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AFS Use of Chainsaws and Brush saws

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					Statute Book of the Swedish National Board of
Occupational Safety and Health




                                                   AFS 2000:2




USE OF CHAINSAWS AND BRUSH
SAWS


Provisions of the Swedish National Board of Occupational
Safety and Health on the use of Chainsaws and Brush
Saws, together with General Recommendations on the
implementation of the Provisions




Translation

In the event of disagreement concerning the interpretation and
content of this text, the printed Swedish version shall have
priority
The Swedish Work Environment Authority was formed through a merger of the
Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health and the Labour
                  st
Inspectorate, on 1 January 2001.


Provisions adopted by the Swedish Work Environment Authority are published
in the Statute Book of the Swedish Work Environment Authority. Provisions
earlier published in the Statute Book of the Swedish National Board of
Occupational Safety and Health simultaneously still apply. Both Statute Books’
names are abbreviated AFS.


Please note that references to statutes always give the original number of the
document concerned, regardless of any subsequent amendments and reprints.


Concerning amendments to and reprints of Provisions of the Swedish National
Board of Occupational Safety and Health and of the Swedish Work
Environment Authority, reference is made to the latest Statute Book Register
(in Swedish). A list of Ordinances, General Recommendations, Directions and
Notices is also published in English.




Swedish Work Environment Authority
SE-171 84 SOLNA , Sweden


Telephone: +46 8 730 90 00
Telefax: +46 8 730 91 67
Publishing Services, telefax: +46 8 735 85 55


www.av.se
AFS 2000:2




List of contents
Provisions of the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and
Health on the use of Chainsaws and Brush Saws ......................................3
Scope ........................................................................................................................3
Definitions..................................................................................................................3
General stipulations...................................................................................................3
Training......................................................................................................................6
Entry into force ..........................................................................................................6
Appendix 1: Technical stipulations............................................................................7
Appendix 2: Organisational stipulations....................................................................9

General Recommendations of the Swedish National Board of
Occupational Safety and Health of the Implementation of the Provisions
on the use of Chainsaws and Brush Saws ................................................12
General....................................................................................................................12
Background .............................................................................................................12
Guidance on individual Sections .............................................................................13
Commentary on App. 1 ...........................................................................................18
Commentary on App. 2 ...........................................................................................18
                                                                            AFS 2000:2




Provisions of the Swedish National Board of
Occupational Safety and Health on the use of
Chainsaws and Brush Saws

Adopted 23rd March 2000                                            Published 15th June 2000




The following Provisions are issued by the Swedish Work Environment Authority
pursuant to Section 18 of the Work Environment Ordinance (SFS 1977:1166).

Scope
Section 1
These Provisions concern the use of chainsaws and brush saws. They do not apply
to the use of pole pruning saws or technical devices incorporating a chainsaw.

Definitions
Section 2
For the purposes of these Provisions, the following definitions of terms shall apply.
Chainsaw                     A portable powered machine with a cutting tool
                             consisting of an endless chain running and guided in a
                             groove intended for that purpose (the guide bar).
Brush saw                    A portable powered machine with a supporting tube
                             enclosing the crankshaft, which can be used with a
                             saw blade for clearing undergrowth but not for felling
                             heavy stems.

General stipulations
Section 3
Chainsaws and brush saws shall meet the stipulations of App. 1.

The stipulation in the foregoing does not apply to chainsaws and brush saws which,
when placed on the market or taken into service within the EEA, came under

–   either the Provisions of the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health
    on Machinery and Certain Other Technical Devices (AFS 1993:10, reprinted in
    AFS 1994:48 after amendment)
                                                                                          3
AFS 2000:2


–   or corresponding provisions in any other country within the EEA.

Section 4
Use of a chainsaw or brush saw shall meet the stipulations of App. 2.

Section 5
Any person working with a chainsaw or brush saw shall
–   be familiar with the design of the saw, its safety devices and properties to the
    extent necessary for its safe use in various work situations,
–   use a suitable working technique for the type of work, with a view to avoiding
    ill-health and accidents.

