Conducting an Environmental Scan

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					                         Conducting an Environmental Scan


Collecting Data
The first step to conducting an Environmental Scan is to collect external and internal data
relevant to the workforce. An agency needs to thoroughly understand the external and internal
factors, and trends, that may affect its current workforce in order to successfully plan for the
future.

An Environmental Scan/SWOT Analysis can be completed by the human resources staff or by a
team with membership representing a cross section of the agency.

Using a team with a varied membership to collect the external and internal data shares the
workload, encourages participation throughout the agency, and promotes a diversity of
perspectives.

A team approach to completing an Environmental Scan includes these steps:

   1. Each team member researches one or more of the external or internal factors.
   2. Each team member prepares a list of relevant factual data for the individual external or
      internal factor they are researching. While some of the information collected may be
      based on perceptions, it is important that the information have its basis in sound data or
      reasoning so that future planning decisions can be made confidently. For example, it
      could skew a workforce plan to assume that workers won’t retire until at least age 62
      because that is the age when the workers may qualify for Social Security benefits.
      Employees may consider factors other than age in determining when they will retire,
      including availability of reasonably priced health insurance, financial situation, family
      considerations, or job satisfaction. It is important to be aware of these motivations so
      that they can be addressed in the workforce plan.
   3. Members share their completed lists of external and internal factors with the entire team
      – each team member should have a complete list of all of the factors.

External Factors – Some of the types of external workforce data that you should collect
include:

    Colleges’ and educational institutions’ enrollments and specialties.
    Changing composition of the workforce and shifting work patterns including
     demographics, diversity and outsourcing.
    Government influences – policies, laws and regulations affecting the work and workforce.
    Economic conditions that affect available and qualified labor pools, i.e., unemployment
     rates and housing prices.
    Geographic and competitive conditions, i.e. turnover data, secondary and post-secondary
     school enrollments, enrollments in curricula needed to support organizational change.




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        The External Sources of Information Checklist is a template for collecting external data needed
        for conducting a comprehensive Environmental Scan. It lists potential sources of information,
        including online resources. Internet resources and search engines can be the most
        comprehensive and easy to use.


                              Checklist: External Sources of Information

General Area        Types of Information               Sources of Information                   Web Address              X

                   University, college,                                                 www.ed.gov/searchResults.
                    technical college, and         US Department of Education,
                                                                                         jhtml
                    other educational              National Center for Education
                    institutions’ student          Statistics (NCES)
                                                                                         www.ed.gov/index.jhtml
                    enrollments
                   High school student            State and local Departments of
Educational         enrollments                    Education or Public Instruction
                   Ethnicity of students
                                                   College and other educational
                   Enrollments in curricula                                             http://registrar.wisc.edu/stu
                                                   institutions’ admission/registrar
                    needed to support to                                                 dents/acadrecords/enrollme
                                                   offices (for example, University of
                    support mission of                                                   nt_reports/
                                                   Wisconsin data)
                    organization
                                                   US Department of Labor, Bureau        www.bls.gov
                                                   of Labor Statistics (BLS) provides
                   Civilian workforce age,        information on labor market           www.dol.gov/do/topic/statist
                    gender, and ethnicity          forecasts                             ics/demographics.htm
                   Changes in occupations
                    and ethnicity in the           US Department of Commerce,
                                                                                         www.bea.gov
                    civilian workforce             Bureau of Economic Analysis
                   Civilian workforce             State and local Departments of
Demo-               education levels
graphic                                            Labor, Commerce or Business
                   Current trends in staffing     Development, or Workforce
                    patterns (such as part-        Development
                    time employment or job
                    sharing)                       State and local Departments of
                   Availability of part-time or   Personnel or Human Resources
                                                                                         www.shrm.org
                    volunteer workforce            or professional organizations
                                                                                         www.ipma-hr.org
                                                   such as Society for Human
                                                   Resource Management

                                                   State and local employment
                                                   statutes and regulations
                   Employment laws
                   Trends in lawsuits and         Internet and political trend          http://www.cookpolitical.co
Political/          court actions                  watchers                              m/
Govern-
                   Changes in rules and
mental                                             National and local newspapers,
                    regulations                                                          http://www.time.com/time/
                                                   news magazines (For example,
                   Certification requirements                                           http://online.wsj.com/public/
                                                   Time Magazine or The Wall
                                                                                         us
                                                   Street Journal)
General Area       Types of Information           Sources of Information               Web Address             X


