Notes Section cotton by benbenzhou


More Info
									Chapter 5 Section 1

Transportation Revolution:
    Robert Fulton – steamboat, could travel up river, against current
    Erie Canal – man made waterway, 363 mile waterway connecting
     Hudson River with Lake Erie
    Roads:
    Cumberland Railroad – national road from Cumberland, Maryland to
     Columbus, OH
    Turnpikes: company constructed road and charged toll to make a
    Railroads:
    Baltimore and Ohio (B & O) line – first American railroad

Industrial Revolution – aim to increase production with use of machines
    Many new inventions:
    James Watts – steam engine
    Samuel Slater – established the first successful textile mill
    Eli Whitney – interchangeable parts, cotton gin
       important effects
         1. profit for cotton and amount of cotton planted boomed
         2. many southern planters depend on cotton
         3. planters begin looking for new land
         4. number of enslaved Africans increases

Advances in communication:
   Number of post offices increases
   Newspapers and magazines and books increase

Role of Women
    Women responsible for teaching these virtues, but first must learn
    Importance of women rises

Labor disputes in factories
    Strike against long hours and low wages
    First labor unions – organization of workers formed to protect the
      interests of its members
    NTU - National Trades Union
    Labor unions die out
South: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, South Carolina, North
Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas
Rural areas made up of farms and countryside
    “King Cotton” – cotton is number one product in most of the South
    Virginia and North Carolina – tobacco states
    South Carolina – sugar and rice
    Kentucky – breeding of horses
    Slow urban growth: New Orleans, Charleston, Richmond

Slavery System
    All northern states had banned or passed laws to end it gradually
    In the South, slavery increases sharply
    Small farms – slaves work side by side with master
    Large farm plantations – 60% of enslaved workers, life was harsher
    Slaves as property – demand for slaves rose, price of slaves rise

Chapter 5 Section 2

Missouri Compromise
    Northwest Ordinance of 1787 says no state northwest of the Ohio
      River could be a slave state
    Missouri enters as slave state
    Maine enters as free state
    36/30 latitude would define future states – north would be free,
      south would be slave

Jackson as President
    First president from west of the Appalachians
    Some states do not require voters to be land owners anymore
    Patronage – practice of giving jobs to friends and supporters
    Jackson replaced 20% of federal workers during his presidency
    Spoils System would prevent a small group of wealthy, well-connected
     people from controlling govt.
    Believed in limited government and used power of veto to limit power
     of Congress

Tariff and the Indian Crises
    Tariff of 1828 – Tariff of Abominations, benefited North but forced
      Southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods
    South Carolina declares Tariff null and void and threatens to secede
      from the Union
    Force Bill – requires SC to collect tariff
    Clay’s Compromise – Congress reduced tariffs, SC cancels nullification
Jackson supports Indian Removal Act
    Jackson relocated 100,000 members from 5 tribes
    Cherokees had adopted American ways and modeled government after
    Cherokees fight against relocation
    Trail of Tears – 116 day forced march westward of Cherokee Indians

The Bank War
   Bank of the United States only operate until 1836 unless extended by
   Jackson vetoes the bill to re-charter the bank
   Jackson wins re-election in 1832
   Continuation of 2 party system
   National Republicans/Whigs called him King Andrew I

Jackson’s Successors
Martin Van Buren – loses support because of Panic of 1837
William Henry Harrison – dies from pneumonia after 1 month in office
John Tyler – VP that replaces Harrison

Chapter 5 Section 3

      Poverty, alcoholism, illiteracy, overcrowded housing, poor health care,
       abuse of women and declining moral values – all spark powerful reform

Second Great Awakening:
  Evangelical Movement
  1. scripture is the final authority
  2. salvation can only be achieved through a personal belief in Jesus
  3. people demonstrate true faith by good deeds
New denominations: Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians, Mormons, Millenialsits

Transcendentalists – group of philosophers and writers who rejected
traditional religion
    Ralph Waldo Emerson – one of America’s greatest thinkers who
       believed Americans could transcend the material world and become
       conscious of the spirit that is in all nature
    Henry David Throreau – wrote Walden, book that explores the value
       of leisure and benefits of living closely with nature
   The Temperance Movement – organized campaign to eliminate alcohol
    During early 1800’s Americans consumed more alcohol than ever
    American Temperance society urges abstinence
    1851 Maine became 1st state to ban the manufacture and sale of all
      alcoholic beverages

Public Education
    Horace Mann leads reform to offer tax-supported public education to
    Belief in absolute right to an education of every human being that
       comes into the world
    Moral Education – McGruffey’s Readers – taught moral values and
    Limits of reform – girls discouraged from attending, segregated

    Utopian Communities – dedicated to perfection
   Most failed due to laziness, selfishness, and quarrelling

The Women’s Movement
   Cultural and legal limits on women
   Many believed women should remain in the home
   Resistance to women in politics
   Catharine Beecher – sought to reform within their roles at home

Public Roles for Women
    Fighting for reform
    Fighting for abolition
    Men’s opposition – find it distasteful for women to participate in
       public meetings

      A Women’s Rights Movement – women banned from abolition
      Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton organize Seneca Falls Convention
      Convention passed 12 resolution including the ninth calling for women’s
      Role of African American - Sojourner Truth encourages participation
       in women’s rights
The Antislavery Movement
   Many southern states pass laws to make it illegal to teach slaves to
   Abolitionist movement – movement to end slavery
   David Walker – wrote pamphlet, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the
   Benjamin Lundy – published antislavery newspaper, The Genius of
     Universal Emancipation

Colonization of Liberia
    Some want to send free and emancipated blacks to Liberia
    William Lloyd Garrison founded first American Anti-Slavery Society,
      wanted to free African Americans

Divisions Among Abolitionists
   1. Divisions over women’s participation – Sojourner Truth
   2. Divisions over Race
   3. Divisions over tactics
           The Underground Railroad – network of escape routes
           Railroad – paths
           Underground – secret
           Harriet Tubman helped rescued more than 300 slaves

Resistance to Aboliton
North: Viewed abolition as a radical idea
    Did not want African Americans living in their communities
South: refused to distribute abolitionist literature
    Gag rule – prohibited antislavery petitions from bein read or acted
      upon in the House

Chapter 5 Section 4
    John O’Sullivan – manifest destiny (undeniable fate)

Annexation of Texas
   1836, Texans vote to be annexed by the U.S.
   Many fear war with Mexico and uneven balance between slave and free
   John Tyler signs treaty of annexation with Texas but Senate defeats
   James K. Polk takes office in 1845 and Congress approves Annexation

War with Mexico
   Issues over annexation and southern boundary of Texas
      Polk sends ambassador to try to obtain New Mexico and California
       from Mexico for $30 million
      Polk sends troops under Zachary Taylor into disputed area in Texas
      Mexican War begins

Bear Flag Revolt- Californians under William B. Ide and John C. Fremont
drive Mexican forces out of California and proclaim Republic of California
    General Stephen Kearney defeat Mexican Army in New Mexico
    U.S. has control over territories of New Mexico and California

Fighting in Mexico
    Taylor crossed Rio Grande and wins several battles for Americans
    Battle of Buena Vista – hard fought American victory
    Polk orders General Winfield Scott to take Mexico City
    Scott captures the capitol, Santa Anna seeks peace

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
   1. Mexico gave up its claims to Texas and recognize Rio Grande as
      southern border of Texas
   2. Mexico gives up New Mexico and California
   3. U.S. paid Mexico $15 million
   4. U.S. agrees to pay claims made by American citizens against Mexico,
      more than $3 million

To top