Section 6
Any person working with a chainsaw or brush saw shall be protected against injury
from falling or flying objects, oil, exhaust fumes, noise and vibrations and against
cuts from the saw chain or blade.
Section 7
Chainsaws and brush saws shall be inspected regularly. The inspection shall be
carried out by a person with good knowledge of the design, use and maintenance
of the saw.
A saw operator shall carry out daily supervision of the saw which he or she uses.
Saw chains and blades shall be continuously inspected and maintained as work
proceeds. A worn or damaged chain shall be discarded. Individual damaged cutting
teeth may, however, be replaced. Blades with visible cracks or other damage and
damaged blade guards shall be discarded.
If in the course of inspection, supervision or work with a saw any damage or fault is
discovered which can jeopardise safety, the saw may not be used until it has been
repaired.
Section 8
The following personal protective equipment shall be used during work with a
chainsaw:
–   ear protectors,
–   a safety helmet,
–   eye protectors/a face mask for protection against injury due to mechanical
    interference,
–   safety shoes or safety boots and leg guards for protection against injury from a
    saw chain, and
–   safety gloves.
4
                                                                        AFS 2000:2

An inner liner for a safety helmet shall be available during the cold season of the
year.
For work with a chainsaw other than the felling or processing of a tree, the
stipulation of personal protective equipment may be waived if a risk assessment
shows a certain type of safety equipment to be unnecessary. The assessment shall
be documented.

Section 9
The following personal protective equipment shall be used during work with a brush
saw:
–   ear protectors,
–   eye protectors,
–   a safety helmet if the stems to be cleared are more than 2 metres high, and
–   safety gloves.

An inner liner for the safety helmet shall be available during the cold season of
the year.
Section 10
During work with a chainsaw or brush saw, the saw operator shall carry first aid
equipment.

Section 11
A room for the maintenance and storage of saws and small amounts of lubricant
and fuel (a power saw room) shall normally exist near the worksite where a
combustion-powered chainsaw or brush saw is used. The room shall have devices
for heating and lighting. These shall be designed and positioned with due regard for
any fire hazards occurring. The room shall be separated from a personnel facility by
an impervious wall with neither door nor hatchway.
The stipulation of a power saw room does not apply in connection with the use of
chainsaws in the Swedish Armed Forces.




                                                                                  5
AFS 2000:2



Training
Section 12
Any person working with a chainsaw or brush saw shall have undergone training
for the type of work to be done and shall have competence for the work.

Entry into force
These Provisions enter into force on 1st January 2001. The Provisions of the
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (AFS 1983:7) on Brush Saws
and Ordinance of the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health containing
Provisions on Chainsaws (AFS 1990:7) are repealed with effect from the same
date.


KENTH PETTERSSON
                                  Lennart Ahnström           Göran Lindh




6
                                                                      AFS 2000:2


Appendix 1: Technical stipulations
1. Chainsaw
1.1 A chainsaw shall have

–    a chain brake,
–    a front handle guard serving to actuate the chain brake,
–    a rear handle guard,
–    a chain catcher,
–    a chain tensioner,
–    a sprocket guard and fan wheel guard,
–    a control automatically reverting to and locking in the idling or stopping
     position when released (a combustion-powered saw may have a throttle
     control latch),
–    a speed-governed clutch device automatically connecting or disconnecting
     the chain drive (combustion-powered saw) and
–    an on-off control switch which remains in the intended position (combustion-
     powered saw) and can be actuated without having to release either handle.
1.2 The chain brake shall be actuated when the front handle guard is loaded in a
    direction 45o forwards and downwards at any point on the line B as per ill. 1.
    The force needed to actuate the chain brake may not exceed 70 N or be less
    than 20 N.




     Ill. 1.

     A chain brake shall be actuated in the event of kick-back even without the
     front handle guard being operated by the user (e.g. inertia brake).
     The stipulation concerning a chain brake does not apply to hydraulically
     powered chainsaws.
                                                                                7
AFS 2000:2


1.3   In the case of a combustion-powered saw, the ratio between connecting
      speed and idling speed shall be at least 1.33:1.

