Climate Changes Affect Even the Smallest Fish by byh20111


									     Challenges                                          in science and                                            engineering
Summer 2000                 A publication of the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center                                                                   vol. 8 no. 1

                                Climate Changes Affect Even the Smallest Fish
           Albert Hermann       Researchers at the Alaska Fisheries Sciences Cen-
 Joint Institute for Study of   ter and the Pacific Marine Environmental Labora-
  Atmosphere and Oceans/        tory in Seattle, Washington are modeling ocean
              Pacific Marine    circulation and the biology of pollock and salmon
              Environmental     to learn more about how climate change will affect
                  Laboratory    two species of fish that many humans depend on
                                for food.
            Sarah Hinckley           Climate change affects many aspects of life on
            Alaska Fisheries    Earth. Biological processes are tightly linked to
             Science Center     an intricate ecosystem, allowing changes in cli-
           Dale Haidvogel       mate to affect even the smallest fish in the ocean.
         Rutgers University          “Many things affect fish and fish stocks,” says
                                Al Hermann of the Pacific Marine Environmen-           Models produced from Hermann and Hinckley’s data show the locations
                 Peter Rand     tal Laboratory. “Climate change and fishing are        of fish larvae on February 20 (above) and May 10 (below), five days
            North Carolina                                                             and 85 days after release, respectively. The paths of larvae released at 10
                                just two of these. We’re looking at how the chang-     meters are shown in green, while the paths of the larvae released at 40
            State University    ing climate affects commercially important fish.”      meters are shown in purple. Bathymetry is rendered as a grey surface. The
            Phyllis Stabeno          Hermann and his fellow researchers are us-        viewpoint looks to the north toward Prince William Sound.

             Pacific Marine     ing several types of models in order to limit the
             Environmental      number of unknowns in their research. These
                Laboratory      models include information on ocean circula-
                                tion, temperature, salinity, predators, prey and
                                the fish themselves. Specifically, the researchers
                                are using individual-based models (IBMs) to look
                                at fish on a more detailed level, rather than as a
                                group. Previous fish models have used an
                                Eulerian approach to modeling, which only gave
                                information about fish in a broad perspective.
                                Such models are sometimes inefficient when
                                studying why fish are reacting to certain events
                                in the environment.
                                     “There is a popular saying in the fisheries-
                                oceanography community that ‘the average fish is       In This Issue
                                dead,’” says Hermann. “Only the rare, lucky fish
                                survives. With an individual-based approach, you       Climate Change ....................................... 1
                                can say more about what made that particular fish      Ocean Circulation ................................... 2
                                successful. Concentrations of the average individual
                                                                                       Viewpoints ............................................... 3
                                are not as informative.”
                                     Hermann’s project is part of the Global Ocean     ARSC Bits and Bytes ............................... 3
                                Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program, orga-
                                                                                       Global Warming ...................................... 4
                                nized by oceanographers and fisheries scientists to
                                address the question of how global climate change      ARSC Currents ........................................ 6
                                may affect abundance and production of animals         Staff Highlights ........................................ 7
                                in the sea.
                                     Hermann works in conjunction with biologist       Who We Are ............................................ 7
                                Sarah Hinckley of the Alaska Fisheries Sciences        Visualization Gallery ................................ 8
                                             see Climate Changes on page 2
                                  Ocean                                                                                                                           T’ (°C)
                                                                                                                                                   -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3
                                                                                                                     v ’ = 0.3 m/s
                                  Circulation                                                                0
Dr. Eric Skyllingstad             Eric Skyllingstad and Hemantha                    -10
        Oregon State              Wijesekera of Oregon State University are
           University             working to improve understanding of

