Standard Method of Urban Planning Approach for Urban Disaster by knu24191

VIEWS: 21 PAGES: 6

									 Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in

                            Asian and Pacific Mega Cities

                                 Yujiro OGAWA/ ogawa@adrc.or.jp
                         Executive Director, Asian Disaster Reduction Center
                                 Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan


  Abstract
The research will be focused to the following two points in the last fiscal year of EQTAP project
phase I
1. Proposed Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning, which draws up urban
    disaster measures from the city planning side.
2. Grasping the environmental situation for every procedure in order to apply the Standard
    Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in Asian and Pacific Cities.
In Tokyo, Metro Manila, and Shanghai, the research of current environmental situation is
planned. This is to grasp the subject on application of the Standard Method of Disaster
Prevention Urban Planning in cites of the APEC countries.
Key Words: urban Planning, urban disaster prevention


1. Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning
  At First, it is proposed Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning, which draws
up urban disaster measures from the city planning side. Proposed Standard Method consists of
these following steps:
1. The Present Condition of the City
2. Disaster risks of the City
3. Present situation of land use
    a) Identification of Issues in micro zone
    b) Identification of Issues in whole city
4. Urban Planning Approach for the issues
5. Applicable Urban Planning Projects
6. Prioritization of Implementation of the Projects
7. Placement of Disaster Prevention Urban Plan in Master Plan
8. Adjustment between other urban plans in the City
  This is a fundamental technique for drawing up the fundamental plan of urban disaster
prevention. It is based on the example, which I specifically drew up for two cities in the Kanto
district in the beginning of the 1990s.


1.1 The Present Condition of the City
The following fundamental information is grasped in " Present Condition of the City" of the 1st
step.
1. Past Earthquake History: (Earthquake History Required for Presumption of assumptions
    Earthquake in the city)
2. Information of Geology, Foundation: (Earth Surface Earthquake Motion, Geology
    Foundation Information Required for Presumption of Liquefaction)
3. Present situation of the land use
4. Population: (by district level, sex, ages)
5. Building Situation (structure, the year of built, use)
6. Roads, parks, green areas, etc
7. Past History :of disaster (Information for Grasp of Calamity Dangerous Places, Such as
    Tsunami Flood, Landslide, and Fire)
8. Restriction of the urban planning
9. The distribution of industrial facilities like factories
10. The distribution of the dangerous materials


1.2 Disaster risks of the City
The second step, “the Disaster Risk in the city”, is to grasp of the following Risks in the city
based on the data obtained from the above-mentioned date of current condition.
1. Ground Acceleration Risk (Probabilistic Estimation of the earthquake or the acceleration
    distribution of the earth surface according to the earthquake motion of reappearance
    probability during a fixed period)
2. Tsunami Risk (record of tsunami, the height of waves, time to reach, flooded area)
3. Liquefaction Risk
4. Building Corruption Risk by Ground Acceleration
5. Civil engineer-works structure by Ground Acceleration
6. Fire, fire spread Risk
7. Evacuation Risk of fire, tsunami
8. Infrastructure Situation
  As for grasping such risks, it is desirable to grasp in the smallest possible classification, i.e.,
the classification in districts.
1.3 Present situation of land use
" Present situation of the land use," which is the third step, is divided into two parts. The first
part is to identify the issues in urban disaster policy by each district. It is a desirable scale about
‚Pkm 2 ,which the small classification grasped at the 2nd step was collected about from 10 to
several ten.
  In this section, the next two points will be analyzed.
1. By using maps of the each district, it should gather a distribution of buildings, such as an
    actual residence, the distribution of public engineering-works institutions such as a road,
    and a park, the distribution of the public facility which should functioned at the time of the
    calamity, such as a police, a hospital, an evacuation area, etc, and the road plan currently
    planned.
2. The risks of having been obtained at Step 2 in each area are shown on a map, and grasp the
    risks according to item that an area has.
3. From comparison of 1 and 2, it will be extracted the subject on the disaster prevention
    which should correspond in each area as field-a route or a point, and extract the
    countermeasures over each subject.
The third step of the second phase extracts the subject on disaster prevention for the whole
region of the city. This is for taking into consideration the subject on the disaster prevention,
which is not appearing within the target city, for example, the existence of the airfield adjoined
or shared between the level of an area with the target, an adjoining city region, a large-scale
park and a golf course, and a dry riverbed etc.