2. Brush saw
2.1   A brush saw shall have a guard attached in a certain position, masking the
      rear part of the blade and pointing towards the operator. The guard shall be of
      such material and design as to resist and repel a blade or parts thereof
      loosening when the engine is racing.
      The guard shall be of such design that the trapping of debris is avoided as far
      as possible.
      The blade guard shall cover at least 90o of the blade circumference and
      extend at lest 10 mm below the blade cutting plane.

      A tilling and/or scarification accessory for a brush saw shall have a guard
      protecting the operator from earth spatter, flying stones and suchlike.
2.2   A combustion-powered brush saw shall have a clutch device which
      automatically engages and disengages the blade when the engine speed is,
      respectively, raised above and reduced below the connecting speed. The
      ratio between connecting speed and idling speed shall be at least 1.25:1.
2.3   A brush saw shall be designed to be carried in a harness worn by the
      operator. The pressure exerted by the harness shall as far as possible be
      equally distributed between the operator’s shoulders. A harness or saw shall
      be equipped with quick release.
2.4   The length of the supporting tube from the harness attachment loop to the
      teeth of the blade at the exit from the blade guard shall be at least 110 cm.




8
                                                                           AFS 2000:2


Appendix 2: Organisational stipulations
1. Solitary work
The following tasks using a chainsaw may not be performed as solitary work:

–     processing of windthrows or fire-damaged trees
–     felling and processing of trees near power lines in adverse weather conditions,
      and
–     pruning with a chainsaw from a work platform or by climbing.

During normal motor-manual felling, effective two-way communication shall be
provided.

2. Tree-felling and processing of trees with a chainsaw
2.1   Work on tree-felling or processing of trees shall be planned so that it can be
      done safely. Instructions on how to do the work shall be given to employees
      and outsourced manpower before the work commences.
2.2   In the event of solitary work, means of communication shall be organised.
2.3   A worksite shall be delimited with warning signs on access routes.

2.4   Only the person felling the tree is allowed to be within the felling area. The
      work shall be stopped if another person enters this area.
2.5   An escape route shall have been planned before felling begins.
2.6   Hanging trees shall be taken down as soon as possible. The worksite
      management shall be notified when a hanging tree cannot be taken down
      with ordinary tools or when for other reasons it may constitute an accident
      risk.
2.7   No one may enter or remain in the area beneath a hanging tree. Bruising may
      not be performed on a hanging or saw-felled tree.

2.8   If a hanging or partly sawn-through tree has to be temporarily left
      unsupervised, the danger area shall be marked out with marking tape or
      suchlike.

2.9   Aid tools for making trees fall in the intended direction and for taking down
      hanging trees shall be available during felling operations and shall be used
      when needed.
2.10 During felling operations in steep terrain or near a building or road, the
     particular hazards thus entailed shall be observed. Before any such felling
     work begins, suitable measures shall be taken for the prevention of accidents.



                                                                                   9
AFS 2000:2


2.11 When felling trees which are leaning heavily or have a heavy crown
     overhang, a felling technique shall be used which prevents splitting.

3. Processing of windthrows or fire-damaged timber
3.1   Processing of windthrows shall in the first instance be done using machinery.
3.2   Processing of windthrows or fire-damaged timber shall be organised in such a
      way that the worker has adequate contact with fellow-workers or other
      persons.
3.3   Processing of windthrows or fire-damaged timber may not be done by
      workers climbing on log jambs or standing on stems.
3.4   In the event of severe log jams, the trees shall be pulled apart using a tractor
      or other machine before processing begins.

3.5   When felling fire-damaged trees, attention shall be paid to the risk of trees
      with damaged roots suddenly falling.
4. Tree-felling and processing of trees near electric power lines
4.1   When trees are to be felled and processed with a chainsaw near electric
      power lines, the power line proprietor shall be contacted before work begins.
4.2   In situations where trees are leaning against or suspended in electric power
      lines, work may not begin until the line has been disconnected by the power
      line proprietor.
4.3   Winches and other tools shall be available and shall be used to force trees or
      parts of trees to fall in the intended direction.
4.4   Adequate lighting shall be provided when tree-felling and processing of trees
      near electric power liens takes place during the hours of darkness.

