan and examination of adjustment" which are the 7th step, it positions in the plan of the whole city for the "city disaster prevention urban plan" that has examined above. By taking adjustment with a city master plan (master plan), it, therefore, is desirable to position a plan into a higher rank as much as possible. This portion is mostly a political subject. Moreover, it is also simultaneously needed the adjustment with other plans in relating to city planning, i.e., a plan to maintain of a transportation network and a plan in relating to environment, and other plans. 2. Grasp of the environmental situation for applying " Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning " The original purpose of EQTAP is in the place, which forms a disaster prevention plan in the city of the Asia-Pacific area. Therefore, in each country and city, it is the chief aim of this portion to identify which portion of the policy served as obstructs in applying the "Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning ". It is planned to grasp an environmental situation of Metro Manila, which is the city for a case study of an EQTAP master plan, Tokyo and Shanghai in China, which have conducted comparison since the first year. The method of grasp is to hold a hearing to the executive official, who has experience in city planning of each city, or the researcher of a university. The grasp item of a current environmental situation is as follows. 2.1 The Maintenance of Data which grasping present Condition and Acquisition of Situation as a Foundation of Planning, The Existence of data (do data exist? how detailed these data are?) The management method of data (are they a ledger base or electronic information?) The accessibility of data (is whether it can use also except a data Management Department office, and is it a charge?) 2.2 Urban Planning-System for drafting a Plan Is there any city planning system, or is the Town Planning and Zoning Act defined? Land Use Plan Urban Redevelopment Plan Infrastructure Plan 2.3. Applicable system of Urban Planning Projects What thing is the system that regulates land use? What are the projects concerning city area maintenance? Redevelopment of the existing city area, development of a new city area Maintenance of a residence What are the projects concerning infrastructure maintenance? Projects similar to a rezoning projects/land readjustment The projects concerning road maintenance/road construction The projects relating to the maintenance of a park etc/park construction 2.4. Is Taking Urban Disaster prevention Measures into Consideration from a Viewpoint of urban Planning in Administration? Is there community participation in determination of Urban Planning projects? Prioritization of Implementation of the Projects Placement of Disaster Prevention Urban Plan in Master Plan Adjustment between other urban plans in the City 3. Conclusion At the first two years of Phase I, it is researched the legal system of disaster prevention in Tokyo, Metro Manila, and Shanghai. Then, this year, the last year of Phase I, it is proposed applicable Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning. Then, it will be clarified what would be obstructs to apply this Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in cites of the APEC countries.
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