                   Unemployment rates,                                         www.dol.gov/dol/topic/statis
                    general and specific      US Department of Labor
                                                                                tics/occupations.htm
                    geographical areas
                   Available and qualified
                                              University of Connecticut,
                    labor pools                                                 http://ideas.repec.org/
                                              Department of Economics
                   Competition for human
                    services providers
Economic/
                   Emerging occupations      National Association of State
Social/                                                                         www.naspe.net
                    and competencies          Personnel Executives
Cultural
                   Prevalence of
                    outsourcing or
                                              Federal Deposit Insurance         www.fdic.gov/bank/analytic
                    privatization
                                              Corporation                       al/survey/index.html
                   Availability of
                    affordable housing,
                    transportation, and       National and local newspapers,
                    health care               news magazines

                                                                                www.dol.gov/dol/topic/statis
                                              US Department of Labor
                                                                                tics/geography.htm
                   Migration patterns
Geographic         Desirability of key       National Center for Health        www.cdc.gov/nchs/product
                    geographic areas          Statistics                        s/pubs/pubd/hus/state.htm
                                                                                www.indeed.com/jobtrends.
                                                                                jsp

                                              News reports and magazines

                   Emerging trends in        Internet searches on technology
                    automation and new        trends
Techno-             technology
logical                                                                         www.trendhunter.com
                   Type of skills needed     Technology watch groups
                    for new technology                                          www.gartner.com

                                              US Department of Health and
                                                                                www.cms.hhs.gov
                                              Social Services
                 Guidelines: Looking for Workforce Data on the Internet
The amount of information available on the Internet can be overwhelming. Most web sites
provide links to more specific information, or contain an internal search tool. One of the best
sources of information for an environmental scan on the workforce is the Bureau of Labor
Statistics (BLS). The BLS web site (www.bls.gov) contains many links in areas including:

    Wages, Earnings and Benefits
    Occupations
    Employment and Unemployment
    Industries
    Demographics

It may take several steps to get to the information you are looking for. For example, to find the
number of employees working in the social services profession in Connecticut and their average
hourly wage, you would follow these links:

Step and Web Address                           Web Page Title

1. www.bls.gov                                 Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Home Page

2. www.bls.gov/oes/home.htm                    Occupational Employment Statistics Page

                                               21-0000 Community and Social Services Occupations
3. www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes210000.htm
                                               (Major Group) Page
                                               21-1021 Child, Family, and School Social Workers
4. www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211021.htm
                                               Page

5. www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes211021.htm#st    State Profile (Connecticut) for this Occupation Page


On the final web page you will see that there are 4,660 employees in the Child, Family and
School Social Workers occupation in Connecticut earning an average hourly wage of $25.27. If
you are interested in further refining your search to specific metropolitan area such as New
Haven, Connecticut, you can follow the links to www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_75700.htm.

Tips for using the Internet to do environmental scan research include:

    In addition to search engines within web sites, use Internet search engines such as
     Google, Yahoo, or Lycos to find information by entering a question.
    The more specific you can get in your search, the more relevant the results will be to your
     situation.
    There may be occasions where it will be difficult to find the specific job or academic
     information you are looking for; in those cases you may need to use broader information,
     combine information, or use of a similar job title or academic degree. This is acceptable
     to get a broad perspective of the topic as long as the information is not misrepresented.
Internal Factors – Internal data that agencies should look at to conduct a SWOT Analysis
include:

