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					Hunkapi Horse Programs

  Curriculum Handbook
                      Hunkapi Horse Programs
                Barn Rules and Requirements
                   Safety Procedures – Danger Zones

   Danger Zones are areas where the horse can’t see you.

       1. In front: Never walk under the neck – always go around.

       2. Behind: Never approach horses from the rear. When walking behind a
          horse you know does not kick, always walk close with a hand touching the
          horse – they like to know where you are. If you don’t know the horse, stay
          far away from the rear – they might kick.

       3. Underneath: Never go under a horse’s belly – it scares them.
                       Hunkapi Horse Programs
                Barn Rules and Requirements
                    Safety Procedures – Proper Attire

   Closed-toe shoes are required – boots are best, and they are mandatory when
    riding with stirrups. Sandals or open toed shoes are never permitted.

   Comfortable riding pants protect the legs from rubbing on pads or saddles.

   Helmets are mandatory for all riders without exception.
                        Hunkapi Horse Programs
                Barn Rules and Requirements
                  Safety Procedures – Proper Behavior

   Be calm – horses are easily startled and can spook - they jump around when
    they are scared. If somebody is grooming or handling a horse that spooks, they
    could get hurt. Be courteous by never yelling or screaming while near horses.

   No running, jumping or climbing – horses get nervous and may spook if they
    see a human running, jumping or climbing near them.

   Visitors must stay in designated areas – only Hunkapi students have
    permission and are covered to handle the horses in any way. Visitors are always
    welcome; but they must stay in spectator areas only. Especially small children.

   Never hand feed horses – not only can horses accidentally bite fingers because
    they can’t see what they’re eating – they can develop very bad habits if they are
    hand fed. Treats are okay to bring; but, they must be put into feeding troughs.

   Never run while leading a horse – always walk horses to and from their stalls.

              Find three things in this picture that are not safe around horses.
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                           Horse Grooming
                          Reasons & Equipment

   Why Groom?

      1. Keeping horses clean helps keep them healthy and happy. Never put
         equipment on a dirty horse – it might poke, pinch or cause them pain.

      2. Most horses like to be brushed and pet. Some do have sensitive skin and
         may not like hard brushing; but, most horses love the attention.

      3. If a horse hurt themselves since they were last out of the stall, a good
         grooming will reveal the injury. Especially if one uses their hand in
         addition to the brushes – hands feel bumps, cuts and swelling.

   Equipment Basics

      1. Curry Comb                                2. Dandy Brush / Hard Brush

      3. Body Brush / Soft Brush                   4. Hoof Pick
   Hunkapi Horse Programs
Horse Behavior & Body Parts
     Horse Body Language
   Hunkapi Horse Programs
Horse Behavior & Body Parts
       Parts of the Horse
   Hunkapi Horse Programs
Horse Behavior & Body Parts
       Parts of the Hoof
                              Hunkapi Horse Programs
                         Horse Behavior & Anatomy
                                           Horse Colors
Bay horses run from light reddish or tan shades to dark brown and mahogany/auburn shades. Bay horses
 always have black points (legs, muzzle, mane and tail, and the tips of their ears are black). Many bay
                       horses have black legs that are covered by white markings.

Gray horses have black skin with white or gray hair. Many horse people will call a gray horse "white", but
 if their skin is dark, they are gray! Gray horses are born dark, sometimes black or brown, and their hair
                                      coat turns lighter as they grow older.
                                                                       Black Skin

                                    Chestnut and/or Sorrel
Chestnut, (also known as "sorrel"), is reddish brown. The points (mane, tail, legs and ears) are the same
 color as the horse's body (other than white markings). Chestnuts range from light yellowish brown to a
            golden-reddish or dark liver color. All chestnuts have shades of red in their coats.
   Hunkapi Horse Programs
Horse Behavior & Body Parts
  Horse Equipment – Bridle Parts
   Hunkapi Horse Programs
Horse Behavior & Body Parts
  Horse Equipment – Saddle Parts
                      Hunkapi Horse Programs
                           Horse Grooming

   Techniques – Don’t forget the Danger Zones

      o   Never go under the neck

      o   Never go under the belly

      o   Always touch the horse when going around the back

   Grooming Tools Order

      1. Curry Comb – Use it in circular motions to remove dirt and shedding hair.
         Pressure is okay on the muscled areas of the horse; but, be careful near
         the bones like the hip, and never use it on the face or legs.

      2. Dandy Brush – Brush with the direction of the hair and flick at the end of
         each stroke to fling the dirt or hair off of the horse. Don’t use on the face.