4.5   If, due to windthrows, snow-breaks or other causes, conditions are such that
      processing with a chainsaw near electric power lines entails serious accident
      risks, other methods and other aid tools shall be used if possible.
5. Tree-pruning with a chainsaw from a work platform or by climbing
5.1   Tree-pruning with a chainsaw from a work platform may only be carried out by
      a person who has been trained for working with a work platform and
      chainsaw and who is apprised of the risks which working with a chainsaw
      from a work platform entails.
5.2   Starting of a combustion-powered chainsaw on a work platform shall be
      performed with the chain brake engaged and if possible with the saw outside
      the platform safety rail.


10
                                                                          AFS 2000:2

5.3   During work with a chainsaw from a work platform the worker shall be
      secured to the work platform with a device equipped with fall restraint. A
      chainsaw shall be attached to the work platform with a line or suchlike device.

5.4   Tree-pruning with a chainsaw by climbing may only be done by a person
      having sufficient competence for the work.
5.5   When several persons are employed simultaneously on tree-pruning with a
      chainsaw by climbing, at least two of them shall have been trained in rescue
      work which involves bringing down an injured person from a tree. Appropriate
      equipment shall be kept available, so that an injured person or a person in
      distress can be taken down from the tree.
5.6   No unauthorised person may be present beneath a tree where pruning work
      is in progress. A worksite where tree-pruning is in progress shall be fenced off
      and warning signs put out on roads and other access routes to the area.
6. Use of a chainsaw in construction
6.1   A chainsaw may not be used for sawing in walls or other building structures
      containing screws, nails, wiring or other metal objects.
6.2   Use of a chainsaw above ground level is only permissible from a fixed storey,
      a work platform or scaffolding.

6.3   A combustion-powered chainsaw may not be used in closed or party closed
      premises without adequate ventilation being provided.
7. Use of a chainsaw in rescue activities/firefighting
7.1   When using a chainsaw to gain access to the seat of a fire or as a means of
      making holes for the purpose of fire ventilation, it shall be observed that the
      risk of kick-backs may be especially great. A special chain shall be used if
      necessary.
7.2   A chainsaw may not be used if the use of it can cause an explosion.
8. Vehicular transportation of saws and fuel containers
8.1   Saws and fuel containers in vehicles shall be carried in such a way that
      drivers and passengers are protected against injury from exploding or burning
      fuel or from inhalation of fuel fumes.

9. Use of brush saws
9.1   The operator of a brush saw shall see to it that no person approaches within
      10 metres. In such an eventuality the operator shall suspend the work and
      turn off the engine.




                                                                                   11
AFS 2000:2



General Recommendations of the Swedish National Board
of Occupational Safety and Health of the Implementation of
the Provisions on the use of Chainsaws and Brush Saws
The following General Recommendations are issued by the National Board of
Occupational Safety and Health concerning implementation of its Provisions (AFS
2000: 2) on the use of Chainsaws and Brush Saws.

General
General Recommendations have different legal status from Provisions. They are
not mandatory. Instead they serve to elucidate the meaning of the Provisions (e.g.
by explaining suitable ways of meeting the requirements, giving examples of
practical solutions and procedures) and to provide recommendations, background
information and references.

Background
In large-scale forestry, motor-manual felling with chainsaws has to a great extent
been superseded by mechanical felling. However, the machine operators use
chainsaws for felling individual trees or groups of trees which for some reason
cannot be felled with the machine. The felling of these trees can be especially
hazardous, due, for example, to their being inaccessibly positioned in steep terrain
or being of extra thickness.
Private forestry includes many users of chainsaws and brush saws. Frequency of
use probably varies a great deal from one undertaking to another, depending partly
on the size of the undertaking concerned and its use or non-use of outsourcing.
Among self-employed persons, training and information about safety issues have a
very important bearing on the prevention of ill-health and the reduction of accident
risks.
Accidents during work using chainsaws have been halved in five years. Statistics
from the National Board of Occupational Safety and Health show accidents of this
kind to have totalled approximately 300 between 1994 and 1998.
The number of fatal accidents in connection with tree-felling during the same period
was 31. Accident investigations show that these are often due to inadequate
knowledge of the risks entailed by work with chainsaws, especially tree-felling.
The use of chainsaws has partly changed and expanded into other fields than
motor-manual felling operations, e.g. pruning, both from a mobile work platform and
using tree-climbing aids.