                                  small-scale mixing processes in the coastal       -30
      Dr. Hemantha                ocean environment. They hope their                -40
          Wijesekera              project will increase the accuracy of coastal
       Oregon State                                                                 -50
                                  mesoscale prediction models by adding
          University              physically-based approximations to one-
                                                                                        0                   50                        100
                                  dimensional mixing parameterizations.                                                      y(m)
                                       In any modeling process, the par-
                                  ticular elements of the process must be Temperature and velocity structure derrived from the large eddy simulation models run by Skyllingstad
                                                                                and Wijesekera.
                                  developed to improve the reliability and
                                  success of larger models. These re-
                                  searchers are working to do just that—and in the process           driven turbulence. Depending on wind direction, currents
                                  aid the Department of Defense in creating better oceanic           generated by wind forcing can cause deformation at the
                                  research models.                                                   mixed-layer base and ocean bottom, which in turn causes
                                       Accurate measurement of turbulent mixing of                   increased vertical mixing. The researchers will use large-eddy
                                  oceanic waters is essential for understanding the basic            simulation models to predict the movement of the ocean cur-
                                  dynamics of coastal circulation. Recent oceanic obser-             rents in these two boundary regions. The data they produce
                                  vations on the Oregon coast, along with modeling                   will be tested against field data collected during the summer
                                  results, suggest a strong link between mesoscale coastal           of 1999 along the Oregon shelf.
                                  circulation and turbulent mixing rates. Skyllingstad and                Because the mixing processes Skyllingstad and Wijesekera
                                  Wijesekera hope to determine the structure and                     study are much smaller than the resolution of typical coastal
                                  statistics of turbulence for a domain representing the             ocean models, their research will be useful in producing more
                                  inner- and mid-shelf region off the coast of Oregon.               accurate larger-scale models. For more information on this
                                       Cold, up-welled water is warmed by solar energy as it         project, contact Eric Skyllingstad at
                                  rises, and by heat mixed vertically through wind- and wave-

                                                                                                                              Climate Changes... cont.
                                                                                                                              Center, also in Seattle. Hinckley concentrates on the
 Spring 2000                                                                                    Vol. 8 No. 1                  biological aspects of the fish and their prey in the models.
                                                                                                                                   “The IBM is coupled with physical and nutrient/phy-
     Challenges is a publication of the                                     Contact us at:                                    toplankton/zooplankton models,” says Hinckley. “This
     Arctic Region Supercomputing Center                                    voice: (907) 474-6935                             allows us to produce prey in the model that are both
     University of Alaska Fairbanks                                         fax: (907) 474-5494                               temporally and spatially distributed—so not everyone’s
     910 Yukon Drive, Suite 106                                             Visit our web site at:                            getting the same amount of food.”
     P.O. Box 756020                                                                                  Such coupled models with fine spatial resolution
     Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-6020
                                                                                                                              allow the researchers to ensure the models are more true
     Frank Williams .................................................................. Director                               to life. This calls for a greater number of grid points and
                                                                                                                              smaller time-steps, which requires both the processing
      Barbara Horner-Miller ..................................... Associate Director/                                         power of supercomputers and the storage capacity of the
                                                             User Services Director                                           StorageTek Silo.
     Jenn Wagaman .............................................. Publications Specialist                                           Hermann and Hinckley’s projects are part of the
                                                                                                                              GLOBEC program, and NOAA’s Fisheries and Ocean-
     L.J. Evans ............................................... Public Affairs Coordinator                                    ography Coordinated Investigations (FOCI) Programs.
                                                                                                                              Their work will help fisheries managers make better
                                                                                                                              informed decisions about fishing management and pre-
                                                                                                                              diction. For more information on this project, go to http:/
                   The University of Alaska is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer and
                                              educational institution. 5/00