    Identify the current workforce skills, looking at education, language skills and
     competencies for successful performance.
    Identify retirement eligibility projections and patterns for key positions in the agency,
     specifically to determine where the agency is the most vulnerable to a wave of
     retirements and a loss of knowledge and the need for succession planning. It can be
     difficult to forecast retirements; the Gap-Closing Strategies Tool Kit can assist you with
     this process.
    Determine the demographic profiles of current employees – age, race, sex, etc. – to
     determine the diversity of the workforce and areas for improvement.
    Determine the current state of the agency’s union relations – is there a partnership
     relationship? If not, what will it take to develop a relationship that will support
     organizational change?
    Assess the organizational climate. Is your staff feeling supported and nurtured, or are
     they feeling overwhelmed and burnt out, or somewhere in between? This assessment will
     help the agency understand where they need to begin in implementing change. You can
     conduct this assessment by developing and distributing an employee satisfaction survey
     and tabulating the results. The Likert Organizational Climate Assessment Survey is an
     example that would yield similar valuable information about what the employees are
     feeling.
    Track turnover data to determine the amount of turnover in the agency, the types of
     turnover and reasons staff are leaving the agency to determine the impact turnover is
     having on the agencies ability to provide service. Exit interviews and surveys are a good
     source of information on why staff may be leaving your agency. Exit interviews are
     typically conducted by human resources (HR) professionals or some other third party
     rather than by the departing employee’s supervisor. The departing employee is usually
     more willing to share their thoughts with an objective third party, resulting in a more
     objective evaluation of the organization. Fore more information on how to develop exit
     interviews and surveys, see the Turnover Tool Kit.
    Understand the budget and the impact organizational change will have on salaries and
     benefits.
    Know the political environment. What might you expect in terms of possible changes in
     leadership: Governor, Commissioners, and Agency Director?

The Internal Sources of Information Checklist is a template for collecting internal data needed
for conducting a comprehensive Environmental Scan and SWOT Analysis.

You can usually find the information or data needed for an internal Environmental Scan on your
organization’s internet or intranet site, the human resources or budget and financial
management staff, or from business and strategic planning documents. The goal is to collect as
much relevant information as possible. If your agency doesn’t tabulate or collect information like
turnover data or exit interviews, it makes sense to start this process now so that it is available
for future Environmental Scans and SWOT Analyses.




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                               Checklist: Internal Sources of Information

  General
                           Types of Information                            Sources of Information              X
   Area

                Knowledge, skills, and abilities of current
Employee         employees (often referred to as                     Human Resources staff
Skills and       competencies, with core competencies being          Training Officer
Compe-           those necessary to do the job)                      Internal training records or training
tencies         Courses and training programs offered and            management system
                 attended by employees                               Employee surveys
                Language skills of employees

                Number and location of full-time employees          Human Resources staff
                Number and location of part-time employees          Payroll records
Employee        Demographic profiles of current employees:          Affirmative Action reports
Demo-            Age; Race (to determine the diversity of the        Workload reports
                 workforce); Gender (to determine the diversity
graphics                                                             Organizational studies
                 of the workforce); Length of service;
                 Retirement eligibility (projections by work         Organizational charts
                 units and job classifications)                      Staffing plans
                                                                     Current labor contracts
                Current labor agreement provisions and
                                                                     Labor/management meeting minutes
Labor            expiration dates
                                                                     Labor representatives and labor
Relations       Organization’s relationship with unions
                                                                      relations staff
                 (collaborative or adversarial)
                                                                     Human Resources staff
                                                                     Strategic plan
                                                                     Exit interviews
                                                                     Focus groups and worker surveys
                Organizational climate (is the staff feeling        Human Resources staff
Organiza-        supported or overwhelmed)
tional                                                               Employee Assistance Program
                Experience with change projects                      administrator
                                                                     Change project reports
                                                                     Employee surveys, such as a Likert
                                                                      Organizational Climate survey
                The amount of turnover in the agency
                                                                     Human Resources staff
Turnover        The types of turnover and reasons for leaving
                                                                     Exit interviews
                 the organization
                                                                     Strategic and Business Plan
                                                                     Organizational Performance
                Budget available for new positions, salary           Management Plan(s)
                 increases and additional fringe benefits
                                                                     Financial Report(s)
Budget          Budget available for training employees
                                                                     Budget Reports
                Budget available for technology tools and
                 organizational change                               Current and projected biennial budget
                                                                     Current and projected annual operating
                                                                      budget

                                                                     Newspaper reports
                Political environment, possible changes in
Political        leadership                                          Long-time employees who have
                                                                      experienced change
A partial list of Internal Scan factors for employee demographics would include:

    The average age of all employees is 48
    The average age of all managers and supervisors is 54
    77% of all employees are female
    12% of all employees self-identified themselves as a racial/ethnic minority
    68% of all employees have Bachelor’s Degree
    32% of all employees have a Master’s Degree or are PhD’s

The list for other external and internal factors would look very similar. Once you’ve collected all
of the Environmental Scan information, the next step is to involve others in reviewing this
information and participating in the SWOT Analysis process.




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