12
                                                                           AFS 2000:2

Guidance on individual sections
Guidance on Section 2
A chainsaw can be powered by a combustion engine, electrically driven or driven
by some kind of pressure medium.
Guidance on Section 5
Accidents in connection with work using chainsaws are often due to deficiencies of
working technique and in the assessment of risks which the work can entail. It is
therefore important for the worker to have a good knowledge of the different
working operations and to be capable of judging which technique is suitable in
every work situation.
Kick-backs during work using chainsaws are one of the most dangerous risk
factors, even though a front handle guard and a chain brake are supposed to afford
protection against them. The guide bar should be kept below shoulder height,
otherwise a kick-back may easily strike the operator in the head and neck. Other
particular hazards are inadvertent sawing in foreign material, such as metal or
stone. Good fire safety at the sawing worksite is important. Sparks from sawing can
ignite inflammable goods.
If lighting conditions at the worksite cannot be made satisfactory, work with
chainsaws should be suspended. An exception can be made for chainsaw work in
emergency situations, such as rescue operations.
Guidance on Section 6
It is important that chain oils should not provoke ill-health or discomfort on the part
of the saw operator, e.g. due to allergy or respiratory disorders. Rules concerning
oils are contained in the Provisions of the National Board of Occupational Safety
and Health on Oils.
It is important for the carburettor to be properly set, so as to minimise emissions of
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, aldehydes and nitrogen oxides.

Stipulations concerning the appropriate selection of products to counteract
chemical hazards of the work environment are contained in the Provisions of the
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health on Chemical Hazards in the
Working Environment (AFS 2000:4). The stipulations in those Provisions apply, for
example, to the choice of fuels for combustion-powered chainsaws and brush
saws. It is important here to choose fuels having as little harmful effect as possible
on the saw operator.
When working with combustion-powered saws it is important that the exhaust
fumes can be led off in a satisfactory manner. Thus it is essential that saws can be
fitted with a device for leading off the exhaust fumes.


                                                                                    13
AFS 2000:2


When combustion-powered chainsaws are used indoors or in other closed or
confined spaces, lethal dangerous gases, carbon monoxide among them, are
quickly formed. If brief use of this kind is nonetheless necessary, it is important that
the air change rate should be sufficient. This should also be borne in mind, for
example, for brief test-running of saws after repair or servicing.

Guidance on Section 7
The time elapsing between overhauls should not exceed two months for chain
saws and brush saws in continuous use. Chainsaws and brush saws which are not
being used continuously should be inspected as necessary, e.g. every six months
or once a year. Saws which have been out of service for a considerable length of
time should be inspected before taken into service again.

The following are important parts and functions to be inspected in a chainsaw:
1    Chain, guide bar and nose sprocket.
2    Front handle guard and chain brake.
3    Rear handle guard and chain catcher.
4    On-off controls and throttle trigger lockout.
5    Chain lubrication device.

6    Anti-vibration mounts.
7    Fan and drive sprocket guards.
8    Throttle control with its transmission mechanisms.

9    Idling speed, chain drive engagement and disengagement speeds.
10 Silencer/exhaust fume extractor/catalyst.
11   Fuel cap.

Points 8-11 refer to combustion-powered saws only.
It is appropriate for the inspection to be minuted and the saws marked with the
inspection date.

It is important for workers to be given the instruction, equipment and time needed
for maintenance of the saw. The daily care of a chainsaw should include at least
the parts and functions numbered 1-4 and 8-11, above. The force for actuating the
chain brake can be checked with an ordinary spring balance.
As a rule of thumb, the braking time requirement is usually met if the saw chain
cannot be seen to move after the chain brake has been actuated.

14
                                                                      AFS 2000:2

In the case of electrically and hydraulically powered saws, insulation and mains
cable/connecting hose should be inspected.
Chains with cutting teeth of the kind shown in ill. 2 should normally be discarded
when a cutting tooth surface is less than 2 mm wide at its narrowest point.




Ill. 2
It is important that the following parts and functions of a brush saw should be
inspected.