      3. Body Brush – Same as the Dandy Brush but gentle enough for the face.

      4. Hoof Pick – Be careful to avoid being stepped on – draw and imaginary
         circle around the hoof and don’t step inside the circle. Stand next to the
         hoof to be cleaned, and while facing the rear of the horse, slide your inside
         hand down the back of the leg and hold it up by the hoof when the horse
         lifts his leg. Clean out all debris in the hoof, especially the grooves next to
         the frog where rocks can get wedged.
                         Hunkapi Horse Programs
                            Horse Riding Skills

   Aids are tools to help the rider communicate with the horse.

   There are two types of aids:

       o   Natural

       o   Artificial

   Natural Aids include, but are not limited to:

       o   Voice: Clicking, Kissing and saying Walk, Trot or Whoa

       o   Hands: Pulling on both reins to stop or one rein to turn

       o   Legs:     Squeezing or kicking makes the horse move

       o Seat:       Balance, position and pressure

   Artificial Aids include, but are not limited to:

       o   Whips

       o   Spurs

       o   Some types of tack

                       Hunkapi Horse Programs
                        Horse Riding Skills
                              School Movements

   There are six basic school movements, beginners learn the first three.

       o   Full Turn

       o   Half Turn

       o   Cross the School
                                  Hunkapi Horse Programs
                                  Curriculum Checklist
                                          Beginner Level

Barn Rules and Requirements
   o   Know safety procedures and danger zones
   o   Proper attire
   o   Proper behavior around horses and at the barn

   o   Types of grooming equipment
   o   Order and technique of grooming

Horse Behavior & Body Parts
   o   Identify basic horse colors – black, bay, chestnut, grey, pinto/paint
   o   Horse body language
   o Danger zones

Handling Horses
   o   Halter horse in a stall*
   o   Lead out of stall
   o   Tie horse with quick release knot*
   o   Lead horse through serpentine pattern

Anatomy & equipment
   o   Mane, tail, hoof, frog, withers
   o   Halter, lead rope, bridle, bareback pad, reins, bit

Prepare for Riding
   o   Select horse’s bridle and bareback pad
   o   Put on bareback pad*
   o   Observe instructor in bridling
   o Attach reins
                                 Hunkapi Horse Programs

Riding Skills
   o   Mount with leg-up and/or mounting block
   o   Dismount/ emergency dismount at a halt
   o   Basic aids - legs, voice, hands
   o   Lengthen and shorten reins when necessary
   o   Hands and legs in correct position
   o   Ride at a walk and slow trot
   o   Line up in “parked” position with safe spacing
   o   Stop on cue from walk or trot
   o   Walk and trot in simple patterns, serpentine, barrel race
   o   Walk and trot over poles
   o   Keep horse under control
   o   Keep horse on arena rail
   o   Basic school movements (3 of 6) full turn, half turn & cross the school
   o   Back in a straight line
   o   Keep safe spacing between horses at walk and trot
   o   Simple, short trail ride at a walk with small hills

Putting Horse / Equipment Away
   o   Remove bareback pad*
   o   Remove bridle with instructors help*
   o   Return all equipment to proper place*
   o   Return horse to stall
   o   Remove halter and hang correctly on stall*
                             Hunkapi Horse Programs
                              Sample Written Test

1)    The three danger zones are:
     a) in front, on top, under the neck
     b) behind, under the tail, in front
     c) under the belly, in front, behind

2)    A curry comb is used on the face.
     a) True
     b) False

3)    All of the following are safety rules except:
     a) No yelling or screaming around horses
     b) No running around horses
     c) No petting horses
     d) No hand feeding horses

4)    If a horse’s ears are flat back, he is:
     a) Listening behind
     b) Listening ahead
     c) Angry
     d) Listening to other horses

5)    Helmets are optional if you are an advanced rider.
     a) True
     b) False

6)    The bridle part which goes in the horse’s mouth is called a:
     a) Rein
     b) Bit
     c) Halter
     d) Stirrup

7)    Horses should always be tied with a quick-release knot.
     a) True
     b) False

8)    The withers of the horse is located:
     a) On the leg
     b) At the bottom of the neck
     c) On the face
     d) Below the hip
                           Hunkapi Horse Programs
                            Sample Written Test

9)    To stop and steer a horse, use the:
     a) Reins
     b) Pommel
     c) Throat Latch
     d) Stirrup

10) A black horse has brown hair on his nose and flanks.
   a) True
   b) False

11) Horses with white hair covering their whole body are called:
   a) Chestnuts
   b) Grays
   c) Bays
   d) Whites

12) If a horse has one ear forward and one ear back, it is:
   a) Angry
   b) Listening behind
   c) Listening ahead
   d) Both b and c

13) The full-turn and half-turn are:
   a) Types of knots
   b) Parts of the bridle
   c) School Movements
   d) Parts of the saddle

14) The Dandy Brush should be used after the Body Brush.
   a) True
   b) False

15) All of the following are Natural Aids except:
   a) Voice
   b) Whips
   c) Hands
   d) Legs

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