Welcome to ARSC’s spring edition of Challenges. You        will meet user consultants Tom Baring, Derek Bastille
will notice a significant change in the appearance of      and Shawn Houston, and learn more about how we
this issue. This update in format allows us to give ad-    work to meet our users’ needs.
ditional credit to the scientists and organizations who        The universities’ Board of Regents just approved a
use our resources as well as present more in-depth ar-     new mission statement for the University of Alaska
ticles about the research underway at ARSC. These          Fairbanks. It reads: The University of Alaska Fairbanks,
changes are just part of ARSC’s commitment to help         as the nation’s northernmost Land, Sea, and Space Grant
our users achieve success with their computational and     university and international research center, advances and
visualization tasks.                                       disseminates knowledge through creative teaching,
     More significantly, we provide our users with ex-     research, and public service with an emphasis on Alaska,
perts who can assist them in moving                                          the North and its diverse peoples. This
toward their goals. Just two examples       Our unique position at dovetails well with our mission here
of this appear in this issue of Chal- UAF allows us to at ARSC: to support high performance
lenges—Roger Dargaville’s CO2 mod-                                           computational research in science and
eling and the animation created by Bob      encourage       northern engineering with an emphasis on the
Andres displaying global consumption research, while supporting Arctic and the high latitudes.
of fossil fuels since 1750. ARSC re-                                             We are proud to be part of the
search liaison Guy Robinson worked
                                            important Department of University of Alaska as well as the
with Dargaville to identify the best Defense projects.                       Department of Defense High Perfor-
platform for his code. Visualization                                         mance Computing Modernization
specialist Roger Edberg helped Andres develop              Program. Our unique position at UAF allows us to
effective graphical representations for a complex data     encourage northern research while supporting
set. The resulting visualization is displayed in the visu- important Department of Defense projects.
alization gallery on page 8—a new feature in Challenges.
On page 7 of this issue, you will find Staff Highlights,
a new column to introduce our diverse staff. Here, you

                                                                               Frank Williams

ARSC bits and bytes
❖ ARSC hosted two visualization access lab open houses       searchers. Seminars included Managing Tape Based Ar-
  this spring as part of the UAF Engineering                 chives, by Gene Harano of the National Center for At-
  Department’s Engineering Week, and the UAF Col-            mospheric Research; Computational Science and Technol-
  lege of Science, Engineering and Mathematics’ Science      ogy Research at the California Institute of Technology by
  Potpourri. ARSC staff met with over 500 UAF stu-           Jim Pool of the California Institute of Technology; The
  dents, faculty and community families.                     State of HPF, OpenMP and MPI, by Professor Barbara
                                                             Chapman of the University of Houston; and Effective
❖ ARSC welcomed four new student lab assistants in
                                                             Parallel Programming in Advanced ZPL, by Professor Larry
  March and April. Georgina Blamey—ocean sciences;
                                                             Snyder of the University of Washington. This panel was
  Eric Guglielmo—chemistry and pre-med; Joseph
                                                             chaired by ARSC fellow Bill Buzbee.
  Sheedy—physics; and Nathan Zierfuss—computer sci-
  ence. They will be on hand in the visualization access
  labs to help users with hardware and software issues.
❖ Ben Barton and Steve Munk joined the ARSC staff as
  systems analysts, to provide support of desktop office
  systems, and visualization systems, hardware and tools.
  Barton was the first computer art graduate at UAF,
  and Munk is currently pursuing a business degree with
  a minor in computer science.
❖ ARSC convened a technology panel at the center in
  December to present topics and discuss high- perfor-       ARSC Technology Panel members (from left) Larry Snyder, Barbara
  mance computing with staff and interested UAF re-          Chapman, Jim Pool, Barbara Horner-Miller, Bill Buzbee and Gene
                                                             Harano. Photo by LJ Evans.