1        Cracking of the blade support flanges or tooth gullets.
2        The blade guard and its position in relation to the blade.
3        The blade attachment.

4        Controls, on-off devices.
5        Idling speed, clutch and engagement speeds.
6        Silencer/exhaust fume extractor/catalyst.

7        Fuel cap.
8        Harness and suspension.
It is appropriate for the inspection to be minuted and the saws marked with the
inspection date.
The daily care of a brush saw should include at least the parts and functions
numbered 1-7, above.



                                                                               15
AFS 2000:2


Guidance on Sections 8-9
For the prevention of hearing damage, it is important to choose ear protectors with
sufficient attenuation. Suitable protectors should be chosen according to the level
and frequency content of the noise occurring. It is essential for information
concerning suitable ear protectors to be included in the instructions for using the
saw concerned.
It is also important

–    that the protectors should be used all the time the operator is exposed to saw
     noise,
–    that the muffs should be adjusted for maximum attenuation, and
–    that the protectors should be properly cared for and maintained, which means
     daily cleaning of the ear cushions, inspection to check that headbands,
     cushion caps and inserts are undamaged and in good condition, and
     verification that the headbands are not under pressure when the protectors are
     not being used.

If correction glasses and ear protectors are used simultaneously, it is important to
choose muffs and glasses of such kinds that the frames will not impair the
attenuation effect of the muffs. Special thin-framed glasses may then be needed.
Mesh-type eye protectors with suitably sized rectangular apertures have little light
reduction.

Leg guards include, for example, cut-resistant leggings and chaps. It is important
for leg guards to be designed so as not to impede work. It is also important that
they should be the right size.

Chaps should only be used for chainsaw work of brief duration.
Tripping or slipping represents a major accident risk during work with a chainsaw,
and it is therefore important for protective footwear to have soles which will help to
prevent such occurrences.
It is important that protective footwear and leg guards to prevent saw chain injuries
should be discarded if the cut-resistant element has been damaged or if they have
been washed in a different way, or more times, than indicated by the manufacturer
in the instructions for use.
It is also important that personal protective equipment may be used in cold
temperatures. Unprotected metal parts – safety goggles, for example – can cause
discomfort.




16
                                                                             AFS 2000:2

The Work Environment Act requires personal protective equipment for employees
to be provided by the employer. This also implies that the equipment is to be paid
for by the employer unless otherwise agreed, e.g. in a collective agreement.

It is important that personal protective equipment used in other types of chainsaw
work than tree-felling and processing of trees should afford protection against the
risks which the type of work in question may entail. A table as shown in App. 3
(page 22) can serve as guidance on the selection of personal protective equipment.
Guidance on Section 10
It is appropriate for first aid equipment to be carried within easy reach, e.g. in a
breast pocket.
Guidance on Section 11
It is appropriate for the room to have at least two air vents, positioned so as to give
the room good air change and so as not to be clogged by snow.
Guidance on Section 12
Chap. 3 of the Work Environment Act makes it the duty of the employer to inform
his employees of the hazards which the work may entail. The employer shall make
sure that the employee has received the training necessary and that he knows
what measures shall be taken for the avoidance of risks in the work. Skills acquired
through training are important for enabling use of the right working technique for
tree-felling and processing with a chainsaw. It is especially important for the worker
to have a good knowledge of the different operational stages in tree-felling and to
be able to judge which technique is appropriate to every given felling situation.
It is essential that single and family entrepreneurs using chainsaws and brush saws
should have a knowledge of their safe use and of the hazards which the work
entails.
Points which should be included in training for forestry work with a chainsaw
include:

–    Care and maintenance of saws.
–    Personal protective equipment, its use and care.
–    Felling aids and how to use them.
–    Operational stages in the felling and processing of trees.
–    Techniques and methods for difficult felling operations.
–    Methods for taking down bruised and hanging trees.
–    Windthrow clearance.
–    Risk assessment in various work situations.