1.4 Urban Planning Approach for the issues
"Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning to solve the issues " which is the 4th
step works on the countermeasures over the subject on the disaster prevention as the area
exception extracted at Step 3, and the whole city region.
Here, since an approach on city planning is taken, it decides upon the countermeasures from the
following three viewpoints.
A) Land Use Plan
B) City Area Maintenance Plan
C) Infrastructure Maintenance Plan
  In a land use plan, countermeasures, such as use and preservation of a green tract of land,
planned city area formation, and preservation of farmland, are defined. It will be defined in a
city area maintenance plan, which is housing maintenance plans, such as maintenance of a
high-density residence and fireproofing wooden residence. The city area redevelopment, which
is overcrowded, the over-aged maintenance plan of a business district, etc. such a station square
etc will be defined as well.
  In an infrastructure maintenance plan, the plan of the infrastructure of the park from the side
on disaster prevention, such as reservation of the evacuation site and evacuation route and
transportation of urgent goods, a road, and others is defined.


1.5 Applicable Urban Planning Projects
The extraction and selection of the individual projects based on a city planning-policy, which
are explained in the 5th step, it will be extracted the menu of the applicable projects for realizing
the land use plan a city area maintenance plan, and an infrastructure maintenance plan defined at
Step 4.


1.6 Prioritization of Implementation of the Projects
In "examination of the priority of an individual projects and presumption of working expenses"
which are the 6th step, realization of city structure strong against a calamity, is shown by the
examination of the priority which should be begun the projects in consideration of the urgency
of the subject on disaster prevention.
Also, realization of city structure strong against a calamity, is shown by the priority seen from
enterprise investment which decreases the urgency, those projects investment expense is
presumed and expense concerning solution of the subject in disaster prevention nature, i.e.,


1.7 Placement of Disaster Prevention Urban Plan in Master Plan
In "positioning in a city higher rank plan and examination of adjustment" which are the 7th step,
it positions in the plan of the whole city for the "city disaster prevention urban plan" that has
examined above. By taking adjustment with a city master plan (master plan), it, therefore, is
desirable to position a plan into a higher rank as much as possible. This portion is mostly a
political subject.
  Moreover, it is also simultaneously needed the adjustment with other plans in
relating to city planning, i.e., a plan to maintain of a transportation network and a plan
in relating to environment, and other plans.


2. Grasp of the environmental situation for applying " Standard Method of Disaster
Prevention Urban Planning         "
The original purpose of EQTAP is in the place, which forms a disaster prevention plan in the
city of the Asia-Pacific area. Therefore, in each country and city, it is the chief aim of this
portion to identify which portion of the policy served as obstructs in applying the "Standard
Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning ".
It is planned to grasp an environmental situation of Metro Manila, which is the city for a case
study of an EQTAP master plan, Tokyo and Shanghai in China, which have conducted
comparison since the first year. The method of grasp is to hold a hearing to the executive official,
who has experience in city planning of each city, or the researcher of a university.
The grasp item of a current environmental situation is as follows.


2.1 The Maintenance of Data which grasping present Condition and Acquisition of Situation as
    a Foundation of Planning,
        The Existence of data (do data exist? how detailed these data are?)
        The management method of data (are they a ledger base or electronic information?)
        The accessibility of data (is whether it can use also except a data Management
          Department office, and is it a charge?)
2.2 Urban Planning-System for drafting a Plan
        Is there any city planning system, or is the Town Planning and Zoning Act defined?
        Land Use Plan
        Urban Redevelopment Plan
        Infrastructure Plan
2.3. Applicable system of Urban Planning Projects
        What thing is the system that regulates land use?
        What are the projects concerning city area maintenance?
        Redevelopment of the existing city area, development of a new city area
        Maintenance of a residence
        What are the projects concerning infrastructure maintenance?
        Projects similar to a rezoning projects/land readjustment
        The projects concerning road maintenance/road construction
        The projects relating to the maintenance of a park etc/park construction
2.4. Is Taking Urban Disaster prevention Measures into Consideration from a Viewpoint of
  urban Planning in Administration?
        Is there community participation in determination of Urban Planning projects?
        Prioritization of Implementation of the Projects
        Placement of Disaster Prevention Urban Plan in Master Plan
        Adjustment between other urban plans in the City


3. Conclusion
At the first two years of Phase I, it is researched the legal system of disaster prevention in Tokyo,
Metro Manila, and Shanghai. Then, this year, the last year of Phase I, it is proposed applicable
Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning. Then, it will be clarified what would
be obstructs to apply this Standard Method of Disaster Prevention Urban Planning in cites of the
APEC countries.

								
To top