                       Tracking The Effects of
                       Global Climate Warming
Dr. Roger Dargaville   Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks
 Dr. David McGuire     Institute of Arctic Biology are combining forces
        James Long     to study the carbon cycle in the Arctic in search
    UAF Institute of   of a better understanding of the effects of global
      Arctic Biology   warming. Historically, cold climate conditions
                       have led to substantial carbon storage in Arctic
                       soils, leading to the potential for large amounts
                       of carbon to be released into the atmosphere if
                       the climate warms. Temperatures have been
                       warming in the Arctic for the past 30 years. This
                       warming may be accelerated by a kind of vicious
                       circle—warmer climate causing increased release
                       of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and increased CO 2 caus-
                       ing warmer weather.
                           Scientists often look to the Arctic for indica-
                       tions of the effects of global warming. The Arc-
                       tic is a bellwether area for climate change and
                       global warming. Climate models suggest that the
                       impact of global warming will occur first and be
                       most pronounced in the Arctic.
                           “We’re trying to find the balance of the glo-
                                                                                                                         Carbon Exchange (Gigato
                       bal carbon cycle by determining where fossil fuel
                       emissions are going and how the natural fluxes                               -0.4
                       from the land and ocean are behaving,” says
                       Roger Dargaville, a postdoctoral researcher,
                       working with scientist David McGuire at the In-
                       stitute of Arctic Biology.
                           Climate change isn’t caused solely by humans.        Researchers are using a variety of processes to solve the global climate change puzzle. And
                                                                                and current data to map the ecological processes of the carbon cycle. Dargaville uses his
                       Natural fluctuations in ocean and atmospheric
                                                                                Together, these pieces of information can be tested against each other to bring scientists c
                       dynamics have generated warm and cold climate            the model created by Dargaville.
                       trends for millions of years. Although the evi-
                       dence seems clear that increased use of fossil
                       fuels by humans is having unprecedented effects
                       on current global climate, it is difficult for
                       scientists to predict how these changes will              The code that Dargaville runs models CO 2 con-
                       affect terrestrial carbon storage in the future.      centration in the atmosphere. The researcher inputs
                       Dargaville and McGuire want to understand how         data generated by weather forecasting computers and
                       the climate changes resulting from fossil fuel        uses information about wind direction and intensity
                       emissions are affecting the terrestrial carbon        to drive the CO 2 through the atmosphere. The model
                       exchange with the atmosphere. This understanding is   runs for the entire globe at horizontal resolutions of
                       important for predicting future trends in climate.    64 by 64 and 24 vertical levels. By running 16 time
                           Dargaville is using “inversion” modeling with     steps in each day from 1978 to 1995, the computer
                       National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration           must solve the transport equations 5.5 million times
                       atmospheric CO 2 data and Robert Andres’ fossil       per model-run. Dealing with this quantity of data
                       fuel data set (see Challenges back cover) to esti-    requires the supercomputers and mass storage systems
                       mate the terrestrial and oceanic carbon exchange      at ARSC. There are many variables in Dargaville’s
                       with the atmosphere.                                  model, which means the code is memory-intensive.
                           “It’s similar to trying to locate a pollution     In addition, the model produces masses of data which
                       source through modeling,” says Dargaville. “If        must be stored in the ARSC StorageTek Silo.
                       you run a range of simulated sources and look at          Da r g a v i l l e u s e s t h e A R S C J 9 3 2 t o r u n h i s
                       the effects, you can find which simulation            models. He then compares his results with those of
                       matches the effects you’re getting in real life—      Dave McGuire, also at the Institute of Arctic Biology.
                       which will show you the source.”                      McGuire uses a PC to conduct forward-model simula-