It is important for basic training to be followed up by continuous further training, with
reference to technical and industrial developments.
                                                                                      17
AFS 2000:2


It is important for the person training personnel for motor-manual felling to have a
suitable background and competence, practical experience of forestry work and
special instructor training.
Tree-pruning with a chainsaw from a climbing position and with climbing aids, is
physically demanding and good training, e.g. in climbing technique, is necessary in
order for the work to proceed safely. This training presupposes prior knowledge of
tree-felling and processing using a chainsaw.
Chainsaw training should also form part of vocational training for chainsaw use in
other circumstances, such as construction and repair work or rescue and
firefighting operations.
It is important that the training should include instruction and practice adapted to
the specific tasks involved, so that the risks entailed by the use of a chainsaw will
be known and accidents can thus be avoided. Firefighters and park maintenance
staff should have a good knowledge of tree-felling techniques.

Commentary on App. 1
Guidance on point 1.2
Certain chainsaws can be fitted with a device for also actuating the chain brake via
the rear handle, which can further reduce the risk of kick-back accidents and
prevent one-handed sawing.
A rear handle device for actuating the chain brake is especially suitable in
connection with work judged to entail a serious risk of kick-backs.

Commentary on App. 2
Guidance on point 2
It is appropriate for tree-felling instructions to be adapted to the type of forest
involved and the felling system in use. It is important for the instructions to be
available in local safety regulations close to the worksite.

When tree-felling takes place close to built-up areas, recreation areas or suchlike, it
is important that signs warning people to keep away should be put up beside roads
and paths leading into the area.


         HINGE
     h




18

 NOTCH

                     FELLING CUT
                                                                            AFS 2000:2

Ill. 3 Example of correct saw-felling.
Guidance on point 2.1
If two or more persons are simultaneously employed on tree-felling in a felling area,
it is important for the area to be divided into large enough parcels, preferably with
blind parcels in between.
When a felling operation has entered its final phase and the working area is
consequently reduced, there is a growing risk of safety distances not being
observed. To avoid accidents from falling trees, it is then important to check the
area subdivision and tasks and, if possible, to entrust the conclusion of the work to
one person only. In all situations where there are two or more persons felling trees
simultaneously, it is important always to maintain a safety distance exceeding twice
the height of the tree, as shown in ill. 4.




Ill. 4 Safety distance, more than twice the height of the tree.

Guidance on point 2.4
It is important that felling aids should always be on hand at the moment of felling. A
felling lever, breaking bar or wedge is usually sufficient for making a tree fall in the
desired direction. In more difficult situations log tongs, a mechanical or hydraulic
winch or other aid tools of similar capacity can be suitable.
Guidance on point 2.5
It is important for the escape route from the tree being felled to be unobstructed, so
that people can reach safety when the tree falls.




                                                                                     19
AFS 2000:2


Guidance on point 2.6
If a hanging tree cannot be taken down with the aid of a cant hook or band, a winch
or tractor is usually needed.
Guidance on point 2.10
When felling trees in steep terrain, there is a risk of trees rolling or sliding down the
slope. When felling takes place near buildings, a falling tree can constitute a major
hazard, if for example it strikes and is deflected by a wall. When felling takes place
near roads, there is a risk of injury to passers-by. Extra aid tools, e.g. a winch, are
often advisable in felling situations of these kinds.


Guidance on point 3
When processing windthrows, accident risks can be far greater than with other
kinds of forestry work. In addition to training, therefore, the person doing this work
should have received special practical instruction for it and should have had long
experience of forestry work. See also the Provisions of the National Board of
Occupational Safety and Health on Solitary Work, AFS 1982:3.
Work situations which may occur and which entail major hazards include, for
example:

–    felling of heavily leaning trees,
–    felling of uprooted trees lodged in other, standing trees
–    cross-cutting of root stocks of windthrows with large root plates, and
–    cross-cutting of stems under heavy tension.

It is therefore essential, before work begins, to review the special conditions
possibly entailed by the task together with everyone who will be taking part in the
work. The review should include work planning, e.g. which parts of the object may
not be processed without mechanical assistance, local safety regulations applying,
and the contingency organisation for dealing with accidents. The review should also
include work techniques and hazards of different situations which may arise
(hanging trees, trees under tension etc.).

Instructions – movies and other forms of information concerning windthrows have
been made available by various forestry organisations.