                                                                                        time step can be made available to other mod-
                                                                                        els that could then give us feedback for the cal-
                                                                                        culation of the next time step.”
                                                                                              McGuire’s model takes into account the be-
                                                                                        havior of both the vegetation and soil in the
                                                                                        ecosystem under study. Called the Terrestrial
                                                                                        Ecosystem Model (TEM), this model simulates
                                                                                        carbon uptake by the vegetation and carbon
                                                                                        re l e a s e f r o m t h e s o i l b y d e c o m p o s i t i o n ,
                                                                                        creating a good data set to test against
                                                                                        Dargaville’s results. It runs in an historical
                                                                                        sense, and can be checked against Dargaville’s
                                                                                        inversion to reduce uncer tainties in both
                                                                                        scientists’ results. The TEM examines the
                                                                                        details of the biogeochemistry in the ecosys-
                                                                                        tem, while Dargaville’s model estimates the
                                                                                        larger scale CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere.
                                                                                              “We mainly compare the estimates of total
                                                                                        carbon exchange going on between the terres-
                                                                                        trial ecosystems and the atmosphere with
onnes Carbon Per Year)                                                                  Dargaville’s model,” says McGuire. “The units
                                                                                        are typically grams of carbon per meter squared
       0.0                                                  +0.3                        per month for a particular region of interest.”
                                                                                        Over large areas the fluxes of CO 2 can add up
                                                                                        to millions of tons of this greenhouse gas.
                                                                                              McGuire examines the response of a variety
                                                                                        of variables in his model, including fire, land
dres looks at historical data and its spread across the planet. McGuire uses historical use and CO 2 concentration. There are many
storical data to create models to predict activity in the carbon cycle into the future.
closer to accurate predictions. Above, a map charts carbon exchange as measured by      environmental factors that can influence the
                                                                                        c a r b o n c yc l e , f i r e b e i n g a n e s p e c i a l l y
                                                                                        important one. If the climate warms, fire events
                                                                                        could increase and cause a net release of car-
                                                                                        bon from terrestrial ecosystems. On the other
                                                                                        hand, if the climate warms in the Arctic, more
              tions of the carbon exchange between the terrestrial bio- trees may grow, which in turn would tend to
              s p h e re a n d t h e a t m o s p h e re . Du e t o t h e store more carbon.
              nature of the biosphere, each model grid can be solved                          The business of climate prediction is very
              individually, making the memory requirements much less uncertain. “You need to know what the cur-
              than those of Dargaville’s transport model, and allowing rent status of the carbon cycle is before you can
              McGuire to run his model on                                                                      make predictions,” says
              a s t a n d a rd P C . Howe v e r,                                                               Dargaville. “This is what
              master’s degree candidate Jim We’re trying to find the balance of m a k e s                                     this      kind           of
              Long ported the code to                                                                          research so difficult.”
              ARSC’s T3E, allowing more
                                                                 the global carbon cycle by
                                                                                                                    Results from Dargaville’s
              simulations to be run faster determining where fossil fuel and McGuire’s work will be use-
              and for longer time periods.                       emissions are going and how the ful not only in understanding
                    “The original model                                                                        climate change in the
              would visit a grid cell and per- natural fluxes from the land and Arctic, but in predicting climate
              form all time step calculations ocean are behaving.                                              fluctuations over the rest of the
              before proceeding to the next                                                                    world and determining policies
              grid cell to do the same,” says                                                                  governing human use of fossil
              Long. “My restructured version visits each grid cell to fuels. For more information on this project, con-
              calculate one time step so the complete results of a single tact David McGuire at