Since the processing of windthrows entails greater accident risks and therefore
requires workers to proceed with caution, it is inappropriate for pay to be
performance-related.



20
                                                                       AFS 2000:2

Guidance on point 4.2
Concerning work on power line clearance, see also Starkströmsföreskrifter
Avdelning C (Skötsel av elektriska starkströmsanläggningar), published by the
Swedish     National     Electrical   Safety Board,       Sveriges Elleverantörers
Elsäkerhetsanvisningar (ESA) and EBR-handbok för underhåll av kraftledningar, as
well as special directions issued by the power line proprietor.

Guidance on points 4.5
In exceptional conditions when the use of a chainsaw is directly unsuitable, a
forestry machine or other machine should be used if the length of power line
concerned is accessible with machinery. Use of explosives intended for the
purpose can be another alternative to a chainsaw. The use of explosives
presupposes that the user is authorised for the task.

Guidance on point 5.1
It is important for the work platform to be erected and operated in accordance with
the instructions given.

When working with a chainsaw from a work platform, it is important that safety
regulations should be drawn up, e.g. showing the rules to be followed if there are
two or more persons working from the platform.

Guidance on point 5.5
It is important that the person who is to carry out a pruning operation with a
chainsaw by climbing with climbing aids (ropes and harness) should have sufficient
knowledge concerning the conduct of the work and the risks it entails.
Guidance on point 8.1
Rules on the haulage of dangerous goods, e.g. fuels, are issued by the Swedish
Rescue Services Agency.




                                                                                21
AFS 2000:2


App. 3
The following table can be consulted concerning the selection of personal
protective equipment

Risk                  Risk situation            Suitable personal protective
                                                equipment

Head injury.          Falling objects           Industrial helmet tested as per
                      (branches/stems),         SS-EN 397 and marked ”–20°C/–
                      pinching                  30°C” ”LD” *



Eye injury, saw       Chip spatter, saw kick-   Mesh-type eye and face
injury to the face.   back at the face.         protectors for industrial and non-
                                                industrial use against mechanical
                                                hazards and/or heat. SS-EN
                                                1731.

Saw injury to legs.   Saw kick-back, tripping   Protective clothing (trousers,
                      and inadvertent           chaps) meeting the requirements
                      acceleration              of SS-EN 381-5, Protective
                                                clothing for users of hand-held
                                                chain saws – Part 5:
                                                Requirements for leg protectors

Saw injury to feet    Felling by chainsaw,      Cut-resistant protective footwear
                      limbing of low-lying      meeting the requirements of SS-
                      stems.                    EN 344. Protective gaiters
                                                meeting the requirements of SS-
                                                EN 381-9, Protective clothing for
                                                users of hand-held chain saws –
                                                Part 9: Requirements for chain
                                                saw protective gaiters.

Saw injury to         Pruning work from a       Chainsaw protection jacket
upper part of body.   work platform and by      meeting the requirements of
                      climbing.                 prEN 381:10.

Scratch and pinch     Sawing-off of branches    Safety gloves meeting the
injuries from         under tension, pinching   requirements of SS-EN 381:7,
branches and          in connection with stem   parts 1 and 7, Protective clothing
stems, saw injury     sawing.                   for users of hand-held chainsaws
to the hands.                                   Requirements for chainsaw
                                                protective gloves.

22
                                                                         AFS 2000:2

Hearing damage.          Noise where the            Ear muffs or ear plugs meeting
                         equivalent sound level     the requirements of SS-EN 352-1
                         during an 8-hour working   and SS-EN 352-2 respectively.
                         day exceeds 85 dB(A).      Ear muffs attached to an
                         Especially sensitive       industrial safety helmet and
                         persons may also risk      meeting the requirements of SS-
                         hearing damage at levels   EN 352-3. Appropriate protection
                         down to approximately      is chosen according to the level
                         75 dB(A).                  and frequency content of the
                                                    noise.

*
An additionally equipped forestry helmet may be provided with the following, over
and above standard helmet equipment:
–   protective seal between visor and brim,
–   lift visor,
–   lift ear muffs and
–   neck protection (neck curtain)




                                                                                 23

				
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Description: AFS Use of Chainsaws and Brush saws