                    The Secret to                                                                                                ice
                    Success                                                                                                      polar desert/alpine tundra
                                                                                                                                 moist tundra
  Guy Robinson      The key to the success of                                                                                    boreal woodlands
          ARSC      any parallel computa-                                                                                        boreal forest
Research Liaison/   tion is distributing both                                                                                    temperate forest
  MPP Specialist    work and data between                                                                                        temperate grassland
                    many processors but still
                    permitting them to co-
                    operate on the task at
                    hand. As in real life, once
                    the work has been di-
                    vided between the avail- A map of Arctic vegetation types produced by Dave McGuire (see Challenges, page 4) adds to the information researchers
                    able workers they must have to solve the puzzle of global warming.
                    cooperate. In parallel
                    computing this is
                    achieved by the exchange of messages that contain either                  oceans, land, atmosphere and ice cover to create a
                    the necessary information or a pointer to the location of                 coupled climate model. This kind of coupling of-
                    this information in some global space. The complexity of                  fers the advantage of bringing together established
                    the division of tasks varies greatly between different prob-              proven code to allow tailoring of the different parts
                    lems and determines what communication is necessary.                      to the specific needs of the research group involved.
                    In embarrassingly- or naturally-parallel cases, there is                  However, this isn’t as simple as it sounds. Getting
                    relatively little interaction between processors once the                 models to work together and exchange data in-
                    tasks are distributed. In more advanced cases, where the                  volves a great deal of human communication re-
                    problem is broken up into many small pieces (domain                       garding each individual model.
                    decomposition), there may be a frequent need to exchange                      With all of this communication between com-
                    data. One of the tasks of the programmer is similar to                    puters and models, it is important not to forget
                    that of the director of a play or the manager of a sports                 information exchange between the scientists
                    team—making sure the activities of a group work together                  themselves. Many of today’s models use data de-
                    smoothly to achieve set goals.                                            rived from other models to reduce the computa-
                        The above principles have been known and successfully                 tional effort. An example of this is featured on page
                    employed for the past two decades, leading to many ad-                    2 in this issue of Challenges. In this research, near-
                    vances in scientific and engineering research. By continu-                shore regions of the ocean are being studied in
                    ally refining their models, researchers have progressed to                detail to obtain a better understanding of the
                    study increasingly complex problems by building on the                    mixing processes. Parameters gathered from this
                    work developed by others. The cover article of this Chal-                 research, from both numerical and experimental
                    lenges features an example of how,                                                        activity, will be used inother models
                    by combining a discrete event                                                             that need to simulate these mixing
                    model of population dynamics As the problems being processes over wider areas and longer
                    and a simulation of ocean currents studied                 become more time-scales—as might be considered
                    in a single code, accurate predic-
                    tion of responses to outside events
                                                           complex, communication is in climate codes.        prediction
                                                                                                                              simulations and weather

                    becomes possible.                      occurring at higher levels                              The above examples only touch on
                        As the problems being stud- with many independent the importance of communication and
                    ied become more complex, com-                                                             the differing levels at which it occurs
                    munication is occurring at higher models exchanging data.                                 between research scientists, between
                    levels with many independent                                                              computers and between individual pro-
                    models exchanging data. In such                                                           cessors on a single computer. In the fu-
                    cases, several distinct models are actually combined to                   ture it is likely there will be more communication
                    create what might be referred to as a supermodel—a com-                   and increased sharing of data and ideas as the scope
                    bination of many smaller models encompassing multiple                     and multidisciplinary nature of research continues
                    variables. An example might combine separate models of                    to expand.

Staff Highlights
In the field of supercomputing, perhaps one of the most
valuable people a researcher can meet is the person at the
help desk. The user services staff at the Arctic Region
Supercomputing Center works with users every day, an-
swering questions from “How do I log-on?” to “How do
I optimize my code?”
     Tom Baring, Derek Bastille and Shawn Houston share
responsibility to help users out of programming binds
and ensuring that all users can log on to the proper ma-
chines. In addition, Houston maintains the internal and
external web for the center by writing cgi scripts and port-
ing documents.                                                 The user services staff (from left) Shawn Houston, Tom Baring and Derek
                                                               Bastille, provide support for both T3E and J932 users. Photo by LJ Evans.
     “My hobby is computers,” says Houston, “So work is
all play and no work to me. The best part about my job is
that there are new problems to solve every day.”               it would use multiple processors effectively,” says
     Problem solving is what the user services team does       Baring. “We got a big speed-up just in time for her
best. Baring, Bastille and Houston are constantly testing      important demonstration.”
their computing knowledge to help users make the most              What is the strangest request that’s ever passed through
of ARSC’s resources.                                           user services?
     “It’s really rewarding when you discover the solution         “I once got an urgent call: ‘We have a film crew
to an especially complex problem,” says Bastille. In addi-     stranded on Wrangell Island, Alaska. The weather’s get-
tion to consulting, Bastille is in charge of maintaining       ting worse, they’re almost out of food, we’re calling from
the user database and creating new accounts.                   New Zealand, we found you on the web and we need
     In addition to staffing the help desk, Baring             help organizing a helicopter rescue,’” says Baring.
writes and edits the T3E Newsletter with colleague                 Although user services staff are not experts in heli-
Guy Robinson.                                                  copter rescues, they’re always happy to help. They can be
     “I once tweaked a user’s tsunami code on the J90 so       reached at (907) 474-5102 or

Who we are and what we do...
The Arctic Region Supercomputing Center supports               ARSC staff
research in science and engineering with an emphasis               Specialists at ARSC provide expertise in visual-
on high latitudes and the Arctic. ARSC is a part of the        ization, massively parallel supercomputing, storage,
                                                               vector parallel supercomputing, code optimization
DoD High Performance Computing Modernization
                                                               and networking.
Program and the University of Alaska Fairbanks.                    The close relationship of ARSC with the University
Hardware                                                       of Alaska extends the center’s expertise to include
ARSC operates a 272 processor, 450 MHz CRAY T3E                specialty areas of the university’s research institutions.
System named Yukon with 68 gigabytes of distributed            These include ice, ocean, and atmospheric coupled mod-
memory and 522 gigabytes of disk storage. The T3E              eling; regional climate modeling; global climate change;
System has a peak potential parallel performance of over       permafrost, hydrology and arctic engineering; magneto-
230 gigaflops.                                                 spheric, ionospheric and upper atmospheric physics;
     ARSC also operates a 12-processor CRAY J932se vec-        petroleum and mineral engineering; and arctic biology.
tor parallel supercomputer with eight gigabytes (one
gigaword) of shared memory and 482 gigabytes of disk           Communication
storage. The J932, named Chilkoot, provides peak poten-             Connectivity to ARSC is provided by an OC12
tial parallel performance of 2.4 gigaflops.                    (622Mbps) extension to the Seattle Pacific/Northwest
     Visualization hardware includes numerous Silicon          GigaPoP where direct peering provides access to the De-
Graphics workstations, a Pyramid Systems ImmersaDesk           fense Research and Engineering Network, Internet2’s
and a professionally-equipped video editing studio.            Abilene network, the vBNS network, and the commod-
     ARSC data storage resources include a                     ity Internet.
StorageTek robotic tape silo with a capacity in ex-
cess of 300 terabytes.

Visualization Gallery
1896                                                                           1995                                                                           Dr. Robert Andres
                                                                                                                                                              Institute of Northern
                                                                                                                                                              Dr. Roger Edberg
                                                                                                                                                              Arctic Region
                                                                                                                                                              Supercomputing Center

                                                        0       5       10+                                                             0       5      10+

                                                      Mass CO2                                                                        Mass CO2
                                              (106 tonnes per 1-degree cell)                                                 (106 tonnes per 1-degree cell)

Annual CO2 production from fossil fuels is mapped in an animation showing the spread of CO2 across the planet through time. Fossil fuel emissions emerge
as a small patch over Europe in 1896 (left) and spread across the planet (right) by 1995. Such data is useful to both researchers and world leaders when
making decisions about regulations surrounding global warming issues.

Historical Use of Fossil Fuels
Many researchers believe humans are the largest contributors to global warming. Through the burning of fossil fuels to heat
homes, run automobiles or produce cement, humans add to the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. In
order to create fair laws and regulations about emissions, governments around the world need reliable data showing how
much carbon dioxide is being released and from which areas of the world.
     The visualizations above were produced by Bob Andres of the UAF Institute of Northern Engineering, with the help of
ARSC visualization specialist Roger Edberg, to produce data for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory database. The labora-
tory provides unbiased data on global warming for researchers and government officials around the world. The visualization
is a 1-degree latitude by 1-degree longitude grid showing carbon dioxide mass released around the globe based on fossil fuel
use. The information from each year from 1750 through 1997 is strung together into an animation, showing the growth of
the world’s fossil fuel use through the Industrial Revolution and into today.

Arctic Region Supercomputing Center                                                                                                                           Non-Profit
University of Alaska Fairbanks                                                                                                                                U.S. Postage
910 Yukon Drive, Suite 106                                                                                                                                    P   A  I   D
P.O. Box 756020                                                                                                                                               Fairbanks,
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Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-6020                                                                                                                                  Permit No. 2

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